U.S. Code of Federal Regulations

Regulations most recently checked for updates: Jul 04, 2020

§ 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

Acrylate-acrylamide resins may be safely used in food under the following prescribed conditions:

(a) The additive consists of one of the following:

(1) Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin (hydrolyzed polyacrylamide) is produced by the polymerization of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid, with the greater part of the polymer being composed of acrylamide units.

(2) Sodium polyacrylate-acrylamide resin is produced by the polymerization and subsequent hydrolysis of acrylonitrile in a sodium silicate-sodium hydroxide aqueous solution, with the greater part of the polymer being composed of acrylate units.

(b) The additive contains not more than 0.05 percent of residual monomer calculated as acrylamide.

(c) The additive is used or intended for use as follows:

(1) The additive identified in paragraph (a) (1) of this section is used as a flocculent in the clarification of beet sugar juice and liquor or cane sugar juice and liquor or corn starch hydrolyzate in an amount not to exceed 5 parts per million by weight of the juice or 10 parts per million by weight of the liquor or the corn starch hydrolyzate.

(2) The additive identified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section is used to control organic and mineral scale in beet sugar juice and liquor or cane sugar juice and liquor in an amount not to exceed 2.5 parts per million by weight of the juice or liquor.

[42 FR 14526, Mar. 15, 1977, as amended at 46 FR 30494, June 9, 1981]

§ 173.10 - Modified polyacrylamide resin.

Modified polyacrylamide resin may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions:

(a) The modified polyacrylamide resin is produced by the copolymerization of acrylamide with not more than 5-mole percent β-methacrylyloxyethy-ltrimethylammonium methyl sulfate.

(b) The modified polyacrylamide resin contains not more than 0.05 percent residual acrylamide.

(c) The modified polyacrylamide resin is used as a flocculent in the clarification of beet or cane sugar juice in an amount not exceeding 5 parts per million by weight of the juice.

(d) To assure safe use of the additive, the label and labeling of the additive shall bear, in addition to the other information required by the act, adequate directions to assure use in compliance with paragraph (c) of this section.

§ 173.20 - Ion-exchange membranes.

Ion-exchange membranes may be safely used in the processing of food under the following prescribed conditions:

(a) The ion-exchange membrane is prepared by subjecting a polyethylene base conforming to § 177.1520 of this chapter to polymerization with styrene until the polystyrene phase of the base is not less than 16 percent nor more than 30 percent by weight. The base is then modified by reaction with chloromethyl methyl ether, and by subsequent amination with trimethylamine, dimethylamine, diethylenetriamine, or dimethylethanolamine.

(b) The ion-exchange membrane is manufactured so as to comply with the following extraction limitations when subjected to the described procedure: Separate square-foot samples of membrane weighing approximately 14 grams each are cut into small pieces and refluxed for 4 hours in 150 cubic centimeters of the following solvents: Distilled water, 5 percent acetic acid, and 50 percent alcohol. Extraction from each sample will not exceed 0.4 percent by weight of sample.

(c) The ion-exchange membrane will be used in the production of grapefruit juice to adjust the ratio of citric acid to total solids of the grapefruit juice produced.

§ 173.21 - Perfluorinated ion exchange membranes.

Substances identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as ion exchange membranes intended for use in the treatment of bulk quantities of liquid food under the following prescribed conditions:

(a) Identity. The membrane is a copolymer of ethanesulfonyl fluoride, 2-[1-[difluoro-[(trifluoroethenyl)oxy]methyl]-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethoxy]-1,1,2,2,-tetrafluoro-, with tetrafluoroethylene that has been subsequently treated to hydrolyze the sulfonyl fluoride group to the sulfonic acid. The Chemical Abstracts Service name of this polymer is ethanesulfonic acid, 2-[1-[difluoro-[(trifluoroethenyl)oxy]methyl]-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethoxy]-1,1,2,2,-tetrafluoro-, polymer with tetrafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No. 31175-20-9).

(b) Optional adjuvant substances. The basic polymer identified in paragraph (a) of this section may contain optional adjuvant substances required in the production of such basic polymer. These optional adjuvant substances may include substances used in accordance with § 174.5 of this chapter.

(c) Conditions of use. (1) Perfluorinated ion exchange membranes described in paragraph (a) of this section may be used in contact with all types of liquid foods at temperatures not exceeding 70° (158 °F).

(2) Maximum thickness of the copolymer membrane is 0.007 inch (0.017 centimeter).

(3) Perfluorinated ion exchange membranes shall be maintained in a sanitary manner in accordance with current good manufacturing practice so as to prevent microbial adulteration of food.

(4) To assure their safe use, perfluorinated ionomer membranes shall be thoroughly cleaned prior to their first use in accordance with current good manufacturing practice.

[59 FR 15623, Apr. 4, 1994]

§ 173.25 - Ion-exchange resins.

Ion-exchange resins may be safely used in the treatment of food under the following prescribed conditions:

(a) The ion-exchange resins are prepared in appropriate physical form, and consist of one or more of the following:

(1) Sulfonated copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene.

(2) Sulfonated anthracite coal meeting the requirements of ASTM method D388-38, Class I, Group 2, “Standard Specifications for Classification of Coal by Rank,” which is incorporated by reference. Copies are available from University Microfilms International, 300 N. Zeeb Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48106, or available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

(3) Sulfite-modified cross-linked phenol-formaldehyde, with modification resulting in sulfonic acid groups on side chains.

(4) Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer.

(5) Cross-linked polystyrene, first chloromethylated then aminated with trimethylamine, dimethylamine, di-ethylenetriamine, or dimethylethanol-amine.

(6) Diethylenetriamine, triethylene-tetramine, or tetraethylenepentamine cross-linked with epichlorohydrin.

(7) Cross-linked phenol-formaldehyde activated with one or both of the following: Triethylene tetramine and tetraethylenepentamine.

(8) Reaction resin of formaldehyde, acetone, and tetraethylenepentamine.

(9) Completely hydrolyzed copolymers of methyl acrylate and divinylbenzene.

(10) Completely hydrolyzed terpolymers of methyl acrylate, divinylbenzene, and acrylonitrile.

(11) Sulfonated terpolymers of styrene, divinylbenzene, and acrylonitrile or methyl acrylate.

(12) Methyl acrylate-divinylbenzene copolymer containing not less than 2 percent by weight of divinylbenzene, aminolyzed with dimethylaminopro-pylamine.

(13) Methyl acrylate-divinylbenzene copolymer containing not less than 3.5 percent by weight of divinylbenzene, aminolyzed with dimethylaminopro-pylamine.

(14) Epichlorohydrin cross-linked with ammonia.

(15) Sulfonated tetrapolymer of styrene, divinylbenzene, acrylonitrile, and methyl acrylate derived from a mixture of monomers containing not more than a total of 2 percent by weight of acrylonitrile and methyl acrylate.

(16) Methyl acrylate-divinylbenzenediethylene glycol divinyl ether terpolymer containing not less than 3.5 percent by weight of divinylbenzene and not more than 0.6 percent by weight of diethylene glycol divinyl ether, aminolyzed with dimethylaminopropylamine.

(17) Styrene-divinylbenzene cross-linked copolymer, first chloromethylated then aminated with dimethylamine and oxidized with hydrogen peroxide whereby the resin contains not more than 15 percent by weight of vinyl N,N-dimethylbenzylamine-N-oxide and not more than 6.5 percent by weight of nitrogen.

(18) Methyl acrylate-divinylbenzene-diethylene glycol divinyl ether terpolymer containing not less than 7 percent by weight of divinylbenzene and not more than 2.3 percent by weight of diethylene glycol divinyl ether, aminolyzed with dimethylaminopropylamine and quaternized with methyl chloride.

(19) Epichlorohydrin cross-linked with ammonia and then quaternized with methyl chloride to contain not more than 18 percent strong base capacity by weight of total exchange capacity [Chemical Abstracts Service name: Oxirane (chloromethyl)-, polymer with ammonia, reaction product with chloromethane; CAS Reg. No. 68036-99-7].

(20) Regenerated cellulose, cross-linked and alkylated with epichlorohydrin and propylene oxide, then sulfonated whereby the amount of epichlorohydrin plus propylene oxide employed does not exceed 250 percent by weight of the starting quantity of cellulose.

(b) Ion-exchange resins are used in the purification of foods, including potable water, to remove undesirable ions or to replace less desirable ions with one or more of the following: bicarbonate, calcium, carbonate, chloride, hydrogen, hydroxyl, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and sulfate except that: The ion-exchange resin identified in paragraph (a)(12) of this section is used only in accordance with paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the ion-exchange resin identified in paragraph (a)(13) of this section is used only in accordance with paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the resin identified in paragraph (a)(16) of this section is used only in accordance with paragraph (b)(1) or (b)(2) of this section, the ion-exchange resin identified in paragraph (a)(17) of this section is used only in accordance with paragraph (b)(3) of this section, the ion-exchange resin identified in paragraph (a)(18) of this section is used only in accordance with paragraph (b)(4) of this section, and the ion-exchange resin identified in paragraph (a)(20) of this section is used only in accordance with paragraphs (b)(5) and (d) of this section.

(1) The ion-exchange resins identified in paragraphs (a) (12) and (16) of this section are used to treat water for use in the manufacture of distilled alcoholic beverages, subject to the following conditions:

(i) The water is subjected to treatment through a mixed bed consisting of one of the resins identified in paragraph (a) (12) or (16) of this section and one of the strongly acidic cation-exchange resins in the hydrogen form identified in paragraphs (a) (1), (2), and (11) of this section; or

(ii) The water is first subjected to one of the resins identified in paragraph (a) (12) or (16) of this section and is subsequently subjected to treatment through a bed of activated carbon or one of the strongly acidic cation-exchange resins in the hydrogen form identified in paragraphs (a) (1), (2), and (11) of this section.

(iii) The temperature of the water passing through the resin beds identified in paragraphs (b)(1) (i) and (ii) of this section is maintained at 30 °C or less, and the flow rate of the water passing through the beds is not less than 2 gallons per cubic foot per minute.

(iv) The ion-exchange resins identified in paragraph (a) (12) or (16) of this section are exempted from the requirements of paragraph (c)(4) of this section, but the strongly acidic cation-exchange resins referred to in paragraphs (b)(1) (i) and (ii) of this section used in the process meet the requirements of paragraph (c)(4) of this section, except for the exemption described in paragraph (d) of this section.

(2) The ion-exchange resins identified in paragraphs (a) (13) and (16) of this section are used to treat water and aqueous food only of the types identified under Categories I, II, and VI-B in table 1 of § 176.170(c) of this chapter: Provided, That the temperature of the water or food passing through the resin beds is maintained at 50 °C or less and the flow rate of the water or food passing through the beds is not less than 0.5 gallon per cubic foot per minute.

(i) The ion-exchange resin identified in paragraph (a)(13) of this section is used to treat water and aqueous food only of the types identified under categories I, II, and VI-B in Table 1 of § 176.170(c) of this chapter: Provided, That the temperature of the water or food passing through the resin bed is maintained at 50 °C or less and the flow rate of the water or food passing through the bed is not less than 0.5 gallon per cubic foot per minute.

(ii) The ion-exchange resin identified in paragraph (a)(16) of this section is used to treat water and aqueous food only of the types identified under categories I, II, and VI-B in Table 1 of § 176.170(c) of this chapter, Provided, that either:

(A) The temperature of the water or food passing through the resin bed is maintained at 50 °C or less and the flow rate of the water or food passing through the bed is not less than 0.5 gallon per cubic foot per minute; or

(B) Extracts of the resin will be found to contain no more than 1 milligram/kilogram dimethylaminopropylamine in each of the food simulants, distilled water and 10 percent ethanol, when, following washing and pretreatment of the resin in accordance with § 173.25(c)(1), the resin is subjected to the following test under conditions simulating the actual temperature and flow rate of use: “The Determination of 3-Dimethylaminopropylamine in Food Simulating Extracts of Ion Exchange Resins,” February 4, 1998, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the Office of Food Additive Safety (HFS-200), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5001 Campus Dr., College Park, MD 20740, 240-402-1200, or may be examined at the Food and Drug Administration's Main Library, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 2, Third Floor, Silver Spring, MD 20993, 301-796-2039, or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

(3) The ion-exchange resin identified in paragraph (a)(17) of this section is used only for industrial application to treat bulk quantities of aqueous food, including potable water, or for treatment of municipal water supplies, subject to the condition that the temperature of the food or water passing through the resin bed is maintained at 25 °C or less and the flow rate of the food or water passing through the bed is not less than 2 gallons per cubic foot per minute.

(4) The ion-exchange resin identified in paragraph (a)(18) of this section is used to treat aqueous sugar solutions subject to the condition that the temperature of the sugar solution passing through the resin bed is maintained at 82 °C (179.6 °F) or less and the flow rate of the sugar solution passing through the bed is not less than 46.8 liters per cubic meter (0.35 gallon per cubic foot) of resin bed volume per minute.

(5) The ion-exchange resin identified in paragraph (a)(20) of this section is limited to use in aqueous process streams for the isolation and purification of protein concentrates and isolates under the following conditions:

(i) For resins that comply with the requirements in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section, the pH range for the resin shall be no less than 3.5 and no more than 9, and the temperatures of water and food passing through the resin bed shall not exceed 25 °C.

(ii) For resins that comply with the requirements in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section, the pH range for the resin shall be no less than 2 and no more than 10, and the temperatures of water and food passing through the resin shall not exceed 50 °C.

(c) To insure safe use of ion-exchange resins, each ion-exchange resin will be:

(1) Subjected to pre-use treatment by the manufacturer and/or the user in accordance with the manufacturer's directions prescribed on the label or labeling accompanying the resins, to guarantee a food-grade purity of ion-exchange resins, in accordance with good manufacturing practice.

(2) Accompanied by label or labeling to include directions for use consistent with the intended functional purpose of the resin.

(3) Used in compliance with the label or labeling required by paragraph (c)(2) of this section.

(4) Found to result in no more than 1 part per million of organic extractives obtained with each of the named solvents, distilled water, 15 percent alcohol, and 5 percent acetic acid when, having been washed and otherwise treated in accordance with the manufacturer's directions for preparing them for use with food, the ion-exchange resin is subjected to the following test: Using a separate ion-exchange column for each solvent, prepare columns using 50 milliliters of the ready to use ion-exchange resin that is to be tested. While maintaining the highest temperature that will be encountered in use pass through these beds at the rate of 350-450 milliliters per hour the three test solvents distilled water, 15 percent (by volume) ethyl alcohol, and 5 percent (by weight) acetic acid. The first liter of effluent from each solvent is discarded, then the next 2 liters are used to determine organic extractives. The 2-liter sample is carefully evaporated to constant weight at 105 °C; this is total extractives. This residue is fired in a muffle furnace at 850 °C to constant weight; this is ash. Total extractives, minus ash equals the organic extractives. If the organic extractives are greater than 1 part per million of the solvent used, a blank should be run on the solvent and a correction should be made by subtracting the total extractives obtained with the blank from the total extractives obtained in the resin test. The solvents used are to be made as follows:

Distilled water (de-ionized water is distilled). 15 percent ethyl alcohol made by mixing 15 volumes of absolute ethyl alcohol A.C.S. reagent grade, with 85 volumes of distilled de-ionized water. 5 percent acetic acid made by mixing 5 parts by weight of A.C.S. reagent grade glacial acetic acid with 95 parts by weight of distilled de-ionized water. In addition to the organic extractives limitation prescribed in this paragraph, the ion-exchange resin identified in paragraph (a)(17) of this section, when extracted with each of the named solvents, distilled water, 50 percent alcohol, and 5 percent acetic acid, will be found to result in not more than 7 parts per million of nitrogen extractives (calculated as nitrogen) when the resin in the free-base form is subjected to the following test immediately before each use: Using a separate 1-inch diameter glass ion-exchange column for each solvent, prepare each column using 100 milliliters of ready to use ion-exchange resin that is to be tested. With the bottom outlet closed, fill each ion-exchange column with one of the three solvents at a temperature of 25 °C until the solvent level is even with the top of the resin bed. Seal each column at the top and bottom and store in a vertical position at a temperature of 25 °C. After 96 hours, open the top of each column, drain the solvent into a collection vessel, and analyze each drained solvent and a solvent blank for nitrogen by a standard micro-Kjeldahl method.

(d)(1) The ion-exchange resins identified in paragraphs (a)(1), (a)(2), (a)(11), and (a)(15) of this section are exempted from the acetic acid extraction requirement of paragraph (c)(4) of this section.

(2) The ion-exchange resin identified in paragraph (a)(20) of this section shall comply either with:

(i) The extraction requirement in paragraph (c)(4) of this section by using dilute sulfuric acid, pH 3.5 as a substitute for acetic acid; or

(ii) The extraction requirement in paragraph (c)(4) of this section by using reagent grade hydrochloric acid, diluted to pH 2, as a substitute for acetic acid. The resin shall be found to result in no more than 25 parts per million of organic extractives obtained with each of the following solvents: Distilled water; 15 percent alcohol; and hydrochloric acid, pH 2. Blanks should be run for each of the solvents, and corrections should be made by subtracting the total extractives obtained with the blank from the total extractives obtained in the resin test.

(e) Acrylonitrile copolymers identified in this section shall comply with the provisions of § 180.22 of this chapter.

[42 FR 14526, Mar. 15, 1977, as amended at 46 FR 40181, Aug. 7, 1981; 46 FR 57033, Nov. 20, 1981; 49 FR 28830, July 17, 1984; 56 FR 16268, Apr. 22, 1991; 62 FR 7679, Feb. 20, 1997; 64 FR 14609, Mar. 26, 1999; 64 FR 56173, Oct. 18, 1999; 78 FR 14665, Mar. 7, 2013; 81 FR 5592, Feb. 3, 2016]

§ 173.40 - Molecular sieve resins.

Molecular sieve resins may be safely used in the processing of food under the following prescribed conditions:

(a) The molecular sieve resins consist of purified dextran having an average molecular weight of 40,000, cross-linked with epichlorohydrin in a ratio of 1 part of dextran to 10 parts of epichlorohydrin, to give a stable three dimensional structure. The resins have a pore size of 2.0 to 3.0 milliliters per gram of dry resin (expressed in terms of water regain), and a particle size of 10 to 300 microns.

(b) The molecular sieve resins are thoroughly washed with potable water prior to their first use in contact with food.

(c) Molecular sieve resins are used as the gel filtration media in the final purification of partially delactosed whey. The gel bed shall be maintained in a sanitary manner in accordance with good manufacturing practice so as to prevent microbial build-up on the bed and adulteration of the product.

§ 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

Polymaleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 26099-09-2) and its sodium salt (CAS Reg. No. 70247-90-4) may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions:

(a) The additives have a weight-average molecular weight in the range of 540 to 850 and a number-average molecular weight in the range of 520 to 650, calculated as the acid. Molecular weights shall be determined by a method entitled “Determination of Molecular Weight Distribution of Poly(Maleic) Acid,” March 17, 1992, produced by Ciba-Geigy, Inc., Seven Skyline Dr., Hawthorne, NY 10532-2188, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the Office of Food Additive Safety (HFS-200), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5001 Campus Dr., College Park, MD 20740, 240-402-1200, or are available for inspection at the Food and Drug Administration's Main Library, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 2, Third Floor, Silver Spring, MD 20993, 301-796-2039, or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

(b) The additives may be used, individually or together, in the processing of beet sugar juice and liquor or of cane sugar juice and liquor to control mineral scale.

(c) The additives are to be used so that the amount of either or both additives does not exceed 4 parts per million (calculated as the acid) by weight of the beet or cane sugar juice or liquor process stream.

[51 FR 5315, Feb. 13, 1986, as amended at 61 FR 386, Jan. 5, 1996; 78 FR 14665, Mar. 7, 2013; 81 FR 5592, Feb. 3, 2016]

§ 173.50 - Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone.

The food additive polyvinylpolypyrrolidone may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions:

(a) The additive is a homopolymer of purified vinylpyrrolidone catalytically produced under conditions producing polymerization and cross-linking such that an insoluble polymer is produced.

(b) The food additive is so processed that when the finished polymer is refluxed for 3 hours with water, 5 percent acetic acid, and 50 percent alcohol, no more than 50 parts per million of extractables is obtained with each solvent.

(c) It is used or intended for use as a clarifying agent in beverages and vinegar, followed by removal with filtration.

§ 173.55 - Polyvinylpyrrolidone.

The food additive polyvinylpyrroli-done may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions:

(a) The additive is a polymer of purified vinylpyrrolidone catalytically produced, having an average molecular weight of 40,000 and a maximum unsaturation of 1 percent, calculated as the monomer, except that the polyvinylpyrrolidone used in beer is that having an average molecular weight of 360,000 and a maximum unsaturation of 1 percent, calculated as the monomer.

(b) The additive is used or intended for use in foods as follows:

Food Limitations
BeerAs a clarifying agent, at a residual level not to exceed 10 parts per million.
Flavor concentrates in tablet formAs a tableting adjuvent in an amount not to exceed good manufacturing practice.
Nonnutritive sweeteners in concentrated liquid formAs a stabilizer, bodying agent, and dispersant, in an amount not to exceed good manufacturing practice.
Nonnutritive sweeteners in tablet formAs a tableting adjuvant in an amount not to exceed good manufacturing practice.
Vitamin and mineral concentrates in liquid formAs a stabilizer, bodying agent, and dispersant, in an amount not to exceed good manufacturing practice.
Vitamin and mineral concentrates in tablet formAs a tableting adjuvant in an amount not to exceed good manufacturing practice.
VinegarAs a clarifying agent, at a residual level not to exceed 40 parts per million.
WineAs a clarifying agent, at a residual level not to exceed 60 parts per million.

§ 173.60 - Dimethylamine-epichlorohydrin copolymer.

Dimethylamine-epichlorohydrin copolymer (CAS Reg. No. 25988-97-0) may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions:

(a) The food additive is produced by copolymerization of dimethylamine and epichlorohydrin in which not more than 5 mole-percent of dimethylamine may be replaced by an equimolar amount of ethylenediamine, and in which the mole ratio of total amine to epichlorohydrin is approximately 1:1.

(b) The additive meets the following specifications:

(1) The nitrogen content of the copolymer is 9.4 to 10.8 weight percent on a dry basis.

(2) A 50-percent-by-weight aqueous solution of the copolymer has a minimum viscosity of 175 centipoises at 25 °C as determined by LVT-series Brookfield viscometer using a No. 2 spindle at 60 RPM (or by another equivalent method).

(3) The additive contains not more than 1,000 parts per million of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and not more than 10 parts per million epichlorohydrin. The epichlorohydrin and 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol content is determined by an analytical method entitled “The Determination of Epichlorohydrin and 1,3-Dichloro-2-Propanol in Dimethylamine-Epichlorohydrin Copolymer,” which is incorporated by reference. Copies are available from the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-200), Food and Drug Administration, 5001 Campus Dr., College Park, MD 20740, or available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

(4) Heavy metals (as Pb), 2 parts per million maximum.

(5) Arsenic (as As), 2 parts per million maximum.

(c) The food additive is used as a decolorizing agent and/or flocculant in the clarification of refinery sugar liquors and juices. It is added only at the defecation/clarification stage of sugar liquor refining at a concentration not to exceed 150 parts per million of copolymer by weight of sugar solids.

(d) To assure safe use of the additive, the label and labeling of the additive shall bear, in addition to other information required by the Act, adequate directions to assure use in compliance with paragraph (c) of this section.

[48 FR 37614, Aug. 19, 1983, as amended at 54 FR 24897, June 12, 1989]

§ 173.65 - Divinylbenzene copolymer.

Divinylbenzene copolymer may be used for the removal of organic substances from aqueous foods under the following prescribed conditions:

(a) The copolymer is prepared in appropriate physical form and is derived by the polymerization of a grade of divinylbenzene which comprises at least 79 weight-percent divinylbenzene, 15 to 20 weight-percent ethylvinylbenzene, and no more than 4 weight-percent nonpolymerizable impurities.

(b) In accordance with the manufacturer's directions, the copolymer described in paragraph (a) of this section is subjected to pre-use extraction with a water soluble alcohol until the level of divinylbenzene in the extract is less than 50 parts per billion as determined by a method titled, “The Determination of Divinylbenzene in Alcohol Extracts of Amberlite XAD-4,” which is incorporated by reference. Copies of this method are available from the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-200), Food and Drug Administration, 5001 Campus Dr., College Park, MD 20740, or available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. The copolymer is then treated with water according to the manufacturer's recommendation to remove the extraction solvent to guarantee a food-grade purity of the resin at the time of use, in accordance with current good manufacturing practice.

(c) The temperature of the aqueous food stream contacting the polymer is maintained at 79.4 °C (175 °F) or less.

(d) The copolymer may be used in contact with food only of Types I, II, and VI-B (excluding carbonated beverages) described in table 1 of paragraph (c) of § 176.170 of this chapter.

[50 FR 61, Jan. 2, 1985]

§ 173.70 - Chloromethylated aminated styrene-divinylbenzene resin.

Chloromethylated aminated styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer (CAS Reg. No. 60177-39-1) may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions:

(a) The additive is an aqueous dispersion of styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers, first chloromethylated then aminated with trimethylamine, having an average particle size of not more than 2.0 microns.

(b) The additive shall contain no more than 3.0 percent nonvolatile, soluble extractives when tested as follows: One hundred grams of the additive is centrifuged at 17,000 r/min for 2 hours. The resulting clear supernatant is removed from the compacted solids and concentrated to approximately 10 grams on a steam bath. The 10-gram sample is again centrifuged at 17,000 r/min for 2 hours to remove any residual insoluble material. The supernatant from the second centrifugation is then removed from any compacted solids and dried to constant residual weight using a steam bath. The percent nonvolatile solubles is obtained by dividing the weight of the dried residue by the weight of the solids in the original resin dispersion.

(c) The additive is used as a decolorizing and clarification agent for treatment of refinery sugar liquors and juices at levels not to exceed 500 parts of additive solids per million parts of sugar solids.

[50 FR 29209, July 18, 1985]

§ 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

Sodium polyacrylate (CAS Reg. No. 9003-04-7) may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions:

(a) The additive is produced by the polymerization of acrylic acid and subsequent hydrolysis of the polyacrylic acid with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. As determined by a method entitled “Determination of Weight Average and Number Average Molecular Weight of Sodium Polyacrylate,” which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a), the additive has -

(1) A weight average molecular weight of 2,000 to 2,300; and

(2) A weight average molecular weight to number average molecular weight ratio of not more than 1.3. Copies of the method are available from the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-200), Food and Drug Administration, 5001 Campus Dr., College Park, MD 20740, or available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

(b) The additive is used to control mineral scale during the evaporation of beet sugar juice or cane sugar juice in the production of sugar in an amount not to exceed 3.6 parts per million by weight of the raw juice.

[53 FR 39456, Oct. 7, 1988; 53 FR 49823, Dec. 9, 1988]

§ 173.75 - Sorbitan monooleate.

Sorbitan monooleate may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions:

(a) The additive is produced by the esterification of sorbitol with commercial oleic acid.

(b) It meets the following specifications:

(1) Saponification number, 145-160.

(2) Hydroxyl number, 193-210.

(c) The additive is used or intended for use as follows:

(1) As an emulsifier in polymer dispersions that are used in the clarification of cane or beet sugar juice or liquor in an amount not to exceed 7.5 percent by weight in the final polymer dispersion.

(2) The additive is used in an amount not to exceed 0.70 part per million in sugar juice and 1.4 parts per million in sugar liquor.

[51 FR 11720, Apr. 7, 1986]