U.S. Code of Federal Regulations

Regulations most recently checked for updates: Nov 29, 2020

§ 393.9 - Lamps operable, prohibition of obstructions of lamps and reflectors.

(a) All lamps required by this subpart shall be capable of being operated at all times. This paragraph shall not be construed to require that any auxiliary or additional lamp be capable of operating at all times.

(b) Lamps and reflective devices/material required by this subpart must not be obscured by the tailboard, or by any part of the load, or its covering by dirt, or other added vehicle or work equipment, or otherwise. Exception: The conspicuity treatments on the front end protection devices may be obscured by part of the load being transported.

[70 FR 48027, Aug. 15, 2005]

§ 393.11 - Lamps and reflective devices.

(a)(1) Lamps and reflex reflectors. Table 1 specifies the requirements for lamps, reflective devices and associated equipment by the type of commercial motor vehicle. The diagrams in this section illustrate the position of the lamps, reflective devices and associated equipment specified in Table 1. All commercial motor vehicles manufactured on or after December 25, 1968, must, at a minimum, meet the applicable requirements of 49 CFR 571.108 (FMVSS No. 108) in effect at the time of manufacture of the vehicle. Commercial motor vehicles manufactured before December 25, 1968, must, at a minimum, meet the requirements of subpart B of part 393 in effect at the time of manufacture.

(2) Exceptions: Pole trailers and trailer converter dollies must meet the part 393 requirements for lamps, reflective devices and electrical equipment in effect at the time of manufacture. Trailers which are equipped with conspicuity material which meets the requirements of § 393.11(b) are not required to be equipped with the reflex reflectors listed in Table 1 if -

(i) The conspicuity material is placed at the locations where reflex reflectors are required by Table 1; and

(ii) The conspicuity material when installed on the motor vehicle meets the visibility requirements for the reflex reflectors.

(b) Conspicuity Systems. Each trailer of 2,032 mm (80 inches) or more overall width, and with a GVWR over 4,536 kg (10,000 pounds), manufactured on or after December 1, 1993, except pole trailers and trailers designed exclusively for living or office use, shall be equipped with either retroreflective sheeting that meets the requirements of FMVSS No. 108 (S5.7.1), reflex reflectors that meet the requirements FMVSS No. 108 (S5.7.2), or a combination of retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors that meet the requirements of FMVSS No. 108 (S5.7.3). The conspicuity system shall be installed and located as specified in FMVSS No. 108 [S5.7.1.4 (for retroreflective sheeting), S5.7.2.2 (for reflex reflectors), S5.7.3 (for a combination of sheeting and reflectors)] and have certification and markings as required by S5.7.1.5 (for retroreflective tape) and S5.7.2.3 (for reflex reflectors).

(c) Prohibition on the use of amber stop lamps and tail lamps. No commercial motor vehicle may be equipped with an amber stop lamp, a tail lamp, or other lamp which is optically combined with an amber stop lamp or tail lamp.

Table 1 of § 393.11 - Required Lamps and Reflectors on Commercial Motor Vehicles

Item on the vehicle Quantity Color Location Position Height above the road surface in millimeters (mm) (with English units in parenthesis) measured from the center of the lamp at curb weight Vehicles for which the devices are required
Headlamps2WhiteFrontOn the front at the same height, with an equal number at each side of the vertical center line as far apart as practicableNot less than 559 mm (22 inches) nor more than 1,372 mm (54 inches)A, B, C
Turn signal (front). See footnotes #2 and 122AmberAt or near the frontOne on each side of the vertical centerline at the same height and as far apart as practicableNot less than 381 mm (15 inches) nor more than 2,108 mm (83 inches)A, B, C
Identification lamps (front). See footnote #13AmberFrontAs close as practicable to the top of the vehicle, at the same height, and as close as practicable to the vertical centerline of the vehicle (or the vertical centerline of the cab where different from the centerline of the vehicle) with lamp centers spaced not less than 152 mm (6 inches) or more than 305 mm (12 inches) apart. Alternatively, the front lamps may be located as close as practicable to the top of the cabAll three on the same level as close as practicable to the top of the motor vehicleB, C
Tail lamps. See footnotes #5 and 112RedRearOne lamp on each side of the vertical centerline at the same height and as far apart as practicableBoth on the same level between 381 mm (15 inches) and 1,829 mm (72 inches)A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H
Stop lamps. See footnotes #5 and 132RedRearOne lamp on each side of the vertical centerline at the same height and as far apart as practicableBoth on the same level between 381 mm (15 inches) and 1,829 mm (72 inches)A, B, C, D, E, F, G
Clearance lamps. See footnotes #8, 9, 10, 15 & 172AmberOne on each side of the front of the vehicleOne on each side of the vertical centerline to indicate overall widthBoth on the same level as high as practicableB, C, D, G, H
2RedOne on each side of the rear of the vehicleOne on each side of the vertical centerline to indicate overall widthBoth on the same level as high as practicableB, D, G, H
Reflex reflector, intermediate (side)2AmberOne on each sideAt or near the midpoint between the front and rear side marker lamps, if the length of the vehicle is more than 9,144 mm (30 feet)Between 381 mm (15inches) and 1,524 (60 inches)A, B, D, F, G
Reflex reflector (rear). See footnotes #5, 6, and 82RedRearOne on each side of the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicable and at the same heightBoth on the same level, between 381 mm (15 inches) and 1,524 mm (60 inches)A, B, C, D, E, F, G
Reflex reflector (rear side).2RedOne on each side (rear)As far to the rear as practicableBoth on the same level, between 381 mm (15 inches) and 1,524 mm (60 inches)A, B, D, F, G
Reflex reflector (front side). See footnote #162AmberOne on each side (front)As far to the front as practicableBetween 381 mm (15 inches) and 1,524 mm (60 inches)A, B, C, D, F, G
License plate lamp (rear). See footnote #111WhiteAt rear license plate to illuminate the plate from the top or sidesNo requirementsA, B, C, D, F, G
Side marker lamp (front). See footnote #162AmberOne on each sideAs far to the front as practicableNot less than 381 mm (15 inches)A, B, C, D, F
Side marker lamp intermediate2AmberOne on each sideAt or near the midpoint between the front and rear side marker lamps, if the length of the vehicle is more than 9,144 mm (30 feet)Not less tan 381 mm (15 inches)A, B, D, F, G
Side marker lamp (rear). See footnotes #4 and 82RedOne on each sideAs far to the rear as practicableNot less than 381 mm (15 inches), and on the rear of trailers not more than 1,524 mm (60 inches)A, B, D, F, G
Turn signal (rear). See footnotes #5 and 122Amber or redRearOne lamp on each side of the vertical centerline as far apart as practicableBoth on the same level, between 381 mm (15 inches) and 2,108 mm (83 inches)A, B, C, D, E, F, G
Identification lamp (rear). See footnotes #3, 7, and 153RedRearOne as close as practicable to the vertical centerline. One on each side with lamp centers spaced not less than 152 mm (6 inches) or more than 305 mm (12 inches) apartAll three on the same level as close as practicable to the top of the vehicleB, D, G
Vehicular hazard warning signal flasher lamps. See footnotes #5 and 122AmberFrontOne lamp on each side of the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicableBoth on the same level, between 381 mm (15 inches) and 2,108 mm (83 inches)A, B, C
2Amber or redRearOne lamp on each side of the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicableBoth on the same level, between 381 mm (15 inches) and 2,108 mm (83 inches)A, B, C, D, E, F, G
Backup lamp. See footnote #141 or 2WhiteRearRearNo requirementA, B, C
Parking lamp2Amber or whiteFrontOne lamp on each side of the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicableBoth on the same level, between 381 mm (15 inches) and 2,108 mm (83 inches)A

Legend: Types of commercial motor vehicles shown in the last column of Table 1.

A. Buses and trucks less than 2,032 mm (80 inches) in overall width.

B. Buses and trucks 2,032 mm (80 inches) or more in overall width.

C. Truck tractors.

D. Semitrailers and full trailers 2,032 mm (80 inches) or more in overall width except converter dollies.

E. Converter dolly.

F. Semitrailers and full trailers less than 2,032 mm (80 inches) in overall width.

G. Pole trailers.

H. Projecting loads.

Note: Lamps and reflectors may be combined as permitted by § 393.22 and S5.4 of 49 CFR 571.108, Equipment combinations.

Footnote - 1 Identification lamps may be mounted on the vertical centerline of the cab where different from the centerline of the vehicle, except where the cab is not more than 42 inches wide at the front roofline, then a single lamp at the center of the cab shall be deemed to comply with the requirements for identification lamps. No part of the identification lamps or their mountings may extend below the top of the vehicle windshield.

Footnote - 2 Unless the turn signals on the front are so constructed (double-faced) and located as to be visible to passing drivers, two turn signals are required on the rear of the truck tractor, one at each side as far apart as practicable.

Footnote - 3 The identification lamps need not be visible or lighted if obscured by a vehicle in the same combination.

Footnote - 4 Any semitrailer or full trailer manufactured on or after March 1, 1979, shall be equipped with rear side-marker lamps at a height of not less than 381 mm (15 inches), and on the rear of trailers not more than 1,524 mm (60 inches) above the road surface, as measured from the center of the lamp on the vehicle at curb weight.

Footnote - 5 Each converter dolly, when towed singly by another vehicle and not as part of a full trailer, shall be equipped with one stop lamp, one tail lamp, and two reflectors (one on each side of the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicable) on the rear. Each converter dolly shall be equipped with rear turn signals and vehicular hazard warning signal flasher lamps when towed singly by another vehicle and not as part of a full trailer, if the converter dolly obscures the turn signals at the rear of the towing vehicle.

Footnote - 6 Pole trailers shall be equipped with two reflex reflectors on the rear, one on each side of the vertical centerline as far apart as practicable, to indicate the extreme width of the trailer.

Footnote - 7 Pole trailers, when towed by motor vehicles with rear identification lamps meeting the requirements of § 393.11 and mounted at a height greater than the load being transported on the pole trailer, are not required to have rear identification lamps.

Footnote - 8 Pole trailers shall have on the rearmost support for the load: (1) two front clearance lamps, one on each side of the vehicle, both on the same level and as high as practicable to indicate the overall width of the pole trailer; (2) two rear clearance lamps, one on each side of the vehicle, both on the same level and as high as practicable to indicate the overall width of the pole trailer; (3) two rear side marker lamps, one on each side of the vehicle, both on the same level, not less than 375 mm (15 inches) above the road surface; (4) two rear reflex reflectors, one on each side, both on the same level, not less than 375 mm (15 inches) above the road surface to indicate maximum width of the pole trailer; and (5) one red reflector on each side of the rearmost support for the load. Lamps and reflectors may be combined as allowed in § 393.22.

Footnote - 9 Any motor vehicle transporting a load which extends more than 102 mm (4 inches) beyond the overall width of the motor vehicle shall be equipped with the following lamps in addition to other required lamps when operated during the hours when headlamps are required to be used.

(1) The foremost edge of that portion of the load which projects beyond the side of the vehicle shall be marked (at its outermost extremity) with an amber lamp visible from the front and side.

(2) The rearmost edge of that portion of the load which projects beyond the side of the vehicle shall be marked (at its outermost extremity) with a red lamp visible from the rear and side.

(3) If the projecting load does not measure more than 914 mm (3 feet) from front to rear, it shall be marked with an amber lamp visible from the front, both sides, and rear, except that if the projection is located at or near the rear it shall be marked by a red lamp visible from front, side, and rear.

Footnote - 10 Projections beyond rear of motor vehicles. Motor vehicles transporting loads which extend more than 1,219 mm (4 feet) beyond the rear of the motor vehicle, or which have tailboards or tailgates extending more than 1,219 mm (4 feet) beyond the body, shall have these projections marked as follows when the vehicle is operated during the hours when headlamps are required to be used:

(1) On each side of the projecting load, one red side marker lamp, visible from the side, located so as to indicate maximum overhang.

(2) On the rear of the projecting load, two red lamps, visible from the rear, one at each side; and two red reflectors visible from the rear, one at each side, located so as to indicate maximum width.

Footnote - 11 To be illuminated when headlamps are illuminated. No rear license plate lamp is required on vehicles that do not display a rear license plate.

Footnote - 12 Every bus, truck, and truck tractor shall be equipped with a signaling system that, in addition to signaling turning movements, shall have a switch or combination of switches that will cause the two front turn signals and the two rear signals to flash simultaneously as a vehicular traffic signal warning, required by § 392.22(a). The system shall be capable of flashing simultaneously with the ignition of the vehicle on or off.

Footnote - 13 To be actuated upon application of service brakes.

Footnote - 14 Backup lamp required to operate when bus, truck, or truck tractor is in reverse.

Footnote - 15

(1) For the purposes of § 393.11, the term “overall width” refers to the nominal design dimension of the widest part of the vehicle, exclusive of the signal lamps, marker lamps, outside rearview mirrors, flexible fender extensions, and mud flaps.

(2) Clearance lamps may be mounted at a location other than on the front and rear if necessary to indicate the overall width of a vehicle, or for protection from damage during normal operation of the vehicle.

(3) On a trailer, the front clearance lamps may be mounted at a height below the extreme height if mounting at the extreme height results in the lamps failing to mark the overall width of the trailer.

(4) On a truck tractor, clearance lamps mounted on the cab may be located to indicate the width of the cab, rather than the width of the vehicle.

(5) When the rear identification lamps are mounted at the extreme height of a vehicle, rear clearance lamps are not required to be located as close as practicable to the top of the vehicle.

Footnote - 16 A trailer subject to this part that is less than 1829 mm (6 feet) in overall length, including the trailer tongue, need not be equipped with front side marker lamps and front side reflex reflectors.

Footnote - 17 A boat trailer subject to this part whose overall width is 2032 mm (80 inches) or more need not be equipped with both front and rear clearance lamps provided an amber (front) and red (rear) clearance lamp is located at or near the midpoint on each side so as to indicate its extreme width.

[70 FR 48027, Aug. 15, 2005, as amended at 72 FR 32014, June 11, 2007; 72 FR 33562, June 18, 2007; 78 FR 58484, Sept. 24, 2013; 81 FR 47731, July 22, 2016; 81 FR 60634, Sept. 2, 2016]

§ 393.13 - Retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors, requirements for semitrailers and trailers manufactured before December 1, 1993.

(a) Applicability. All trailers and semitrailers manufactured prior to December 1, 1993, which have an overall width of 2,032 mm (80 inches) or more and a gross vehicle weight rating of 4,536 kg (10,001 pounds) or more, except trailers that are manufactured exclusively for use as offices or dwellings, pole trailers (as defined in § 390.5 of this subchapter), and trailers transported in a driveaway-towaway operation, must be equipped with retroreflective sheeting or an array of reflex reflectors that meet the requirements of this section. Motor carriers operating trailers, other than container chassis (as defined in § 393.5), have until June 1, 2001, to comply with the requirements of this section. Motor carriers operating container chassis have until December 1, 2001, to comply with the requirements of this section.

(b) Retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors. Motor carriers are encouraged to retrofit their trailers with a conspicuity system that meets all of the requirements applicable to trailers manufactured on or after December 1, 1993, including the use of retroreflective sheeting or reflex reflectors in a red and white pattern (see Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108 (49 CFR 571.108), S5.7, Conspicuity systems). Motor carriers which do not retrofit their trailers to meet the requirements of FMVSS No. 108, for example by using an alternative color pattern, must comply with the remainder of this paragraph and with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. Retroreflective sheeting or reflex reflectors in colors or color combinations other than red and white may be used on the sides or lower rear area of the semitrailer or trailer until June 1, 2009. The alternate color or color combination must be uniform along the sides and lower rear area of the trailer. The retroreflective sheeting or reflex reflectors on the upper rear area of the trailer must be white and conform to the requirements of FMVSS No. 108 (S5.7). Red retroreflective sheeting or reflex reflectors shall not be used along the sides of the trailer unless it is used as part of a red and white pattern. Retroreflective sheeting shall have a width of at least 50 mm (2 inches).

(c) Locations for retroreflective sheeting - (1) Sides. Retroreflective sheeting shall be applied to each side of the trailer or semitrailer. Each strip of retroreflective sheeting shall be positioned as horizontally as practicable, beginning and ending as close to the front and rear as practicable. The strip need not be continuous but the sum of the length of all of the segments shall be at least half of the length of the trailer and the spaces between the segments of the strip shall be distributed as evenly as practicable. The centerline for each strip of retroreflective sheeting shall be between 375 mm (15 inches) and 1,525 mm (60 inches) above the road surface when measured with the trailer empty or unladen, or as close as practicable to this area. If necessary to clear rivet heads or other similar obstructions, 50 mm (2 inches) wide retroreflective sheeting may be separated into two 25 mm (1 inch) wide strips of the same length and color, separated by a space of not more than 25 mm (1 inch).

(2) Lower rear area. The rear of each trailer and semitrailer must be equipped with retroreflective sheeting. Each strip of retroreflective sheeting shall be positioned as horizontally as practicable, extending across the full width of the trailer, beginning and ending as close to the extreme edges as practicable. The centerline for each of the strips of retroreflective sheeting shall be between 375 mm (15 inches) and 1,525 mm (60 inches) above the road surface when measured with the trailer empty or unladen, or as close as practicable to this area.

(3) Upper rear area. Two pairs of white strips of retroreflective sheeting, each pair consisting of strips 300 mm (12 inches) long, must be positioned horizontally and vertically on the right and left upper corners of the rear of the body of each trailer and semitrailer, as close as practicable to the top of the trailer and as far apart as practicable. If the perimeter of the body, as viewed from the rear, is not square or rectangular, the strips may be applied along the perimeter, as close as practicable to the uppermost and outermost areas of the rear of the body on the left and right sides.

(d) Locations for reflex reflectors - (1) Sides. Reflex reflectors shall be applied to each side of the trailer or semitrailer. Each array of reflex reflectors shall be positioned as horizontally as practicable, beginning and ending as close to the front and rear as practicable. The array need not be continuous but the sum of the length of all of the array segments shall be at least half of the length of the trailer and the spaces between the segments of the strip shall be distributed as evenly as practicable. The centerline for each array of reflex reflectors shall be between 375 mm (15 inches) and 1,525 mm (60 inches) above the road surface when measured with the trailer empty or unladen, or as close as practicable to this area. The center of each reflector shall not be more than 100 mm (4 inches) from the center of each adjacent reflector in the segment of the array. If reflex reflectors are arranged in an alternating color pattern, the length of reflectors of the first color shall be as close as practicable to the length of the reflectors of the second color.

(2) Lower rear area. The rear of each trailer and semitrailer must be equipped with reflex reflectors. Each array of reflex reflectors shall be positioned as horizontally as practicable, extending across the full width of the trailer, beginning and ending as close to the extreme edges as practicable. The centerline for each array of reflex reflectors shall be between 375 mm (15 inches) and 1,525 mm (60 inches) above the road surface when measured with the trailer empty or unladen, or as close as practicable to this area. The center of each reflector shall not be more than 100 mm (4 inches) from the center of each adjacent reflector in the segment of the array.

(3) Upper rear area. Two pairs of white reflex reflector arrays, each pair at least 300 mm (12 inches) long, must be positioned horizontally and vertically on the right and left upper corners of the rear of the body of each trailer and semitrailer, as close as practicable to the top of the trailer and as far apart as practicable. If the perimeter of the body, as viewed from the rear, is not square or rectangular, the arrays may be applied along the perimeter, as close as practicable to the uppermost and outermost areas of the rear of the body on the left and right sides. The center of each reflector shall not be more than 100 mm (4 inches) from the center of each adjacent reflector in the segment of the array.

[64 FR 15605, Mar. 31, 1999, as amended at 66 FR 30339, June 6, 2001]

§ 393.17 - Lamps and reflectors - combinations in driveaway-towaway operation.

A combination of motor vehicles engaged in driveaway-towaway operation must be equipped with operative lamps and reflectors conforming to the rules in this section.

(a) The towing vehicle must be equipped as follows:

(1) On the front, there must be at least two headlamps, an equal number at each side, two turn signals, one at each side, and two clearance lamps, one at each side.

(2) On each side, there must be at least one side-marker lamp, located near the front of the vehicle.

(3) On the rear, there must be at least two tail lamps, one at each side, and two stop lamps, one at each side.

(b) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, the rearmost towed vehicle of the combination (including the towed vehicles of a tow-bar combination, the towed vehicle of a single saddle-mount combination, and the rearmost towed vehicle of a double or triple saddle-mount combination) or, in the case of a vehicle full-mounted on a saddle-mount vehicle, either the full-mounted vehicle or the rearmost saddle-mounted vehicle must be equipped as follows:

(1) On each side, there must be at least one side-marker lamp, located near the rear of the vehicle.

(2) On the rear, there must be at least two tail lamps, two stop lamps, two turn signals, two clearance lamps, and two reflectors, one of each type at each side. In addition, if any vehicle in the combination is 80 inches or more in overall width, there must be three identification lamps on the rear.

(c) If the towed vehicle in a combination is a mobile structure trailer, it must be equipped in accordance with the following lighting devices. For the purposes of this part, mobile structure trailer means a trailer that has a roof and walls, is at least 10 feet wide, and can be used off road for dwelling or commercial purposes.

(1) When the vehicle is operated in accordance with the terms of a special permit prohibiting operation during the times when lighted lamps are required, it must have on the rear -

(i) Two stop lamps, one on each side of the vertical centerline, at the same height, and as far apart as practicable;

(ii) Two tail lamps, one on each side of the vertical centerline, at the same height, and as far apart as practicable;

(iii) Two red reflex reflectors, one on each side of the vertical centerline, at the same height, and as far apart as practicable; and

(iv) Two turn signal lamps, one on each side of the vertical centerline, at the same height, and as far apart as practicable.

(2) At all other times, the vehicle must be equipped as specified in paragraph (b) of this section.

(d) An intermediate towed vehicle in a combination consisting of more than two vehicles (including the first saddle-mounted vehicle of a double saddle-mount combination and the first and second saddle-mount vehicles of a triple saddle-mount combination) must have one side-marker lamp on each side, located near the rear of the vehicle.

(49 U.S.C. 304,1655; 49 CFR 1.48(b) and 301.60) [40 FR 36126, Aug. 19, 1975, as amended at 47 FR 47837, Oct. 28, 1982; 70 FR 48044, Aug. 15, 2005; 77 FR 59828, Oct. 1, 2012; 80 FR 59075, Oct. 1, 2015]

§ 393.19 - Hazard warning signals.

The hazard warning signal operating unit on each commercial motor vehicle shall operate independently of the ignition or equivalent switch, and when activated, cause all turn signals required by § 393.11 to flash simultaneously.

[70 FR 48046, Aug. 15, 2005]

§ 393.20 - [Reserved]

§ 393.22 - Combination of lighting devices and reflectors.

(a) Permitted combinations. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, two or more lighting devices and reflectors (whether or not required by the rules in this part) may be combined optically if -

(1) Each required lighting device and reflector conforms to the applicable rules in this part; and

(2) Neither the mounting nor the use of a nonrequired lighting device or reflector impairs the effectiveness of a required lighting device or reflector or causes that device or reflector to be inconsistent with the applicable rules in this part.

(b) Prohibited combinations. (1) A turn signal lamp must not be combined optically with either a head lamp or other lighting device or combination of lighting devices that produces a greater intensity of light than the turn signal lamp.

(2) A turn signal lamp must not be combined optically with a stop lamp unless the stop lamp function is always deactivated when the turn signal function is activated.

(3) A clearance lamp must not be combined optically with a tail lamp or identification lamp.

[39 FR 26908, July 24, 1974]

§ 393.23 - Power supply for lamps.

All required lamps must be powered by the electrical system of the motor vehicle with the exception of battery powered lamps used on projecting loads.

[70 FR 48046, Aug. 15, 2005]

§ 393.24 - Requirements for head lamps, auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps.

(a) Headlamps. Every bus, truck and truck tractor shall be equipped with headlamps as required by § 393.11(a). The headlamps shall provide an upper and lower beam distribution of light, selectable at the driver's will and be steady-burning. The headlamps shall be marked in accordance with FMVSS No. 108. Auxiliary driving lamps and/or front fog lamps may not be used to satisfy the requirements of this paragraph.

(b) Auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps. Commercial motor vehicles may be equipped with auxiliary driving lamps and/or front fog lamps for use in conjunction with, but not in lieu of the required headlamps. Auxiliary driving lamps shall meet SAE Standard J581 Auxiliary Upper Beam Lamps, July 2004, and front fog lamps shall meet SAE Standard J583 Front Fog Lamp, August 2004. (See § 393.7 for information on the incorporation by reference and availability of these documents.)

(c) Mounting. Headlamps shall be mounted and aimable in accordance with FMVSS No. 108. Auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps shall be mounted so that the beams are aimable and the mounting shall prevent the aim of the lighting device from being disturbed while the vehicle is operating on public roads.

(d) Aiming. Headlamps, auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps shall be aimed to meet the aiming specifications in FMVSS No. 108 (49 CFR 571.108), SAE J581, and SAE J583, respectively.

[70 FR 48046, Aug. 15, 2005]

§ 393.25 - Requirements for lamps other than head lamps.

(a) Mounting. All lamps shall be securely mounted on a rigid part of the vehicle. Temporary lamps must be securely mounted to the load and are not required to be mounted to a permanent part of the vehicle.

(b) Visibility. Each lamp shall be located so that it meets the visibility requirements specified by FMVSS No. 108 in effect at the time of manufacture of the vehicle. Vehicles which were not subject to FMVSS No. 108 at the time of manufacture shall have each lamp located so that it meets the visibility requirements specified in the SAE standards listed in paragraph (c) of this section. If motor vehicle equipment (e.g., mirrors, snow plows, wrecker booms, backhoes, and winches) prevents compliance with this paragraph by any required lamp, an auxiliary lamp or device meeting the requirements of this paragraph shall be provided. This shall not be construed to apply to lamps on one unit which are obscured by another unit of a combination of vehicles.

(c) Specifications. All required lamps (except marker lamps on projecting loads, lamps which are temporarily attached to vehicles transported in driveaway-towaway operations, and lamps on converter dollies and pole trailers) on vehicles manufactured on or after December 25, 1968, shall, at a minimum, meet the applicable requirements of FMVSS No. 108 in effect on the date of manufacture of the vehicle. Marker lamps on projecting loads, all lamps which are temporarily attached to vehicles transported in driveaway-towaway operations, and all lamps on converter dollies and pole trailers must meet the following applicable SAE standards: J586 - Stop Lamps for Use on Motor Vehicles Less Than 2032 mm in Overall Width, March 2000; J2261 Stop Lamps and Front- and Rear-Turn Signal Lamps for Use on Motor Vehicles 2032 mm or More in Overall Width, January 2002; J585 - Tail Lamps (Rear Position Lamps) for Use on Motor Vehicles Less Than 2032 mm in Overall Width, March 2000; J588 - Turn Signal Lamps for Use on Motor Vehicles Less Than 2032 mm in Overall Width, March 2000; J2040 - Tail Lamps (Rear Position Lamps) for Use on Vehicles 2032 mm or More in Overall Width, March 2002; J592 - Sidemarker Lamps for Use on Road Vehicles Less Than 2032 mm in Overall Width, August 2000. (See § 393.7 for information on the incorporation by reference and availability of these documents.)

(d) (Reserved)

(e) Lamps to be steady-burning. All exterior lamps (both required lamps and any additional lamps) shall be steady-burning with the exception of turn signal lamps; hazard warning signal lamps; school bus warning lamps; amber warning lamps or flashing warning lamps on tow trucks and commercial motor vehicles transporting oversized loads; and warning lamps on emergency and service vehicles authorized by State or local authorities. Lamps combined into the same shell or housing with a turn signal are not required to be steady burning while the turn signal is in use. Amber warning lamps must meet SAE J845 - Optical Warning Devices for Authorized Emergency, Maintenance and Service Vehicles, May 1997. Amber flashing warning lamps must meet SAE J595 - Directional Flashing Optical Warning Devices for Authorized Emergency, Maintenance and Service Vehicles, January 2005. Amber gaseous discharge warning lamps must meet SAE J1318 Gaseous Discharge Warning Lamp for Authorized Emergency, Maintenance, and Service Vehicles, May 1998. (See § 393.7(b) for information on the incorporation by reference and availability of these documents.)

(f) Stop lamp operation. The stop lamps on each vehicle shall be activated upon application of the service brakes. The stop lamps are not required to be activated when the emergency feature of the trailer brakes is used or when the stop lamp is optically combined with the turn signal and the turn signal is in use.

[70 FR 48047, Aug. 15, 2005]

§ 393.26 - Requirements for reflectors.

(a) Mounting. Reflex reflectors shall be mounted at the locations required by § 393.11. In the case of motor vehicles so constructed that requirement for a 381 mm (15-inch) minimum height above the road surface is not practical, the reflectors shall be mounted as close as practicable to the required mounting height range. All permanent reflex reflectors shall be securely mounted on a rigid part of the vehicle. Temporary reflectors on projecting loads must be securely mounted to the load and are not required to be permanently mounted to a part of the vehicle. Temporary reflex reflectors on vehicles transported in driveaway-towaway operations must be firmly attached.

(b) Specifications. All required reflex reflectors (except reflex reflectors on projecting loads, vehicles transported in a driveaway-towaway operation, converter dollies and pole trailers) on vehicles manufactured on or after December 25, 1968, shall meet the applicable requirements of FMVSS No. 108 in effect on the date of manufacture of the vehicle. Reflex reflectors on projecting loads, vehicles transported in a driveaway-towaway operation, and all reflex reflectors on converter dollies and pole trailers must conform to SAE J594 - Reflex Reflectors, December 2003.

(c) Substitute material for side reflex reflectors. Reflective material conforming to ASTM D 4956-04, Standard Specification for Retroreflective Sheeting for Traffic Control, may be used in lieu of reflex reflectors if the material as used on the vehicle, meets the performance standards in either Table I of SAE J594 or Table IA of SAE J594 - Reflex Reflectors, December 2003. (See § 393.7(b) for information on the incorporation by reference and availability of these documents.)

(d) Use of additional retroreflective surfaces. Additional retroreflective surfaces may be used in conjunction with, but not in lieu of the reflex reflectors required in subpart B of part 393, and the substitute material for side reflex reflectors allowed by paragraph (c) of this section, provided:

(1) Designs do not resemble traffic control signs, lights, or devices, except that straight edge striping resembling a barricade pattern may be used.

(2) Designs do not tend to distort the length and/or width of the motor vehicle.

(3) Such surfaces shall be at least 3 inches from any required lamp or reflector unless of the same color as such lamp or reflector.

(4) No red color shall be used on the front of any motor vehicle, except for display of markings or placards required by § 177.823 of this title.

(5) Retroreflective license plates required by State or local authorities may be used.

[33 FR 19735, Dec. 25, 1968, as amended at 35 FR 3167, Feb. 19, 1970; 53 FR 49397, Dec. 7, 1988; 70 FR 48047, Aug. 15, 2005]

§ 393.27 - [Reserved]

§ 393.28 - Wiring systems.

Electrical wiring shall be installed and maintained to conform to SAE J1292 - Automobile, Truck, Truck-Tractor, Trailer, and Motor Coach Wiring, October 1981, except the jumper cable plug and receptacle need not conform to SAE J560. The reference to SAE J1292 shall not be construed to require circuit protection on trailers. (See § 393.7(b) for information on the incorporation by reference and availability of this document.)

[70 FR 48047, Aug. 15, 2005]

§ 393.29 - [Reserved]

§ 393.30 - Battery installation.

Every storage battery on every vehicle, unless located in the engine compartment, shall be covered by a fixed part of the motor vehicle or protected by a removable cover or enclosure. Removable covers or enclosures shall be substantial and shall be securely latched or fastened. The storage battery compartment and adjacent metal parts which might corrode by reason of battery leakage shall be painted or coated with an acid-resisting paint or coating and shall have openings to provide ample battery ventilation and drainage. Wherever the cable to the starting motor passes through a metal compartment, the cable shall be protected against grounding by an acid and waterproof insulating bushing. Wherever a battery and a fuel tank are both placed under the driver's seat, they shall be partitioned from each other, and each compartment shall be provided with an independent cover, ventilation, and drainage.

§§ 393.31-393.33 - §[Reserved]