View all text of Subchapter III [§ 2771 - § 2781]

§ 2778. Control of arms exports and imports
(a) Presidential control of exports and imports of defense articles and services, guidance of policy, etc.; designation of United States Munitions List; issuance of export licenses; negotiations information
(1) In furtherance of world peace and the security and foreign policy of the United States, the President is authorized to control the import and the export of defense articles and defense services and to provide foreign policy guidance to persons of the United States involved in the export and import of such articles and services. The President is authorized to designate those items which shall be considered as defense articles and defense services for the purposes of this section and to promulgate regulations for the import and export of such articles and services. The items so designated shall constitute the United States Munitions List.
(2) Decisions on issuing export licenses under this section shall take into account whether the export of an article would contribute to an arms race, aid in the development of weapons of mass destruction, support international terrorism, increase the possibility of outbreak or escalation of conflict, or prejudice the development of bilateral or multilateral arms control or nonproliferation agreements or other arrangements.
(3) In exercising the authorities conferred by this section, the President may require that any defense article or defense service be sold under this chapter as a condition of its eligibility for export, and may require that persons engaged in the negotiation for the export of defense articles and services keep the President fully and currently informed of the progress and future prospects of such negotiations.
(b) Registration and licensing requirements for manufacturers, exporters, or importers of designated defense articles and defense services
(1)
(A)
(i) As prescribed in regulations issued under this section, every person (other than an officer or employee of the United States Government acting in an official capacity) who engages in the business of manufacturing, exporting, or importing any defense articles or defense services designated by the President under subsection (a)(1) shall register with the United States Government agency charged with the administration of this section, and shall pay a registration fee which shall be prescribed by such regulations. Such regulations shall prohibit the return to the United States for sale in the United States (other than for the Armed Forces of the United States and its allies or for any State or local law enforcement agency) of any military firearms or ammunition of United States manufacture furnished to foreign governments by the United States under this chapter or any other foreign assistance or sales program of the United States, whether or not enhanced in value or improved in condition in a foreign country. This prohibition shall not extend to similar firearms that have been so substantially transformed as to become, in effect, articles of foreign manufacture.
(ii)(I) As prescribed in regulations issued under this section, every person (other than an officer or employee of the United States Government acting in official capacity) who engages in the business of brokering activities with respect to the manufacture, export, import, or transfer of any defense article or defense service designated by the President under subsection (a)(1), or in the business of brokering activities with respect to the manufacture, export, import, or transfer of any foreign defense article or defense service (as defined in subclause (IV)), shall register with the United States Government agency charged with the administration of this section, and shall pay a registration fee which shall be prescribed by such regulations.(II) Such brokering activities shall include the financing, transportation, freight forwarding, or taking of any other action that facilitates the manufacture, export, or import of a defense article or defense service.(III) No person may engage in the business of brokering activities described in subclause (I) without a license, issued in accordance with this chapter, except that no license shall be required for such activities undertaken by or for an agency of the United States Government—(aa) for use by an agency of the United States Government; or(bb) for carrying out any foreign assistance or sales program authorized by law and subject to the control of the President by other means.(IV) For purposes of this clause, the term “foreign defense article or defense service” includes any non-United States defense article or defense service of a nature described on the United States Munitions List regardless of whether such article or service is of United States origin or whether such article or service contains United States origin components.
(B) The prohibition under such regulations required by the second sentence of subparagraph (A) shall not extend to any military firearms (or ammunition, components, parts, accessories, and attachments for such firearms) of United States manufacture furnished to any foreign government by the United States under this chapter or any other foreign assistance or sales program of the United States if—
(i) such firearms are among those firearms that the Secretary of the Treasury is, or was at any time, required to authorize the importation of by reason of the provisions of section 925(e) of title 18 (including the requirement for the listing of such firearms as curios or relics under section 921(a)(13) of that title); and
(ii) such foreign government certifies to the United States Government that such firearms are owned by such foreign government.
(C) A copy of each registration made under this paragraph shall be transmitted to the Secretary of the Treasury for review regarding law enforcement concerns. The Secretary shall report to the President regarding such concerns as necessary.
(2) Except as otherwise specifically provided in regulations issued under subsection (a)(1), no defense articles or defense services designated by the President under subsection (a)(1) may be exported or imported without a license for such export or import, issued in accordance with this chapter and regulations issued under this chapter, except that no license shall be required for exports or imports made by or for an agency of the United States Government (A) for official use by a department or agency of the United States Government, or (B) for carrying out any foreign assistance or sales program authorized by law and subject to the control of the President by other means.
(3)
(A) For each of the fiscal years 1988 and 1989, $250,000 of registration fees collected pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be credited to a Department of State account, to be available without fiscal year limitation. Fees credited to that account shall be available only for the payment of expenses incurred for—
(i) contract personnel to assist in the evaluation of munitions control license applications, reduce processing time for license applications, and improve monitoring of compliance with the terms of licenses; and
(ii) the automation of munitions control functions and the processing of munitions control license applications, including the development, procurement, and utilization of computer equipment and related software.
(B) The authority of this paragraph may be exercised only to such extent or in such amounts as are provided in advance in appropriation Acts.
(c) Criminal violations; punishment
(d) Repealed. Pub. L. 96–70, title III, § 3303(a)(4), Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 499
(e) Enforcement powers of President
(f) Periodic review of items on Munitions List; exemptions
(1) The President shall periodically review the items on the United States Munitions List to determine what items, if any, no longer warrant export controls under this section. The results of such reviews shall be reported to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, and to the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate. The President may not remove any item from the Munitions List until 30 days after the date on which the President has provided notice of the proposed removal to the Committee on International Relations of the House of Representatives and to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate in accordance with the procedures applicable to reprogramming notifications under section 2394–1(a) of this title. Such notice shall describe the nature of any controls to be imposed on that item under any other provision of law.
(2) The President may not authorize an exemption for a foreign country from the licensing requirements of this chapter for the export of defense items under subsection (j) or any other provision of this chapter until 30 days after the date on which the President has transmitted to the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate a notification that includes—
(A) a description of the scope of the exemption, including a detailed summary of the defense articles, defense services, and related technical data covered by the exemption; and
(B) a determination by the Attorney General that the bilateral agreement concluded under subsection (j) requires the compilation and maintenance of sufficient documentation relating to the export of United States defense articles, defense services, and related technical data to facilitate law enforcement efforts to detect, prevent, and prosecute criminal violations of any provision of this chapter, including the efforts on the part of countries and factions engaged in international terrorism to illicitly acquire sophisticated United States defense items.
(3) Paragraph (2) shall not apply with respect to an exemption for Canada, the United Kingdom, or Australia from the licensing requirements of this chapter for the export of defense items.
(4) Paragraph (2) shall not apply with respect to an exemption under subsection (j)(1) to give effect to a treaty referred to in subsection (j)(1)(C)(i) (and any implementing arrangements to such treaty), provided that the President promulgates regulations to implement and enforce such treaty under this section and section 2779 of this title.
(5)
(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the President shall take such actions as may be necessary to require that, at the time of export or reexport of any major defense equipment listed on the 600 series of the Commerce Control List contained in Supplement No. 1 to part 774 of subtitle B of title 15, Code of Federal Regulations, the major defense equipment will not be subsequently modified so as to transform such major defense equipment into a defense article.
(B)
(i) determines that such transformation is appropriate and in the national interests of the United States; and
(ii) provides notice of such transformation to the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate consistent with the notification requirements of section 2776(b)(5)(A) of this title.
(C) In this paragraph, the term “defense article” means an item designated by the President pursuant to subsection (a)(1).
(6) The President shall ensure that any major defense equipment that is listed on the 600 series of the Commerce Control List contained in Supplement No. 1 to part 774 of subtitle B of title 15, Code of Federal Regulations, shall continue to be subject to the notification and reporting requirements of the following provisions of law:
(A)Section 2321j(f) of this title.
(B)Section 2415 of this title.
(C)Section 2753(d)(3)(A) of this title.
(D)Section 2765 of this title.
(E) Section 2776(b), (c), and (d) of this title.
(g) Identification of persons convicted or subject to indictment for violations of certain provisions
(1) The President shall develop appropriate mechanisms to identify, in connection with the export licensing process under this section—
(A) persons who are the subject of an indictment for, or have been convicted of, a violation under—
(i) this section,
(ii) section 11 of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 U.S.C. App. 2410),2
2 See References in Text note below.
(iii) section 793, 794, or 798 of title 18 (relating to espionage involving defense or classified information) or section 2339A of such title (relating to providing material support to terrorists),
(iv) section 16 of the Trading with the Enemy Act (50 U.S.C. App. 16) [50 U.S.C. 4315],
(v) section 206 of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (relating to foreign assets controls; 50 U.S.C. App. 1705) [50 U.S.C. 1705],
(vi) section 30A of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78dd–1) or section 104 of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (15 U.S.C. 78dd–2),
(vii) chapter 105 of title 18 (relating to sabotage),
(viii) section 4(b) of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (relating to communication of classified information; 50 U.S.C. 783(b)),
(ix) section 57, 92, 101, 104, 222, 224, 225, or 226 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2077, 2122, 2131, 2134, 2272, 2274, 2275, and 2276),
(x) section 601 of the National Security Act of 1947 (relating to intelligence identities protection; [50 U.S.C. 3121]),
(xi) section 603(b) or (c) of the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986 (22 U.S.C. 5113(b) and (c)), or
(xii) sections 3, 4, 5, and 6 of the Prevention of Terrorist Access to Destructive Weapons Act of 2004, relating to missile systems designed to destroy aircraft (18 U.S.C. 2332g), prohibitions governing atomic weapons (42 U.S.C. 2122), radiological dispersal devices (18 U.S.C. 2332h), and variola virus (18 U.S.C. 175c);
(B) persons who are the subject of an indictment or have been convicted under section 371 of title 18 for conspiracy to violate any of the statutes cited in subparagraph (A); and
(C) persons who are ineligible—
(i) to contract with,
(ii) to receive a license or other form of authorization to export from, or
(iii) to receive a license or other form of authorization to import defense articles or defense services from,
any agency of the United States Government.
(2) The President shall require that each applicant for a license to export an item on the United States Munitions List identify in the application all consignees and freight forwarders involved in the proposed export.
(3) If the President determines—
(A) that an applicant for a license to export under this section is the subject of an indictment for a violation of any of the statutes cited in paragraph (1),
(B) that there is reasonable cause to believe that an applicant for a license to export under this section has violated any of the statutes cited in paragraph (1), or
(C) that an applicant for a license to export under this section is ineligible to contract with, or to receive a license or other form of authorization to import defense articles or defense services from, any agency of the United States Government,
the President may disapprove the application. The President shall consider requests by the Secretary of the Treasury to disapprove any export license application based on these criteria.
(4) A license to export an item on the United States Munitions List may not be issued to a person—
(A) if that person, or any party to the export, has been convicted of violating a statute cited in paragraph (1), or
(B) if that person, or any party to the export, is at the time of the license review ineligible to receive export licenses (or other forms of authorization to export) from any agency of the United States Government,
except as may be determined on a case-by-case basis by the President, after consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury, after a thorough review of the circumstances surrounding the conviction or ineligibility to export and a finding by the President that appropriate steps have been taken to mitigate any law enforcement concerns.
(5) A license to export an item on the United States Munitions List may not be issued to a foreign person (other than a foreign government).
(6) The President may require a license (or other form of authorization) before any item on the United States Munitions List is sold or otherwise transferred to the control or possession of a foreign person or a person acting on behalf of a foreign person.
(7) The President shall, in coordination with law enforcement and national security agencies, develop standards for identifying high-risk exports for regular end-use verification. These standards shall be published in the Federal Register and the initial standards shall be published not later than October 1, 1988.
(8) Upon request of the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of the Treasury shall detail to the office primarily responsible for export licensing functions under this section, on a nonreimbursable basis, personnel with appropriate expertise to assist in the initial screening of applications for export licenses under this section in order to determine the need for further review of those applications for foreign policy, national security, and law enforcement concerns.
(9) For purposes of this subsection—
(A) the term “foreign corporation” means a corporation that is not incorporated in the United States;
(B) the term “foreign government” includes any agency or subdivision of a foreign government, including an official mission of a foreign government;
(C) the term “foreign person” means any person who is not a citizen or national of the United States or lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence under the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.], and includes foreign corporations, international organizations, and foreign governments;
(D) the term “party to the export” means—
(i) the president, the chief executive officer, and other senior officers of the license applicant;
(ii) the freight forwarders or designated exporting agent of the license application; and
(iii) any consignee or end user of any item to be exported; and
(E) the term “person” means a natural person as well as a corporation, business association, partnership, society, trust, or any other entity, organization, or group, including governmental entities.
(h) Judicial review of designation of items as defense articles or services
(i) Report to Department of State
(j) Requirements relating to country exemptions for licensing of defense items for export to foreign countries
(1) Requirement for bilateral agreement
(A) In generalThe President may utilize the regulatory or other authority pursuant to this chapter to exempt a foreign country from the licensing requirements of this chapter with respect to exports of defense items only if the United States Government has concluded a binding bilateral agreement with the foreign country. Such agreement shall—
(i) meet the requirements set forth in paragraph (2); and
(ii) be implemented by the United States and the foreign country in a manner that is legally-binding under their domestic laws.
(B) Exception for Canada
(C) Exception for defense trade cooperation treaties
(i) In generalThe requirement to conclude a bilateral agreement in accordance with subparagraph (A) shall not apply with respect to an exemption from the licensing requirements of this chapter for the export of defense items to give effect to any of the following defense trade cooperation treaties, provided that the treaty has entered into force pursuant to article II, section 2, clause 2 of the Constitution of the United States:(I) The Treaty Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning Defense Trade Cooperation, done at Washington and London on June 21 and 26, 2007 (and any implementing arrangement thereto).(II) The Treaty Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Australia Concerning Defense Trade Cooperation, done at Sydney September 5, 2007 (and any implementing arrangement thereto).
(ii) Limitation of scopeThe United States shall exempt from the scope of a treaty referred to in clause (i)—(I) complete rocket systems (including ballistic missile systems, space launch vehicles, and sounding rockets) or complete unmanned aerial vehicle systems (including cruise missile systems, target drones, and reconnaissance drones) capable of delivering at least a 500 kilogram payload to a range of 300 kilometers, and associated production facilities, software, or technology for these systems, as defined in the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex Category I, Item 1;(II) individual rocket stages, re-entry vehicles and equipment, solid or liquid propellant motors or engines, guidance sets, thrust vector control systems, and associated production facilities, software, and technology, as defined in the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex Category I, Item 2;(III) defense articles and defense services listed in the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex Category II that are for use in rocket systems, as that term is used in such Annex, including associated production facilities, software, or technology;(IV) toxicological agents, biological agents, and associated equipment, as listed in the United States Munitions List (part 121.1 of chapter I of title 22, Code of Federal Regulations), Category XIV, subcategories (a), (b), (f)(1), (i), (j) as it pertains to (f)(1), (l) as it pertains to (f)(1), and (m) as it pertains to all of the subcategories cited in this paragraph;(V) defense articles and defense services specific to the design and testing of nuclear weapons which are controlled under United States Munitions List Category XVI(a) and (b), along with associated defense articles in Category XVI(d) and technology in Category XVI(e);(VI) with regard to the treaty cited in clause (i)(I), defense articles and defense services that the United States controls under the United States Munitions List that are not controlled by the United Kingdom, as defined in the United Kingdom Military List or Annex 4 to the United Kingdom Dual Use List, or any successor lists thereto; and(VII) with regard to the treaty cited in clause (i)(II), defense articles for which Australian laws, regulations, or other commitments would prevent Australia from enforcing the control measures specified in such treaty.
(2) Requirements of bilateral agreementA bilateral agreement referred to in paragraph (1)—
(A) shall, at a minimum, require the foreign country, as necessary, to revise its policies and practices, and promulgate or enact necessary modifications to its laws and regulations to establish an export control regime that is at least comparable to United States law, regulation, and policy requiring—
(i) conditions on the handling of all United States-origin defense items exported to the foreign country, including prior written United States Government approval for any reexports to third countries;
(ii) end-use and retransfer control commitments, including securing binding end-use and retransfer control commitments from all end-users, including such documentation as is needed in order to ensure compliance and enforcement, with respect to such United States-origin defense items;
(iii) establishment of a procedure comparable to a “watchlist” (if such a watchlist does not exist) and full cooperation with United States Government law enforcement agencies to allow for sharing of export and import documentation and background information on foreign businesses and individuals employed by or otherwise connected to those businesses; and
(iv) establishment of a list of controlled defense items to ensure coverage of those items to be exported under the exemption; and
(B) should, at a minimum, require the foreign country, as necessary, to revise its policies and practices, and promulgate or enact necessary modifications to its laws and regulations to establish an export control regime that is at least comparable to United States law, regulation, and policy regarding—
(i) controls on the export of tangible or intangible technology, including via fax, phone, and electronic media;
(ii) appropriate controls on unclassified information relating to defense items exported to foreign nationals;
(iii) controls on international arms trafficking and brokering;
(iv) cooperation with United States Government agencies, including intelligence agencies, to combat efforts by third countries to acquire defense items, the export of which to such countries would not be authorized pursuant to the export control regimes of the foreign country and the United States; and
(v) violations of export control laws, and penalties for such violations.
(3) Advance certificationNot less than 30 days before authorizing an exemption for a foreign country from the licensing requirements of this chapter for the export of defense items, the President shall transmit to the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate a certification th
(A) the United States has entered into a bilateral agreement with that foreign country satisfying all requirements set forth in paragraph (2);
(B) the foreign country has promulgated or enacted all necessary modifications to its laws and regulations to comply with its obligations under the bilateral agreement with the United States; and
(C) the appropriate congressional committees will continue to receive notifications pursuant to the authorities, procedures, and practices of section 2776 of this title for defense exports to a foreign country to which that section would apply and without regard to any form of defense export licensing exemption otherwise available for that country.
(4) DefinitionsIn this section:
(A) Defense items
(B) Appropriate congressional committeesThe term “appropriate congressional committees” means—
(i) the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives; and
(ii) the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate.
(k) Licensing of certain commerce-controlled items
(1) In general
(2) Other requirementsThe following requirements shall apply with respect to a license or other approval to authorize the export of items subject to the Export Administration Regulations under paragraph (1):
(A) Separate approval from the Department of Commerce shall not be required for such items if such items are approved for export under a Department of State license or other approval.
(B) Such items subject to the Export Administration Regulations that are exported pursuant to a Department of State license or other approval would remain under the jurisdiction of the Department of Commerce with respect to any subsequent transactions.
(C) The inclusion of the term “subject to the EAR” or any similar term on a Department of State license or approval shall not affect the jurisdiction with respect to such items.
(3) DefinitionIn this subsection, the term “Export Administration Regulations” means—
(A) the Export Administration Regulations as maintained and amended under the authority of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.); or
(B) any successor regulations.
(l) AUKUS defense trade cooperation
(1) Determination and certification
(A) In generalNot later than 120 days after December 22, 2023, the President shall determine and certify in writing, and include a detailed justification, to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives whether Australia or the United Kingdom has—
(i) implemented a system of export controls comparable to those of the United States that satisfies the elements of subsection (j)(2)(A)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) and subsection (j)(2)(B)(i), (ii) and (v) for United States-origin defense articles and defense services, and for controlling the provision of military training; and
(ii) implemented a comparable exemption from its export controls for the United States.
(B) Matters to be included
(i) Requirements met
(ii) Requirements not metIf the President makes a determination that Australia or the United Kingdom does not meet the comparability standards of clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (A), the justification required by such subparagraph shall include, as applicable—(I) the specific elements of either such clause (i) or (ii) that were determined not to meet the comparability standards;(II) the specific actions the country needs to take in order to meet the comparability standards; and(III) the actions the United States is taking, as appropriate, to facilitate that the country is granted an exemption in a timely manner upon meeting the comparability standards.
(C) Form
(2) Exemption
(3) Reassessment
(A) In generalIf the President is unable to make a determination that Australia or the United Kingdom has met the comparability standards of clauses (i) and (ii) of paragraph (1)(A) or suspends the exemption pursuant to paragraph (5), the President shall—
(i) not less frequently than once every 120 days reassess whether the country has met those requirements;
(ii) report the results of such reassessment in writing, and include a detailed justification, to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives; and
(iii) report on steps the country must take to establish the exemption.
(B) Positive reassessment
(C) Negative reassessmentIf the President finds in any reassessment under subparagraph (A) that Australia or the United Kingdom has not met the comparability standards of clauses (i) and (ii) of paragraph (1)(A), the written reassessment shall include, as applicable—
(i) the specific elements of either such clauses that were determined not to be comparable;
(ii) the specific actions the country needs to take in order to meet the comparability standards; and
(iii) the actions the United States is taking, as appropriate, to facilitate that the country is granted an exemption in a timely manner upon meeting the comparability standards.
(D) Form
(4) LimitationAn exemption described in paragraph (2) shall not apply to any activity (including exports, transfers, reexports, retransfers, temporary imports, or brokering) of defense articles and defense services between or among the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia that—
(A) are excluded by those countries;
(B) are referred to in subsection (j)(1)(C)(ii); or
(C) involve individuals or entities that are not approved by—
(i) the Secretary of State; and
(ii) the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, or other similar authority within those countries.
(5) Temporary suspension of exemption
(A) In generalThe President may suspend an exemption described in paragraph (2) with respect to Australia or the United Kingdom if the President determines and certifies in writing, and includes a detailed justification, to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives that—
(i) the country has ceased to implement a system of export controls comparable to those of the United States that satisfies the elements of subsection (j)(2)(A)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) and subsection (j)(2)(B)(i), (ii) and (v) for United States-origin defense articles and defense services, and for controlling the provision of military training; and
(ii) due to a substantial change in circumstance, the suspension is necessary to protect the vital national security or foreign policy interests of the United States in relation to the country concerned; or
(iii) the country concerned has ceased to implement a comparable exemption from its export controls for the United States.
(B) Additional matter to be included
(C) Form
(D) Report
(6) Certain requirements not applicable
(A) In general
(B) Quarterly reportsThe Secretary of State shall—
(i) require all exports and transfers that would be subject to the requirements of paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of section 2753(d) of this title but for the application of subparagraph (A) to be reported to the Secretary; and
(ii) submit such reports to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives on a quarterly basis.
(7) Sunset
(A) In general
(B) Renewal
(Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 3, § 38, as added Pub. L. 94–329, title II, § 212(a)(1), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 744; amended Pub. L. 95–92, § 20, Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 623; Pub. L. 96–70, title III, § 3303(a)(4), Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 499; Pub. L. 96–72, § 22(a), Sept. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 535; Pub. L. 96–92, § 21, Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 710; Pub. L. 96–533, title I, § 107(a), (c), Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3136; Pub. L. 97–113, title I, §§ 106, 107, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1522; Pub. L. 99–64, title I, § 123(a), July 12, 1985, 99 Stat. 156; Pub. L. 99–83, title I, § 119(a), (b), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 203, 204; Pub. L. 100–202, § 101(b) [title VIII, § 8142(a)], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–43, 1329–88; Pub. L. 100–204, title XII, § 1255, Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1429; Pub. L. 101–222, §§ 3(a), 6, Dec. 12, 1989, 103 Stat. 1896, 1899; Pub. L. 103–236, title VII, § 714(a)(1), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 497; Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §§ 151(a), 156, July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1437, 1440; Pub. L. 105–277, div. G, subdiv. A, title XII, § 1225(a)(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–773; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, § 1000(a)(7) [div. B, title XIII, §§ 1302(a), 1303, 1304], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A–510, 1501A–511; Pub. L. 106–280, title I, § 102(a), (b), Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 846, 848; Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XIV, § 1406, Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1458; Pub. L. 108–458, title VI, § 6910, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3774; Pub. L. 111–195, title I, § 107(a)(2), July 1, 2010, 124 Stat. 1337; Pub. L. 111–266, title I, §§ 102(b)–103(c), Oct. 8, 2010, 124 Stat. 2797, 2799; Pub. L. 113–276, title II, §§ 204, 205, 208(a)(1), (3), (b)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 2990–2993; Pub. L. 117–263, div. I, title XCVII, § 9708, Dec. 23, 2022, 136 Stat. 3918; Pub. L. 118–31, div. A, title XIII, §§ 1343(a), 1345(a), Dec. 22, 2023, 137 Stat. 510, 514.)