U.S. Code of Federal Regulations
Regulations most recently checked for updates: Jan 23, 2021
(a) A tank built to this specification must -
(1) Consist of an inner tank of circular cross section supported essentially concentric within an outer jacket of circular cross section, with the out of roundness of both the inner tank and outer jacket limited in accordance with Paragraph UG-80 in Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter);
(2) Have the annular space evacuated after filling the annular space with an approved insulating material;
(3) Have the inner tank heads designed concave to pressure; and
(4) Have the outer jacket heads designed convex to pressure.
(b) The tank must be equipped with piping systems for vapor venting and transfer of lading, and with pressure relief devices, controls, gages and valves, as prescribed herein.
(a) For the purposes of this specification -
(1) Standard Heat Transfer Rate (SHTR), expressed in Btu/day/lb of water capacity, means the rate of heat transfer used for determining the satisfactory performance of the insulation system of a cryogenic tank car tank in cryogenic liquid service (see § 179.401-1 table).
(2) Test cryogenic liquid means the cryogenic liquid, which may be different from the lading intended to be shipped in the tank, being used during the performance tests of the insulation system.
(3) Normal evaporation rate (NER), expressed in lbs. (of the cryogenic liquid)/day, means the rate of evaporation, determined by test of a test cryogenic liquid in a tank maintained at a pressure of approximately one atmosphere, absolute. This determination of the NER is the NER test.
(4) Stabilization period means the elapsed time after a tank car tank is filled with the test cryogenic liquid until the NER has stabilized, or 24 hours has passed, whichever is greater.
(5) Calculated heat transfer rate. The calculated heat transfer rate (CHTR) is determined by the use of test data obtained during the NER test in the formula:
(b) DOT-113A60W tank cars must -
(1) Be filled with hydrogen, cryogenic liquid to the maximum permitted fill density specified in § 173.319(d)(2) table of this subchapter prior to performing the NER test; and
(2) Have a CHTR equal to or less than the SHTR specified in § 179.401-1 table for a DOT-113A60W tank car.
(c) DOT-113C120W tank cars must -
(1) Be filled with ethylene, cryogenic liquid to the maximum permitted fill density specified in § 173.319(d)(2) table of this subchapter prior to performing the NER test, or be filled with nitrogen, cryogenic liquid to 90 percent of the volumetric capacity of the inner tank prior to performing the NER test; and
(2) Have a CHTR equal to or less than 75 percent of the SHTR specified in § 179.401-1 table for a DOT-113C120W tank car.
(d) Insulating materials must be approved.
(e) If the insulation consists of a powder having a tendency to settle, the entire top of the cylindrical portion of the inner tank must be insulated with a layer of glass fiber insulation at least one-inch nominal thickness, or equivalent, suitably held in position and covering an area extending 25 degrees to each side of the top center line of the inner tank.
(f) The outer jacket must be provided with fittings to permit effective evacuation of the annular space between the outer jacket and the inner tank.
(g) A device to measure the absolute pressure in the annular space must be provided. The device must be portable with an easily accessible connection or permanently positioned where it is readily visible to the operator.
(a) Stainless steel of ASTM A 240/A 240M (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter), Type 304 or 304L must be used for the inner tank and its appurtenances, as specified in AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix M (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter), and must be -
(1) In the annealed condition prior to fabrication, forming and fusion welding;
(2) Suitable for use at the temperature of the lading; and
(3) Compatible with the lading.
(b)(1) Any steel casting, steel forging, steel structural shape or carbon steel plate used to fabricate the outer jacket or heads must be as specified in AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix M.
(2) For DOT-113C120W9 tank cars, the outer jacket shell and outer jacket heads must be made of AAR TC-128, Grade B normalized steel plate as specified in § 179.100-7(a).
(c) Impact tests must be -
(1) Conducted in accordance with AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix W, W9.01;
(2) Performed on longitudinal specimens of the material;
(3) Conducted at the tank design service temperature or colder; and
(4) Performed on test plate welds and materials used for inner tanks and appurtenances and which will be subjected to cryogenic temperatures.
(d) Impact test values must be equal to or greater than those specified in AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix W. The report of impact tests must include the test values and lateral expansion data.
(b) The outer jacket of the required evacuated insulation system must be designed in accordance with § 179.400-8(d) and in addition must comply with the design loads specified in Section 6.2 of the AAR Specifications for Tank Cars (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The designs and calculations must provide for the loadings transferred to the outer jacket through the support system.
(a) Tank heads of the inner tank and outer jacket must be flanged and dished, or ellipsoidal.
(b) Flanged and dished heads must have -
(1) A main inside dish radius not greater than the outside diameter of the straight flange;
(2) An inside knuckle radius of not less than 6 percent of the outside diameter of the straight flange; and
(3) An inside knuckle radius of at least three times the head thickness.
(a) The minimum wall thickness, after forming, of the inner shell and any 2:1 ellipsoidal head for the inner tank must be that specified in § 179.401-1, or that calculated by the following formula, whichever is greater:
(b) The minimum wall thickness, after forming, of any 3:1 ellipsoidal head for the inner tank must be that specified in § 179.401-1, or that calculated by the following formula, whichever is greater:
(c) The minimum wall thickness, after forming, of a flanged and dished head for the inner tank must be that specified in § 179.401-1, or that calculated by the following formula, whichever is greater:
(d)(1) The minimum wall thickness, after forming, of the outer jacket shell may not be less than
(2) For DOT 113C120W9 tank cars, the minimum wall thickness of the outer jacket shell and the outer jacket heads must be no less than
(3) The annular space is to be evacuated, and the cylindrical portion of the outer jacket between heads, or between stiffening rings if used, must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 37.5 psig (critical collapsing pressure), as determined by the following formula:
(a) If stiffening rings are used in designing the cylindrical portion of the outer jacket for external pressure, they must be attached to the jacket by means of fillet welds. Outside stiffening ring attachment welds must be continuous on each side of the ring. Inside stiffening ring attachment welds may be intermittent welds on each side of the ring with the total length of weld on each side not less than one-third of the circumference of the tank. The maximum space between welds may not exceed eight times the outer jacket wall thickness.
(b) A portion of the outer jacket may be included when calculating the moment of inertia of the ring. The effective width of jacket plate on each side of the attachment of the stiffening ring is given by the following formula:
(c) Where a stiffening ring is used that consists of a closed section having two webs attached to the outer jacket, the jacket plate between the webs may be included up to the limit of twice the value of “W”, as defined in paragraph (b) of this section. The outer flange of the closed section, if not a steel structural shape, is subject to the same limitations with “W” based on the “R” and “t” values of the flange. Where two separate members such as two angles, are located less than “2W” apart they may be treated as a single stiffening ring member. (The maximum length of plate which may be considered effective is 4W.) The closed section between an external ring and the outer jacket must be provided with a drain opening.
(d) The stiffening ring must have a moment of inertia large enough to support the critical collapsing pressure, as determined by either of the following formulas:
(e) Where loads are applied to the outer jacket or to stiffening rings from the system used to support the inner tank within the outer jacket, additional stiffening rings, or an increased moment of inertia of the stiffening rings designed for the external pressure, must be provided to carry the support loads.
(a) It is formed directly into the inner tank shell, or is formed and welded to the inner tank shell and is of weldable quality metal that is compatible with the inner tank shell;
(b) The stress in any orientation under any condition does not exceed the circumferential stress in the inner tank shell; and
(c) The wall thickness is not less than that specified in § 179.401-1.
(a) Except for closure of openings and a maximum of two circumferential closing joints in the cylindrical portion of the outer jacket, each joint of an inner tank and the outer jacket must be a fusion double welded butt joint.
(b) The closure for openings and the circumferential closing joints in the cylindrical portion of the outer jacket, including head to shell joints, may be a single welded butt joint using a backing strip on the inside of the joint.
(c) Each joint must be welded in accordance with the requirements of AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix W (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).
(d) Each welding procedure, welder, and fabricator must be approved.
(a) Postweld heat treatment of the inner tank is not required.
(b) The cylindrical portion of the outer jacket, with the exception of the circumferential closing seams, must be postweld heat treated as prescribed in AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix W (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Any item to be welded to this portion of the outer jacket must be attached before postweld heat treatment. Welds securing the following need not be postweld heat treated when it is not practical due to final assembly procedures:
(1) the inner tank support system to the outer jacket,
(2) connections at piping penetrations,
(3) closures for access openings, and
(4) circumferential closing joints of head to shell joints.
(c) When cold formed heads are used on the outer jacket they must be heat treated before welding to the jacket shell if postweld heat treatment is not practical due to assembly procedures.
(a) The inner tank must be supported within the outer jacket by a support system of approved design. The system and its areas of attachment to the outer jacket must have adequate strength and ductility at operating temperatures to support the inner tank when filled with the lading to any level incident to transportation.
(b) The support system must be designed to support, without yielding, impact loads producing accelerations of the following magnitudes and directions when the inner tank is fully loaded and the car is equipped with a conventional draft gear:
(c) The inner tank and outer jacket must be permanently bonded to each other electrically, by either the support system, piping, or a separate electrical connection of approved design.
The interior of the inner tank and all connecting lines must be thoroughly cleaned and dried prior to use. Proper precautions must be taken to avoid contamination of the system after cleaning.
Each longitudinal and circumferential joint of the inner tank, and each longitudinal and circumferential double welded butt joint of the outer jacket, must be examined along its entire length in accordance with the requirements of AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix W (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).
(a) The inner tank must be provided with a means of access having a minimum inside diameter of 16 inches. Reinforcement of the access opening must be made of the same material used in the inner tank. The access closure must be of an approved material and design.
(b) If a welded closure is used, it must be designed to allow it to be reopened by grinding or chipping and to be closed again by rewelding, preferably without a need for new parts. A cutting torch may not be used.
(a) Product lines. The piping system for vapor and liquid phase transfer and venting must be made for material compatible with the product and having satisfactory properties at the lading temperature. The outlets of all vapor phase and liquid phase lines must be located so that accidental discharge from these lines will not impinge on any metal of the outer jacket, car structures, trucks or safety appliances. Suitable provison must be made to allow for thermal expansion and contraction.
(1) Loading and unloading line. A liquid phase transfer line must be provided and it must have a manually operated shut-off valve located as close as practicable to the outer jacket, plus a secondary closure that is liquid and gas tight. This secondary closure must permit any trapped pressure to bleed off before the closure can be removed completely. A vapor trap must be incorporated in the line and located as close as practicable to the inner tank. On a DOT-113A60W tank car, any loading and unloading line must be vacuum jacketed between the outer jacket and the shut-off valve and the shut-off valve must also be vacuum jacketed.
(2) Vapor phase line. A vapor phase line must connect to the inner tank and must be of sufficient size to permit the pressure relief devices specified in § 179.400-20 and connected to this line to operate at their design capacity without excessive pressure build-up in the tank. The vapor phase line must have a manually operated shut-off valve located as close as practicable to the outer jacket, plus a secondary closure that is liquid and gas tight. This secondary closure must permit any trapped pressure to bleed off before the closure can be removed completely.
(3) Vapor phase blowdown line. A blowdown line must be provided. It must be attached to the vapor phase line specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, upstream of the shut-off valve in that line. A by-pass line with a manually operated shut-off valve must be provided to permit reduction of the inner tank pressure when the vapor phase line is connected to a closed system. The discharge from this line must be outside the housing and must be directed upward and away from operating personnel.
(b) Any pressure building system provided for the purpose of pressurizing the vapor space of the inner tank to facilitate unloading the liquid lading must be approved.
(a) After all items to be welded to the inner tank have been welded in place, the inner tank must be pressure tested at the test pressure prescribed in § 179.401-1. The temperature of the pressurizing medium may not exceed 38 °C (100 °F) during the test. The inner tank must hold the prescribed pressure for a period of not less than ten minutes without leakage or distortion. In a pneumatic test, due regard for the protection of all personnel should be taken because of the potential hazard involved. After a hydrostatic test the container and piping must be emptied of all water and purged of all water vapor.
(b) Caulking of welded joints to stop leaks developed during the test is prohibited. Repairs to welded joints must be made as prescribed in AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix W (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).
(a) Valves. Manually operated shut-off valves and control valves must be provided wherever needed for control of vapor phase pressure, vapor phase venting, liquid transfer and liquid flow rates. All valves must be made from approved materials compatible with the lading and having satisfactory properties at the lading temperature.
(1) Liquid control valves must be of extended stem design.
(2) Packing, if used, must be satisfactory for use in contact with the lading and of approved materials that will effectively seal the valve stem without causing difficulty of operation.
(3) Each control valve and shut-off valve must be readily operable. These valves must be mounted so that their operation will not transmit excessive forces to the piping system.
(b) Gages. Gages, except portable units, must be securely mounted within suitable protective housings. A liquid level gage and a vapor phase pressure gage must be provided as follows:
(1) Liquid level gage. (i) A gage of approved design to indicate the quantity of liquefied lading within the inner tank, mounted where it will be readily visible to an operator during transfer operations or storage, or a portable gage with a readily accessible connection, or
(ii) A fixed length dip tube, with a manually operated shut-off valve located as close as practicable to the outer jacket. The dip tube must indicate the maximum liquid level for the allowable filling density. The inner end of the dip tube must be located on the longitudinal centerline of the inner tank and within four feet of the transverse centerline of the inner tank.
(2) Vapor phase pressure gage. A vapor phase pressure gage of approved design, with a manually operated shut-off valve located as close as practicable to the outer jacket. The gage must indicate the vapor pressure within the inner tank and must be mounted where it will be readily visible to an operator. An additional fitting for use of a test gage must be provided.
(a) The tank must be provided with pressure relief devices for the protection of the tank assembly and piping system. The discharge from these devices must be directed away from operating personnel, principal load bearing members of the outer jacket, car structure, trucks and safety appliances. Vent or weep holes in pressure relief devices are prohibited. All main pressure relief devices must discharge to the outside of the protective housings in which they are located, except that this requirement does not apply to pressure relief valves installed to protect isolated sections of lines between the final valve and end closure.
(b) Materials. Materials used in pressure relief devices must be suitable for use at the temperature of the lading and otherwise compatible with the lading in both the liquid and vapor phases.
(c) Inner tank. Pressure relief devices for the inner tank must be attached to vapor phase piping and mounted so as to remain at ambient temperature prior to operation. The inner tank must be equipped with one or more pressure relief valves and one or more safety vents (except as noted in paragraph (c)(3)(iv) of this section), and installed without an intervening shut-off valve (except as noted in paragraph (c)(3)(iii) of this section). Additional requirements are as follows:
(1) Safety vent. The safety vent shall function at the pressure specified in § 179.401-1. The safety vent must be flow rated in accordance with the applicable provisions of AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix A (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter), and provide sufficient capacity to meet the requirements of AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix A, A8.07(a).
(2) Pressure relief valve. The pressure relief valve must:
(i) be set to start-to-discharge at the pressure specified in § 179.401-1, and
(ii) meet the requirements of AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix A, A8.07(b).
(3) Installation of safety vent and pressure relief valve - (i) Inlet piping. (A) The opening through all piping and fittings between the inner tank and its pressure relief devices must have a cross-sectional area at least equal to that of the pressure relief device inlet, and the flow characteristics of this upstream system must be such that the pressure drop will not adversely affect the relieving capacity or the proper operation of the pressure relief device.
(B) When the required relief capacity is met by the use of multiple pressure relief device placed on one connection, the inlet internal cross-sectional area of this connection must be sufficient to provide the required flow capacity for the proper operation of the pressure relief device system.
(ii) Outlet piping. (A) The opening through the discharge lines must have a cross-sectional area at least equal to that of the pressure relief device outlet and may not reduce the relieving capacity below that required to properly protect the inner tank.
(B) When the required relieving capacity is met by use of multiple pressure relief devices placed on a common discharge manifold, the manifold outlet internal cross-sectional area must be at least equal to the combined outlet areas of the pressure relief devices.
(iii) Duplicate pressure relief devices may be used when an approved 3-way selector valve is installed to provide for relief through either duplicate pressure relief device. The 3-way valve must be included in the mounting prescribed by AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix A, A6.02(g), when conducting the flow capacity test on the safety vent prescribed by AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix A, A6.01. Flow capacity tests must be performed with the 3-way valve at both of the extreme positions as well as at the mid-position and the flow capacity must be in accordance with AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix A, A8.07(a).
(iv) An alternate pressure relief valve, set as required in § 179.401-1, may be used in lieu of the safety vent, provided it meets the flow capacity prescribed in AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix A at a flow rating pressure of 110 percent of its start-to-discharge pressure. Installation must -
(A) Prevent moisture accumulation at the seat by providing drainage away from that area,
(B) Permit periodic drainage of the vent piping, and
(C) Prevent accumulation of foreign material in the vent system.
(4) Evaporation control. The routine release of vaporized lading may be controlled with a pressure controlling and mixing device, except that a pressure controlling and mixing device is required on each DOT-113A60W car. Any pressure controlling and mixing device must -
(i) Be set to start-to-discharge at a pressure not greater than that specified in § 179.401-1;
(ii) Have sufficient capacity to limit the pressure within the inner tank to that pressure specified in § 179.401-1, when the discharge is equal to twice the normal venting rate during transportation, with normal vacuum and the outer shell at 130 °F; and
(iii) Prevent the discharge of a gas mixture exceeding 50% of the lower flammability limit to the atmosphere under normal conditions of storage or transportation.
(5) Safety interlock. If a safety interlock is provided for the purpose of allowing transfer of lading at a pressure higher than the pressure control valve setting but less than the pressure relief valve setting, the design must be such that the safety interlock will not affect the discharge path of the pressure relief value or safety vent at any time. The safety interlock must automatically provide an unrestricted discharge path for the pressure control device at all times when the tank car is in transport service.
(d) Outer jacket. The outer jacket must be provided with a suitable system to prevent buildup of annular space pressure in excess of 16 psig or the external pressure for which the inner tank was designed, whichever is less. The total relief area provided by the system must be a minimum of 25 square inches, and means must be provided to prevent clogging of any system opening, as well as to ensure adequate communication to all areas of the insulation space. If a safety vent is a part of the system, it must be designed to prevent distortion of the rupture disc when the annular space is evacuated.
(e) Piping system. Where a piping circuit can be isolated by closing a valve, means for pressure relief must be provided.
Each valve must be tested with air or gas for compliance with § 179.401-1 before being put into service.
Each valve, gage, closure and pressure relief device, with the exception of secondary relief valves for the protection of isolated piping, must be enclosed within a protective housing. The protective housing must be adequate to protect the enclosed components from direct solar radiation, mud, sand, adverse environmental exposure and mechanical damage incident to normal operation of the tank car. It must be designed to provide reasonable access to the enclosed components for operation, inspection and maintenance and so that vapor concentrations cannot build up to a dangerous level inside the housing in the event of valve leakage or pressure relief valve operation. All equipment within the protective housing must be operable by personnel wearing heavy gloves and must incorporate provisions for locks or seals. A protective housing and its cover must be constructed of metal not less than 0.119 inch thick.
All valves and gages must be clearly identified with corrosion-resistant nameplates. A plate of corrosion-resistant material bearing precautionary instructions for the safe operation of the equipment during storage and transfer operations must be securely mounted so as to be readily visible to an operator. The instruction plate must be mounted in each housing containing operating equipment and controls for product handling. These instructions must include a diagram of the tank and its piping system with the various gages, control valves and pressure relief devices clearly identified and located.
(a) A tank that complies with all specification requirements must have the following information plainly and permanently stamped into the metal near the center of the head of the outer jacket at the “B” end of the car, in letters and figures at least
|Example of required stamping|
|Design service temperature||Minus 423 °F.|
|Inner tank||Inner Tank.|
|Inside diameter||ID 107 inch.|
|Inner tank builder's initials||ABC.|
|Date of original test (month and year) and initials of person conducting original test||00-0000GHK.|
|Water capacity||00000 lbs.|
|Outer jacket||Outer jacket.|
|Outer jacket builder's initials||DEF.|
|Car assembler's initials (if other than inner tank or outer jacket builder)||XYZ.|
(b) Any stamping on the shell or heads of the inner tank is prohibited.
(c) In lieu of the stamping required by paragraph (a) of this section, the specified markings may be incorporated on a data plate of corrosion-resistant metal, fillet welded in place on the head of the outer jacket at the “B” end of the car.
Each tank car must be stenciled in compliance with the provisions of the AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix C (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The stenciling must also include the following:
(a) The date on which the rupture disc was last replaced and the initials of the person making the replacement, on the outer jacket in letters and figures at least 1
(b) The design service temperature and maximum lading weight, in letters and figures at least 1
(c) The water capacity, in pounds net at 60 °F., with the tank at its coldest operating temperature, after deduction for the volume above the inlet to the pressure relief device or pressure control valve, structural members, baffles, piping, and other appurtenances inside the tank, in letters and figures at least 1
(d) Both sides of the tank car, in letters at least 1
(e) The outer jacket, below the tank classification stencil, in letters at least 1
A tank car may be loaded to a gross weight on rail of up to 286,000 pounds (129,727 kg) upon approval by the Associate Administrator for Safety, Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). See § 179.13.
§ 179.401 - Individual specification requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.
In addition to § 179.400, the individual specification requirements for the inner tank and its appurtenances are as follows:
|Design service temperature, °F||−423||−260.|
|Material||§ 179.400-5||§ 179.400-5.|
|Impact test (weld and plate material)||§ 179.400-5(c)||§ 179.400-5(c).|
|Impact test values||§ 179.400-5(d)||§ 179.400-5(d).|
|Standard heat transfer rate.|
|(Btu per day per lb. of water capacity, max.) (see § 179.400-4)||0.097||0.4121.|
|Bursting pressure, min. psig||240||300.|
|Minimum plate thickness shell, inches (see § 179.400-7(a))||
|Minimum head thickness, inches (see § 179.400-8 (a), (b), and (c))||
|Test pressure, psig (see § 179.400-16)||60||120.|
|Safety vent bursting pressure, max. psig||60||120.|
|Pressure relief valve start-to-discharge pressure, psig (±3 psi)||30||75.|
|Pressure relief valve vapor tight pressure, min. psig||24||60.|
|Pressure relief valve flow rating pressure, max. psig||40||85.|
|Alternate pressure relief valve start to-discharge pressure, psig (±3 psi)||90.|
|Alternate pressure relief valve vapor tight pressure, min. psig||72.|
|Alternate pressure relief valve flow rating pressure, max. psig||100.|
|Pressure control valve Start-to-vent, max. psig (see § 179.400-20(c)(4))||17||Not required.|
|Relief device discharge restrictions||§ 179.400-20||179.400-20.|
|Transfer line insulation||§ 179.400-17||Not required.|
(a) Tanks built under this specification shall be hollow forged or drawn in one piece. Forged tanks shall be machined inside and outside before ends are necked-down and, after necking-down, the ends shall be machined to size on the ends and outside diameter. Machining not necessary on inside or outside of seamless steel tubing, but required on ends after necking-down.
(b) For tanks made in foreign countries, chemical analysis of material and all tests as specified must be carried out within the limits of the United States under supervision of a competent and disinterested inspector; in addition to which, provisions in § 179.500-18 (b) and (c) shall be carried out at the point of manufacture by a recognized inspection bureau with principal office in the United States.
(c) The term “marked end” and “marked test pressure” used throughout this specification are defined as follows:
(1) “Marked end” is that end of the tank on which marks prescribed in § 179.500-17 are stamped.
(2) “Marked test pressure” is that pressure in psig which is indicated by the figures substituted for the **** in the marking DOT-107A **** stamped on the marked end of tank.
(d) The gas pressure at 130 °F in the tank shall not exceed
(a) Minimum thickness of wall of each finished tank shall be such that at a pressure equal to
(b) Calculations to determine the maximum marked test pressure permitted to be marked on the tank shall be made by the formula:
(c) Measure at one end, in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the tank and at least 18 inches from that end before necking-down:
(1) Make similar measurements and calculation for a corresponding location at the other end of the tank.
(2) Use the smaller result obtained, from the foregoing, in making calculations prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section.
(a) Tanks shall be made from open-hearth or electric steel of uniform quality. Material shall be free from seams, cracks, laminations, or other defects injurious to finished tank. If not free from such defects, the surface may be machined or ground to eliminate these defects. Forgings and seamless tubing for bodies of tanks shall be stamped with heat numbers.
(b) Steel (see Note 1) must conform to the following requirements as to chemical composition:
|Designation||Class I (percent)||Class II (percent)||Class III (percent)|
|Sum of manganese and carbon not over||2.10||2.10|
(1) For instructions as to the obtaining and checking of chemical analysis, see § 179.500-18(b)(3).
(a) Each necked-down tank shall be uniformly heat treated. Heat treatment shall consist of annealing or normalizing and tempering for Class I, Class II and Class III steel or oil quenching and tempering for Class III steel. Tempering temperatures shall not be less than 1000 °F. Heat treatment of alternate steels shall be approved. All scale shall be removed from outside of tank to an extent sufficient to allow proper inspection.
(b) To check uniformity of heat treatment, Brinnel hardness tests shall be made at 18 inch intervals on the entire longitudinal axis. The hardness shall not vary more than 35 points in the length of the tank. No hardness tests need be taken within 12 inches from point of head to shell tangency.
(c) A magnetic particle inspection shall be performed after heat treatment on all tanks subjected to a quench and temper treatment to detect the presence of quenching cracks. Cracks shall be removed to sound metal by grinding and the surface exposed shall be blended smoothly into the surrounding area. A wall thickness check shall then be made of the affected area by ultrasonic equipment or other suitable means acceptable to the inspector and if the remaining wall thickness is less than the minimum recorded thickness as determined by § 179.500-4(b) it shall be used for making the calculation prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section.
(a) Physical tests shall be made on two test specimens 0.505 inch in diameter within 2-inch gauge length, taken 180 degrees apart, one from each ring section cut from each end of each forged or drawn tube before necking-down, or one from each prolongation at each end of each necked-down tank. These test specimen ring sections or prolongations shall be heat treated, with the necked-down tank which they represent. The width of the test specimen ring section must be at least its wall thickness. Only when diameters and wall thickness will not permit removal of 0.505 by 2-inch tensile test bar, laid in the transverse direction, may test bar cut in the longitudinal direction be substituted. When the thickness will not permit obtaining a 0.505 specimen, then the largest diameter specimen obtainable in the longitudinal direction shall be used. Specimens shall have bright surface and a reduced section. When 0.505 specimen is not used the gauge length shall be a ratio of 4 to 1 length to diameter.
(b) Elastic limit as determined by extensometer, shall not exceed 70 percent of tensile strength for class I steel or 85 percent of tensile strength for class II and class III steel. Determination shall be made at cross head speed of not more than 0.125 inch per minute with an extensometer reading to 0.0002 inch. The extensometer shall be read at increments of stress not exceeding 5,000 psi. The stress at which the strain first exceeds
(1) Elongation shall be at least 18 percent and reduction of area at least 35 percent.
Upon approval, the ratio of elastic limit to ultimate strength may be raised to permit use of special alloy steels of definite composition that will give equal or better physical properties than steels herein specified.
(a) Each end shall be closed by a cover made of forged steel. Covers shall be secured to ends of tank by through bolts or studs not entering interior of tank. Covers shall be of a thickness sufficient to meet test requirements of § 179.500-12 and to compensate for the openings closed by attachments prescribed herein.
(1) It is also provided that each end may be closed by internal threading to accommodate an approved fitting. The internal threads as well as the threads on fittings for these openings shall be clean cut, even, without checks, and tapped to gauge. Taper threads are required and shall be of a length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads. External threading of an approved type shall be permissible on the internal threaded ends.
(b) Joints between covers and ends and between cover and attachments shall be of approved form and made tight against vapor or liquid leakage by means of a confined gasket of suitable material.
(a) Safety devices, and loading and unloading valves on tanks shall be protected from accidental damage by approved metal housing, arranged so it may be readily opened to permit inspection and adjustment of safety relief devices and valves, and securely locked in closed position. Housing shall be provided with opening having an opening equal to twice the total discharge area of pressure relief device enclosed.
(a) Loading and unloading valve or valves shall be mounted on the cover or threaded into the marked end of tank. These valves shall be of approved type, made of metal not subject to rapid deterioration by lading or in service, and shall withstand without leakage a pressure equal to the marked test pressure of tank. Provision shall be made for closing service outlet of valves.
(a) Tank shall be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices of approved type and discharge area, mounted on the cover or threaded into the non-marked end of the tank. If fittings are mounted on a cover, they shall be of the flanged type, made of metal not subject to rapid deterioration by lading or in service. Total flow capacity shall be such that, with tank filled with air at pressure equal to 70 percent of the marked test pressure of tank, flow capacity will be sufficient to reduce air pressure to 30 percent of the marked test pressure within 3 minutes after pressure relief device opens.
(b) Pressure relief devices shall open at a pressure not exceeding the marked test pressure of tank and not less than
(c) Cars used for the transportation of flammable gases shall have the safety devices equipped with an approved ignition device.
(a) Attachments, other than those mounted on tank covers or serving as threaded closures for the ends of the tank, are prohibited.
(a) After heat-treatment, tanks shall be subjected to hydrostatic tests in a water jacket, or by other accurate method, operated so as to obtain reliable data. No tank shall have been subjected previously to internal pressure greater than 90 percent of the marked test pressure. Each tank shall be tested to a pressure at least equal to the marked test pressure of the tank. Pressure shall be maintained for 30 seconds, and sufficiently longer to insure complete expansion of tank. Pressure gauge shall permit reading to accuracy of one percent. Expansion gauge shall permit reading of total expansion to accuracy of one percent. Expansion shall be recorded in cubic cm.
(b) No leaks shall appear and permanent volumetric expansion shall not exceed 10 percent of the total volumetric expansion at test pressure.
(a) Tanks rejected for failure in any of the tests prescribed may be reheat-treated, and will be acceptable if subsequent to reheat-treatment they are subjected to and pass all of the tests.
(a) Pressure relief valves shall be tested by air or gas before being put into service. Valve shall open at pressure not exceeding the marked test pressure of tank and shall be vapor-tight at 80 percent of the marked test pressure. These limiting pressures shall not be affected by any auxiliary closure or other combination.
(b) For pressure relief devices that incorporate a rupture disc, samples of the discs used shall burst at a pressure not exceeding the marked test pressure of tank and not less than
(a) Each tank shall be plainly and permanently marked, thus certifying that tank complies with all requirements of this specification. These marks shall be stamped into the metal of necked-down section of tank at marked end, in letters and figures at least
(1) Spec. DOT-107A * * * *, the * * * * to be replaced by figures indicating marked test pressure of the tank. This pressure shall not exceed the calculated maximum marked test pressure permitted, as determined by the formula in § 179.500-4(b).
(2) Serial number immediately below the stamped mark specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.
(3) Inspector's official mark immediately below the stamped mark specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.
(4) Name, mark (other than trademark), or initials of company or person for whose use tank is being made, which shall be recorded with the Bureau of Explosives.
(5) Date (such as 1-01, for January 2001) of tank test, so placed that dates of subsequent tests may easily be added.
(6) Date (such as 1-01, for January 2001) of latest test of pressure relief device or of the rupture disc, required only when tank is used for transportation of flammable gases.
(a) Before a tank car is placed in service, the party assembling the completed car shall furnish to car owner, Bureau of Explosives, and the Secretary, Mechanical Division, Association of American Railroads, a report in proper form certifying that tanks and their equipment comply with all the requirements of this specification and including information as to serial numbers, dates of tests, and ownership marks on tanks mounted on car structure.
(b) Purchaser of tanks shall provide for inspection by a competent inspector as follows:
(1) Inspector shall carefully inspect all material and reject that not complying with § 179.500-5.
(2) Inspector shall stamp his official mark on each forging or seamless tube accepted by him for use in making tanks, and shall verify proper application of heat number to such material by occasional inspections at steel manufacturer's plant.
(3) Inspector shall obtain certified chemical analysis of each heat of material.
(4) Inspector shall make inspection of inside surface of tanks before necking-down, to insure that no seams, cracks, laminations, or other defects exist.
(5) Inspector shall fully verify compliance with specification, verify heat treatment of tank as proper; obtain samples for all tests and check chemical analyses; witness all tests; and report minimum thickness of tank wall, maximum inside diameter, and calculated value of D, for each end of each tank as prescribed in § 179.500-4(c).
(6) Inspector shall stamp his official mark on each accepted tank immediately below serial number, and make certified report (see paragraph (c) of this section) to builder, to company or person for whose use tanks are being made, to builder of car structure on which tanks are to be mounted, to the Bureau of Explosives, and to the Secretary, Mechanical Division, Association of American Railroads.
(c) Inspector's report required herein shall be in the following form:
It is hereby certified that drawings were submitted for these tanks under AAR Application for Approval ______ and approved by the AAR Committee on Tank Cars under date of ______.
The marked test pressure substituted for the * * * * on each tank is shown on Record of General Data on Tanks attached hereto.
Steel used was identified as indicated by the attached list showing the serial number of each tank, followed by the heat number.
Steel used was verified as to chemical analysis and record thereof is attached hereto. Heat numbers were stamped into metal. All material was inspected and each tank was inspected both before and after closing in ends; all material accepted was found free from seams, cracks, laminations, and other defects which might prove injurious to strength of tank. Processes of manufacture and heat-treatment of tanks were witnessed and found to be efficient and satisfactory.
Before necking-down ends, each tank was measured at each location prescribed in § 179.500-4(c) and minimum wall thickness in inches at each location was recorded; maximum inside diameter in inches at each location was recorded; value of D in inches at each location was calculated and recorded; maximum fiber stress in wall at location showing larger value for
Hydrostatic tests, tensile test of material, and other tests as prescribed in this specification, were made in the presence of the inspector, and all material and tanks accepted were found to be in compliance with the requirements of this specification. Records thereof are attached hereto.
I hereby certify that all of these tanks proved satisfactory in every way and comply with the requirements of Department of Transportation Specification No. 107A* * * *.
|Heat No.||Tanks represented (serial Nos.)||Chemical analysis|
|Heat No.||Tanks represented by test (serial Nos.)||Elastic limit (psi)||Tensile strength (psi)||Elongation (percent in 2 inches)||Reduction of area (percent)|
Record of Hydrostatic Tests on Tanks
|Size||inches outside by||inches long|
|Serial Nos. of tanks||Actual test pressure (psig)||Total expansion (cubic cm)||Permanent expansion (cubic cm)||Percent ratio of permanent expansion to total expansion 1||Tare weight (pounds) 2||Capacity in pounds of water at 60 °F|
1 If tests are made by method involving measurement of amount of liquid forced into tank by test pressure, then the basic data on which calculations are made, such as pump factors, temperature of liquid, coefficient of compressibility of liquid, etc., must also be given.
2 Do not include protective housing, but state whether with or without valves.
Record of General Data on Tanks
|Data obtained as prescribed in § 179.500-4(c)||Larger value of the factor ||(S) Calculated fiber stress in psi at
||Marked test pressure in psig stamped in tank||Minimum tensile strength of material in psi recorded|
|Marked end of tank||Other end of tank|
|Serial No. of tank||(t) Min. thickness of wall in inches||(d) Max. inside diameter in inches||(D) Calculated value of ||(t) Minimum thickness of wall in inches||(d) Maximum inside diameter in inches||(|