- § 25.101 - Basis and scope.
- § 25.102 - Station authorization required.
- § 25.103 - Definitions.
- § 25.104 - Preemption of local zoning of earth stations.
- § 25.105 - Citizenship.
- §§ 25.106-25.107 - §[Reserved]
- § 25.108 - Incorporation by reference.
- § 25.109 - Cross-reference.
§ 25.101 - Basis and scope.
(a) The rules and regulations in this part are issued pursuant to the authority contained in section 201(c)(11) of the Communications Satellite Act of 1962, as amended, section 501(c)(6) of the International Maritime Satellite Telecommunications Act, and titles I through III of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended.
(b) The rules and regulations in this part supplement, and are in addition to the rules and regulations contained in or to be added to, other parts of this chapter currently in force, or which may subsequently be promulgated, and which are applicable to matters relating to communications by satellites.
§ 25.102 - Station authorization required.
(a) No person shall use or operate apparatus for the transmission of energy or communications or signals by space or earth stations except under, and in accordance with, an appropriate authorization granted by the Federal Communications Commission.
(b) Protection from impermissible levels of interference to the reception of signals by earth stations in the Fixed-Satellite Service from terrestrial stations in a co-equally shared band is provided through the authorizations granted under this part.
§ 25.103 - Definitions.
Terms with definitions including the “(RR)” designation are defined in the same way in § 2.1 of this chapter and in the Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunication Union.
1.5/1.6 GHz Mobile-Satellite Service. Mobile-Satellite Service provided in any portion of the 1525-1559 MHz space-to-Earth band and the 1626.5-1660.5 MHz Earth-to-space band, which are referred to in this rule part as the “1.5/1.6 GHz MSS bands.”
1.6/2.4 GHz Mobile-Satellite Service. A Mobile-Satellite Service that operates in the 1610-1626.5 MHz and 2483.5-2500 MHz bands, or in any portion thereof.
2 GHz Mobile-Satellite Service. A Mobile-Satellite Service that operates in the 2000-2020 MHz and 2180-2200 MHz bands, or in any portion thereof.
17/24 GHz Broadcasting-Satellite Service (17/24 GHz BSS). A radiocommunication service involving transmission from one or more feeder-link earth stations to other earth stations via geostationary satellites, in the 17.3-17.7 GHz (space-to-Earth) (domestic allocation), 17.3-17.8 GHz (space-to-Earth) (international allocation) and 24.75-25.25 GHz (Earth-to-space) bands. For purposes of the application processing provisions of this part, the 17/24 GHz BSS is a GSO-like service. Unless specifically stated otherwise, 17/24 GHz BSS systems are subject to the rules in this part applicable to FSS.
Ancillary Terrestrial Component (ATC). A terrestrial communications network used in conjunction with a qualifying satellite network system authorized pursuant to these rules and the conditions established in the Orders issued in IB Docket No. 01-185, Flexibility for Delivery of Communications by Mobile-Satellite Service Providers in the 2 GHz Band, the L-Band, and the 1.6/2.4 GHz Band.
Ancillary Terrestrial Component (ATC) base station. A terrestrial fixed facility used to transmit communications to or receive communications from one or more ancillary terrestrial component mobile terminals.
Ancillary Terrestrial Component (ATC) mobile terminal. A terrestrial mobile facility used to transmit communications to or receive communications from an ancillary terrestrial component base station or a space station.
Blanket license. A license for:
(1) Multiple earth stations in the FSS or MSS, or for SDARS terrestrial repeaters, that may be operated anywhere within a geographic area specified in the license; or
(2) For multiple space stations in non-geostationary-orbit.
Contiguous United States (CONUS). For purposes of subparts B and C of this part, the contiguous United States consists of the contiguous 48 states and the District of Columbia as defined by Partial Economic Areas Nos. 1-41, 43-211, 213-263, 265-297, 299-359, and 361-411, which includes areas within 12 nautical miles of the U.S. Gulf coastline. In this context, the rest of the United States includes the Honolulu, Anchorage, Kodiak, Fairbanks, Juneau, Puerto Rico, Guam-Northern Mariana Islands, U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Gulf of Mexico PEAs (Nos. 42, 212, 264, 298, 360, 412-416). See § 27.6(m) of this chapter.
Conventional C-band. The 3700-4200 MHz (space-to-Earth) and 5925-6425 MHz (Earth-to-space) FSS frequency bands.
Conventional Ka-band. The 18.3-18.8 GHz (space-to-Earth), 19.7-20.2 GHz (space-to-Earth), 28.35-28.6 GHz (Earth-to-space), and 29.25-30.0 GHz (Earth-to-space) frequency bands, which the Commission has designated as primary for GSO FSS operation.
Conventional Ku-band. The 11.7-12.2 GHz (space-to-Earth) and 14.0-14.5 GHz (Earth-to-space) FSS frequency bands.
Coordination distance. When determining the need for coordination, the distance on a given azimuth from an earth station sharing the same frequency band with terrestrial stations, or from a transmitting earth station sharing the same bidirectionally allocated frequency band with receiving earth stations, beyond which the level of permissible interference will not be exceeded and coordination is therefore not required. (RR)
Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) Service. A radiocommunication service in which signals transmitted or retransmitted by Broadcasting-Satellite Service space stations in the 12.2-12.7 GHz band are intended for direct reception by subscribers or the general public. For the purposes of this definition, the term direct reception includes individual reception and community reception.
Earth station. A station located either on the Earth's surface or within the major portion of the Earth's atmosphere intended for communication:
(1) With one or more space stations; or
(2) With one or more stations of the same kind by means of one or more reflecting satellites or other objects in space. (RR)
Earth Station Aboard Aircraft (ESAA). An earth station operating aboard an aircraft that receives from and transmits to Fixed-Satellite Service space stations.
Earth Station in Motion (ESIM). A term that collectively designates ESV, VMES and ESAA earth stations, as defined in this section.
Earth Station on Vessel (ESV). An earth station onboard a craft designed for traveling on water, receiving from and transmitting to Fixed-Satellite Service space stations.
Equivalent diameter. When circular aperture reflector antennas are employed, the size of the antenna is generally expressed as the diameter of the antenna's main reflector. When non-reflector or non-circular-aperture antennas are employed, the equivalent diameter is the diameter of a hypothetical circular-aperture antenna with the same aperture area as the actual antenna. For example, an elliptical aperture antenna with major axis a and minor axis b will have an equivalent diameter of [a × b]
Equivalent Power Flux Density (EPFD). The sum of the power flux densities produced at a geostationary-orbit receive earth or space station on the Earth's surface or in the geostationary orbit, as appropriate, by all the transmit stations within a non-geostationary-orbit Fixed-Satellite Service system, taking into account the off-axis discrimination of a reference receiving antenna assumed to be pointing in its nominal direction. The equivalent power flux density, in dB(W/m 2) in the reference bandwidth, is calculated using the following formula:Where:
Extended C-band. The 3600-3700 MHz (space-to-Earth), 5850-5925 MHz (Earth-to-space), and 6425-6725 MHz (Earth-to-space) FSS frequency bands.
Extended Ku-band. The 10.95-11.2 GHz (space-to-Earth), 11.45-11.7 GHz (space-to-Earth), and 13.75-14.0 GHz bands (Earth-to-space) FSS frequency bands.
Feeder link. A radio link from a fixed earth station at a given location to a space station, or vice versa, conveying information for a space radiocommunication service other than the Fixed-Satellite Service. The given location may be at a specified fixed point or at any fixed point within specified areas. (RR)
Fixed earth station. An earth station intended to be used at a fixed position. The position may be a specified fixed point or any fixed point within a specified area.
Fixed-Satellite Service (FSS). A radiocommunication service between earth stations at given positions, when one or more satellites are used; the given position may be a specified fixed point or any fixed point within specified areas; in some cases this service includes satellite-to-satellite links, which may also be operated in the inter-satellite service; the Fixed-Satellite Service may also include feeder links of other space radiocommunication services. (RR)
Geostationary-orbit (GSO) satellite. A geosynchronous satellite whose circular and direct orbit lies in the plane of the Earth's equator and which thus remains fixed relative to the Earth; by extension, a geosynchronous satellite which remains approximately fixed relative to the Earth.
Inter-Satellite Service. A radiocommunication service providing links between artificial earth satellites.
Ku band. In this rule part, the terms “Ku band” and “conventional Ku band” refer to the 11.7-12.2 GHz (space-to-Earth) and 14.0-14.5 GHz (Earth-to-space) bands. These paired bands are allocated to the Fixed-Satellite Service and are also referred to as the 12/14 GHz bands.
Land earth station. An earth station in the Fixed-Satellite Service or, in some cases, in the Mobile-Satellite Service, located at a specified fixed point or within a specified area on land to provide a feeder link for the Mobile-Satellite Service. (RR)
Land Mobile Earth Station. A mobile earth station in the land mobile-satellite service capable of surface movement within the geographical limits of a country or continent. (RR)
Mobile Earth Station. An earth station in the Mobile-Satellite Service intended to be used while in motion or during halts at unspecified points. (RR)
Mobile-Satellite Service (MSS). (1) A radiocommunication service:
(i) Between mobile earth stations and one or more space stations, or between space stations used by this service; or
(ii) Between mobile earth stations, by means of one or more space stations.
(2) This service may also include feeder links necessary for its operation. (RR)
Network Control and Monitoring Center (NCMC). An NCMC, as used in Part 25, is a facility that has the capability to remotely control earth stations operating as part of a satellite network or system.
NGSO. Non-geostationary orbit.
NGSO FSS gateway earth station. An earth station or complex of multiple earth station antennas that supports the routing and switching functions of an NGSO FSS system and that does not originate or terminate communication traffic. An NGSO FSS gateway earth station may also be used for telemetry, tracking, and command transmissions and is not for the exclusive use of any customer.
Non-Voice, Non-Geostationary (NVNG) Mobile-Satellite Service. A Mobile-Satellite Service reserved for use by non-geostationary satellites in the provision of non-voice communications which may include satellite links between land earth stations at fixed locations.
Permitted Space Station List. A list of all U.S.-licensed geostationary-orbit space stations providing Fixed-Satellite Service in the conventional C band, the conventional Ku band, or the 18.3-18.8 GHz, 19.7-20.2 GHz, 28.35-28.6 GHz, and 29.25-30.0 GHz bands, as well as non-U.S.-licensed geostationary-orbit space stations approved for U.S. market access to provide Fixed-Satellite Service in the conventional C band, conventional Ku band, or 18.3-18.8 GHz, 19.7-20.2 GHz, 28.35-28.6 GHz, and 29.25-30.0 GHz bands.
Plane perpendicular to the GSO arc. The plane that is perpendicular to the “plane tangent to the GSO arc,” as defined below, and includes a line between the earth station in question and the GSO space station that it is communicating with.
Plane tangent to the GSO arc. The plane defined by the location of an earth station's transmitting antenna and a line in the equatorial plane that is tangent to the GSO arc at the location of the GSO space station that the earth station is communicating with.
Power flux density (PFD). The amount of power flow through a unit area within a unit bandwidth. The units of power flux density are those of power spectral density per unit area, namely watts per hertz per square meter. These units are generally expressed in decibel form as dB(W/Hz/m 2), dB(W/m 2) in a 4 kHz band, or dB(W/m 2) in a 1 MHz band.
Power Spectral Density (PSD). The amount of an emission's transmitted carrier power applied at the antenna input falling within the stated bandwidth. The units of power spectral density are watts per hertz and are generally expressed in decibel form as dB(W/Hz) when measured in a 1 Hz bandwidth, dB(W/4kHz) when measured in a 4 kHz bandwidth, or dB(W/MHz) when measured in a 1 MHz bandwidth.
Protection areas. The geographic regions where U.S. Department of Defense meteorological satellite systems or National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration meteorological satellite systems, or both such systems, receive signals from low earth orbiting satellites. Also, areas around NGSO MSS feeder-link earth stations in the 1.6/2.4 GHz Mobile-Satellite Service determined in the manner specified in § 25.203(j).
Radiodetermination-Satellite Service. A radiocommunication service for the purpose of radiodetermination involving the use of one of more space stations. This service may also include feeder links necessary for its own operation. (RR)
Routine processing or licensing. Expedited processing of unopposed applications for earth stations in the FSS communicating with GSO space stations that satisfy the criteria in § 25.211(d), § 25.212(c) through (f), or § 25.218, include all required information, are consistent with all Commission rules, and do not raise any policy issues. Some, but not all, routine earth station applications are eligible for an autogrant procedure under § 25.115(a)(3).
Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service (SDARS). A radiocommunication service in which audio programming is digitally transmitted by one or more space stations directly to fixed, mobile, and/or portable stations, and which may involve complementary repeating terrestrial transmitters and telemetry, tracking and command facilities.
Satellite system. A space system using one or more artificial earth satellites. (RR)
Selected assignment. A spectrum assignment voluntarily identified by a 2 GHz MSS licensee at the time that the licensee's first 2 GHz Mobile-Satellite Service satellite reaches its intended orbit.
Shapeable antenna beam. A satellite transmit or receive antenna beam, the gain pattern of which can be modified at any time without physically repositioning a satellite antenna reflector.
Skew angle. The angle between the minor axis of an axially asymmetric antenna beam and the plane tangent to the GSO arc.
Small satellite. An NGSO space station eligible for authorization under the application process described in § 25.122.
Small spacecraft. An NGSO space station operating beyond Earth's orbit that is eligible for authorization under the application process described in § 25.123.
Space radiocommunication. Any radiocommunication involving the use of one or more space stations or the use of one or more reflecting satellites or other objects in space.
Space station. A station located on an object which is beyond, is intended to go beyond, or has been beyond, the major portion of the Earth's atmosphere. (RR)
Space system. Any group of cooperating earth stations and/or space stations employing space radiocommunication for specific purposes. (RR)
Spacecraft. A man-made vehicle which is intended to go beyond the major portion of the Earth's atmosphere. (RR)
Terrestrial radiocommunication. Any radiocommunication other than space radiocommunication or radio astronomy. (RR)
Terrestrial station. A station effecting terrestrial radiocommunication.
Two-degree-compliant space station. A GSO FSS space station operating in the conventional or extended C-bands, the conventional or extended Ku-bands, or the conventional Ka-band within the limits on downlink EIRP density or PFD specified in § 25.140(a)(3) and communicating only with earth stations operating in conformance with routine uplink parameters specified in § 25.211(d), § 25.212(c), (d), (e), or (f), or § 25.218.
Vehicle-Mounted Earth Station (VMES). An earth station, operating from a motorized vehicle that travels primarily on land, that receives from and transmits to Fixed-Satellite Service space stations and operates within the United States.
§ 25.104 - Preemption of local zoning of earth stations.
(a) Any state or local zoning, land-use, building, or similar regulation that materially limits transmission or reception by satellite earth station antennas, or imposes more than minimal costs on users of such antennas, is preempted unless the promulgating authority can demonstrate that such regulation is reasonable, except that nonfederal regulation of radio frequency emissions is not preempted by this section. For purposes of this paragraph (a), reasonable means that the local regulation:
(1) Has a clearly defined health, safety, or aesthetic objective that is stated in the text of the regulation itself; and
(2) Furthers the stated health, safety or aesthetic objective without unnecessarily burdening the federal interests in ensuring access to satellite services and in promoting fair and effective competition among competing communications service providers.
(b)(1) Any state or local zoning, land-use, building, or similar regulation that affects the installation, maintenance, or use of a satellite earth station antenna that is two meters or less in diameter and is located or proposed to be located in any area where commercial or industrial uses are generally permitted by non-federal land-use regulation shall be presumed unreasonable and is therefore preempted subject to paragraph (b)(2) of this section. No civil, criminal, administrative, or other legal action of any kind shall be taken to enforce any regulation covered by this presumption unless the promulgating authority has obtained a waiver from the Commission pursuant to paragraph (e) of this section, or a final declaration from the Commission or a court of competent jurisdiction that the presumption has been rebutted pursuant to paragraph (b)(2) of this section.
(2) Any presumption arising from paragraph (b)(1) of this section may be rebutted upon a showing that the regulation in question:
(i) Is necessary to accomplish a clearly defined health or safety objective that is stated in the text of the regulation itself;
(ii) Is no more burdensome to satellite users than is necessary to achieve the health or safety objective; and
(iii) Is specifically applicable on its face to antennas of the class described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.
(c) Any person aggrieved by the application or potential application of a state or local zoning or other regulation in violation of paragraph (a) of this section may, after exhausting all nonfederal administrative remedies, file a petition with the Commission requesting a declaration that the state or local regulation in question is preempted by this section. Nonfederal administrative remedies, which do not include judicial appeals of administrative determinations, shall be deemed exhausted when:
(1) The petitioner's application for a permit or other authorization required by the state or local authority has been denied and any administrative appeal and variance procedure has been exhausted;
(2) The petitioner's application for a permit or other authorization required by the state or local authority has been on file for ninety days without final action;
(3) The petitioner has received a permit or other authorization required by the state or local authority that is conditioned upon the petitioner's expenditure of a sum of money, including costs required to screen, pole-mount, or otherwise specially install the antenna, greater than the aggregate purchase or total lease cost of the equipment as normally installed; or
(4) A state or local authority has notified the petitioner of impending civil or criminal action in a court of law and there are no more nonfederal administrative steps to be taken.
(d) Procedures regarding filing of petitions requesting declaratory rulings and other related pleadings will be set forth in subsequent Public Notices. All allegations of fact contained in petitions and related pleadings must be supported by affidavit of a person or persons with personal knowledge thereof.
(e) Any state or local authority that wishes to maintain and enforce zoning or other regulations inconsistent with this section may apply to the Commission for a full or partial waiver of this section. Such waivers may be granted by the Commission in its sole discretion, upon a showing by the applicant that local concerns of a highly specialized or unusual nature create a necessity for regulation inconsistent with this section. No application for waiver shall be considered unless it specifically sets forth the particular regulation for which waiver is sought. Waivers granted in accordance with this section shall not apply to later-enacted or amended regulations by the local authority unless the Commission expressly orders otherwise.
(f) A satellite earth station antenna that is designed to receive direct broadcast satellite service, including direct-to-home satellite services, that is one meter or less in diameter or is located in Alaska is covered by the regulations in § 1.4000 of this chapter.
§ 25.105 - Citizenship.
The rules that establish the requirements and conditions for obtaining the Commission's prior approval of foreign ownership in common carrier licensees that would exceed the 20 percent limit in section 310(b)(3) of the Communications Act (47 U.S.C. 310(b)(3)) and/or the 25 percent benchmark in section 310(b)(4) of the Act (47 U.S.C. 310(b)(4)) are set forth in §§ 1.5000 through 1.5004 of this chapter.
§§ 25.106-25.107 - §[Reserved]
§ 25.108 - Incorporation by reference.
(a) Certain material is incorporated by reference into this part with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. All approved material is available for inspection at the Federal Communications Commission's Reference Information Center, located at the address of the FCC's main office indicated in 47 CFR 0.401(a), and is available from the sources listed in this section. It is also available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, email [email protected]; or go to www.archives.gov/federal-register/ccfr/ibr-locations.html.
(b) European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), 650 Route des Lucioles, 06921 Sophia-Antipolis Cedex, France; http://www.etsi.org; Voice: +33 (0)4 92 94 42 00; Fax: +33 (0)4 93 65 47 16; email: [email protected]
(1) ETSI TS 103 129 V1.1.2 (2014-03), “Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Framing structure, channel coding and modulation of a carrier identification system (DVB-CID) for satellite transmission,” Version 1.1.2, March 2014. Incorporation by reference approved for § 25.281(b).
(c) International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Place des Nations, 1211 Geneva 20 Switzerland; www.itu.int; Voice: +41 22 730 5111; Fax: +41 22 733 7256; email: [email protected]
(1) ITU Radio Regulations, Volume 1: Articles, Article 9, “Procedure for effecting coordination with or obtaining agreement of other administrations,” Section II, “Procedure for effecting coordination,” Edition of 2012, http://www.itu.int/pub/R-REG-RR-2012. Incorporation by reference approved for § 25.111(e).
(2) ITU Radio Regulations, Volume 1: Articles, Article 21, “Terrestrial and space services sharing frequency bands above 1 GHz,” Section V, “Limits of power flux-density from space stations,” Edition of 2016, copyright 2016, http://www.itu.int/pub/R-REG-RR-2016. Incorporation by reference approved for § 25.146(a).
(3) ITU Radio Regulations, Volume 1: Articles, Article 22, “Space services,” Section II, “Control of interference to geostationary-satellite systems,” Edition of 2016, copyright 2016, http://www.itu.int/pub/R-REG-RR-2016. Incorporation by reference approved for §§ 25.146(a), 25.289.
(4) ITU Radio Regulations, Volume 2: Appendices, Appendix 7, “Methods for the determination of the coordination areas around an earth station in the frequency bands between 100 MHz and 105 GHz,” Edition of 2012, http://www.itu.int/pub/R-REG-RR-2012. Incorporation by reference approved for § 25.203(m).
(5) ITU Radio Regulations, Volume 2: Appendices, Appendix 30, “Provisions for all services and associated Plans and List for the broadcasting-satellite service in the frequency bands 11.7-12.2 GHz (in Region 3), 11.7-12.5 GHz (in Region 1) and 12.2-12.7 GHz (in Region 2),” Edition of 2012, http://www.itu.int/pub/R-REG-RR-2012. Incorporation by reference approved for §§ 25.110(b), 25.117(h), and 25.118(e).
(6) ITU Radio Regulations, Volume 2: Appendices, Appendix 30A, “Provisions and associated Plans and List for feeder links for the broadcasting-satellite service (11.7-12.5 GHz in Region 1, 12.2-12.7 GHz in Region 2 and 11.7-12.2 GHz in Region 3) in the frequency bands 14.5-14.8 GHz and 17.3-18.1 GHz in Regions 1 and 3, and 17.3-17.8 GHz in Region 2,” Edition of 2012, http://www.itu.int/pub/R-REG-RR-2012. Incorporation by reference approved for §§ 25.110(b), 25.117(h), and 25.118(e).
(7) ITU Radio Regulations, Volume 2: Appendices, Appendix 30B, “Provisions and associated Plan for the fixed-satellite service in the frequency bands 4 500-4 800 MHz, 6 725-7 025 MHz, 10.70-10.95 GHz, 11.2-11.45 GHz and 12.75-13.25 GHz,” Edition of 2012, http://www.itu.int/pub/R-REG-RR-2012. Incorporation by reference approved for §§ 25.110(b) and 25.140(a).
(8) ITU Radio Regulations, Volume 3: Resolutions and Recommendations, Resolution 76 (Rev.WRC-15), “Protection of geostationary fixed-satellite service and geostationary broadcasting-satellite service networks from the maximum aggregate equivalent power flux-density produced by multiple non-geostationary fixed-satellite service systems in frequency bands where equivalent power flux-density limits have been adopted,” Edition of 2016, copyright 2016, http://www.itu.int/pub/R-REG-RR-2016. Incorporation by reference approved for § 25.146(a).
(9) ITU Radio Regulations, Volume 3: Resolutions and Recommendations, Resolution 85 (WRC-03), “Application of Article 22 of the Radio Regulations to the protection of geostationary fixed-satellite service and broadcasting-satellite service networks from non-geostationary fixed-satellite service systems,” Edition of 2016, copyright 2016, http://www.itu.int/pub/R-REG-RR-2016. Incorporation by reference approved for § 25.146(c).
§ 25.109 - Cross-reference.
(a) Space and earth stations in the Amateur Satellite Service are licensed under 47 CFR part 97.
(b) Ship earth stations in the Maritime Mobile-Satellite Service transmitting in the 1626.5-1646.5 MHz band are subject to licensing under 47 CFR part 80.
(c) Earth stations in the Aeronautical Mobile-Satellite (Route) Service are subject to licensing under 47 CFR part 87.
(d) Space and earth stations in the Experimental Radio Service may be subject to licensing under 47 CFR part 5.
(e) Space and earth stations in the 3700-4200 MHz band may be subject to transition rules in part 27 of this chapter.