United States Code
USC most recently checked for updates: Oct 31, 2020
Except as provided in paragraph (2), this section shall apply to payment for drugs and biologicals that are described in section 1395u(o)(1)(C) of this title and that are furnished on or after
This section shall not apply in the case of a physician who elects under subsection (a)(1)(A)(ii) of section 1395w–3b of this title for that section to apply instead of this section for the payment for drugs and biologicals.
The manufacturer of a drug or biological shall specify the unit associated with each National Drug Code (including package size) as part of the submission of data under section 1396r–8(b)(3)(A)(iii) of this title.
In this section, the term “unit” means, with respect to each National Drug Code (including package size) associated with a drug or biological, the lowest identifiable quantity (such as a capsule or tablet, milligram of molecules, or grams) of the drug or biological that is dispensed, exclusive of any diluent without reference to volume measures pertaining to liquids. For years after 2004, the Secretary may establish the unit for a manufacturer to report and methods for counting units as the Secretary determines appropriate to implement this section.
The average sales price as determined using the methodology applied under paragraph (3) for single source drugs and biologicals furnished before
The wholesale acquisition cost (as defined in subsection (c)(6)(B)) using the methodology applied under paragraph (3) for single source drugs and biologicals furnished before
The payment amount shall be determined under this subsection based on information reported under subsection (f) and without regard to any special packaging, labeling, or identifiers on the dosage form or product or package.
For purposes of this subsection, the term “billing unit” means the identifiable quantity associated with a billing and payment code, as established by the Secretary.
Sales exempt from the inclusion in the determination of “best price” under section 1396r–8(c)(1)(C)(i) of this title.
Such other sales as the Secretary identifies as sales to an entity that are merely nominal in amount (as applied for purposes of section 1396r–8(c)(1)(C)(ii)(III) of this title, except as the Secretary may otherwise provide).
In calculating the manufacturer’s average sales price under this subsection, such price shall include volume discounts, prompt pay discounts, cash discounts, free goods that are contingent on any purchase requirement, chargebacks, and rebates (other than rebates under section 1396r–8 of this title). For years after 2004, the Secretary may include in such price other price concessions, which may be based on recommendations of the Inspector General, that would result in a reduction of the cost to the purchaser.
The manufacturer’s average sales price, for a drug or biological of a manufacturer, shall be calculated by such manufacturer under this subsection on a quarterly basis. In making such calculation insofar as there is a lag in the reporting of the information on rebates and chargebacks under paragraph (3) so that adequate data are not available on a timely basis, the manufacturer shall apply a methodology based on a 12-month rolling average for the manufacturer to estimate costs attributable to rebates and chargebacks. For years after 2004, the Secretary may establish a uniform methodology under this subparagraph to estimate and apply such costs.
The payment amounts under subsection (b) shall be updated by the Secretary on a quarterly basis and shall be applied based upon the manufacturer’s average sales price calculated for the most recent calendar quarter for which data is available.
The Secretary may contract with appropriate entities to calculate the payment amount under subsection (b). Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary may implement, by program instruction or otherwise, any of the provisions of this section.
The term “manufacturer” means, with respect to a drug or biological, the manufacturer (as defined in section 1396r–8(k)(5) of this title).
The term “wholesale acquisition cost” means, with respect to a drug or biological, the manufacturer’s list price for the drug or biological to wholesalers or direct purchasers in the United States, not including prompt pay or other discounts, rebates or reductions in price, for the most recent month for which the information is available, as reported in wholesale price guides or other publications of drug or biological pricing data.
With respect to single source drugs or biologicals that are within the same billing and payment code as of
Subparagraph (C)(ii) shall not apply if the Food and Drug Administration changes by regulation the requirement that, for purposes of the publication described in subparagraph (C)(i), in order for drug products to be rated as therapeutically equivalent, they must be pharmaceutically equivalent and bioequivalent, as defined in subparagraph (F).
The term “biosimilar biological product” means a biological product approved under an abbreviated application for a license of a biological product that relies in part on data or information in an application for another biological product licensed under section 262 of this title.
The term “reference biological product” means the biological product licensed under such section 262 of this title that is referred to in the application described in subparagraph (H) of the biosimilar biological product.
The Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services shall conduct studies, which may include surveys, to determine the widely available market prices of drugs and biologicals to which this section applies, as the Inspector General, in consultation with the Secretary, determines to be appropriate.
The Secretary may disregard the average sales price for a drug or biological that exceeds the widely available market price or the average manufacturer price for such drug or biological by the applicable threshold percentage (as defined in subparagraph (B)).
If the Secretary determines that a manufacturer has made a misrepresentation in the reporting of the manufacturer’s average sales price for a drug or biological, the Secretary may apply a civil money penalty in an amount of up to $10,000 for each such price misrepresentation and for each day in which such price misrepresentation was applied.
In this subsection, the term “widely available market price” means the price that a prudent physician or supplier would pay for the drug or biological. In determining such price, the Inspector General shall take into account the discounts, rebates, and other price concessions routinely made available to such prudent physicians or suppliers for such drugs or biologicals.
For requirements for reporting the manufacturer’s average sales price (and, if required to make payment, the manufacturer’s wholesale acquisition cost) for the drug or biological under this section, see section 1396r–8(b)(3) of this title.