U.S. Code of Federal Regulations
Regulations most recently checked for updates: Aug 13, 2020
(a) Part 152 sets forth procedures, requirements and criteria concerning the registration of pesticide products under FIFRA section 3, including plant-incorporated protectants (PIPs). Unless specifically superseded by part 174, the regulations in part 152 apply to PIPs.
(b) Part 152 also describes associated regulatory activities affecting registration, as described in this paragraph.
(1) Data compensation and exclusive use of data in support of registration. Refer to subpart E of this part.
(2) Rights and obligations of registrants. Refer to subpart G of this part.
(3) Classification of pesticide uses. Refer to subpart I of this part.
(4) Fees. Refer to subpart U of this part.
(5) Requirements pertaining to pesticide devices. Refer to subpart Z of this part.
Terms used in this part have the same meaning as in the Act. In addition, the following terms have the meanings set forth in this section.
Act or FIFRA means the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, as amended (7 U.S.C. 136-136y).
Active ingredient means any substance (or group of structurally similar substances if specified by the Agency) that will prevent, destroy, repel or mitigate any pest, or that functions as a plant regulator, desiccant, or defoliant within the meaning of FIFRA sec. 2(a), except as provided in § 174.3 of this chapter.
Acute dermal LD
Acute inhalation LC
Acute oral LD
Administrator means the Administrator of the United States Environmental Protection Agency or his delegate.
Agency means the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), unless otherwise specified.
Applicant means a person who applies for a registration or amended registration under FIFRA sec. 3.
Biological control agent means any living organism applied to or introduced into the environment that is intended to function as a pesticide against another organism declared to be a pest by the Administrator.
Distribute or sell and other grammatical variations of the term such as “distributed or sold” and “distribution or sale,” means the acts of distributing, selling, offering for sale, holding for sale, shipping, holding for shipment, delivering for shipment, or receiving and (having so received) delivering or offering to deliver, or releasing for shipment to any person in any State.
End use product means a pesticide product whose labeling
(1) Includes directions for use of the product (as distributed or sold, or after combination by the user with other substances) for controlling pests or defoliating, desiccating, or regulating the growth of plants, and
(2) Does not state that the product may be used to manufacture or formulate other pesticide products.
Final printed labeling means the label or labeling of the product when distributed or sold. Final printed labeling does not include the package of the product, unless the labeling is an integral part of the package.
Inert ingredient means any substance (or group of structurally similar substances if designated by the Agency), other than an active ingredient, which is intentionally included in a pesticide product, except as provided by § 174.3 of this chapter.
Institutional use means any application of a pesticide in or around any property or facility that functions to provide a service to the general public or to public or private organizations, including but not limited to:
(1) Hospitals and nursing homes.
(2) Schools other than preschools and day care facilities.
(3) Museums and libraries.
(4) Sports facilities.
(5) Office buildings.
Living plant means a plant, plant organ, or plant part that is alive, viable, or dormant. Examples of plant parts include, but are not limited to, seeds, fruits, leaves, roots, stems, flowers, and pollen.
Manufacturing use product means any pesticide product that is not an end-use product.
New use, when used with respect to a product containing a particular active ingredient, means:
(1) Any proposed use pattern that would require the establishment of, the increase in, or the exemption from the requirement of a tolerance or food additive regulation under section 408 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act;
(2) Any aquatic, terrestrial, outdoor, or forestry use pattern, if no product containing the active ingredient is currently registered for that use pattern; or
(3) Any additional use pattern that would result in a significant increase in the level of exposure, or a change in the route of exposure, to the active ingredient of man or other organisms.
Operated by the same producer, when used with respect to two establishments, means that each such establishment is either owned by, or leased for operation by and under the control of, the same person. The term does not include establishments owned or operated by different persons, regardless of contractural agreement between such persons.
Package or packaging means the immediate container or wrapping, including any attached closure(s), in which the pesticide is contained for distribution, sale, consumption, use, or storage. The term does not include any shipping or bulk container used for transporting or delivering the pesticide unless it is the only such package.
Pesticide means any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating any pest, or intended for use as a plant regulator, defoliant, or desiccant, other than any article that:
(1) Is a new animal drug under FFDCA sec. 201(w), or
(2) Is an animal drug that has been determined by regulation of the Secretary of Health and Human Services not to be a new animal drug, or
(3) Is an animal feed under FFDCA sec. 201(x) that bears or contains any substances described by paragraph (s) (1) or (2) of this section.
Pesticide product means a pesticide in the particular form (including composition, packaging, and labeling) in which the pesticide is, or is intended to be, distributed or sold. The term includes any physical apparatus used to deliver or apply the pesticide if distributed or sold with the pesticide.
Plant-incorporated protectant means a pesticidal substance that is intended to be produced and used in a living plant, or in the produce thereof, and the genetic material necessary for production of such a pesticidal substance. It also includes any inert ingredient contained in the plant, or produce thereof.
Released for shipment. A product becomes released for shipment when the producer has packaged and labeled it in the manner in which it will be distributed or sold, or has stored it in an area where finished products are ordinarily held for shipment. Products stored in an area where finished products are ordinarily held for shipment, but which are not intended to be released for shipment must be physically separated and marked as not yet released for shipment. Once a product becomes released for shipment, the product remains in the condition of being released for shipment unless subsequent activities, such as relabeling or repackaging, constitute production.
Residential use means use of a pesticide directly:
(1) On humans or pets,
(2) In, on, or around any structure, vehicle, article, surface, or area associated with the household, including but not limited to areas such as non-agricultural outbuildings, non-commercial greenhouses, pleasure boats and recreational vehicles, or
(3) In any preschool or day care facility.
An organism is declared to be a pest under circumstances that make it deleterious to man or the environment, if it is:
(a) Any vertebrate animal other than man;
(b) Any invertebrate animal, including but not limited to, any insect, other arthropod, nematode, or mollusk such as a slug and snail, but excluding any internal parasite of living man or other living animals;
(c) Any plant growing where not wanted, including any moss, alga, liverwort, or other plant of any higher order, and any plant part such as a root; or
(d) Any fungus, bacterium, virus, prion, or other microorganism, except for those on or in living man or other living animals and those on or in processed food or processed animal feed, beverages, drugs (as defined in FFDCA section 201(g)(1)) and cosmetics (as defined in FFDCA section 201(i)).
Products and substances listed in this section are excluded from FIFRA regulation if they meet the specified conditions or criteria.
(a) Liquid chemical sterilants. A liquid chemical sterilant product is not a pesticide under section 2(u) of FIFRA if it meets all of the following criteria. Excluded products are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Products excluded are those meeting all of the following criteria:
(1) Composition. The product must be in liquid form as sold or distributed. Pressurized gases or products in dry or semi-solid form are not excluded by this provision. Ethylene oxide products are not liquid products and are not excluded by this provision.
(2) Claims. The product must bear a sterilant claim, or a sterilant plus subordinate level disinfection claim. Products that bear antimicrobial claims solely at a level less than “sterilant” are not excluded and are jointly regulated by EPA and FDA.
(3) Use site. (i) The product must be intended and labeled only for use on “critical or semi-critical devices.” A “critical device” is any device which is introduced directly into the human body, either into or in contact with the bloodstream or normally sterile areas of the body. A semi-critical device is any device which contacts intact mucous membranes but which does not ordinarily penetrate the blood barrier or otherwise enter normally sterile areas of the body.
(ii) Liquid chemical sterilants that bear claims solely for use on non-critical medical devices are jointly regulated by EPA and FDA.
(iii) Liquid chemical sterilants that bear claims solely for use on sites that are not medical devices, such as veterinary equipment, are not excluded and are regulated solely by EPA.
(b) Nitrogen stabilizers. A nitrogen stabilizer is excluded from regulation under FIFRA if it is a substance (or mixture of substances), meeting all of the following criteria:
(1) The substance prevents or hinders the process of nitrification, denitrification, ammonia volatilization, or urease production through action affecting soil bacteria and is distributed and sold solely for those purposes and no other pesticidal purposes. For purposes of this section, living organisms are not considered to be substances, and the actions of living organisms are not relevant to whether a substance is deemed to be a nitrogen stabilizer.
(2) The substance was in “commercial agronomic use” in the United States before January 1, 1992. EPA considers a substance to be in commercial agronomic use if it is available for sale or distribution to users for direct agronomic benefit, as opposed to limited research, experimental or demonstration use.
(3) The substance was not registered under FIFRA before January 1, 1992.
(4) Since January 1, 1992, the distributor or seller has made no claim that the product prevents or hinders the process of nitrification, denitrification, ammonia volatilization or urease production. EPA considers any of the following claims (or their equivalents) to be a claim that the product prevents or hinders nitrification, denitrification, ammonia volatilization or urease production:
(i) Improves crop utilization of applied nitrogen.
(ii) Reduces leaching of applied nitrogen or reduces groundwater nitrogen contamination.
(iii) Prevents nitrogen loss.
(iv) Prolongs availability of nitrogen.
(v) Increases nitrogen uptake, availability, usage, or efficiency.
(5) A product will be considered to have met the criterion of paragraph (b)(4) of this section that no nitrogen stabilization claim has been made if:
(i) The nitrogen stabilization claim, in whatever terms expressed, is made solely in compliance with a State requirement to include the claim in materials required to be submitted to a State legislative or regulatory authority, or in the labeling or other literature accompanying the product; and
(ii) The State requirement to include the claim was in effect both before the product bearing the claim was introduced into commercial agronomic use, and before the effective date of this rule.
(6) A product that meets all of the criteria of this paragraph with respect to one State is not thereby excluded from FIFRA regulation if distributed and sold in another State whose nitrogen stabilization statement requirement does not meet the requirements of paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of this section.
(c) Human drugs. Fungi, bacteria, viruses or other microorganisms in or on living man are not “pests” as defined in section 2(t) of FIFRA. Products intended and labeled for use against such organisms are human drugs subject to regulation by the FDA under the FFDCA.
(d) Animal drugs. (1) Fungi, viruses, bacteria or other microorganisms on or in living animals are not “pests” under section 2(t) of FIFRA. Products intended for use against such organisms are “animal drugs” regulated by the FDA under the FFDCA.
(2) A “new animal drug” as defined in section 201(w) of the FFDCA, or an animal drug that FDA has determined is not a “new animal drug” is not a pesticide under section 2(u) of FIFRA. Animal drugs are regulated by the FDA under the FFDCA.
(e) Animal feeds. An animal feed containing a new animal drug is not a pesticide under section 2(u) of FIFRA. An animal feed containing a new animal drug is subject to regulation by the FDA under the FFDCA.
(f) Vitamin hormone products. A product consisting of a mixture of plant hormones, plant nutrients, inoculants, or soil amendments is not a “plant regulator” under section 2(v) of FIFRA, provided it meets the following criteria:
(1) The product, in the undiluted package concentration at which it is distributed or sold, meets the criteria of § 156.62 of this chapter for Toxicity Category III or IV; and
(2) The product is not intended for use on food crop sites, and is labeled accordingly.
(g) Products intended to aid the growth of desirable plants. A product of any of the following types, intended only to aid the growth of desirable plants, is not a “plant regulator” under section 2(v) of FIFRA, and therefore is not a pesticide:
(1) A plant nutrient product, consisting of one or more macronutrients or micronutrient trace elements necessary to normal growth of plants and in a form readily usable by plants.
(2) A plant inoculant product consisting of microorganisms to be applied to the plant or soil for the purpose of enhancing the availability or uptake of plant nutrients through the root system.
(3) A soil amendment product containing a substance or substances intended for the purpose of improving soil characteristics favorable for plant growth.
A substance or article is not a pesticide, because it is not intended for use against “pests” as defined in § 152.5, if it is:
(a) A fertilizer product not containing a pesticide.
(b) A product intended to force bees from hives for the collection of honey crops.
A product that is not intended to prevent, destroy, repel, or mitigate a pest, or to defoliate, desiccate or regulate the growth of plants, is not considered to be a pesticide. The following types of products or articles are not considered to be pesticides unless a pesticidal claim is made on their labeling or in connection with their sale and distribution:
(a) Deodorizers, bleaches, and cleaning agents;
(b) Products not containing toxicants, intended only to attract pests for survey or detection purposes, and labeled accordingly;
(c) Products that are intended to exclude pests only by providing a physical barrier against pest access, and which contain no toxicants, such as certain pruning paints to trees.
No person may distribute or sell any pesticide product that is not registered under the Act, except as provided in §§ 152.20, 152.25, and 152.30. A pesticide is any substance (or mixture of substances) intended for a pesticidal purpose, i.e., use for the purpose of preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating any pest or use as a plant regulator, defoliant, or desiccant. A substance is considered to be intended for a pesticidal purpose, and thus to be a pesticide requiring registration, if:
(a) The person who distributes or sells the substance claims, states, or implies (by labeling or otherwise):
(1) That the substance (either by itself or in combination with any other substance) can or should be used as a pesticide; or
(2) That the substance consists of or contains an active ingredient and that it can be used to manufacture a pesticide; or
(b) The substance consists of or contains one or more active ingredients and has no significant commercially valuable use as distributed or sold other than (1) use for pesticidal purpose (by itself or in combination with any other substance), (2) use for manufacture of a pesticide; or
(c) The person who distributes or sells the substance has actual or constructive knowledge that the substance will be used, or is intended to be used, for a pesticidal purpose.