U.S. Code of Federal Regulations
Regulations most recently checked for updates: May 29, 2020
(a) Except for items excluded in paragraph (b) of this section, the following items are subject to the EAR:
(1) All items in the United States, including in a U.S. Foreign Trade Zone or moving intransit through the United States from one foreign country to another;
(2) All U.S. origin items wherever located;
(3) Foreign-made commodities that incorporate controlled U.S.-origin commodities, foreign-made commodities that are ‘bundled’ with controlled U.S.-origin software, foreign-made software that is commingled with controlled U.S.-origin software, and foreign-made technology that is commingled with controlled U.S.-origin technology:
(i) In any quantity, as described in § 734.4(a) of this part; or
(4) Certain foreign-made direct products of U.S. origin technology or software, as described in § 736.2(b)(3) of the EAR. The term “direct product” means the immediate product (including processes and services) produced directly by the use of technology or software; and
Certain foreign-manufactured items developed or produced from U.S.-origin encryption items exported pursuant to License Exception ENC are subject to the EAR. See § 740.17(a) of the EAR.
(5) Certain commodities produced by any plant or major component of a plant located outside the United States that is a direct product of U.S.-origin technology or software, as described in § 736.2(b)(3) of the EAR.
(b) The following are not subject to the EAR:
(1) Items that are exclusively controlled for export or reexport by the following departments and agencies of the U.S. Government which regulate exports or reexports for national security or foreign policy purposes:
(i) Department of State. The International Traffic in Arms Regulations (22 CFR parts 120-130) administered by the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls relate to defense articles and defense services on the U.S. Munitions List (22 CFR part 121). Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778). (Also see paragraph (b)(1)(vi) of this section).
If a defense article or service is controlled by the U.S. Munitions List set forth in the International Traffic in Arms Regulations, its export and temporary import is regulated by the Department of State. The President has delegated the authority to control defense articles and services for purposes of permanent import to the Attorney General. The defense articles and services controlled by the Secretary of State and the Attorney General collectively comprise the U.S. Munitions List under the Arms Export Control Act (AECA). As the Attorney General exercises independent delegated authority to designate defense articles and services for purposes of permanent import controls, the permanent import control list administered by the Department of Justice has been separately labeled the U.S. Munitions Import List (27 CFR Part 447) to distinguish it from the list set out in the International Traffic in Arms Regulations. In carrying out the functions delegated to the Attorney General pursuant to the AECA, the Attorney General shall be guided by the views of the Secretary of State on matters affecting world peace, and the external security and foreign policy of the United States.
(ii) Treasury Department, Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC). Regulations administered by OFAC implement broad controls and embargo transactions with certain foreign countries. These regulations include controls on exports and reexports to certain countries (31 CFR chapter V). Trading with the Enemy Act (50 U.S.C. app. section 1 et seq.), and International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701, et seq.)
(iii) U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Regulations administered by NRC control the export and reexport of commodities related to nuclear reactor vessels (10 CFR part 110). Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 U.S.C. part 2011 et seq.).
(iv) Department of Energy (DOE). Regulations administered by DOE control the export and reexport of technology related to the production of special nuclear materials (10 CFR part 810). Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 U.S.C. section 2011 et seq.).
(v) Patent and Trademark Office (PTO). Regulations administered by PTO provide for the export to a foreign country of unclassified technology in the form of a patent application or an amendment, modification, or supplement thereto or division thereof (37 CFR part 5). BIS has delegated authority under the Export Administration Act to the PTO to approve exports and reexports of such technology which is subject to the EAR. Exports and reexports of such technology not approved under PTO regulations must comply with the EAR.
(vi) Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of State Foreign Military Sales (FMS) Program. Items that are subject to the EAR that are sold, leased or loaned by the Department of Defense to a foreign country or international organization under the FMS Program of the Arms Export Control Act pursuant to a Letter of Offer and Acceptance (LOA) authorizing such transfers are not “subject to the EAR,” but rather, are subject to the authority of the Arms Export Control Act.
(2) Prerecorded phonograph records reproducing in whole or in part, the content of printed books, pamphlets, and miscellaneous publications, including newspapers and periodicals; printed books, pamphlets, and miscellaneous publications including bound newspapers and periodicals; children's picture and painting books; newspaper and periodicals, unbound, excluding waste; music books; sheet music; calendars and calendar blocks, paper; maps, hydrographical charts, atlases, gazetteers, globe covers, and globes (terrestrial and celestial); exposed and developed microfilm reproducing, in whole or in part, the content of any of the above; exposed and developed motion picture film and soundtrack; and advertising printed matter exclusively related thereto.
(3) Information and “software” that:
(i) Are published, as described in § 734.7;
(ii) Arise during, or result from, fundamental research, as described in § 734.8;
(iii) Are released by instruction in a catalog course or associated teaching laboratory of an academic institution;
(iv) Appear in patents or open (published) patent applications available from or at any patent office, unless covered by an invention secrecy order, or are otherwise patent information as described in § 734.10;
(v) Are non-proprietary system descriptions; or
(vi) Are telemetry data as defined in Note 2 to Category 9, Product Group E (see supplement no. 1 to part 774 of the EAR).
A printed book or other printed material setting forth encryption source code is not itself subject to the EAR (see § 734.3(b)(2)). However, notwithstanding § 734.3(b)(2), encryption source code in electronic form or media (e.g., computer diskette or CD ROM) remains subject to the EAR (see § 734.17)). Publicly available encryption object code “software” classified under ECCN 5D002 is not subject to the EAR when the corresponding source code meets the criteria specified in § 742.15(b) of the EAR.
Except as set forth in part 760 of this title, information that is not within the scope of the definition of “technology” (see § 772.1 of the EAR) is not subject to the EAR.
(c) “Items subject to the EAR” consist of the items listed on the Commerce Control List (CCL) in part 774 of the EAR and all other items which meet the definition of that term. For ease of reference and classification purposes, items subject to the EAR which are not listed on the CCL are designated as “EAR99.” Items subject to temporary CCL controls are classified under the ECCN 0Y521 series (i.e., 0A521, 0B521, 0C521, 0D521, and 0E521) pursuant to § 742.6(a)(7) of the EAR, while a determination is made as to whether classification under a revised or new ECCN, or an EAR99 designation, is appropriate.
(d) Commodity classification determinations and advisory opinions issued by BIS are not, and may not be relied upon as, determinations that the items in question are “subject to the EAR,” as described in § 748.3 of the EAR.
(e) Items subject to the EAR may be exported, reexported, or transferred in country under licenses, agreements, or other approvals from the Department of State's Directorate of Defense Trade Controls pursuant to §§ 120.5(b) and 126.6(c) of the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) (22 CFR 120.5(b) and 126.6(c)). Exports, reexports, or in-country transfers not in accordance with the terms and conditions of a license, agreement, or other approval under § 120.5(b) of the ITAR requires separate authorization from BIS. Exports, reexports, or in-country transfers of items subject to the EAR under a Foreign Military Sales case that exceed the scope of § 126.6(c) of the ITAR or the scope of actions made by the Department of State's Office of Regional Security and Arms Transfers require separate authorization from BIS.