Discriminatory practices prohibited; employees or applicants for employment subject to coverage
All personnel actions affecting employees or applicants for employment (except with regard to aliens employed outside the limits of the United States) in military departments as defined in section 102 of title 5, in executive agencies as defined in section 105 of title 5 (including employees and applicants for employment who are paid from nonappropriated funds), in the United States Postal Service and the Postal Regulatory Commission, in those units of the Government of the District of Columbia having positions in the competitive service, and in those units of the judicial branch of the Federal Government having positions in the competitive service, in the Smithsonian Institution, and in the Government Publishing Office, the Government Accountability Office, and the Library of Congress shall be made free from any discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission; enforcement powers; issuance of rules, regulations, etc.; annual review and approval of national and regional equal employment opportunity plans; review and evaluation of equal employment opportunity programs and publication of progress reports; consultations with interested parties; compliance with rules, regulations, etc.; contents of national and regional equal employment opportunity plans; authority of Librarian of Congress
Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission shall have authority to enforce the provisions of subsection (a) through appropriate remedies, including reinstatement or hiring of employees with or without back pay, as will effectuate the policies of this section, and shall issue such rules, regulations, orders and instructions as it deems necessary and appropriate to carry out its responsibilities under this section. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission shall—
be responsible for the annual review and approval of a national and regional equal employment opportunity plan which each department and agency and each appropriate unit referred to in subsection (a) of this section shall submit in order to maintain an affirmative program of equal employment opportunity for all such employees and applicants for employment;
be responsible for the review and evaluation of the operation of all agency equal employment opportunity programs, periodically obtaining and publishing (on at least a semiannual basis) progress reports from each such department, agency, or unit; and
consult with and solicit the recommendations of interested individuals, groups, and organizations relating to equal employment opportunity.
The head of each such department, agency, or unit shall comply with such rules, regulations, orders, and instructions which shall include a provision that an employee or applicant for employment shall be notified of any final action taken on any complaint of discrimination filed by him thereunder. The plan submitted by each department, agency, and unit shall include, but not be limited to—
provision for the establishment of training and education programs designed to provide a maximum opportunity for employees to advance so as to perform at their highest potential; and
a description of the qualifications in terms of training and experience relating to equal employment opportunity for the principal and operating officials of each such department, agency, or unit responsible for carrying out the equal employment opportunity program and of the allocation of personnel and resources proposed by such department, agency, or unit to carry out its equal employment opportunity program.
With respect to employment in the Library of Congress, authorities granted in this subsection to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission shall be exercised by the Librarian of Congress.
Civil action by employee or applicant for employment for redress of grievances; time for bringing of action; head of department, agency, or unit as defendant
Within 90 days of receipt of notice of final action taken by a department, agency, or unit referred to in subsection (a), or by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission upon an appeal from a decision or order of such department, agency, or unit on a complaint of discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin, brought pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, Executive Order 11478 or any succeeding Executive orders, or after one hundred and eighty days from the filing of the initial charge with the department, agency, or unit or with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission on appeal from a decision or order of such department, agency, or unit until such time as final action may be taken by a department, agency, or unit, an employee or applicant for employment, if aggrieved by the final disposition of his complaint, or by the failure to take final action on his complaint, may file a civil action as provided in section 2000e–5 of this title, in which civil action the head of the department, agency, or unit, as appropriate, shall be the defendant.
[Pub. L. 88–352, title VII, § 717], as added [Pub. L. 92–261, § 11], Mar. 24, 1972, [86 Stat. 111]; amended 1978 Reorg. Plan No. 1, § 3, eff. Jan. 1, 1979, 43 F.R. 19807, [92 Stat. 3781]; [Pub. L. 96–191, § 8(g)], Feb. 15, 1980, [94 Stat. 34]; [Pub. L. 102–166, title I, § 114], Nov. 21, 1991, [105 Stat. 1079]; [Pub. L. 104–1, title II, § 201(c)(1)], Jan. 23, 1995, [109 Stat. 8]; [Pub. L. 105–220, title III, § 341(a)], Aug. 7, 1998, [112 Stat. 1092]; [Pub. L. 108–271, § 8(b)], July 7, 2004, [118 Stat. 814]; [Pub. L. 109–435, title VI, § 604(f)], Dec. 20, 2006, [120 Stat. 3242]; [Pub. L. 111–2, § 5(c)(2)], Jan. 29, 2009, [123 Stat. 7]; [Pub. L. 113–235, div. H, title I, § 1301(b)], Dec. 16, 2014, [128 Stat. 2537].)