Collapse to view only § 28.815 - Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems.

§ 28.800 - Applicability and general requirements.

(a) This subpart applies to each fish tender vessel engaged in the Aleutian trade that has not undergone a major conversion and:

(1) Was operated in Aleutian trade before September 8, 1990; or

(2) Was purchased to be used in the Aleutian trade before September 8, 1990, and entered into service in the Aleutian trade before June 1, 1992.

(b) Except as noted otherwise in this subpart, a vessel subject to this subpart must also comply with the requirements of subparts A, B, and C of this part.

(c) Each fish tender vessel engaged in the Aleutian trade that undergoes a major conversion after September 15, 1991 must comply with the additional requirements of subpart D.

(d) A fish tender vessel engaged in the Aleutian trade is subject to inspection under the provisions of 46 U.S.C. 3301 (1), (6), or (7) unless it:

(1) Is not more than 500 gross tons;

(2) Has an incline test performed by a marine surveyor; and

(3) Has written stability instructions posted on board the vessel.

§ 28.805 - Launching of survival craft.

In addition to the survival craft requirements in subpart B, each vessel must have a gate or other opening in the deck rails, lifelines, or bulwarks adjacent to the stowage location of each survival craft which has a mass of more than 50 kilograms (110 pounds), so that the survival craft can be manually launched.

§ 28.810 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs.

(a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section, deck rails, lifelines, grab rails, or equivalent protection must be installed near the periphery of all weather decks accessible to individuals. Where space limitations make deck rails impractical, hand grabs may be substituted.

(b) The height of deck rails, lifelines, or bulkwarks must be at least 1 meter (39 1/2 inches) from the deck, except where this height will interfere with the normal operation of the vessel, a lesser height may be substituted.

(c) All deck rails or lifelines must be permanently supported by stanchions at intervals of not more than 2.3 meters (7 feet). Stanchions must be through bolted or welded to the deck.

(d) Portable stanchions and lifelines may be installed in locations where permanently installed deck rails will impede normal cargo operations or emergency recovery operations.

(e) Deck rails or lifelines must consist of evenly spaced courses. The spacing between courses must not be greater than 0.38 meters (15 inches). The opening below the lowest course must not be more than 0.23 meters (9 inches). Lower courses are not required where all or part of the space below the upper rail is fitted with a bulwark, chain link fencing, wire mesh, or an equivalent.

(f) A suitable storm rail or hand grab must be installed where necessary in a passageway, at a deckhouse side, at a ladder, and a hatch where an individual might have access.

§ 28.815 - Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems.

Instead of meeting the requirements of § 28.255, each vessel to which this subpart applies must meet the following requirements:

(a) Each vessel must be equipped with a fixed, self priming, powered, bilge pump, having a minimum capacity rating of 50 gallons per minute, connected to a bilge manifold and piping capable of draining any watertight compartment, other than tanks and small buoyancy compartments, under all service conditions. Large spaces, such as engine rooms and cargo holds must be fitted with more than one suction line.

(b) In addition, each vessel must be fitted with a fixed secondary or backup bilge pump having an independent and separate source of power from the pump required in paragraph (a) of this section. One of the bilge pumps may be attached to the propelling engine.

(c) A portable bilge pump may substitute for the secondary pump required above, as long as it meets the following:

(1) It must be self priming and provided with a suitable suction hose of adequate length to reach the bilges of each watertight compartment it must serve and be fitted with a built-in check valve and strainer.

(2) The portable pump must be of at least the same minimum capacity as that listed in paragraph (a) of this section and fitted with a discharge hose of adequate length to ensure overboard discharge from the lowest compartment in which it can serve.

(3) The portable pump must also be capable of being quickly and efficiently attached to the vessel's fixed bilge suction main and/or discharge piping (such as with “camlocks”, etc.) for alternate emergency use.

(d) Except for suction lines attached to an individual pump provided for a separate space, or for a portable pump, each individual bilge suction line must be provided with a stop valve at the manifold and a check valve at some accessible point in the bilge line to prevent unintended flooding of a space.

(e) Each bilge suction line and dewatering system must be fitted with a suitable strainer to prevent clogging of the suction line. Strainers must have an open area of not less than three times the open area of the suction line.

(f) Except for a fire pump required by 46 CFR 28.820, a bilge pump may be used for other purposes.

(g) Each vessel must comply with the oil pollution prevention requirements of 33 CFR parts 151 and 155.

§ 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

(a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire pump connected to a fixed piping system. This pump must be capable of delivering an effective stream of water from a hose connected to the highest outlet. The minimum capacity of the power fire pump shall be 50 gallons per minute at a pressure of not less than 60 pounds per square inch at the pump outlet.

(1) If multiple pumps are installed, they may be used for other purposes provided at least one pump is kept available for use on the fire system at all times.

(2) In addition, each vessel must be fitted with a portable fire pump having a minimum capacity of that specified in paragraph (a) of this section, capable of producing a stream of water having a throw of at least 12 meters (39.4 feet) from the nozzle, and capable of being connected to National Standard Fire Hose of the size utilized on board the vessel. If a vessel already has on board a portable pump satisfying the bilge system requirements of § 28.255(d), no additional portable pump is required as long as the portable pump is of sufficient size/capacity, and is properly equipped to handle both fire fighting and flood control.

(b) Each vessel must have a sufficient number of fire hydrants to reach any part of the vessel using a single length of hose.

(c) Each fire hydrant must have at least one length of fire hose connected to the outlet at all times, a spanner, and a hose rack or other device for stowing the hose at all times.

(1) All parts of the firemain located on exposed decks shall either be protected against freezing or be fitted with cutout valves and drain valves.

(2) Firehose shall not be used for any other purpose other than fire extinguishing, drills, and testing.

(3) Each length of fire hose must be a minimum of 3.83 centimeters (1 1/2”) diameter lined commercial fire hose and be fitted with a nozzle made of corrosion resistant material capable of providing a solid stream and a spray pattern.

[CGD 94-025, 60 span 54444, Oct. 24, 1995, as amended by USCG-2010-0759, 75 span 60002, Sept. 29, 2010]

§ 28.825 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

Instead of meeting the requirements of § 28.155, each vessel to which this subpart applies must meet the following requirements:

(a) Installation of fire detection and protection equipment in excess of that required by the regulations in this subchapter is permitted provided that the excess equipment does not endanger the vessel or individuals on board in any way. The excess equipment must, at a minimum, be listed and labeled by an independent, nationally recognized testing laboratory and be in accordance with an appropriate industry standard for design, installation, testing, and maintenance.

(b) An existing fixed gas fire extinguishing system that is in excess of the required fire protection equipment required by subparts A, B, and C of this part, may remain in place and continue in service as long as all parts of the system are maintained in good condition to the satisfaction of the Coast Guard Representative, and subject to the following:

(1) A fixed fire extinguishing system capable of automatic discharge upon heat detection, may only be installed in a normally unoccupied space. For the purpose of this section, the machinery space aboard a fish tender operating in the Aleutian trade is considered occupied.

(2) A fixed fire extinguishing system must:

(i) Be capable of manual actuation from outside the space protected;

(ii) Produce an audible alarm to indicate the discharge of the extinguishing agent for 20 seconds before the extinguishing agent is released into the space;

(iii) The branch line valves of all fire extinguishing systems shall be plainly and permanently marked indicating the spaces serviced;

(iv) The control cabinets or spaces containing valves or manifolds for the various fire extinguishing systems must be distinctly marked in conspicuous red letters at least 2 inches high: “[CARBON DIOXIDE/FOAM/CLEAN AGENT - as appropriate] FIRE SYSTEM.”

(v) Instructions for the operation of the system must be located in a conspicuous place at or near all pull boxes, stop valve controls, and in the agent storage space;

(vi) If the space or enclosure containing the supply or controls is to be locked, a key to the space or enclosure shall be in a break-glass-type box conspicuously located adjacent to the opening, and;

(vii) Be equipped with a sign at the alarm stating: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS - VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED”, or list other fire extinguishing agent.

(3) Any modification, alteration, or new installation of a fixed gas fire extinguishing system must meet the additional requirements of subpart D of this part.

[CGD 94-025, 60 FR 54444, Oct. 24, 1995, as amended by USCG-2004-18884, 69 FR 58344, Sept. 30, 2004; USCG-2006-24797, 77 FR 33872, June 7, 2012]

§ 28.830 - Fire detection and alarm systems.

(a) Each accommodation space must be equipped with an independent modular smoke detector or a smoke actuated fire detection unit installed in accordance with 46 CFR part 76.

(b) An independent modular smoke detector must meet UL 217 and be listed as a “Single Station Smoke Detector - Also Suitable for Use in Recreational Vehicles”.

(c) The regulations in this section have preemptive effect over State or local regulation within the same field.

[CGD 94-025, 60 FR 54444, Oct. 24, 1995, as amended by USCG-2012-0196, 81 FR 48247, July 22, 2016]

§ 28.835 - Fuel systems.

(a) Portable fuel systems including portable tanks and related fuel lines and accessories are prohibited except where used for outboard engines or portable bilge/fire pumps.

(b) Each integral fuel tank must be fitted with a vent pipe connected to the highest point of the tank terminating in a 180 degree (3.14 radians) bend on a weather deck and be fitted with a flame screen.

(c) Test cocks must not be fitted to fuel oil tanks.

(d) Valves for removing water or impurities from diesel fuel oil systems are permitted in the machinery space provided they are away from any potential sources of ignition. Such valves shall be fitted with caps or plugs to prevent leakage.

(e) Oil piping drains, strainers and other equipment subject to normal oil leakage must be fitted with drip pans or other means to prevent oil draining into the bilge.

(f) All nonmetallic filters and strainers must be fitted with a metal shield attached to their base in such a way as to prevent direct flame impingement in the case of a fire.

(g) Shutoff valves shall be installed in the fuel supply piping lines, one as close to each tank as practicable, and one as close to each fuel pump as practicable. Valves shall be accessible at all times.

(h) Fuel oil piping subject to internal head pressure from diesel oil in a tank must be fitted with a positive shutoff valve, installed to close against the flow at the tank. This valve is to be capable of remote actuation from outside the space in which the tank/piping is located, accessible at all times, and suitably marked.

(i) With the exception of paragraph (j) and (k) of this section, fuel piping shall be steel pipe, annealed seamless copper, brass, nickel copper, or copper nickel alloy tubing having a minimum wall thickness of 0.9 millimeters (0.035 inches).

(j) Flexible connections of a short length (no more than 762mm, (30 inches)), suitable metallic or nonmetallic flexible tubing or hose is permitted in the fuel supply line at or near the engine to prevent damage by vibration. If nonmetallic flexible hose is used it must:

(1) Not exceed the minimum length needed to allow for vibration;

(2) Be visible, easily accessible, and must not penetrate a watertight bulkhead;

(3) Be fabricated with an inner tube and outer-covering of synthetic rubber or other suitable material reinforced with wire braid;

(4) Be fitted with suitable, corrosion resistant, compression fittings; and

(5) Be installed with two hose clamps at each end of the hose, if designed for use with clamps. Clamps must not rely on spring tension and must be installed beyond the bead or flare or over the serrations of the mating spud, pipe, or hose fitting.

(k) Supply piping that conveys fuel oil or lubricating oil to equipment and is in close proximity of equipment or lines having an open flame or having parts operating above 260 °C (500 °F) must be of seamless steel.

(l) Existing fuel oil piping may remain in service as long as it is serviceable to the satisfaction of the Coast Guard Representative. Any replacement, alterations, modifications or new installations to the fuel oil piping system must be made in accordance with the material requirements of this section.

§ 28.840 - Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery.

All electrically driven fuel oil transfer pumps, fuel oil unit and service pumps, and ventilation fans shall be fitted with remote controls from a readily accessible position outside of the space concerned so that they may be stopped in the event of fire occurring in the compartment in which they are located. These controls shall be suitably protected against accidental operation or tampering and shall be suitably marked.

§ 28.845 - General requirements for electrical systems.

(a) Electrical equipment exposed to the weather or in a location exposed to seas must be waterproof or watertight, or enclosed in a watertight housing.

(b) Aluminum must not be used for current carrying parts of electrical equipment or wiring.

(c) As far as practicable, electrical equipment must not be installed in lockers used to store paint, oil, turpentine, or other flammable or combustible liquids. If electrical equipment, such as lighting, is necessary in these spaces, it must be explosion-proof or intrinsically safe.

(d) Explosion-proof and intrinsically safe equipment must meet the requirements of § 111.105 of this chapter.

(e) Metallic enclosures and frames of electrical equipment must be grounded.

§ 28.850 - Main source of electrical power.

(a) Applicability: Each vessel that relies on electricity to power any of the following essential loads must have at least two electrical generators to supply:

(1) The propulsion system and its necessary auxiliaries and controls;

(2) Interior lighting;

(3) Steering systems;

(4) Communication systems;

(5) Navigation equipment and navigation lights;

(6) Fire protection or detection equipment;

(7) Bilge pumps; and

(8) General alarm system.

(b) Each generator must be attached to an independent prime mover.

§ 28.855 - Electrical distribution systems.

(a) Each electrical distribution system which has a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral bus or conductor grounded.

(b) A grounded electrical distribution system must have only one connection to ground. This ground connection must be at the switchboard.

§ 28.860 - Overcurrent protection and switched circuits.

(a) Each power source must be protected against overcurrent. Overcurrent devices for generators must be set at a value not exceeding 115 percent of the generator's full load rating.

(b) Except for a steering circuit, each circuit must be protected against both overload and short circuit. Each overcurrent device in a steering system power and control circuit must provide protection only.

(c) Each ungrounded current carrying conductor must be protected in accordance with its current carrying capacity by a circuit breaker or fuse at the connection to the switchboard or distribution panel bus.

(d) Each circuit breaker and each switch must simultaneously open all ungrounded conductors.

(e) The grounded conductor of a circuit must not be disconnected by a switch or an overcurrent device unless all ungrounded conductors of the circuit are simultaneously disconnected.

(f) Navigation light circuits must be separate, switched circuits having fused disconnect switches or circuit breakers so that only the appropriate navigation lights can be switched on.

(g) A separate circuit with overcurrent protection at the main distribution panel or switchboard must be provided for each radio installation.

§ 28.865 - Wiring methods and materials.

(a) All cable and wire must have insulated, stranded copper conductors of the appropriate size and voltage rating of the circuit.

(b) Each conductor must be No. 22 AWG or larger. Conductors in power and lighting circuits must be No. 14 AWG or larger. Conductors must be sized so that the voltage drop at the load terminals is not more than 10 percent.

(c) Cable and wiring not serving equipment in high risk fire areas such as a galley, laundry, or machinery space must be routed as far as practicable from these spaces. As far as practicable, cables serving duplicated essential equipment must be separated so that a casualty that affects one cable does not affect the other. Existing cables and wires may remain as routed; however, any replacement wiring, new cabling and/or alterations must be routed as specified above.

(d) No unused or dead ended cables may remain after the permanent removal or alteration of an electrical device.

(e) Cable and wire for power and lighting circuits must:

(1) For circuits of less than 50 volts, meet 33 CFR 183.425 and 183.430; and

(2) For circuits of 50 volts or greater:

(i) Meet section 310-13 and 310-15 of NFPA 70, except that asbestos insulated cable and dry location cable must not be used;

(ii) Be listed by Underwriters Laboratories Inc. as UL Marine Boat or UL Marine Shipboard cable; or

(iii) Meet § 111.60 of this chapter.

(f) All metallic cable armor must be electrically continuous and grounded to the metal hull or the common ground point at each end of the cable run, except that final sub-circuits (those supplying loads) may be grounded at the supply end only.

(g) Wiring terminations and connections must be made in a fire retardant enclosure such as a junction box, fixture enclosure, or panel enclosure.

(h) Existing cable and wire may remain in place and continue in use as long as it is deemed serviceable to the satisfaction of the Coast Guard Representative. Any new installation, replacement, modification or alteration must be done in accordance with the requirements of this section.

§ 28.870 - Emergency source of electrical power.

(a) The following electrical loads must be connected to an independent emergency source of power capable of supplying all connected loads continuously for at least three hours:

(1) Navigation lights;

(2) Fire protection and detection systems;

(3) Communications equipment;

(4) General alarm system; and

(5) Emergency lighting;

(b) The emergency power source must be aft of the collision bulkhead, outside of the machinery space, and above the uppermost continuous deck.

(c) An emergency source of power supplied solely by storage battery must also meet the following requirements:

(1) Each battery must be a lead-acid or alkaline type and be able to withstand vessel pitch, vibration, roll, and exposure to a salt water atmosphere;

(2) A battery cell must not spill electrolyte when the battery is inclined at 30 degrees from the vertical;

(3) Each battery installation must be in a battery room, in a box on dock, or in a well ventilated compartment. The batteries must be protected from falling objects;

(4) Each battery tray must be secured to prevent shifting with the roll and pitch of the vessel and lined with a material that is corrosion resistant to the electrolyte of the battery;

(5) Each battery bank installation must be fitted with its own drip-proof charging system; and

(6) Each deck box used for battery storage must be weathertight, and have holes near the top to allow gas to escape.

§ 28.875 - Radar, depth sounding, and auto-pilot.

(a) Each vessel must be fitted with a general marine radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the operating station, and facilities on the bridge for plotting radar readings.

(b) Each vessel must be fitted with a suitable echo depth sounding device.

(c) Except as provided in 33 CFR § 164.15, when the automatic pilot is used in areas of high traffic density, conditions of restricted visibility, and all other hazardous navigational situations, the master or person in charge shall ensure that:

(1) It is possible to immediately establish manual control of the unit's steering:

(2) A competent person is ready at all times to take over steering control; and

(3) The changeover from automatic to manual steering and vice versa is made by, or under the supervision of, the officer of the watch.

§ 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

(a) Each hydraulic system must be so designed and installed that proper operation of the system is not affected by back pressure in the system.

(b) Piping and piping components must be designed with a burst pressure of not less than four times the system's maximum operating pressure.

(c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped with at least one pressure relieving device set to relieve at the system's maximum operating pressure.

(d) All material in a hydraulic system must be suitable for use with the hydraulic fluid used and must be of such chemical and physical properties as to remain ductile at the lowest operating temperature likely to be encountered by the vessel.

(e) Except for hydraulic steering equipment, controls for operating hydraulic equipment must be located where the operator has an unobstructed view of the controls for operating hydraulic equipment and the adjacent work area. Protection shall be afforded to the operator of hydraulic equipment against falling or swinging objects and/or cargo.

(f) Controls for hydraulic equipment must be so arranged that the operator is able to quickly disengage the equipment in an emergency.

(g) Hydraulically operated machinery must be fail-safe or equipped with a holding device to prevent uncontrolled movement or sudden loss of control due to loss of hydraulic system pressure. A system is considered to be fail-safe if a component failure results in a slow and controlled release of the load so as not to endanger personnel.

(h) Nonmetallic flexible hose assemblies must only be used between two points of relative motion, limited to the least amount of length that will afford maximum multidirectional movement of the equipment served.

(i) Hose end fittings must comply with SAE J1475, (Hydraulic Hose Fittings For Marine Applications). Field attachable fittings must be installed following the manufacturer's recommended practice (method).

(j) Nonmetallic flexible hose shall be marked with the manufacturer's name or trademark, type or catalog number and maximum allowable working pressure.

(k) Existing hydraulic piping, nonmetallic hose assemblies, and components may be continued in service so long as they are maintained in good condition to the satisfaction of the Coast Guard Representative, but all new installations, or replacements shall meet the applicable specifications or requirements of this section.

§ 28.885 - Cargo gear.

(a) The safe working load (SWL) for the assembled gear shall be marked on the heel of each cargo boom, crane, or derrick. These letters and figures are to be in contrasting colors to the background and at least one inch in height. The SWL is construed to be the load the gear is approved to lift, excluding the weight of the gear itself.

(b) All wire rope, chains, rings, hooks, links, shackles, swivels, blocks, and any other loose gear used or intended to be used in cargo loading or unloading must be commensurable with the SWL rating in paragraph (a) of this section. This gear shall be visually inspected by the vessel's captain or his designee at frequent intervals, and in any event not less than once in each operating month.

(c) In addition to the inspection required in paragraph (b) of this section, a biennial, (every second year), thorough examination and proof load test, at a minimum of the SWL rating, shall be performed and witnessed by competent personnel. The proof load applied to the winches, booms, derricks, cranes and all associated gear shall be lifted with the ship's normal tackle with the boom or derrick at the lowest practicable angle. When the load has been lifted, it shall be swung as far as possible in both directions.

(d) After satisfactory completion of the tests and examinations required in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, all results and notations together with the date and location of each shall be maintained and available to Coast Guard representatives upon request.

§ 28.890 - Examination and certification of compliance.

(a) At least once in every two years each ATA vessel must be examined for compliance with the regulations of this subchapter by the ABS, a similarly qualified organization, or a surveyor of an accepted organization.

(b) Each individual performing an examination under paragraph (a) of this section, upon finding the vessel to be in compliance with the requirements of this chapter, must provide written certification of compliance to the owner or operator of the vessel.

(c) Each certification of compliance issued under paragraph (b) of this section must:

(1) Be signed by the individual that performed the examination;

(2) Include the name of the organization the individual performing the examination represents or the name of the accepted organization the individual belongs to; and

(3) State that the vessel has been examined and found to meet the specific requirements of this chapter.

(d) A certification of compliance issued under paragraph (b) of this section must be retained on board the vessel until superseded.

(e) A copy of the certification of compliance issued under paragraph (b) of this section must be forwarded by the organization under whose authority the examination was performed to the Coast Guard District Commander (Attention: Fishing Vessel Safety Coordinator) in charge of the district in which the examination took place.

§ 28.895 - Loadlines.

(a) A fish tender vessel of not more than 500 gross tons, engaged in the Aleutian trade, is not subject to the loadline provisions of 46 U.S.C. Chapter 51 if it is not on a foreign voyage and the vessel:

(1) Operated in this trade before September 8, 1990; or

(2) Was purchased to be used in this trade before September 8, 1990 and entered into service before June 1, 1992; and

(3) Has not undergone a major conversion; and

(4) Has not had a loadline assigned at any time before November 16, 1990.

(b) The exemption from the loadline provision of 46 U.S.C. Chapter 51 set forth in paragraph (a) of this section expires on January 1, 2003.

§ 28.900 - Post accident inspection.

The requirements for providing notice and reporting of marine casualties are contained in part 4 of this chapter. The owner of or master of the vessel shall ensure that the survey guidance provided by a Coast Guard Representative is effectively carried out, that the material and the workmanship of such repairs or renewals are in all respects satisfactory, and that the vessel complies in all respects with the regulations in this part.

§ 28.905 - Repairs and alterations.

No repairs or alterations affecting the safety of the vessel with regard to the hull, machinery, or equipment, shall be made without the notification of a Coast Guard Representative.