§ 1713. Rental housing insurance (a) DefinitionsAs used in this section—
(1) The term “mortgage” means a first mortgage on real estate in fee simple, or on the interest of either the lessor or lessee thereof (A) under a lease for not less than ninety-nine years which is renewable or (B) under a lease having a period of not less than fifty years to run from the date the mortgage was executed, upon which there is located or upon which there is to be constructed a building or buildings designed principally for residential use, or upon which there is located or to be constructed facilities for manufactured homes, and the term “first mortgage” means such classes of first liens as are commonly given to secure advances (including but not being limited to advances during construction) on, or the unpaid purchase price of, real estate under the laws of the State, in which the real estate is located, together with the credit instrument or instruments, if any, secured thereby, and may be in the form of trust mortgages or mortgage indentures or deeds of trust securing notes, bonds, or other credit instruments.
(2) The term “mortgagee” means the original lender under a mortgage, and its successors and assigns, and includes the holders of credit instruments issued under a trust mortgage or deed of trust pursuant to which such holders act by and through a trustee therein named.
(3) The term “mortgagor” means the original borrower under a mortgage and its successors and assigns.
(4) The term “maturity date” means the date on which the mortgage indebtedness would be extinguished if paid in accordance with the periodic payments provided for in the mortgage.
(5) The term “slum or blighted area” means any area where dwellings predominate which, by reason of dilapidation, overcrowding, faulty arrangement or design, lack of ventilation, light or sanitation facilities, or any combination of these factors, are detrimental to safety, health, or morals.
(6) The term “rental housing” means housing, the occupancy of which is permitted by the owner thereof in consideration of the payment of agreed charges, whether or not, by the terms of the agreement, such payment over a period of time will entitle the occupant to the ownership of the premises or space in a manufactured home court or park properly arranged and equipped to accommodate manufactured homes.
(7) The term “State” includes the several States, and Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, American Samoa, and the Virgin Islands.
(b) Insurance of additional mortgagesIn addition to mortgages insured under [section 1709 of this title], the Secretary is authorized to insure mortgages as defined in this section (including advances on such mortgages during construction) which cover property held by—
(1) Federal or State instrumentalities, municipal corporate instrumentalities of one or more States, or limited dividend or redevelopment or housing corporations restricted by Federal or State laws or regulations of State banking or insurance departments as to rents, charges, capital structure, rate of return, or methods of operation; or
(2) any other mortgagor approved by the Secretary. The Secretary may, in the Secretary’s discretion, require any such mortgagor to be regulated or restricted as to rents or sales, charges, capital structure, rate of return, and methods of operation so as to provide reasonable rentals to tenants and a reasonable return on the investment. Any such regulations or restrictions shall continue for such period or periods as the Secretary, in the Secretary’s discretion, may require, including until the termination of all obligations of the Secretary under the insurance and during such further period of time as the Secretary shall be the owner, holder, or reinsurer of the mortgage. The Secretary may make such contracts with and acquire, for not to exceed $100, such stock or interest in the mortgagor as he may deem necessary to render effective any such regulations or restrictions. The stock or interest acquired by the Secretary shall be paid for out of the General Insurance Fund, and shall be redeemed by the mortgagor at par upon the termination of all obligations of the Secretary under the insurance.
The insurance of mortgages under this section is intended to facilitate particularly the production of rental accommodations, at reasonable rents, of design and size suitable for family living. The Secretary is, therefore, authorized in the administration of this section to take action, by regulation or otherwise, which will direct the benefits of mortgage insurance hereunder primarily to those projects which make adequate provision for families with children, and in which every effort has been made to achieve moderate rental charges.
Notwithstanding any other provisions of this section, the Secretary may not insure any mortgage under this section (except a mortgage with respect to a manufactured home park designed exclusively for occupancy by elderly persons) unless the mortgagor certifies under oath that in selecting tenants for the property covered by the mortgage he will not discriminate against any family by reason of the fact that there are children in the family, and that he will not sell the property while the insurance is in effect unless the purchaser so certifies, such certification to be filed with the Secretary. Violation of any such certification shall be a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not to exceed $500.
(c) Eligibility for insurance; mortgage limitsTo be eligible for insurance under this section a mortgage on any property or project shall involve a principal obligation in an amount—
[Pub. L. 93–383, title III, § 304(a)(1)], Aug. 22, 1974, [88 Stat. 677].
(2) Not to exceed 90 per centum of the estimated value of the property or project (when the proposed improvements are completed): Provided, That this limitation shall not apply to mortgages on housing in Alaska or in Guam, but such a mortgage may involve a principal obligation in an amount not to exceed 90 per centum of the amount which the Secretary estimates will be the replacement cost of the property or project when the proposed improvements are completed (the value of the property or project as such term is used in this paragraph may include the land, the proposed physical improvements, utilities within the boundaries of the property or project, architect’s fees, taxes, and interest accruing during construction, and other miscellaneous charges incident to construction and approved by the Secretary): And provided further, That nothing contained in this section shall preclude the insurance of mortgages covering existing construction located in slum or blighted areas, as defined in paragraph (5) of subsection (a) of this section, and the Secretary may require such repair or rehabilitation work to be completed as is, in his discretion, necessary to remove conditions detrimental to safety, health, or morals; and
(A) Not to exceed, for such part of the property or project as may be attributable to dwelling use (excluding exterior land improvements as defined by the Secretary), $38,025 per family unit without a bedroom, $42,120 per family unit with one bedroom, $50,310 per family unit with two bedrooms, $62,010 per family unit with three bedrooms, and $70,200 per family unit with four or more bedrooms, or not to exceed $17,460 per space; except that as to projects to consist of elevator type structures the Secretary may in his discretion, increase the dollar amount limitations per family unit to not to exceed $43,875 per family unit without a bedroom, $49,140 per family unit with one bedroom, $60,255 per family unit with two bedrooms, $75,465 per family unit with three bedrooms, and $85,328 per family unit with four or more bedrooms, as the case may be, to compensate for the higher costs incident to the construction of elevator-type structures of sound standards of construction and design;
(B) the Secretary may, by regulation, increase any of the dollar amount limitations in subparagraph (A) (as such limitations may have been adjusted in accordance with
[section 1712a of this title]) by not to exceed 170 percent in any geographical area where the Secretary finds that cost levels so require and by not to exceed 170 percent, or 215 percent in high cost areas, where the Secretary determines it necessary on a project-by-project basis, but in no case may any such increase exceed 90 percent where the Secretary determines that a mortgage purchased or to be purchased by the Government National Mortgage Association in implementing its special assistance functions under section 1720 1 See References in Text note below. of this title (as such section existed immediately before November 30, 1983) is involved. Notwithstanding any other provision of this paragraph, the amount which may be insured under this section may be increased by up to 20 percent if such increase is necessary to account for the increased cost of the project due to the installation therein of a solar energy system (as defined in subparagraph (3) of the last paragraph of [section 1703(a) of this title]) or residential energy conservation measures (as defined in section 8211(11)(A) through (G) and (I) of title 42) in cases where the Secretary determines that such measures are in addition to those required under the minimum property standards and will be cost-effective over the life of the measure.
The mortgage shall provide for complete amortization by periodic payments (unless otherwise approved by the Secretary) within such term as the Secretary shall prescribe, and shall bear interest at such rate as may be agreed upon by the mortgagor and the mortgagee. The Secretary may consent to the release of a part or parts of the mortgaged property from the lien of the mortgage upon such terms and conditions as he may prescribe and the mortgage may provide for such release. No mortgage shall be accepted for insurance under this section or section 1715a 1 of this title unless the Secretary finds that the property or project, with respect to which the mortgage is executed, is economically sound. Such property or project may include five or more family units and may include such commercial and community facilities as the Secretary deems adequate to serve the occupants.
(d) Premium, appraisal, and inspection charges
The Secretary shall collect a premium charge for the insurance of mortgages under this section which shall be payable annually in advance by the mortgagee, either in cash or in debentures issued by the Secretary under any subchapter and section of this chapter, except debentures of the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund, or of the Cooperative Management Housing Insurance Fund at par plus accrued interest. In addition to the premium charge herein provided for the Secretary is authorized to charge and collect such amounts as he may deem reasonable for the appraisal of a property or project offered for insurance and for the inspection of such property or project during construction: Provided, That such charges for appraisal and inspection shall not aggregate more than 1 per centum of the original principal face amount of the mortgage.
(e) Adjusted premium charge on payment of mortgage
In the event that the principal obligation of any mortgage accepted for insurance under this section is paid in full prior to the maturity date, the Secretary is authorized in his discretion to require the payment by the mortgagee of an adjusted premium charge in such amount as the Secretary determines to be equitable, but not in excess of the aggregate amount of the premium charges that the mortgagee would otherwise have been required to pay if the mortgage had continued to be insured until such maturity date.
[Pub. L. 89–117, title XI, § 1108(e)(3)], Aug. 10, 1965, [79 Stat. 504] (g) Payment of insurance after default
The failure of the mortgagor to make any payment due under or provided to be paid by the terms of a mortgage insured under this section shall be considered a default under such mortgage and, if such default continues for a period of thirty days, the mortgagee shall be entitled to receive the benefits of the insurance as hereinafter provided, upon assignment, transfer, and delivery to the Secretary, within a period and in accordance with rules and regulations to be prescribed by the Secretary of (1) all rights and interests arising under the mortgage so in default; (2) all claims of the mortgagee against the mortgagor or others, arising out of the mortgage transactions; (3) all policies of title or other insurance or surety bonds or other guaranties and any and all claims thereunder; (4) any balance of the mortgage loans not advanced to the mortgagor; (5) any cash or property held by the mortgagee, or to which it is entitled, as deposits made for the account of the mortgagor and which have not been applied in reduction of the principal of the mortgage indebtedness; and (6) all records, documents, books, papers, and accounts relating to the mortgage transactions. Upon such assignment, transfer, and delivery the obligation of the mortgagee to pay the premium charges for mortgage insurance shall cease, and the Secretary shall issue to the mortgagee a certificate of claim as provided in subsection (h), and debentures having a par value equal to the original principal face amount of the mortgage plus such amount as the mortgagee may have paid for (A) taxes, special assessments, and water rates, which are liens prior to the mortgage; (B) insurance on the property; and (C) reasonable expenses for the completion and preservation of the property and any mortgage insurance premiums paid after default, less the sum of (i) that part of the amount of the principal obligation that has been repaid by the mortgagor, (ii) an amount equivalent to 1 per centum of the unpaid amount of such principal obligation, and (iii) any net income received by the mortgagee from the property: Provided, That the mortgagee in the event of a default under the mortgage may, at its option and in accordance with regulations of, and in a period to be determined by, the Secretary, proceed to foreclose on and obtain possession of or otherwise acquire such property from the mortgagor after default, and receive the benefits of the insurance as herein provided, upon (1) the prompt conveyance to the Secretary of title to the property which meets the requirements of the rules and regulations of the Secretary in force at the time the mortgage was insured and which is evidenced in the manner prescribed by such rules and regulations, and (2) the assignment to him of all claims of the mortgagee against the mortgagor or others, arising out of the mortgage transaction or foreclosure proceedings, except such claims that may have been released with the consent of the Secretary. Upon such conveyance and assignment, the obligation of the mortgagee to pay the premium charges for insurance shall cease and the mortgagee shall be entitled to receive the benefits of the insurance as provided in this subsection, except that in such event the 1 per centum deduction, set out in (ii) hereof, shall not apply. Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, upon receipt, after September 2, 1964, of an application for insurance benefits on a mortgage insured under this chapter, the Secretary may terminate the mortgagee’s obligation to pay premium charges on the mortgage.
(h) Certificate of claim; division of excess proceedsThe certificate of claim issued under this section shall be for an amount which the Secretary determines to be sufficient, when added to the face value of the debentures issued and the cash adjustment paid to the mortgagee, to equal the amount which the mortgagee would have received if, on the date of the assignment, transfer and delivery to the Secretary provided for in subsection (g), the mortgagor had extinguished the mortgage indebtedness by payment in full of all obligations under the mortgage and a reasonable amount for necessary expenses incurred by the mortgagee in connection with the foreclosure proceedings, or the acquisition of the mortgaged property otherwise, and the conveyance thereof to the Secretary. Each such certificate of claim shall provide that there shall accrue to the holder of such certificate with respect to the face amount of such certificate, an increment at the rate of 3 per centum per annum which shall not be compounded. If the net amount realized from the mortgage, and all claims in connection therewith, so assigned, transferred, and delivered, and from the property covered by such mortgage and all claims in connection with such property, after deducting all expenses incurred by the Secretary in handling, dealing with, acquiring title to, and disposing of such mortgage and property and in collecting such claims, exceeds the face value of the debentures issued and the cash adjustment paid to the mortgagee plus all interest paid on such debentures, such excess shall be divided as follows:
(1) If such excess is greater than the total amount payable under the certificate of claim issued in connection with such property, the Secretary shall pay to the holder of such certificate the full amount so payable, and any excess remaining thereafter shall be retained by the Secretary and credited to the General Insurance Fund; and
(2) If such excess is equal to or less than the total amount payable under such certificate of claim, the Secretary shall pay to the holder of such certificate the full amount of such excess.
(i) Debentures; execution; negotiability; terms; tax exemptions
Debentures issued under this section shall be executed in the name of the General Insurance Fund as obligor, shall be negotiable, and, if in book entry form, transferable, in the manner described by the Secretary in regulations, and shall be dated as of the date of default as determined in subsection (g) of this section, except that debentures issued pursuant to the provisions of section 1715k(f), section 1715l(g), and
[section 1715x of this title] may be dated as of the date the mortgage is assigned (or the property is conveyed) to the Secretary and shall bear interest from such date. They shall bear interest at a rate established by the Secretary pursuant to section 1715o of this title payable semiannually on the 1st day of January and the 1st day of July of each year, and shall mature twenty years after the date thereof. Such debentures as are issued in exchange for mortgages insured after February 3, 1938, shall be exempt, both as to principal and interest, from all taxation (except surtaxes, estate, inheritance, and gift taxes) now or hereafter imposed by the United States, by any Territory, dependency, or possession thereof, or by any State, county, municipality, or local taxing authority. They shall be paid out of the General Insurance Fund which shall be primarily liable therefor, and they shall be fully and unconditionally guaranteed as to principal and interest by the United States, and, in the case of debentures issued in certificated registered form, such guaranty shall be expressed on the face of the debentures. In the event the General Insurance Fund fails to pay upon demand, when due, the principal of or interest on any debentures so guaranteed, the Secretary of the Treasury shall pay to the holders the amount thereof which is authorized to be appropriated out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, and thereupon, to the extent of the amount so paid, the Secretary of the Treasury shall succeed to all the rights of the holders of such debentures. (j) Debentures; form and amountsDebentures issued under this section—
(1) shall be in such form and amounts;
(2) shall be subject to such terms and conditions;
(3) shall include such provisions for redemption, if any, as may be prescribed by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury; and
(4) may be in book entry or certificated registered form, or such other form as the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development may prescribe in regulations.
(k) Acquisition of property by conveyance or foreclosure
The Secretary is authorized either to (1) acquire possession of and title to any property, covered by a mortgage insured under this section and assigned to him, by voluntary conveyance in extinguishment of the mortgage indebtedness, or (2) institute proceedings for foreclosure on the property covered by any such insured mortgage and prosecute such proceedings to conclusion. The Secretary at any sale under foreclosure may, in his discretion, for the protection of the General Insurance Fund, bid any sum up to but not in excess of the total unpaid indebtedness secured by the mortgage, plus taxes, insurance, foreclosure costs, fees, and other expenses, and may become the purchaser of the property at such sale. In determining the amount to be bid, the Secretary shall act consistently with the goal established in
[section 1701z–11(a)(1) of this title]. The Secretary is authorized to pay from the General Insurance Fund such sums as may be necessary to defray such taxes, insurance, costs, fees, and other expenses in connection with the acquisition or foreclosure of property under this section. Pending such acquisition by voluntary conveyance or by foreclosure, the Secretary is authorized, with respect to any mortgage assigned to him under the provisions of subsection (g), to exercise all the rights of a mortgagee under such mortgage, including the right to sell such mortgage, and to take such action and advance such sums as may be necessary to preserve or protect the lien of such mortgage. (l) Handling and disposal of property; settlement of claims
Notwithstanding any other provisions of law relating to the acquisition, handling, or disposal of real and other property by the United States, the Secretary shall also have power, for the protection of the interests of the General Insurance Fund, to pay out of the General Insurance Fund all expenses or charges in connection with, and to deal with, complete, reconstruct, rent, renovate, modernize, insure, make contracts for the management of, or establish suitable agencies for the management of, or sell for cash or credit or lease in his discretion, any property acquired by him under this section, and notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary shall also have power to pursue to final collection by way of compromise or otherwise all claims assigned and transferred to him in connection with the assignment, transfer, and delivery provided for in this section, and at any time, upon default, to foreclose on any property secured by any mortgage assigned and transferred to or held by him: Provided, That
[section 6101 of title 41] shall not be construed to apply to any contract for hazard insurance, or to any purchase or contract for services or supplies on account of such property if the amount thereof does not exceed $1,000.
[Pub. L. 89–117, title XI, § 1108(e)(3)], Aug. 10, 1965, [79 Stat. 504] (n) Default or payment; rights of parties
In the event that a mortgage insured under this section becomes in default through failure of the mortgagor to make any payment due under or provided to be paid by the terms of the mortgage and such mortgage continues in default for a period of thirty days, but the mortgagee does not foreclose on or otherwise acquire the property, or does not assign and transfer such mortgage and the credit instrument secured thereby to the Secretary, in accordance with subsection (g), and the Secretary is given written notice thereof, or in the event that the mortgagor pays the obligation under the mortgage in full prior to the maturity thereof, and the mortgagee pays any adjusted premium charge required under the provisions of subsection (e), and the Secretary is given written notice by the mortgagee of the payment of such obligation, the obligation to pay the annual premium charge for insurance shall cease, and all rights of the mortgagee and the mortgagor under this section shall terminate as of the date of such notice.
(o) Reissue of prior insurance
The Secretary, with the consent of the mortgagee and the mortgagor of a mortgage insured under this section prior to February 3, 1938, shall be empowered to reissue such mortgage insurance in accordance with the provisions of this section as amended by the National Housing Act Amendments of 1938, and any such insurance not so reissued shall not be affected by the enactment of such Act.
[Pub. L. 89–117, title XI, § 1108(e)(3)], Aug. 10, 1965, [79 Stat. 504]
[Pub. L. 85–104, title I, § 111], July 12, 1957, [71 Stat. 297] (r) Service charge for mortgages assigned to and held by the Secretary
Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, the Secretary is authorized to include in any mortgage insured under any subchapter of this chapter after September 23, 1959, a provision requiring the mortgagor to pay a service charge to the Secretary in the event such mortgage is assigned to and held by the Secretary. Such service charge shall not exceed the amount prescribed by the Secretary for mortgage insurance premiums applicable to such mortgage.
[June 27, 1934, ch. 847], title II, § 207, [48 Stat. 1252]; [Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614], title III, § 344(d), [49 Stat. 722]; [Feb. 3, 1938, ch. 13, § 3], [52 Stat. 16]; [June 3, 1939, ch. 175, § 12], [53 Stat. 807]; [Mar. 28, 1941, ch. 31, § 4(b)], [55 Stat. 62]; [July 1, 1948, ch. 784, § 6], [62 Stat. 1209]; [Aug. 10, 1948, ch. 832], title I, § 101 (m–p, r), [62 Stat. 1273], 1274; [Apr. 20, 1950, ch. 94], title I, §§ 106–112, 122, [64 Stat. 52–54], 59; [Sept. 1, 1951, ch. 378], title VI, §§ 604(b), 605, [65 Stat. 314]; [July 14, 1952, ch. 723, § 10(a)(2)], [66 Stat. 603]; [June 30, 1953, ch. 170, § 5], [67 Stat. 122]; [Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649], title I, §§ 112(b), 115–117, [68 Stat. 593–595]; [Aug. 11, 1955, ch. 783], title I, § 102(b), (c), [69 Stat. 635]; [Aug. 7, 1956, ch. 1029], title I, §§ 103, 104(b), (c), [70 Stat. 1092]; [Pub. L. 85–104, title I], §§ 108(b), 109–111, July 12, 1957, [71 Stat. 297]; [Pub. L. 86–70, § 10(a)], (b), June 25, 1959, [73 Stat. 142]; [Pub. L. 86–372, title I, § 104], Sept. 23, 1959, [73 Stat. 655]; [Pub. L. 86–624, § 6], July 12, 1960, [74 Stat. 411]; [Pub. L. 87–70, title VI, § 607], June 30, 1961, [75 Stat. 178]; [Pub. L. 88–560, title I], §§ 105(b), 106, 107(a), 108, Sept. 2, 1964, [78 Stat. 772], 774, 776; [Pub. L. 89–117, title II, § 207(a)], title XI, § 1108(e), Aug. 10, 1965, [79 Stat. 467], 504; [Pub. L. 90–19, § 1(a)(3)], May 25, 1967, [81 Stat. 17]; [Pub. L. 90–301, § 3(b)], May 7, 1968, [82 Stat. 114]; [Pub. L. 91–152, title I], §§ 103(a), (b), 113(b), title IV, § 403(c)(2), Dec. 24, 1969, [83 Stat. 380], 383, 395; [Pub. L. 93–383, title III], §§ 303(a), 304(a), Aug. 22, 1974, [88 Stat. 676], 677; [Pub. L. 94–173, § 3], Dec. 23, 1975, [89 Stat. 1027]; [Pub. L. 94–375, § 8(a)], (b)(1), Aug. 3, 1976, [90 Stat. 1071]; [Pub. L. 95–557, title III, § 311(a)], Oct. 31, 1978, [92 Stat. 2098]; [Pub. L. 95–619, title II, § 248(b)], Nov. 9, 1978, [92 Stat. 3235]; [Pub. L. 96–153, title III], §§ 313(b), 314, Dec. 21, 1979, [93 Stat. 1117]; [Pub. L. 96–399, title III], §§ 308(c)(1), 310(a), Oct. 8, 1980, [94 Stat. 1640], 1641; [Pub. L. 97–35, title III], §§ 338(b), 339B(a), (c), Aug. 13, 1981, [95 Stat. 416], 417; [Pub. L. 97–377, title I, § 101(g)], Dec. 21, 1982, [96 Stat. 1908]; [Pub. L. 98–181, title I] [title IV, §§ 404(b)(4), 407(c), 431(a), 435, 446(a)], Nov. 30, 1983, [97 Stat. 1209], 1211, 1220, 1222, 1228; [Pub. L. 98–479, title II, § 204(a)(3)], Oct. 17, 1984, [98 Stat. 2232]; [Pub. L. 100–242, title I, § 182], title IV, § 426(a), (h), Feb. 5, 1988, [101 Stat. 1871], 1915, 1916; [Pub. L. 102–550, title V], §§ 509(a), 516(b), Oct. 28, 1992, [106 Stat. 3782], 3790; [Pub. L. 103–233, title III, § 306], Apr. 11, 1994, [108 Stat. 373]; [Pub. L. 107–73, title II, § 213(a)], Nov. 26, 2001, [115 Stat. 676]; [Pub. L. 107–326, § 5(b)(1)], Dec. 4, 2002, [116 Stat. 2794]; [Pub. L. 108–186, title III, § 302(b)],(c)(1), Dec. 16, 2003, [117 Stat. 2692]; [Pub. L. 110–161, div. K, title II, § 221(1)], Dec. 26, 2007, [121 Stat. 2436].)