United States Code

USC most recently checked for updates: Oct 25, 2020

§ 474.
Travel and transportation allowances: general
(a)
Except as provided in subsection (f) and under regulations prescribed by the Secretaries concerned, a member of a uniformed service is entitled to travel and transportation allowances for travel performed or to be performed under orders, without regard to the comparative costs of the various modes of transportation—
(1)
upon a change of permanent station, or otherwise, or when away from his designated post of duty regardless of the length of time he is away from that post;
(2)
upon appointment, call to active duty, enlistment, or induction, from his home or from the place from which called or ordered to active duty to his first station;
(3)
upon separation from the service, placement on the temporary disability retired list, release from active duty, or retirement, from his last duty station to his home or the place from which he was called or ordered to active duty, whether or not he is or will be a member of a uniformed service at the time the travel is or will be performed;
(4)
when away from home to perform duty, including duty by a member of the Army National Guard of the United States or the Air National Guard of the United States, as the case may be, in his status as a member of the National Guard, for which he is entitled to, or has waived, pay under this title;
(5)
when not on active duty, if assigned to a Reserve school, and attending a reserve training meeting for the purpose of performing duties as an instructor at such meeting, if such meeting is 100 or more miles from the site at which the member would attend paid drills of the Reserve school to which he is assigned; and
(6)
upon filling a vacancy in a Selected Reserve unit at a duty station that is more than 150 miles from the member’s residence if—
(A)
during the preceding three years the member was involuntarily separated under other than adverse conditions (as characterized by the Secretary concerned) while assigned to a unit of the Selected Reserve certified by the Secretary concerned as having been adversely affected by force structure reductions during the period beginning on October 1, 2012, and ending on December 31, 2018;
(B)
the involuntary separation occurred during the period beginning on October 1, 2012, and ending on December 31, 2018; and
(C)
the member is—
(i)
qualified in a skill designated as critically short by the Secretary concerned; or
(ii)
filling a vacancy in a Selected Reserve unit with a critical manpower shortage, or in a pay grade with a critical manpower shortage in such unit.
(b)
(1)
The Secretaries concerned may prescribe—
(A)
the conditions under which travel and transportation allowances are authorized, including advance payments thereof; and
(B)
the allowances for the kinds of travel, but not more than the amounts authorized in this section.
(2)
In prescribing such conditions and allowances, the Secretaries concerned shall provide that a member who is performing travel under orders away from his designated post of duty and who is authorized a per diem under clause (2) of subsection (d) shall be paid for the meals portion of that per diem in a cash amount at a rate that is not less than the rate established under section 1011(a) of this title for meals sold to members. The preceding sentence shall not apply with respect to a member on field duty or sea duty (as defined in regulations prescribed under section 403(f)(3) of this title) or a member of a unit with respect to which the Secretary concerned has determined that unit messing is essential to the accomplishment of the unit’s training and readiness.
(c)
(1)
Under uniform regulations prescribed by the Secretaries concerned and as provided in paragraph (2), a member who—
(A)
is retired, or is placed on the temporary disability retired list, under chapter 61 of title 10;
(B)
is retired with pay under any other law, or, immediately following at least eight years of continuous active duty with no single break therein or more than 90 days, is discharged with separation pay or severance pay or is involuntarily released from active duty with separation pay or readjustment pay; or
(C)
is involuntarily separated from active duty during the period beginning on October 1, 1990, and ending on December 31, 2001,
may, not later than one year from the date he is so retired, placed on that list, involuntarily separated, discharged, or released, except as prescribed in regulations by the Secretaries concerned, select his home for the purposes of the travel and transportation allowances authorized by subsection (a).
(2)
A member authorized under paragraph (1) to select a home for the purposes of such allowances may select as his home—
(A)
any place within the United States;
(B)
the place outside the United States from which the member was called or ordered to active duty to his first duty station; or
(C)
any other place.
However, if the member selects as his home a place other than a place described in clause (A) or (B) of the preceding sentence, the travel and transportation allowances authorized by subsection (a) may not exceed the allowances which would be payable if the place selected as his home were in the United States (other than Hawaii or Alaska).
(d)
(1)
The travel and transportation allowances authorized for each kind of travel may not be more than one of the following:
(A)
Transportation in kind, reimbursement therefor, or, under regulations prescribed by the Secretaries concerned, when travel by privately owned conveyance is authorized or approved as more advantageous to the Government, a monetary allowance in place of the cost of transportation, at the rates provided in section 5704 of title 5.
(B)
Transportation in kind, reimbursement therefor, or a monetary allowance as provided in subparagraph (A), plus a payment in lieu of subsistence as provided in paragraph (2) in an amount sufficient to meet normal and necessary expenses in the area to which travel is performed.
(C)
A mileage allowance at a rate per mile prescribed by the Secretaries concerned and based on distances established under subparagraph (A).
(2)
Under regulations prescribed by the Secretaries concerned, a member of a uniformed service entitled to travel and transportation allowances under subsection (a) is entitled to any of the following:
(A)
A per diem allowance at a rate not to exceed that established by the Secretaries concerned.
(B)
Reimbursement for the actual and necessary expenses of official travel not to exceed an amount established by the Secretaries concerned.
(C)
A combination of payments described in subparagraphs (A) and (B).
(3)
A per diem allowance or maximum amount of reimbursement established for purposes of paragraph (2) shall be established, to the extent feasible, by locality. The Secretary of a military department shall not alter the amount of the per diem allowance, or the maximum amount of reimbursement, for a locality based on the duration of the temporary duty assignment in the locality of a member of the armed forces under the jurisdiction of the Secretary.
(4)
For travel consuming less than a full day, the payment prescribed by regulation under paragraph (2) shall be allocated in such manner as the Secretaries concerned prescribe.
(5)
Effective January 1, 2003, the per diem rates established under paragraph (2)(A) for travel performed in connection with a change of permanent station or for travel described in paragraph (2) or (3) of subsection (a) shall be equal to the standard per diem rates established in the Federal travel regulation for travel within the continental United States of civilian employees and their dependents, unless the Secretaries concerned determine that a higher rate for members is more appropriate.
(e)
A member who is on duty with, or is undergoing training for, the Air Mobility Command, the Marine Corps Transport Squadrons, the Fleet Tactical Support Squadrons, the Naval Aircraft Ferrying Squadrons, or any other unit determined by the Secretary concerned to be performing duties similar to the duties performed by such command or squadrons, and who is away from his permanent station, may be paid a per diem in lieu of subsistence in an amount not more than the amount to which he would be entitled if he were performing travel in connection with temporary duty without, in either case, the issuance of orders for specific travel.
(f)
(1)
The travel and transportation allowances authorized under this section for a member who is separated from the service or released from active duty may be paid or provided only for travel actually performed.
(2)
(A)
Except as provided in subparagraph (B), a member who is separated from the service or released from active duty and who—
(i)
on the date of his separation from the service or release from active duty, has not served on active duty for a period of time equal to at least 90 percent of the period of time for which he initially enlisted or otherwise initially agreed to serve; or
(ii)
is separated from the service or released from active duty under other than honorable conditions, as determined by the Secretary concerned;
may be provided travel and transportation under this section only by transportation in kind by the least expensive mode of transportation available or by a monetary allowance that does not exceed the cost to the Government of such transportation in kind.
(B)
Subparagraph (A) does not apply to a member—
(i)
who is retired, or is placed on the temporary disability retired list, under chapter 61 of title 10;
(ii)
who is separated from the service or released from active duty for a medical condition affecting the member, as determined by the Secretary concerned;
(iii)
who is separated from the service or released from active duty because the period of time for which the member initially enlisted or otherwise initially agreed to serve has been reduced by the Secretary concerned and is separated or released under honorable conditions;
(iv)
who is discharged under section 1173 of title 10; or
(v)
who is involuntarily separated from active duty during the period beginning on October 1, 1990, and ending on December 31, 2001.
(3)
For purposes of entitlement to per diem in place of subsistence under subsection (d)(2), a member shall not be considered under subsection (a)(1) to be performing travel under orders away from his designated post of duty if such member—
(A)
is an enlisted member serving his first tour of active duty;
(B)
has not actually reported to a permanent duty station pursuant to orders directing such assignment; and
(C)
is not actually traveling between stations pursuant to orders directing a change of station.
(4)
(A)
A member may be provided travel and transportation allowances under subsection (a)(6) only with respect to the filling of a vacancy in a Selected Reserve unit one time.
(B)
Regulations under this section shall provide that whenever travel and transportation allowances are paid under subsection (a)(6), the cost shall be borne by the unit filling the vacancy.
(g)
(1)
Subject to paragraph (2), a member of the armed forces accompanying a Member of Congress or a congressional employee on official travel may be authorized reimbursement for actual travel and transportation expenses incurred for such travel.
(2)
The reimbursement authorized in paragraph (1) may be paid—
(A)
at a rate that does not exceed the rate approved for official congressional travel; and
(B)
only when the travel of the member is directed or approved by the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary concerned.
(3)
In this subsection:
(A)
The term “Member of Congress” means a member of the Senate or the House of Representatives, a Delegate to the House of Representatives, and the Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico.
(B)
The term “congressional employee” means an employee of a Member of Congress or an employee of Congress.
(h)
Under uniform regulations prescribed by the Secretaries concerned, a member of a uniformed service entitled to travel and transportation allowances under subsection (a) is entitled to reimbursement for parking fees, ferry fares, and bridge, road, and tunnel tolls actually incurred incident to such travel.
(i)
(1)
In the case of a member of a reserve component performing active duty for training or inactive-duty training who is not otherwise entitled to travel and transportation allowances in connection with such duty under subsection (a), the Secretary concerned may reimburse the member for housing service charge expenses incurred by the member in occupying transient government housing during the performance of such duty. If transient government housing is unavailable or inadequate, the Secretary concerned may provide the member with lodging in kind in the same manner as members entitled to such allowances under subsection (a).
(2)
Any payment or other benefit under this subsection shall be provided in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretaries concerned.
(3)
The Secretary may pay service charge expenses under paragraph (1) and expenses of providing lodging in kind under such paragraph out of funds appropriated for operation and maintenance for the reserve component concerned. Use of Government charge cards is authorized for payment of these expenses.
(4)
Decisions regarding the availability or adequacy of government housing at a military installation under paragraph (1) shall be made by the installation commander.
(j)
In this section (except subsection (a)(6)), the term “involuntarily separated” has the meaning given that term in section 1141 of title 10.
(k)
No travel and transportation allowance or reimbursement may be provided under this section for travel that begins after the travel authorities transition expiration date.
(Pub. L. 87–649, Sept. 7, 1962, 76 Stat. 472, § 404; Pub. L. 89–680, § 1(1), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 957; Pub. L. 89–718, §§ 55, 56, Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1122, 1123; Pub. L. 90–168, § 3, Dec. 1, 1967, 81 Stat. 525; Pub. L. 91–183, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 840; Pub. L. 94–296, § 1, May 29, 1976, 90 Stat. 584; Pub. L. 96–342, title VIII, § 807(a), Sept. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1096; Pub. L. 96–343, § 5(a), Sept. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1126; Pub. L. 97–60, title I, § 121(a), Oct. 14, 1981, 95 Stat. 999; Pub. L. 98–94, title IX, § 908(b), Sept. 24, 1983, 97 Stat. 637; Pub. L. 98–525, title V, § 533(g), title VI, § 613(a), title XIV, § 1402(c), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2528, 2539, 2621; Pub. L. 99–145, title VI, § 612(a), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 639; Pub. L. 99–500, § 101(c) [title IX, § 9073], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783–113, and Pub. L. 99–591, § 101(c) [title IX, § 9073], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341–113; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title VI, § 614(a), title XIII, § 1343(b)(2), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3879, 3995; Pub. L. 100–26, § 8(a), (d)(6), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 284, 285; Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title VI, § 617(a), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1096; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VI, § 621(a), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1446; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title V, § 503(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1558; Pub. L. 102–25, title VII, § 702(b)(1)–(3), (c), Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 117; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title VI, § 624, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2423; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title V, § 561(l)(1), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1668; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title VI, §§ 621, 622, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2784; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title VI, § 621, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 363; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title XII, § 1252, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2698; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title VI, § 602(b)(1), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1772; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title V, § 561(f), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2025; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title VI, § 631, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 661; Pub. L. 106–398, § 1 [[div. A], title V, § 571(f), title X, § 1087(b)(3)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–134, 1654A–292; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title VI, § 631, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1143; renumbered § 474 and amended Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title VI, § 631(d)(2), (e)(1), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1460, 1461; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title VI, § 621(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1778; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VI, § 603(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1794.)
cite as: 37 USC 474