United States Code

USC most recently checked for updates: Oct 23, 2020

§ 1396.
Medicaid and CHIP Payment and Access Commission
(a)
Establishment

There is hereby established the Medicaid and CHIP Payment and Access Commission (in this section referred to as “MACPAC”).

(b)
Duties
(1)
Review of access policies for all States and annual reports
MACPAC shall—
(A)
review policies of the Medicaid program established under this subchapter (in this section referred to as “Medicaid”) and the State Children’s Health Insurance Program established under subchapter XXI (in this section referred to as “CHIP”) affecting access to covered items and services, including topics described in paragraph (2);
(B)
make recommendations to Congress, the Secretary, and States concerning such access policies;
(C)
by not later than March 15 of each year (beginning with 2010), submit a report to Congress containing the results of such reviews and MACPAC’s recommendations concerning such policies; and
(D)
by not later than June 15 of each year (beginning with 2010), submit a report to Congress containing an examination of issues affecting Medicaid and CHIP, including the implications of changes in health care delivery in the United States and in the market for health care services on such programs.
(2)
Specific topics to be reviewed
Specifically, MACPAC shall review and assess the following:
(A)
Medicaid and CHIP payment policies
Payment policies under Medicaid and CHIP, including—
(i)
the factors affecting expenditures for the efficient provision of items and services in different sectors, including the process for updating payments to medical, dental, and health professionals, hospitals, residential and long-term care providers, providers of home and community based services, Federally-qualified health centers and rural health clinics, managed care entities, and providers of other covered items and services;
(ii)
payment methodologies; and
(iii)
the relationship of such factors and methodologies to access and quality of care for Medicaid and CHIP beneficiaries (including how such factors and methodologies enable such beneficiaries to obtain the services for which they are eligible, affect provider supply, and affect providers that serve a disproportionate share of low-income and other vulnerable populations).
(B)
Eligibility policies

Medicaid and CHIP eligibility policies, including a determination of the degree to which Federal and State policies provide health care coverage to needy populations.

(C)
Enrollment and retention processes

Medicaid and CHIP enrollment and retention processes, including a determination of the degree to which Federal and State policies encourage the enrollment of individuals who are eligible for such programs and screen out individuals who are ineligible, while minimizing the share of program expenses devoted to such processes.

(D)
Coverage policies

Medicaid and CHIP benefit and coverage policies, including a determination of the degree to which Federal and State policies provide access to the services enrollees require to improve and maintain their health and functional status.

(E)
Quality of care

Medicaid and CHIP policies as they relate to the quality of care provided under those programs, including a determination of the degree to which Federal and State policies achieve their stated goals and interact with similar goals established by other purchasers of health care services.

(F)
Interaction of Medicaid and CHIP payment policies with health care delivery generally

The effect of Medicaid and CHIP payment policies on access to items and services for children and other Medicaid and CHIP populations other than under this subchapter or subchapter XXI and the implications of changes in health care delivery in the United States and in the general market for health care items and services on Medicaid and CHIP.

(G)
Interactions with Medicare and Medicaid

Consistent with paragraph (11), the interaction of policies under Medicaid and the Medicare program under subchapter XVIII, including with respect to how such interactions affect access to services, payments, and dual eligible individuals.

(H)
Other access policies

The effect of other Medicaid and CHIP policies on access to covered items and services, including policies relating to transportation and language barriers and preventive, acute, and long-term services and supports.

(3)
Recommendations and reports of State-specific data
MACPAC shall—
(A)
review national and State-specific Medicaid and CHIP data; and
(B)
submit reports and recommendations to Congress, the Secretary, and States based on such reviews.
(4)
Creation of early-warning system

MACPAC shall create an early-warning system to identify provider shortage areas, as well as other factors that adversely affect, or have the potential to adversely affect, access to care by, or the health care status of, Medicaid and CHIP beneficiaries. MACPAC shall include in the annual report required under paragraph (1)(D) a description of all such areas or problems identified with respect to the period addressed in the report.

(5)
Comments on certain secretarial reports and regulations
(A)
Certain secretarial reports

(B)
Regulations

MACPAC shall review Medicaid and CHIP regulations and may comment through submission of a report to the appropriate committees of Congress and the Secretary, on any such regulations that affect access, quality, or efficiency of health care.

(6)
Agenda and additional reviews
(A)
In general

MACPAC shall consult periodically with the chairmen and ranking minority members of the appropriate committees of Congress regarding MACPAC’s agenda and progress towards achieving the agenda. MACPAC may conduct additional reviews, and submit additional reports to the appropriate committees of Congress, from time to time on such topics relating to the program under this subchapter or subchapter XXI as may be requested by such chairmen and members and as MACPAC deems appropriate.

(B)
Review and reports regarding Medicaid DSH
(i)
In general

MACPAC shall review and submit an annual report to Congress on disproportionate share hospital payments under section 1396r–4 of this title. Each report shall include the information specified in clause (ii).

(ii)
Required report information
Each report required under this subparagraph shall include the following:
(I)
Data relating to changes in the number of uninsured individuals.
(II)
Data relating to the amount and sources of hospitals’ uncompensated care costs, including the amount of such costs that are the result of providing unreimbursed or under-reimbursed services, charity care, or bad debt.
(III)
Data identifying hospitals with high levels of uncompensated care that also provide access to essential community services for low-income, uninsured, and vulnerable populations, such as graduate medical education, and the continuum of primary through quarternary care, including the provision of trauma care and public health services.
(IV)
State-specific analyses regarding the relationship between the most recent State DSH allotment and the projected State DSH allotment for the succeeding year and the data reported under subclauses (I), (II), and (III) for the State.
(iii)
Data

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary regularly shall provide MACPAC with the most recent State reports and most recent independent certified audits submitted under section 1396r–4(j) of this title, cost reports submitted under subchapter XVIII, and such other data as MACPAC may request for purposes of conducting the reviews and preparing and submitting the annual reports required under this subparagraph.

(iv)
Submission deadlines

The first report required under this subparagraph shall be submitted to Congress not later than February 1, 2016. Subsequent reports shall be submitted as part of, or with, each annual report required under paragraph (1)(C) during the period of fiscal years 2017 through 2024.

(7)
Availability of reports

MACPAC shall transmit to the Secretary a copy of each report submitted under this subsection and shall make such reports available to the public.

(8)
Appropriate committee of Congress

For purposes of this section, the term “appropriate committees of Congress” means the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate.

(9)
Voting and reporting requirements

With respect to each recommendation contained in a report submitted under paragraph (1), each member of MACPAC shall vote on the recommendation, and MACPAC shall include, by member, the results of that vote in the report containing the recommendation.

(10)
Examination of budget consequences

Before making any recommendations, MACPAC shall examine the budget consequences of such recommendations, directly or through consultation with appropriate expert entities, and shall submit with any recommendations, a report on the Federal and State-specific budget consequences of the recommendations.

(11)
Consultation and coordination with MEDPAC
(A)
In general

MACPAC shall consult with the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (in this paragraph referred to as “MedPAC”) established under section 1395b–6 of this title in carrying out its duties under this section, as appropriate and particularly with respect to the issues specified in paragraph (2) as they relate to those Medicaid beneficiaries who are dually eligible for Medicaid and the Medicare program under subchapter XVIII, adult Medicaid beneficiaries (who are not dually eligible for Medicare), and beneficiaries under Medicare. Responsibility for analysis of and recommendations to change Medicare policy regarding Medicare beneficiaries, including Medicare beneficiaries who are dually eligible for Medicare and Medicaid, shall rest with MedPAC.

(B)
Information sharing

MACPAC and MedPAC shall have access to deliberations and records of the other such entity, respectively, upon the request of the other such entity.

(12)
Consultation with States

MACPAC shall regularly consult with States in carrying out its duties under this section, including with respect to developing processes for carrying out such duties, and shall ensure that input from States is taken into account and represented in MACPAC’s recommendations and reports.

(13)
Coordinate and consult with the Federal Coordinated Health Care Office

MACPAC shall coordinate and consult with the Federal Coordinated Health Care Office established under section 2081 1

1
 See References in Text note below.
of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act before making any recommendations regarding dual eligible individuals.

(14)
Programmatic oversight vested in the Secretary

MACPAC’s authority to make recommendations in accordance with this section shall not affect, or be considered to duplicate, the Secretary’s authority to carry out Federal responsibilities with respect to Medicaid and CHIP.

(c)
Membership
(1)
Number and appointment

MACPAC shall be composed of 17 members appointed by the Comptroller General of the United States.

(2)
Qualifications
(A)
In general

The membership of MACPAC shall include individuals who have had direct experience as enrollees or parents or caregivers of enrollees in Medicaid or CHIP and individuals with national recognition for their expertise in Federal safety net health programs, health finance and economics, actuarial science, health plans and integrated delivery systems, reimbursement for health care, health information technology, and other providers of health services, public health, and other related fields, who provide a mix of different professions, broad geographic representation, and a balance between urban and rural representation.

(B)
Inclusion

The membership of MACPAC shall include (but not be limited to) physicians, dentists, and other health professionals, employers, third-party payers, and individuals with expertise in the delivery of health services. Such membership shall also include representatives of children, pregnant women, the elderly, individuals with disabilities, caregivers, and dual eligible individuals, current or former representatives of State agencies responsible for administering Medicaid, and current or former representatives of State agencies responsible for administering CHIP.

(C)
Majority nonproviders

Individuals who are directly involved in the provision, or management of the delivery, of items and services covered under Medicaid or CHIP shall not constitute a majority of the membership of MACPAC.

(D)
Ethical disclosure

The Comptroller General of the United States shall establish a system for public disclosure by members of MACPAC of financial and other potential conflicts of interest relating to such members. Members of MACPAC shall be treated as employees of Congress for purposes of applying title I of the Ethics in Government Act of 1978 (Public Law 95–521) [5 U.S.C. App.].

(3)
Terms
(A)
In general

The terms of members of MACPAC shall be for 3 years except that the Comptroller General of the United States shall designate staggered terms for the members first appointed.

(B)
Vacancies

Any member appointed to fill a vacancy occurring before the expiration of the term for which the member’s predecessor was appointed shall be appointed only for the remainder of that term. A member may serve after the expiration of that member’s term until a successor has taken office. A vacancy in MACPAC shall be filled in the manner in which the original appointment was made.

(4)
Compensation

While serving on the business of MACPAC (including travel time), a member of MACPAC shall be entitled to compensation at the per diem equivalent of the rate provided for level IV of the Executive Schedule under section 5315 of title 5; and while so serving away from home and the member’s regular place of business, a member may be allowed travel expenses, as authorized by the Chairman of MACPAC. Physicians serving as personnel of MACPAC may be provided a physician comparability allowance by MACPAC in the same manner as Government physicians may be provided such an allowance by an agency under section 5948 of title 5, and for such purpose subsection (i) of such section shall apply to MACPAC in the same manner as it applies to the Tennessee Valley Authority. For purposes of pay (other than pay of members of MACPAC) and employment benefits, rights, and privileges, all personnel of MACPAC shall be treated as if they were employees of the United States Senate.

(5)
Chairman; Vice Chairman

The Comptroller General of the United States shall designate a member of MACPAC, at the time of appointment of the member 2

2
 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.
as Chairman and a member as Vice Chairman for that term of appointment, except that in the case of vacancy of the Chairmanship or Vice Chairmanship, the Comptroller General of the United States may designate another member for the remainder of that member’s term.

(6)
Meetings

MACPAC shall meet at the call of the Chairman.

(d)
Director and staff; experts and consultants
Subject to such review as the Comptroller General of the United States deems necessary to assure the efficient administration of MACPAC, MACPAC may—
(1)
employ and fix the compensation of an Executive Director (subject to the approval of the Comptroller General of the United States) and such other personnel as may be necessary to carry out its duties (without regard to the provisions of title 5 governing appointments in the competitive service);
(2)
seek such assistance and support as may be required in the performance of its duties from appropriate Federal and State departments and agencies;
(3)
enter into contracts or make other arrangements, as may be necessary for the conduct of the work of MACPAC (without regard to section 6101 of title 41);
(4)
make advance, progress, and other payments which relate to the work of MACPAC;
(5)
provide transportation and subsistence for persons serving without compensation; and
(6)
prescribe such rules and regulations as it deems necessary with respect to the internal organization and operation of MACPAC.
(e)
Powers
(1)
Obtaining official data

MACPAC may secure directly from any department or agency of the United States and, as a condition for receiving payments under sections 1396b(a) and 1397ee(a) of this title, from any State agency responsible for administering Medicaid or CHIP, information necessary to enable it to carry out this section. Upon request of the Chairman, the head of that department or agency shall furnish that information to MACPAC on an agreed upon schedule.

(2)
Data collection
In order to carry out its functions, MACPAC shall—
(A)
utilize existing information, both published and unpublished, where possible, collected and assessed either by its own staff or under other arrangements made in accordance with this section;
(B)
carry out, or award grants or contracts for, original research and experimentation, where existing information is inadequate; and
(C)
adopt procedures allowing any interested party to submit information for MACPAC’s use in making reports and recommendations.
(3)
Access of GAO to information

The Comptroller General of the United States shall have unrestricted access to all deliberations, records, and nonproprietary data of MACPAC, immediately upon request.

(4)
Periodic audit

MACPAC shall be subject to periodic audit by the Comptroller General of the United States.

(f)
Funding
(1)
Request for appropriations

MACPAC shall submit requests for appropriations (other than for fiscal year 2010) in the same manner as the Comptroller General of the United States submits requests for appropriations, but amounts appropriated for MACPAC shall be separate from amounts appropriated for the Comptroller General of the United States.

(2)
Authorization

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.

(3)
Funding for fiscal year 2010
(A)
In general

Out of any funds in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, there is appropriated to MACPAC to carry out the provisions of this section for fiscal year 2010, $9,000,000.

(B)
Transfer of funds

Notwithstanding section 1397dd(a)(13) of this title, from the amounts appropriated in such section for fiscal year 2010, $2,000,000 is hereby transferred and made available in such fiscal year to MACPAC to carry out the provisions of this section.

(4)
Availability

Amounts made available under paragraphs (2) and (3) to MACPAC to carry out the provisions of this section shall remain available until expended.

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XIX, § 1900, as added Pub. L. 111–3, title V, § 506(a), Feb. 4, 2009, 123 Stat. 91; amended Pub. L. 111–148, title II, § 2801(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 328; Pub. L. 113–93, title II, § 221(b), Apr. 1, 2014, 128 Stat. 1076.)
cite as: 42 USC 1396