U.S. Code of Federal Regulations
Regulations most recently checked for updates: Feb 24, 2020
(a) Applicability. An internal combustion engine, self-propelled vehicle, machinery containing an internal combustion engine that is not consigned under the “Dangerous goods in machinery or apparatus” UN 3363 entry, a battery-powered vehicle or equipment, or a fuel cell-powered vehicle or equipment, or any combination thereof, is subject to the requirements of this subchapter when transported as cargo on a transport vehicle, vessel, or aircraft if -
(1) The vehicle, engine, or machinery contains a liquid or gaseous fuel. Vehicles, engines, or machinery may be considered as not containing fuel when the engine components and any fuel lines have been completely drained, sufficiently cleaned of residue, and purged of vapors to remove any potential hazard and the engine when held in any orientation will not release any liquid fuel;
(2) The fuel tank contains a liquid or gaseous fuel. A fuel tank may be considered as not containing fuel when the fuel tank and the fuel lines have been completely drained, sufficiently cleaned of residue, and purged of vapors to remove any potential hazard;
(3) It is equipped with a wet battery (including a non-spillable battery), a sodium battery or a lithium battery; or
(4) Except as provided in paragraph (f)(1) of this section, it contains other hazardous materials subject to the requirements of this subchapter.
(b) Requirements. Unless otherwise excepted in paragraph (b)(4) of this section, vehicles, engines, and equipment are subject to the following requirements:
(1) Flammable liquid fuel and fuels that are marine pollutants. (i) A fuel tank containing a flammable liquid fuel must be drained and securely closed, except that up to 500 mL (17 ounces) of residual fuel may remain in the tank, engine components, or fuel lines provided they are securely closed to prevent leakage of fuel during transportation. Self-propelled vehicles containing diesel fuel are excepted from the requirement to drain the fuel tanks, provided that sufficient ullage space has been left inside the tank to allow fuel expansion without leakage, and the tank caps are securely closed.
(ii) Engines and machinery containing liquid fuels meeting the definition of a marine pollutant (see § 171.8 of this subchapter) and not meeting the classification criteria of any other Class or Division transported by vessel are subject to the requirements of § 176.906 of this subchapter.
(2) Flammable liquefied or compressed gas fuel. (i) For transportation by motor vehicle, rail car or vessel, fuel tanks and fuel systems containing flammable liquefied or compressed gas fuel must be securely closed. For transportation by vessel, the requirements of §§ 176.78(k), 176.905, and 176.906 of this subchapter apply.
(ii) For transportation by aircraft:
(A) Flammable gas-powered vehicles, machines, equipment or cylinders containing the flammable gas must be completely emptied of flammable gas. Lines from vessels to gas regulators, and gas regulators themselves, must also be drained of all traces of flammable gas. To ensure that these conditions are met, gas shut-off valves must be left open and connections of lines to gas regulators must be left disconnected upon delivery of the vehicle to the operator. Shut-off valves must be closed and lines reconnected at gas regulators before loading the vehicle aboard the aircraft; or alternatively;
(B) Flammable gas powered vehicles, machines or equipment, which have cylinders (fuel tanks) that are equipped with electrically operated valves, may be transported under the following conditions:
(1) The valves must be in the closed position and in the case of electrically operated valves, power to those valves must be disconnected;
(2) After closing the valves, the vehicle, equipment or machinery must be operated until it stops from lack of fuel before being loaded aboard the aircraft;
(3) In no part of the closed system shall the pressure exceed 5% of the maximum allowable working pressure of the system or 290 psig (2000 kPa), whichever is less; and
(4) There must not be any residual liquefied gas in the system, including the fuel tank.
(3) Truck bodies or trailers on flat cars - flammable liquid or gas powered. Truck bodies or trailers with automatic heating or refrigerating equipment of the flammable liquid type may be shipped with fuel tanks filled and equipment operating or inoperative, when used for the transportation of other freight and loaded on flat cars as part of a joint rail and highway movement, provided the equipment and fuel supply conform to the requirements of § 177.834(l) of this subchapter.
(4) Modal exceptions. Quantities of flammable liquid fuel greater than 500 mL (17 ounces) may remain in the fuel tank in self-propelled vehicles engines, and machinery only under the following conditions:
(i) For transportation by motor vehicle or rail car, the fuel tanks must be securely closed.
(iii) For transportation by aircraft, when carried in aircraft designed or modified for vehicle ferry operations when all the following conditions must be met:
(A) Authorization for this type operation has been given by the appropriate authority in the government of the country in which the aircraft is registered;
(B) Each vehicle is secured in an upright position;
(C) Each fuel tank is filled in a manner and only to a degree that will preclude spillage of fuel during loading, unloading, and transportation; and
(D) Each area or compartment in which a self-propelled vehicle is being transported is suitably ventilated to prevent the accumulation of fuel vapors.
(c) Battery-powered or installed. Batteries must be securely installed, and wet batteries must be fastened in an upright position. Batteries must be protected against a dangerous evolution of heat, short circuits, and damage to terminals in conformance with § 173.159(a) and leakage; or must be removed and packaged separately under § 173.159. Battery-powered vehicles, machinery or equipment including battery-powered wheelchairs and mobility aids are not subject to any other requirements of this subchapter except § 173.21 when transported by rail, highway or vessel. Where a vehicle could possibly be handled in other than an upright position, the vehicle must be secured in a strong, rigid outer packaging. The vehicle must be secured by means capable of restraining the vehicle in the outer packaging to prevent any movement during transport which would change the orientation or cause the vehicle to be damaged.
(d) Lithium batteries. Except as provided in § 172.102, special provision A101, of this subchapter, vehicles, engines, and machinery powered by lithium metal batteries, that are transported with these batteries installed, are forbidden aboard passenger-carrying aircraft. Lithium batteries contained in vehicles, engines, or mechanical equipment must be securely fastened in the battery holder of the vehicle, engine, or mechanical equipment, and be protected in such a manner as to prevent damage and short circuits (e.g., by the use of non-conductive caps that cover the terminals entirely). Except for vehicles, engines, or machinery transported by highway, rail, or vessel with prototype or low production lithium batteries securely installed, each lithium battery must be of a type that has successfully passed each test in the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter), as specified in § 173.185, unless approved by the Associate Administrator. Where a vehicle could possibly be handled in other than an upright position, the vehicle must be secured in a strong, rigid outer packaging. The vehicle must be secured by means capable of restraining the vehicle in the outer packaging to prevent any movement during transport which would change the orientation or cause the vehicle to be damaged.
(e) Fuel cells. A fuel cell must be secured and protected in a manner to prevent damage to the fuel cell. Equipment (other than vehicles, engines or mechanical equipment) such as consumer electronic devices containing fuel cells (fuel cell cartridges) must be described as “Fuel cell cartridges contained in equipment” and transported in accordance with § 173.230. Where a vehicle could possibly be handled in other than an upright position, the vehicle must be secured in a strong, rigid outer packaging. The vehicle must be secured by means capable of restraining the vehicle in the outer packaging to prevent any movement during transport which would change the orientation or cause the vehicle to be damaged.
(f) Other hazardous materials. (1) Items containing hazardous materials, such as fire extinguishers, compressed gas accumulators, safety devices, and other hazardous materials that are integral components of the motor vehicle, engine, or mechanical equipment, and that are necessary for the operation of the vehicle, engine, or mechanical equipment, or for the safety of its operator or passengers, must be securely installed in the motor vehicle, engine, or mechanical equipment. Such items are not otherwise subject to the requirements of this subchapter. Equipment (other than vehicles, engines, or mechanical equipment), such as consumer electronic devices containing lithium batteries, must be described as “Lithium metal batteries contained in equipment” or “Lithium ion batteries contained in equipment,” as appropriate, and transported in accordance with § 173.185, and applicable special provisions. Equipment (other than vehicles, engines, or mechanical equipment), such as consumer electronic devices containing fuel cells (fuel cell cartridges), must be described as “Fuel cell cartridges contained in equipment” and transported in accordance with § 173.230.
(2) Other hazardous materials must be packaged and transported in accordance with the requirements of this subchapter.
(g) Additional requirements for internal combustion engines and vehicles with certain electronic equipment when transported by aircraft or vessel. When an internal combustion engine that is not installed in a vehicle or equipment is offered for transportation by aircraft or vessel, all fuel, coolant or hydraulic systems remaining in the engine must be drained as far as practicable, and all disconnected fluid pipes that previously contained fluid must be sealed with leak-proof caps that are positively retained. When offered for transportation by aircraft, vehicles equipped with theft-protection devices, installed radio communications equipment or navigational systems must have such devices, equipment or systems disabled.
(h) Exceptions. Except as provided in paragraph (f)(2) of this section, shipments made under the provisions of this section -
(1) Are not subject to any other requirements of this subchapter for transportation by motor vehicle or rail car;
(2) Are not subject to the requirements of subparts D, E, and F (marking, labeling and placarding, respectively) of part 172 of this subchapter or § 172.604 of this subchapter (emergency response telephone number) for transportation by aircraft. For transportation by aircraft, the provisions of § 173.159(b)(2) as applicable, the provisions of § 173.230(f), as applicable, other applicable requirements of this subchapter, including shipping papers, emergency response information, notification of pilot-in-command, general packaging requirements, and the requirements specified in § 173.27 must be met; and