Historical and Revision Notes

Revised Section

Source (U.S. Code)

Source (Statutes at Large)

3716(a)

31 App.:954(a) (words before last comma), (c).

July 19, 1966, Pub. L. 89–508, 80 Stat. 308, § 5(a)–(d); added Oct. 25, 1982, Pub. L. 97–365, § 10(2), 96 Stat. 1754.

3716(b)

31 App.:954(b).

3716(c)(1)

31 App.:954(a) (words after last comma).

3716(c)(2)

31 App.:954(d).

In the subchapter, the words “or his designee” are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (a)(1), the words “head of the” are added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (b)(1), the word “Government” is added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (b)(3), the word “civil” is added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (c)(2), the word “either” is omitted as surplus.

References in Text

The Higher Education Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (c)(1)(C), is Pub. L. 89–329, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1219. Title IV of the Act is classified generally to subchapter IV (§ 1070 et seq.) of chapter 28 of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of Title 20 and Tables.

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(A)(i)(I), (C), (D), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, which is classified generally to chapter 7 (§ 301 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Titles II, VIII, XVI, and XVIII of the Act are classified generally to subchapters II (§ 401 et seq.), VIII (§ 1001 et seq.), XVI (§ 1381 et seq.), and XVIII (§ 1395 et seq.), respectively, of chapter 7 of Title 42. Sections 205(b)(1), 809(a)(1), and 1631(c)(1) of the Act are classified to sections 405(b)(1), 1009(a)(1), and 1383(c)(1), respectively, of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Black Lung Benefits Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(A)(i)(II), is title IV of Pub. L. 91–173, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 792, as amended. Part B of the Act is classified generally to part B (§ 921 et seq.) of subchapter IV of chapter 22 of Title 30, Mineral Lands and Mining. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 901(b) of Title 30 and Tables.

The enactment of this subparagraph, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(D), refers to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–275, which was approved July 15, 2008.

The Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsec. (c)(8), is classified to Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Codification

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 113–101 designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), substituted “120 days” for “180 days”, and added subpar. (B).

2008—Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 110–275, § 189(b)(1), inserted “the Department of Health and Human Services,” after “United States Postal Service,”.

Subsec. (c)(3)(D). Pub. L. 110–275, § 189(b)(2), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 110–246, § 14219(a), amended subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (e) read as follows: “This section does not apply—

“(1) to a claim under this subchapter that has been outstanding for more than 10 years; or

“(2) when a statute explicitly prohibits using administrative offset or setoff to collect the claim or type of claim involved.”

2004—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 108–271 substituted “Government Accountability Office” for “General Accounting Office”.

1999—Subsec. (c)(3)(C). Pub. L. 106–169 substituted “sections 205(b)(1), 809(a)(1),” for “sections 205(b)(1)” and “title II, VIII,” for “either title II”.

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–134, § 31001(c)(1), substituted “the head of an executive, judicial, or legislative agency” for “the head of an executive or legislative agency” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–134, § 31001(d)(2)(A), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: “Before collecting a claim by administrative offset under subsection (a) of this section, the head of an executive or legislative agency must prescribe regulations on collecting by administrative offset based on—

“(1) the best interests of the United States Government;

“(2) the likelihood of collecting a claim by administrative offset; and

“(3) for collecting a claim by administrative offset after the 6-year period for bringing a civil action on a claim under section 2415 of title 28 has expired, the cost effectiveness of leaving a claim unresolved for more than 6 years.”

Pub. L. 104–134, § 31001(c)(1), substituted “the head of an executive, judicial, or legislative agency” for “the head of an executive or legislative agency” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–134, § 31001(d)(2)(D), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 104–134, § 31001(d)(2)(B), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: “when a statute explicitly provides for or prohibits using administrative offset to collect the claim or type of claim involved.”

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–134, § 31001(d)(2)(D), added subsec. (d).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–134, § 31001(d)(2)(C), redesignated subsec. (c) as (e).

Subsecs. (f) to (h). Pub. L. 104–134, § 31001(e), (f), added subsecs. (f) to (h).

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–275, title I, § 189(c), July 15, 2008, 122 Stat. 2591, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1395kk of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [July 15, 2008].”

Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Pub. L. 110–234, title XIV, § 14219(b), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1483, and Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title XIV, § 14219(b), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 2245, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to any debt outstanding on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [June 18, 2008].”

[Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 enacted identical provisions. Pub. L. 110–234 was repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as a note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.]

Offsets From Social Security Payments

Pub. L. 104–134, title III, § 31001(a)(2)(B), Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–358, provided that: “Subparagraph (A) of section 3716(c)(3) of title 31, United States Code (as added by subsection (d)(2) of this section), shall apply only to payments made after the date which is 4 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 26, 1996].”

Ex. Ord. No. 13019. Supporting Families: Collecting Delinquent Child Support Obligations

Ex. Ord. No. 13019, Sept. 28, 1996, 61 F.R. 51763, provided that:

The Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996, Public Law 104–134 [§ 31001] (110 Stat. 1321–358 et seq.) [see Short Title of 1996 Amendment note set out under section 3701 of this title], was enacted into law on April 26, 1996, as part of the Omnibus Consolidated Rescissions and Appropriations Act of 1996. While the primary purpose of the Debt Collection Improvement Act is to increase the collection of nontax debts owed to the Federal Government, the Act also contains important provisions that can be used to assist families in collecting past-due child support obligations.

The failure of some parents to meet their child support obligations threatens the health, education, and well-being of their children. Compounding this problem, States have experienced difficulties enforcing child support obligations once a parent has moved to another State. With this Executive order, my Administration takes additional steps to support our children and strengthen American families by facilitating the collection of delinquent child support obligations from persons who may be entitled or eligible to receive certain Federal payments or Federal assistance.

Accordingly, by the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Administrative Offsets. (a)(1) The Secretary of the Treasury (“the Secretary”), in accordance with the provisions of the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996 and to the extent permitted by law, and in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services and other affected agencies, shall promptly develop and implement procedures necessary for the Secretary to collect past-due child support debts by administrative offset, and shall issue such rules, regulations, and procedures as the Secretary, in consultation with the heads of affected agencies, deems appropriate to govern administrative offsets by the Department of the Treasury and other executive departments and agencies that disburse Federal payments.

(2) The Secretary may enter into reciprocal agreements with States concerning the collection by the Secretary of delinquent child support debts through administrative offsets.

(b) The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall, within 120 days of the date of this order, implement procedures necessary to report to the Secretary of the Treasury information on past-due child support claims referred by States (including claims enforced by States pursuant to cooperative agreements with or by Indian tribal governments) to the Department of Health and Human Services.

(c) The head of each executive department and agency that certifies payments to the Secretary or to another disbursing official shall review each class of payments that the department or agency certifies to determine if any such class should be exempt from offset and, if any class is so identified, submit to the Secretary a request for such an exemption together with the reasons therefor. With respect to classes of payments under means-tested programs existing on the date of this order, such submission shall be made within 30 days of the date of this order. With respect to classes of payments other than payments under means-tested programs existing on the date of this order, such submissions shall be made within 30 days of the date the Secretary establishes standards pursuant to section 3716(c)(3) of title 31, United States Code. With respect to a class of payments established after the date of this order, such submissions shall be made not later than 30 days after such class is established.

(d) The head of each executive department and agency that certifies payments to the Secretary shall promptly implement any rule, regulation, or procedure issued by the Secretary pursuant to this section.

(e) The head of each executive department and agency that is authorized by law to disburse payments shall promptly implement any rule, regulation, or procedure issued by the Secretary pursuant to this section and shall:

(1) match, consistent with computer privacy matching laws, the payment certification records of such department or agency with records of persons delinquent in child support payments as directed by the Secretary; and

(2) conduct administrative offsets to collect delinquent child support payments.

(f) The Secretary shall, to the extent permitted by law, share with the Secretary of Health and Human Services any information contained in payment certification records of persons who are delinquent in child support obligations that would assist in the collection of such debts, whether or not an administrative offset is conducted.

Sec. 2. Denial of Federal Assistance. (a) The Secretary shall, to the extent permitted by law, ensure that information concerning individuals whose payments are subject to administrative offset because of delinquent child support obligations is made available to the head of each executive department and agency that provides Federal financial assistance to individuals.

(b) In conformance with section 2(e) of this order, the head of each executive department and agency shall, with respect to any individuals whose payments are subject to administrative offset because of a delinquent child support obligation, promptly implement procedures to deny Federal financial assistance to such individuals.

(c) The Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services and other affected agencies, shall promptly issue guidelines for departments and agencies concerning minimum due-process standards to be included in the procedures required by subsection (b) of this section.

(d) For purposes of this section, Federal financial assistance means any Federal loan (other than a disaster loan), loan guarantee, or loan insurance.

(e)(1) A class of Federal financial assistance shall not be subject to denial if the head of the concerned department or agency determines:

(A) in consultation with the Attorney General and the Secretary of Health and Human Services, that such action:

(i) is not permitted by law; or

(ii) would likely result in valid legal claims for damages against the United States;

(B) that such action would be inconsistent with the best interests of the child or children with respect to whom a child support obligation is owed; or

(C) that such action should be waived.

(2) The head of each executive department and agency shall provide written notification to the Secretary upon determining that the denial of a class of Federal financial assistance is not permitted by law or should be waived.

(f) The head of each executive department and agency shall:

(1) review all laws under the jurisdiction of the department or agency that do not permit the denial of Federal financial assistance to individuals and whose payments are subject to administrative offset because of a delinquent child support obligation and, where appropriate, transmit to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget recommendations for statutory changes; and

(2) to the extent practicable, review all rules, regulations, and procedures implementing laws under the jurisdiction of the department or agency governing the provision of any Federal financial assistance to individuals and, where appropriate, conform such rules, regulations, and procedures to the provisions of this order and the rules, regulations, and procedures issued by the Secretary pursuant to section 1 of this order.

Sec. 3. Reports. (a) The head of each executive department and agency shall provide to the Secretary such information as the Secretary may request concerning the implementation of this order, the provisions of the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996 applicable to delinquent child support obligations, and the rules, regulations, and procedures issued by the Secretary pursuant to section 1 of this order.

(b) The Secretary shall report annually to the President concerning the implementation by departments and agencies of this order and the provisions of the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996 applicable to delinquent child support obligations.

Sec. 4. Judicial Review. This order does not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.

William J. Clinton.