United States Code

USC most recently checked for updates: Dec 05, 2020

§ 6109.
Identifying numbers
(a)
Supplying of identifying numbers
When required by regulations prescribed by the Secretary:
(1)
Inclusion in returns

Any person required under the authority of this title to make a return, statement, or other document shall include in such return, statement, or other document such identifying number as may be prescribed for securing proper identification of such person.

(2)
Furnishing number to other persons

Any person with respect to whom a return, statement, or other document is required under the authority of this title to be made by another person or whose identifying number is required to be shown on a return of another person shall furnish to such other person such identifying number as may be prescribed for securing his proper identification.

(3)
Furnishing number of another person

Any person required under the authority of this title to make a return, statement, or other document with respect to another person shall request from such other person, and shall include in any such return, statement, or other document, such identifying number as may be prescribed for securing proper identification of such other person.

(4)
Furnishing identifying number of tax return preparer

Any return or claim for refund prepared by a tax return preparer shall bear such identifying number for securing proper identification of such preparer, his employer, or both, as may be prescribed. For purposes of this paragraph, the terms “return” and “claim for refund” have the respective meanings given to such terms by section 6696(e).

For purposes of paragraphs (1), (2), and (3), the identifying number of an individual (or his estate) shall be such individual’s social security account number.
(b)
Limitation
(1)
Except as provided in paragraph (2), a return of any person with respect to his liability for tax, or any statement or other document in support thereof, shall not be considered for purposes of paragraphs (2) and (3) of subsection (a) as a return, statement, or other document with respect to another person.
(2)
For purposes of paragraphs (2) and (3) of subsection (a), a return of an estate or trust with respect to its liability for tax, and any statement or other document in support thereof, shall be considered as a return, statement, or other document with respect to each beneficiary of such estate or trust.
(c)
Requirement of information

For purposes of this section, the Secretary is authorized to require such information as may be necessary to assign an identifying number to any person.

(d)
Use of social security account number

The social security account number issued to an individual for purposes of section 205(c)(2)(A) of the Social Security Act shall, except as shall otherwise be specified under regulations of the Secretary, be used as the identifying number for such individual for purposes of this title.

[(e)
Repealed. Pub. L. 104–188, title I, § 1615(a)(2)(A), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1853]
(f)
Access to employer identification numbers by Secretary of Agriculture for purposes of Food and Nutrition Act of 2008
(1)
In general

In the administration of section 9 of the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (7 U.S.C. 2018) involving the determination of the qualifications of applicants under such Act, the Secretary of Agriculture may, subject to this subsection, require each applicant retail store or wholesale food concern to furnish to the Secretary of Agriculture the employer identification number assigned to the store or concern pursuant to this section. The Secretary of Agriculture shall not have access to any such number for any purpose other than the establishment and maintenance of a list of the names and employer identification numbers of the stores and concerns for use in determining those applicants who have been previously sanctioned or convicted under section 12 or 15 of such Act (7 U.S.C. 2021 or 2024).

(2)
Sharing of information and safeguards
(A)
Sharing of information

The Secretary of Agriculture may share any information contained in any list referred to in paragraph (1) with any other agency or instrumentality of the United States which otherwise has access to employer identification numbers in accordance with this section or other applicable Federal law, except that the Secretary of Agriculture may share such information only to the extent that such Secretary determines such sharing would assist in verifying and matching such information against information maintained by such other agency or instrumentality. Any such information shared pursuant to this subparagraph may be used by such other agency or instrumentality only for the purpose of effective administration and enforcement of the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 or for the purpose of investigation of violations of other Federal laws or enforcement of such laws.

(B)
Safeguards

The Secretary of Agriculture, and the head of any other agency or instrumentality referred to in subparagraph (A), shall restrict, to the satisfaction of the Secretary of the Treasury, access to employer identification numbers obtained pursuant to this subsection only to officers and employees of the United States whose duties or responsibilities require access for the purposes described in subparagraph (A). The Secretary of Agriculture, and the head of any agency or instrumentality with which information is shared pursuant to subparagraph (A), shall provide such other safeguards as the Secretary of the Treasury determines to be necessary or appropriate to protect the confidentiality of the employer identification numbers.

(3)
Confidentiality and nondisclosure rules

Employer identification numbers that are obtained or maintained pursuant to this subsection by the Secretary of Agriculture or the head of any agency or instrumentality with which information is shared pursuant to paragraph (2) shall be confidential, and no officer or employee of the United States who has or had access to the employer identification numbers shall disclose any such employer identification number obtained thereby in any manner. For purposes of this paragraph, the term “officer or employee” includes a former officer or employee.

(4)
Sanctions

Paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of section 7213(a) shall apply with respect to the un­authorized willful disclosure to any person of employer identification numbers maintained pursuant to this subsection by the Secretary of Agriculture or any agency or instrumentality with which information is shared pursuant to paragraph (2) in the same manner and to the same extent as such paragraphs apply with respect to unauthorized disclosures of return and return information described in such paragraphs. Paragraph (4) of section 7213(a) shall apply with respect to the willful offer of any item of material value in exchange for any such employer identification number in the same manner and to the same extent as such paragraph applies with respect to offers (in exchange for any return or return information) described in such paragraph.

(g)
Access to employer identification numbers by Federal Crop Insurance Corporation for purposes of the Federal Crop Insurance Act
(1)
In general

In the administration of section 506 of the Federal Crop Insurance Act, the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation may require each policyholder and each reinsured company to furnish to the insurer or to the Corporation the employer identification number of such policyholder, subject to the requirements of this paragraph. No officer or employee of the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, or authorized person shall have access to any such number for any purpose other than the establishment of a system of records necessary to the effective administration of such Act. The Manager of the Corporation may require each policyholder to provide to the Manager or authorized person, at such times and in such manner as prescribed by the Manager, the employer identification number of each entity that holds or acquires a substantial beneficial interest in the policyholder. For purposes of this subclause, the term “substantial beneficial interest” means not less than 5 percent of all beneficial interest in the policyholder. The Secretary of Agriculture shall restrict, to the satisfaction of the Secretary of the Treasury, access to employer identification numbers obtained pursuant to this paragraph only to officers and employees of the United States or authorized persons whose duties or responsibilities require access for the administration of the Federal Crop Insurance Act.

(2)
Confidentiality and nondisclosure rules

Employer identification numbers maintained by the Secretary of Agriculture or the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation pursuant to this subsection shall be confidential, and except as authorized by this subsection, no officer or employee of the United States or authorized person who has or had access to such employer identification numbers shall disclose any such employer identification number obtained thereby in any manner. For purposes of this paragraph, the term “officer or employee” includes a former officer or employee. For purposes of this subsection, the term “authorized person” means an officer or employee of an insurer whom the Manager of the Corporation designates by rule, subject to appropriate safeguards including a prohibition against the release of such social security account numbers (other than to the Corporations) by such person.

(3)
Sanctions

Paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of section 7213(a) shall apply with respect to the unauthorized willful disclosure to any person of employer identification numbers maintained by the Secretary of Agriculture or the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation pursuant to this subsection in the same manner and to the same extent as such paragraphs apply with respect to unauthorized disclosures of return and return information described in such paragraphs. Paragraph (4) of section 7213(a) shall apply with respect to the willful offer of any item of material value in exchange for any such employer identification number in the same manner and to the same extent as such paragraph applies with respect to offers (in exchange for any return or return information) described in such paragraph.

(h)
Identifying information required with respect to certain seller-provided financing
(1)
Payor

If any taxpayer claims a deduction under section 163 for qualified residence interest on any seller-provided financing, such taxpayer shall include on the return claiming such deduction the name, address, and TIN of the person to whom such interest is paid or accrued.

(2)
Recipient

If any person receives or accrues interest referred to in paragraph (1), such person shall include on the return for the taxable year in which such interest is so received or accrued the name, address, and TIN of the person liable for such interest.

(3)
Furnishing of information between payor and recipient

If any person is required to include the TIN of another person on a return under paragraph (1) or (2), such other person shall furnish his TIN to such person.

(4)
Seller-provided financing

For purposes of this subsection, the term “seller-provided financing” means any indebtedness incurred in acquiring any residence if the person to whom such indebtedness is owed is the person from whom such residence was acquired.

(i)
Special rules relating to the issuance of ITINs
(1)
In general
The Secretary is authorized to issue an individual taxpayer identification number to an individual only if the applicant submits an application, using such form as the Secretary may require and including the required documentation—
(A)
in the case of an applicant not described in subparagraph (B)—
(i)
in person to an employee of the Internal Revenue Service or a community-based certifying acceptance agent approved by the Secretary, or
(ii)
by mail, pursuant to rules prescribed by the Secretary, or
(B)
in the case of an applicant who resides outside of the United States, by mail or in person to an employee of the Internal Revenue Service, a community-based certifying acceptance agent approved by the Secretary, or a designee of the Secretary at a United States diplomatic mission or consular post.
(2)
Required documentation
For purposes of this subsection—
(A)
In general

The term “required documentation” includes such documentation as the Secretary may require that proves the individual’s identity, foreign status, and residency.

(B)
Validity of documents

The Secretary may accept only original documents or certified copies meeting the requirements of the Secretary.

(3)
Term of ITIN
(A)
In general

An individual taxpayer identification number issued after December 31, 2012, shall remain in effect unless the individual to whom such number is issued does not file a return of tax (or is not included as a dependent on the return of tax of another taxpayer) for 3 consecutive taxable years ending after the issuance of such number. In the case of an individual described in the preceding sentence, such number shall expire on the day after the due date for the return of tax for such third consecutive taxable year.

(B)
Special rule for existing ITINs
In the case of an individual with respect to whom an individual taxpayer identification number was issued before January 1, 2013, such number shall remain in effect until the earlier of—
(i)
the applicable date, or
(ii)
if the individual does not file a return of tax (or is not included as a dependent on the return of tax of another taxpayer) for 3 consecutive taxable years at least one of which ends after December 18, 2015, the due date for the return of tax for such third consecutive taxable year.
(C)
Applicable date
For purposes of subparagraph (B), the term “applicable date” means—
(i)
January 1, 2017, in the case of an individual taxpayer identification number issued before January 1, 2008,
(ii)
January 1, 2018, in the case of an individual taxpayer identification number issued in 2008,
(iii)
January 1, 2019, in the case of an individual taxpayer identification number issued in 2009 or 2010, and
(iv)
January 1, 2020, in the case of an individual taxpayer identification number issued in 2011 or 2012.
(4)
Distinguishing ITINs issued solely for purposes of treaty benefits

The Secretary shall implement a system that ensures that individual taxpayer identification numbers issued solely for purposes of claiming tax treaty benefits are used only for such purposes, by distinguishing such numbers from other individual taxpayer identification numbers issued.

(Added Pub. L. 87–397, § 1(a), Oct. 5, 1961, 75 Stat. 828; amended Pub. L. 94–455, title XII, §§ 1203(d), 1211(c), title XIX, § 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1691, 1712, 1834; Pub. L. 99–514, title XV, § 1524(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2749; Pub. L. 100–485, title VII, §§ 703(c)(3), 704(a), Oct. 13, 1988, 102 Stat. 2427; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, § 11112(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–413; Pub. L. 101–624, title XVII, § 1735(c), title XXII, § 2201(d), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3792, 3953; Pub. L. 102–486, title XIX, § 1933(a), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3031; Pub. L. 103–296, title III, § 316(b), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1532; Pub. L. 103–465, title VII, § 742(b), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 5010; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §§ 1615(a)(2)(A), 1704(t)(42), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1853, 1889; Pub. L. 105–206, title III, § 3710(a), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 779; Pub. L. 110–28, title VIII, § 8246(a)(2)(D), May 25, 2007, 121 Stat. 201; Pub. L. 110–234, title IV, § 4002(b)(1)(B), (G), (2)(O), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1096, 1097; Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title IV, § 4002(b)(1)(B), (G), (2)(O), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1857, 1858; Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title II, § 203(a), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3078;
cite as: 26 USC 6109