U.S. Code of Federal Regulations

Regulations most recently checked for updates: Jul 12, 2020

§ 94.1103 - Prohibited acts.

(a) The following acts and the causing thereof are prohibited:

(1)(i)(A) In the case of a manufacturer of new engines, the sale, the offering for sale, the introduction into commerce, the delivery for introduction into commerce, or the distribution in commerce of any new engine that is subject to the standards of this part, unless such engine is covered by a certificate of conformity issued (and in effect) under regulations found in this part.

(B) The manufacture of an engine for the purpose of an act listed in paragraph (a)(1)(i)(A) of this section unless such engine is covered by a certificate of conformity issued (and in effect) under regulations found in this part prior to its introduction into commerce.

(ii) In the case of any person, except as provided in Subpart I of this part, the importation into the United States of any engine manufactured on or after the implementation date of the applicable emission limits for the relevant engine, unless such engine is covered by a certificate of conformity issued (and in effect) under regulations found in this part.

(2)(i) For a person to fail or refuse to permit access to or copying of records or to fail to make reports or provide information required under this part.

(ii) For a person to fail or refuse to permit entry, testing, or inspection authorized under this part.

(iii) For a person to fail or refuse to perform tests, or to have tests performed as required by this part.

(iv) For a person to fail to establish or maintain records as required under this part.

(v) For an owner or operator of a vessel using a Category 3 engine to refuse to allow the in-use testing described in § 94.1003 to be performed.

(vi) For a manufacturer, owner or operator of a Category 3 engine to fail to provide maintenance instructions as required by § 94.211.

(3)(i) For a person to remove or render inoperative a device or element of design installed on or in an engine in compliance with regulations under this part, or to set any adjustable parameter to a setting outside of the range specified by the manufacturer, as approved in the application for certification by the Administrator (except as allowed by §§ 94.1003 and 94.1004).

(ii) For a person to manufacture, sell or offer to sell, or install, a part or component intended for use with, or as part of, an engine, where a principal effect of the part or component is to bypass, defeat, or render inoperative a device or element of design installed on or in an engine in compliance with regulations issued under this part, and where the person knows or should know that the part or component is being offered for sale or installed for this use or put to such use.

(iii) for a person to deviate from the provisions of § 94.11 when rebuilding an engine (or rebuilding a portion of an engine or engine system).

(4) For a manufacturer of a new engine subject to standards prescribed under this part:

(i) To sell, offer for sale, or introduce or deliver for introduction into commerce, a new engine unless the manufacturer has complied with the requirements of § 94.1107.

(ii) To sell, offer for sale, or introduce or deliver for introduction into commerce, a new engine unless all required labels and tags are affixed to the engine in accordance with § 94.212.

(iii) To fail or refuse to comply with the requirements of § 94.1108.

(iv) Except as provided in § 94.211, to provide directly or indirectly in any communication to the ultimate purchaser or a subsequent purchaser that the coverage of a warranty under the Act is conditioned upon use of a part, component, or system manufactured by the manufacturer or a person acting for the manufacturer or under its control, or conditioned upon service performed by such persons.

(v) To fail or refuse to comply with the terms and conditions of the warranty under § 94.1107.

(5) For a manufacturer of marine vessels to distribute in commerce, sell, offer for sale, or deliver for introduction into commerce a new vessel containing an engine not covered by a certificate of conformity applicable for an engine model year the same as or later than the calendar year in which the manufacture of the new vessel is initiated. This prohibition covers improper installation in a manner such that the installed engine would not be covered by the engine manufacturer's certificate. Improper installation would include, but is not limited to, failure to follow the engine manufacturer's instructions related to engine cooling, exhaust aftertreatment, emission sampling ports, or any other emission-related component, parameter, or setting. In general, you may use up your normal inventory of engines not certified to new emission standards if they were built before the date of the new standards. However, we consider stockpiling of these engines to be a violation of paragraph (a)(1)(i)(A) of this section. (Note: For the purpose of this paragraph (a)(5), the manufacture of a vessel is initiated when the keel is laid, or the vessel is at a similar stage of construction.)

(6) For any person to install a recreational marine engine in a vessel that is manufactured on or after the implementation date of the applicable standards and that is not a recreational vessel.

(7)(i) For an owner or operator of a vessel using a Category 3 engine to fail or refuse to ensure that an engine is properly adjusted as set forth in § 94.1004.

(ii) For an owner or operator of a vessel using a Category 3 to fail to maintain or repair an engine as set forth in § 94.1004.

(iii) For an owner or operator of a vessel using a Category 3 engine to operate an engine in violation of the requirements of § 94.1004(c).

(iv) For an owner or operator of a vessel using a Category 3 engine to fail to comply with any applicable provision in this part for recordkeeping, reporting, or submission of information to EPA, including the annual certification requirements of § 94.1004.

(8) For an owner or operator of a vessel installing a replacement engine under the provisions of paragraph (b)(4) of this section to make modifications to significantly increase the value of the vessel within six months after installing the replacement engine.

(b) For the purposes of enforcement of this part, the following apply:

(1) Nothing in paragraph (a)(3) of this section is to be construed to require the use of any manufacturer's parts in maintaining or repairing an engine.

(2)(i) Actions for the purpose of repair or replacement of a device or element of design or any other item are not considered prohibited acts under paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this section if the action is a necessary and temporary procedure, the device or element is replaced upon completion of the procedure, and the action results in the proper functioning of the device or element of design.

(ii) Actions for emergency purposes are not considered prohibited acts under paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this section if the action is a necessary and temporary procedure and the device or element is replaced such that the proper functioning of the device or element of design is restored as soon as possible.

(3) Where the Administrator determines that no engine that is certified to the requirements of this part is produced by any manufacturer with the appropriate physical or performance characteristics to repower a vessel, the Administrator may allow an engine manufacturer to introduce into commerce a replacement engine without complying with all of the otherwise applicable requirements of this part. Such engine shall not be subject to the prohibitions of paragraph (a)(1) of this section, subject to all the following provisions:

(i) The engine requiring replacement is not certified or is certified to emission standards that are less stringent than those in effect when the replacement engine is built.

(ii) The engine manufacturer or its agent takes ownership and possession of the engine being replaced or confirms that the engine has been destroyed.

(iii) If the engine being replaced was not certified to any emission standards under this part, the replacement engine must have a permanent label with your corporate name and trademark and the following language, or similar alternate language approved by the Administrator:

THIS ENGINE DOES NOT COMPLY WITH U.S. EPA MARINE EMISSION REQUIREMENTS. SELLING OR INSTALLING THIS ENGINE FOR ANY PURPOSE OTHER THAN TO REPLACE A MARINE ENGINE BUILT BEFORE JANUARY 1, [Insert appropriate year reflecting when the earliest tier of standards began to apply to engines of that size and type] MAY BE A VIOLATION OF FEDERAL LAW SUBJECT TO CIVIL PENALTY.

(iv) If the engine being replaced was certified to emission standards less stringent than those in effect when you produce the replacement engine, the replacement engine must have a permanent label with your corporate name and trademark and the following language, or similar alternate language approved by the Administrator:

THIS ENGINE COMPLIES WITH U.S. EPA MARINE EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR [Insert appropriate year reflecting when the Tier 1 or Tier 2 standards for the replaced engine began to apply] ENGINES UNDER 40 CFR 94.1103(b)(3). SELLING OR INSTALLING THIS ENGINE FOR ANY PURPOSE OTHER THAN TO REPLACE A MARINE ENGINE BUILT BEFORE JANUARY 1, [Insert appropriate year reflecting when the next tier of emission standards began to apply] MAY BE A VIOLATION OF FEDERAL LAW SUBJECT TO CIVIL PENALTY.

(v) Where the replacement engine is intended to replace an engine that is certified to emission standards that are less stringent than those in effect when the replacement engine is built, the replacement engine shall be identical in all material respects to a certified configuration of the same or later model year as the engine being replaced.

(vi) Engines sold pursuant to the provisions of this paragraph will neither generate nor use emission credits and will not be part of any accounting under the averaging, banking and trading program.

(vii) In cases where an engine is to be imported for replacement purposes under the provisions of this paragraph (b)(3) of this section, the term “engine manufacturer” shall not apply to an individual or other entity that does not possess a current Certificate of Conformity issued by EPA under this part; and

(viii) The provisions of this section may not be used to circumvent emission standards that apply to new engines under this part.

(4) An engine manufacturer may make the determination related to replacement engines described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section instead of the Administrator, if the new engine is needed to replace an engine that has experienced catastrophic failure. The engine manufacturer must consider whether certified engines are available from its own product lineup or that of the manufacturer of the engine being replaced (if different). The engine manufacturer must keep records explaining why a certified engine was not available and make these records available upon request.

[64 FR 73331, Dec. 29, 1999, as amended at 67 FR 68347, Nov. 8, 2002; 68 FR 9788, Feb. 28, 2003; 70 FR 40461, July 13, 2005]