1
 So in original. Probably should be a reference to Rule 4(i).
of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. The complaint shall be filed in camera, shall remain under seal for at least 60 days, and shall not be served on the defendant until the court so orders. The Government may elect to intervene and proceed with the action within 60 days after it receives both the complaint and the material evidence and information.
2
 So in original. Probably should be “General”.
Accounting Office report, hearing, audit, or investigation, or from the news media, the court may award such sums as it considers appropriate, but in no case more than 10 percent of the proceeds, taking into account the significance of the information and the role of the person bringing the action in advancing the case to litigation. Any payment to a person under the first or second sentence of this paragraph shall be made from the proceeds. Any such person shall also receive an amount for reasonable expenses which the court finds to have been necessarily incurred, plus reasonable attorneys’ fees and costs. All such expenses, fees, and costs shall be awarded against the defendant.
3
 So in original. Probably should be “or (ii) has”.
knowledge that is independent of and materially adds to the publicly disclosed allegations or transactions, and who has voluntarily provided the information to the Government before filing an action under this section.

Historical and Revision Notes

Revised Section

Source (U.S. Code)

Source (Statutes at Large)

3730(a)

31:233.

R.S. § 3492.

3730(b)(1)

31:232(A), (B)(less words between 3d and 4th commas).

R.S. § 3491(A)–(E); restated Dec. 23, 1943, ch. 377, § 1, 57 Stat. 608; June 11, 1960, Pub. L. 86–507, § 1(28), (29), 74 Stat. 202.

3730(b)(2)

31:232(C)(1st–3d sentences, 5th sentence proviso).

3730(b)(3)

31:232(C)(4th sentence, 5th sentence less proviso).

3730(b)(4)

31:232(C)(last sentence), (D).

3730(c)(1)

31:232(E)(1).

3730(c)(2)

31:232(E)(2)(less proviso).

3730(d)

31:232(B)(words between 3d and 4th commas), (E)(2)(proviso).

In the section, the words “civil action” are substituted for “suit” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (a), the words “Attorney General” are substituted for “several district attorneys of the United States [subsequently changed to ‘United States attorneys’ because of section 1 of the Act of June 25, 1948 (ch. 646, 62 Stat. 909)] for the respective districts, for the District of Columbia, and for the several Territories” because of 28:509. The words “by persons liable to such suit” are omitted as surplus. The words “and found within their respective districts or Territories” are omitted because of the restatement. The words “If the Attorney General finds that a person has violated or is violating section 3729, the Attorney General may bring a civil action under this section against the person” are substituted for “and to cause them to be proceeded against in due form of law for the recovery of such forfeiture and damages” for clarity and consistency. The words “as the district judge may order” are omitted as surplus. The words “of the Attorney General” are substituted for “the person bringing the suit” for consistency in the section.

In subsection (b)(1), the words “Except as hereinafter provided” are omitted as unnecessary. The words “for a violation of section 3729 of this title” are added because of the restatement. The words “and carried on”, “several” and “full power and” are omitted as surplus. The words “of the action” are substituted for “to hear, try, and determine such suit” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “Trial is in the judicial district within whose jurisdictional limits the person charged with a violation is found or the violation occurs” are substituted for “within whose jurisdictional limits the person doing or committing such act shall be found, shall wheresoever such act may have been done or committed” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The words “withdrawn or” and “judge of the” are omitted as surplus. The words “Attorney General” are substituted for “district attorney [subsequently changed to ‘United States attorneys’ because of section 1 of the Act of June 25, 1948 (ch. 646, 62 Stat. 909)], first filed in the case” because of 28:509.

In subsection (b)(2), before clause (A), the words “bill of”, “Whenever any such suit shall be brought by any person under clause (B) of this section” and “to the effective prosecution of such suit or” are omitted as surplus. The words “served on the Government under rule 4 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.)” are substituted for “notice . . . shall be given to the United States by serving upon the United States Attorney for the district in which such suit shall have been brought . . . and by sending, by registered mail, or by certified mail, to the Attorney General of the United States at Washington, District of Columbia” because of 28:509 and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “proceed with the action” are added for clarity. Clause (A) is substituted for “shall fail, or decline in writing to the court, during said period of sixty days to enter any such suit” for clarity and consistency. In clause (B), the words “a period of” and “therein” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(3), the words “within said period” are omitted as surplus. The words “proceeds with the action” are substituted for “shall enter appearance in such suit” for consistency. The words “In carrying on such suit” and “and may proceed in all respects as if it were instituting the suit” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(4), the words “Unless the Government proceeds with the action” are added because of the restatement. The words “shall dismiss an action brought by the person on discovering” are substituted for “shall have no jurisdiction to proceed with any such suit . . . or pending suit . . . whenever it shall be made to appear that” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “or any agency, officer, or employee thereof” are omitted as unnecessary. The text of 31:232(C)(last sentence proviso) and (D) is omitted as executed.

In subsection (c), the words “herein provided”, “fair and . . . compensation to such person”, and “involved therein, which shall be collected” are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(2), the words “whether heretofore or hereafter brought” are omitted as unnecessary. The words “bringing the action or settling the claim” are substituted for “who brought such suit and prosecuted it to final judgment, or to settlement” for clarity and consistency. The words “as provided in clause (B) of this section” are omitted as unnecessary. The words “the civil penalty” are substituted for “forfeiture” for clarity and consistency. The words “to his own use”, “the court may”, and “to be allowed and taxed according to any provision of law or rule of court in force, or that shall be in force in suits between private parties in said court” are omitted as surplus.

Subsection (d) is substituted for 31:232(B)(words between 3d and 4th commas) and (E)(2)(proviso) to eliminate unnecessary words.

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), (3), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Section 101(f) of the Ethics in Government Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (e)(2)(B), is section 101(f) of Pub. L. 95–521, title I, Oct. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 1824, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 111–148 added par. (4) and struck out former par. (4) which read as follows:

“(4)(A) No court shall have jurisdiction over an action under this section based upon the public disclosure of allegations or transactions in a criminal, civil, or administrative hearing, in a congressional, administrative, or Government Accounting Office report, hearing, audit, or investigation, or from the news media, unless the action is brought by the Attorney General or the person bringing the action is an original source of the information.

“(B) For purposes of this paragraph, ‘original source’ means an individual who has direct and independent knowledge of the information on which the allegations are based and has voluntarily provided the information to the Government before filing an action under this section which is based on the information.”

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 111–203, § 1079A(c)(1), substituted “agent or associated others in furtherance of an action under this section or other efforts to stop 1 or more violations of this subchapter” for “or agent on behalf of the employee, contractor, or agent or associated others in furtherance of other efforts to stop 1 or more violations of this subchapter”.

Subsec. (h)(3). Pub. L. 111–203, § 1079A(c)(2), added par. (3).

2009—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 111–21 amended subsec. (h) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (h) read as follows: “Any employee who is discharged, demoted, suspended, threatened, harassed, or in any other manner discriminated against in the terms and conditions of employment by his or her employer because of lawful acts done by the employee on behalf of the employee or others in furtherance of an action under this section, including investigation for, initiation of, testimony for, or assistance in an action filed or to be filed under this section, shall be entitled to all relief necessary to make the employee whole. Such relief shall include reinstatement with the same seniority status such employee would have had but for the discrimination, 2 times the amount of back pay, interest on the back pay, and compensation for any special damages sustained as a result of the discrimination, including litigation costs and reasonable attorneys’ fees. An employee may bring an action in the appropriate district court of the United States for the relief provided in this subsection.”

1994—Subsec. (e)(2)(B). Pub. L. 103–272 substituted “paragraphs (1) through (8)” for “section paragraphs (1) through (8)”.

1990—Subsec. (e)(2)(B). Pub. L. 101–280 substituted “paragraphs (1) through (8) of section 101(f)” for “201(f)”.

1988—Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 100–700, § 9(b)(1), which directed amendment of section 3730 of title 28 by substituting “with the action” for “with action” in subsec. (c)(4), was executed to subsec. (c)(4) of this section as the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 100–700, § 9(a)(1), (2), added par. (3). Former par. (3) redesignated (4).

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 100–700, § 9(b)(2), which directed amendment of section 3730 of title 28 by substituting “claim of the person bringing the action” for “claim of the person bringing the actions” in subsec. (d)(4), was executed to subsec. (d)(4) of this section as the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 100–700, § 9(a)(1), redesignated former par. (3) as (4).

1986—Pub. L. 99–562, § 3, amended section generally, revising and expanding provisions of subsecs. (a) to (c), adding subsecs. (d) and (e), redesignating former subsec. (d) as (f), and adding subsec. (g).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 99–562, § 4, added subsec. (h).

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203 effective 1 day after July 21, 2010, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5301 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–21 effective May 20, 2009, and applicable to conduct on or after May 20, 2009, see section 4(f) of Pub. L. 111–21, set out as a note under section 3729 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–280, § 10(c), May 4, 1990, 104 Stat. 162, provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section and section 2397a of Title 10, Armed Forces] shall take effect on January 1, 1991.”