United States Code

USC most recently checked for updates: Aug 10, 2020

§ 1437d.
Contract provisions and requirements; loans and annual contributions
(a)
Conditions; elevators

The Secretary may include in any contract for loans, contributions, sale, lease, mortgage, or any other agreement or instrument made pursuant to this chapter, such covenants, conditions, or provisions as he may deem necessary in order to insure the lower income character of the project involved, in a manner consistent with the public housing agency plan. Any such contract shall require that, except in the case of housing predominantly for elderly or disabled families, high-rise elevator projects shall not be provided for families with children unless the Secretary makes a determination that there is no practical alternative.

(b)
Limitation on development costs
(1)
Each contract for loans (other than preliminary loans) or contributions for the development, acquisition, or operation of public housing shall provide that the total development cost of the project on which the computation of any annual contributions under this chapter may be based may not exceed the amount determined under paragraph (2) (for the appropriate structure type) unless the Secretary provides otherwise, and in any case may not exceed 110 per centum of such amount unless the Secretary for good cause determines otherwise.
(2)
For purposes of paragraph (1), the Secretary shall determine the total development cost by multiplying the construction cost guideline for the project (which shall be determined by averaging the current construction costs, as listed by not less than 2 nationally recognized residential construction cost indices, for publicly bid construction of a good and sound quality) by—
(A)
in the case of elevator type structures, 1.6; and
(B)
in the case of nonelevator type structures, 1.75.
(3)
In calculating the total development cost of a project under paragraph (2), the Secretary shall consider only capital assistance provided by the Secretary to a public housing agency that are 1
1
 So in original. Probably should be “is”.
authorized for use in connection with the development of public housing, and shall exclude all other amounts, including amounts provided under—
(A)
the HOME investment partnerships program authorized under title II of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 12721 et seq.]; or
(B)
the community development block grants program under title I of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 [42 U.S.C. 5301 et seq.].
(4)
The Secretary may restrict the amount of capital funds that a public housing agency may use to pay for housing construction costs. For purposes of this paragraph, housing construction costs include the actual hard costs for the construction of units, builders’ overhead and profit, utilities from the street, and finish landscaping.
(c)
Revision of maximum income limits; certification of compliance with requirements; notification of eligibility; informal hearing; compliance with procedures for sound management
Every contract for contributions shall provide that—
(1)
the Secretary may require the public housing agency to review and revise its maximum income limits if the Secretary determines that changed conditions in the locality make such revision necessary in achieving the purposes of this chapter;
(2)
the public housing agency shall determine, and so certify to the Secretary, that each family in the project was admitted in accordance with duly adopted regulations and approved income limits; and the public housing agency shall review the incomes of families living in the project no less frequently than annually;
(3)
the public housing agency shall promptly notify (i) any applicant determined to be ineligible for admission to the project of the basis for such determination and provide the applicant upon request, within a reasonable time after the determination is made, with an opportunity for an informal hearing on such determination, and (ii) any applicant determined to be eligible for admission to the project of the approximate date of occupancy insofar as such date can be reasonably determined; and
(4)
the public housing agency shall comply with such procedures and requirements as the Secretary may prescribe to assure that sound management practices will be followed in the operation of the project, including requirements pertaining to—
(A)
making dwelling units in public housing available for occupancy, which shall provide that the public housing agency may establish a system for making dwelling units available that provides preference for such occupancy to families having certain characteristics; each system of preferences established pursuant to this subparagraph shall be based upon local housing needs and priorities, as determined by the public housing agency using generally accepted data sources, including any information obtained pursuant to an opportunity for public comment as provided under section 1437c–1(f) of this title and under the requirements applicable to the comprehensive housing affordability strategy for the relevant jurisdiction;
(B)
the establishment of satisfactory procedures designed to assure the prompt payment and collection of rents and the prompt processing of evictions in the case of nonpayment of rent;
(C)
the establishment of effective tenant-management relationships designed to assure that satisfactory standards of tenant security and project maintenance are formulated and that the public housing agency (together with tenant councils where they exist) enforces those standards fully and effectively;
(D)
the development by local housing authority managements of viable homeownership opportunity programs for low-income families capable of assuming the responsibilities of homeownership;
(E)
for each agency that receives assistance under this subchapter, the establishment and maintenance of a system of accounting for rental collections and costs (including administrative, utility, maintenance, repair and other operating costs) for each project or operating cost center (as determined by the Secretary), which collections and costs shall be made available to the general public and submitted to the appropriate local public official (as determined by the Secretary); except that the Secretary may permit agencies owning or operating less than 500 units to comply with the requirements of this subparagraph by accounting on an agency-wide basis; and
(F)
requiring the public housing agency to ensure and maintain compliance with subtitle C of title VI of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992 [42 U.S.C. 13601 et seq.] and any regulations issued under such subtitle.
(d)
Exemption from personal and real property taxes; payments in lieu of taxes; cash contribution or tax remission

Every contract for contributions with respect to a low-income housing project shall provide that no contributions by the Secretary shall be made available for such project unless such project (exclusive of any portion thereof which is not assisted by contributions under this chapter) is exempt from all real and personal property taxes levied or imposed by the State, city, county, or other political subdivision; and such contract shall require the public housing agency to make payments in lieu of taxes equal to 10 per centum of the sum of the shelter rents charged in such project, or such lesser amount as (i) is prescribed by State law, or (ii) is agreed to by the local governing body in its agreement for local cooperation with the public housing agency required under section 1437c(e)(2) of this title, or (iii) is due to failure of a local public body or bodies other than the public housing agency to perform any obligation under such agreement. If any such project is not exempt from all real and personal property taxes levied or imposed by the State, city, county, or other political subdivision, such contract shall provide, in lieu of the requirement for tax exemption and payments in lieu of taxes, that no contributions by the Secretary shall be made available for such project unless and until the State, city, county, or other political subdivision in which such project is situated shall contribute, in the form of cash or tax remission, the amount by which the taxes paid with respect to the project exceed 10 per centum of the shelter rents charged in such project.

(e)
Repealed. Pub. L. 105–276, title V, § 529(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2569
(f)
Housing quality requirements
(1)
In general

Each contract for contributions for a public housing agency shall require that the agency maintain its public housing in a condition that complies with standards which meet or exceed the housing quality standards established under paragraph (2).

(2)
Federal standards

The Secretary shall establish housing quality standards under this paragraph that ensure that public housing dwelling units are safe and habitable. Such standards shall include requirements relating to habitability, including maintenance, health and sanitation factors, condition, and construction of dwellings, and shall, to the greatest extent practicable, be consistent with the standards established under section 1437f(o)(8)(B)(i) of this title. The Secretary may determine whether the laws, regulations, standards, or codes of any State or local jurisdiction meet or exceed these standards, for purposes of this subsection.

(3)
Annual inspections

Each public housing agency that owns or operates public housing shall make an annual inspection of each public housing project to determine whether units in the project are maintained in accordance with the requirements under paragraph (1). The agency shall retain the results of such inspections and, upon the request of the Secretary, the Inspector General for the Department of Housing and Urban Development, or any auditor conducting an audit under section 1437c(h) of this title, shall make such results available.

(g)
Substantial default; conveyance of title and delivery of possession; reconveyance and redelivery; payments for outstanding obligations
Every contract for contributions (including contracts which amend or supersede contracts previously made) may provide that—
(1)
upon the occurrence of a substantial default in respect to the covenants or conditions to which the public housing agency is subject (as such substantial default shall be defined in such contract), the public housing agency shall be obligated at the option of the Secretary either to convey title in any case where, in the determination of the Secretary (which determination shall be final and conclusive), such conveyance of title is necessary to achieve the purposes of this chapter, or to deliver to the Secretary possession of the project, as then constituted, to which such contract relates; and
(2)
the Secretary shall be obligated to reconvey or redeliver possession of the project as constituted at the time of reconveyance or redelivery, to such public housing agency or to its successor (if such public housing agency or a successor exists) upon such terms as shall be prescribed in such contract, and as soon as practicable (i) after the Secretary is satisfied that all defaults with respect to the project have been cured, and that the project will, in order to fulfill the purposes of this chapter, thereafter be operated in accordance with the terms of such contract; or (ii) after the termination of the obligation to make annual contributions available unless there are any obligations or covenants of the public housing agency to the Secretary which are then in default. Any prior conveyances and reconveyances or deliveries and redeliveries of possession shall not exhaust the right to require a conveyance or delivery of possession of the project to the Secretary pursuant to subparagraph (1) upon the subsequent occurrence of a substantial default.
Whenever such a contract for annual contributions includes provisions which the Secretary in such contract determines are in accordance with this subsection, and the portion of the annual contribution payable for debt service requirements pursuant to such contract has been pledged by the public housing agency as security for the payment of the principal and interest on any of its obligations, the Secretary (notwithstanding any other provisions of this chapter) shall continue to make such annual contributions available for the project so long as any of such obligations remain outstanding, and may covenant in such contract that in any event such annual contributions shall in each year be at least equal to an amount which, together with such income or other funds as are actually available from the project for the purpose at the time such annual contribution is made, will suffice for the payment of all installments, falling due within the next succeeding twelve months, of principal and interest on the obligations for which the annual contributions provided for in the contract shall have been pledged as security. In no case shall such annual contributions be in excess of the maximum sum specified in the contract involved, nor for longer than the remainder of the maximum period fixed by the contract.
(h)
New construction contracts

On or after October 1, 1983, the Secretary may enter into a contract involving new construction only if the public housing agency demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the cost of new construction in the neighborhood where the public housing agency determines the housing is needed is less than the cost of acquisition or acquisition and rehabilitation in such neighborhood, including any reserve fund under subsection (i), would be.

(i)
Reserve fund; major repairs

The Secretary may, upon application by a public housing agency in connection with the acquisition of housing for use as public housing, establish and set aside a reserve fund in an amount not to exceed 30 per centum of the acquisition cost which shall be available for use for major repairs to such housing.

(j)
Performance indicators for public housing agencies
(1)
The Secretary shall develop and publish in the Federal Register indicators to assess the management performance of public housing agencies and resident management corporations. The indicators shall be established by rule under section 553 of title 5. Such indicators shall enable the Secretary to evaluate the performance of public housing agencies and resident management corporations in all major areas of management operations. The Secretary shall, in particular, use the following indicators for public housing agencies, to the extent practicable:
(A)
The number and percentage of vacancies within an agency’s inventory, including the progress that an agency has made within the previous 3 years to reduce such vacancies.
(B)
The amount and percentage of funds provided to the public housing agency from the Capital Fund under section 1437g(d) of this title which remain unobligated by the public housing agency after 3 years.
(C)
The percentage of rents uncollected.
(D)
The utility consumption (with appropriate adjustments to reflect different regions and unit sizes).
(E)
The average period of time that an agency requires to repair and turn-around vacant units.
(F)
The proportion of maintenance work orders outstanding, including any progress that an agency has made during the preceding 3 years to reduce the period of time required to complete maintenance work orders.
(G)
The percentage of units that an agency fails to inspect to ascertain maintenance or modernization needs within such period of time as the Secretary deems appropriate (with appropriate adjustments, if any, for large and small agencies).
(H)
The extent to which the public housing agency—
(i)
coordinates, promotes, or provides effective programs and activities to promote the economic self-sufficiency of public housing residents; and
(ii)
provides public housing residents with opportunities for involvement in the administration of the public housing.
(I)
2
2
 Another subpar. (I) is set out after subpar. (K).
The extent to which the public housing agency—
(i)
implements effective screening and eviction policies and other anticrime strategies; and
(ii)
coordinates with local government officials and residents in the project and implementation of such strategies.
(J)
The extent to which the public housing agency is providing acceptable basic housing conditions.
(K)
Any other factors as the Secretary deems appropriate which shall not exceed the seven factors in the statute, plus an additional five.
(I)
3
3
 Another subpar. (I) is set out before subpar. (J).
The Secretary shall:
(1)
administer the system of evaluating public housing agencies flexibly to ensure that such agencies are not penalized as result of circumstances beyond their control;
(2)
reflect in the weights assigned to the various indicators the differences in the difficulty of managing individual projects that result from their physical condition and their neighborhood environment; and
(3)
determine a public housing agency’s status as “troubled with respect to the program under section 1437l4
4
 See References in Text note below.
of this title” based upon factors solely related to its ability to carry out that program.
(2)
(A)
(i)
The Secretary shall, under the rulemaking procedures under section 553 of title 5, establish procedures for designating troubled public housing agencies, which procedures shall include identification of serious and substantial failure to perform as measured by the performance indicators specified under paragraph (1) and such other factors as the Secretary may deem to be appropriate. Such procedures shall provide that an agency that fails on a widespread basis to provide acceptable basic housing conditions for its residents shall be designated as a troubled public housing agency. The Secretary may use a simplified set of indicators for public housing agencies with less than 250 public housing units. The Secretary shall also designate, by rule under section 553 of title 5, agencies that are troubled with respect to the program for assistance from the Capital Fund under section 1437g(d) of this title.
(ii)
The Secretary may also, in consultation with national organizations representing public housing agencies and public officials (as the Secretary determines appropriate), identify and commend public housing agencies that meet the performance standards established under paragraph (1) in an exemplary manner.
(iii)
The Secretary shall establish procedures for public housing agencies to appeal designation as a troubled agency (including designation as a troubled agency for purposes of the program for assistance from the Capital Fund under section 1437g(d) of this title), to petition for removal of such designation, and to appeal any refusal to remove such designation.
(B)
(i)
Upon designating a public housing agency with more than 250 units as troubled pursuant to subparagraph (A) and determining that an assessment under this subparagraph will not duplicate any comparable and recent review, the Secretary shall provide for an on-site, independent assessment of the management of the agency.
(ii)
To the extent the Secretary deems appropriate (taking into account an agency’s performance under the indicators specified under paragraph (1)), the assessment team shall also consider issues relating to the agency’s resident population and physical inventory, including the extent to which (I) the agency’s comprehensive plan prepared pursuant to section 1437l4 of this title adequately and appropriately addresses the rehabilitation needs of the agency’s inventory, (II) residents of the agency are involved in and informed of significant management decisions, and (III) any projects in the agency’s inventory are severely distressed and eligible for assistance pursuant to section 1437v of this title.
(iii)
An independent assessment under this subparagraph shall be carried out by a team of knowledgeable individuals selected by the Secretary (referred to in this section as the “assessment team”) with expertise in public housing and real estate management. In conducting an assessment, the assessment team shall consult with the residents and with public and private entities in the jurisdiction in which the public housing is located. The assessment team shall provide to the Secretary and the public housing agency a written report, which shall contain, at a minimum, recommendations for such management improvements as are necessary to eliminate or substantially remedy existing deficiencies.
(C)
The Secretary shall seek to enter into an agreement with each troubled public housing agency, after reviewing the report submitted pursuant to subparagraph (B) (if applicable) and consulting with the agency’s assessment team. Such agreement shall set forth—
(i)
targets for improving performance as measured by the performance indicators specified under paragraph (1) and other requirements within a specified period of time;
(ii)
strategies for meeting such targets, including a description of the technical assistance that the Secretary will make available to the agency; and
(iii)
incentives or sanctions for effective implementation of such strategies, which may include any constraints on the use of funds that the Secretary determines are appropriate.
To the extent the Secretary deems appropriate (taking into account an agency’s performance under the indicators specified under paragraph (1)), such agreement shall also set forth a plan for enhancing resident involvement in the management of the public housing agency. The Secretary and the public housing agency shall, to the maximum extent practicable, seek the assistance of local public and private entities in carrying out the agreement.
(D)
The Secretary shall apply the provisions of this paragraph to resident management corporations as well as public housing agencies.
(3)
(A)
Notwithstanding any other provision of law or of any contract for contributions, upon the occurrence of events or conditions that constitute a substantial default by a public housing agency with respect to the covenants or conditions to which the public housing agency is subject or an agreement entered into under paragraph (2), the Secretary may—
(i)
solicit competitive proposals from other public housing agencies and private housing management agents which (I) in the discretion of the Secretary, may be selected by existing public housing residents through administrative procedures established by the Secretary, and (II) if appropriate, shall provide for such agents to manage all, or part, of the housing administered by the public housing agency or all or part of the other programs of the agency;
(ii)
petition for the appointment of a receiver (which may be another public housing agency or a private management corporation) of the public housing agency to any district court of the United States or to any court of the State in which the real property of the public housing agency is situated, that is authorized to appoint a receiver for the purposes and having the powers prescribed in this subsection;
(iii)
solicit competitive proposals from other public housing agencies and private entities with experience in construction management in the eventuality that such agencies or firms may be needed to oversee implementation of assistance made available from the Capital Fund under section 1437g(d) of this title for the housing; and 5
5
 So in original. The word “and” probably should not appear.
(iv)
take possession of all or part of the public housing agency, including all or part of any project or program of the agency, including any project or program under any other provision of this subchapter; and
(v)
require the agency to make other arrangements acceptable to the Secretary and in the best interests of the public housing residents and families assisted under section 1437f of this title for managing all, or part, of the public housing administered by the agency or of the programs of the agency.
Residents of a public housing agency designated as troubled pursuant to paragraph (2)(A) may petition the Secretary in writing to take 1 or more of the actions referred to in this subparagraph. The Secretary shall respond to such petitions in a timely manner with a written description of the actions, if any, the Secretary plans to take and, where applicable, the reasons why such actions differ from the course proposed by the residents.
(B)
(i)
If a public housing agency is identified as troubled under this subsection, the Secretary shall notify the agency of the troubled status of the agency.
(ii)
(I)
Upon the expiration of the 1-year period beginning on the later of the date on which the agency receives initial notice from the Secretary of the troubled status of the agency under clause (i) and October 21, 1998, the agency shall improve its performance, as measured by the performance indicators established pursuant to paragraph (1), by at least 50 percent of the difference between the most recent performance measurement and the measurement necessary to remove that agency’s designation as troubled.
(II)
Upon the expiration of the 2-year period beginning on the later of the date on which the agency receives initial notice from the Secretary of the troubled status of the agency under clause (i) and October 21, 1998, the agency shall improve its performance, as measured by the performance indicators established pursuant to paragraph (1), such that the agency is no longer designated as troubled.
(III)
In the event that a public housing agency designated as troubled under this subsection fails to comply with the requirements set forth in subclause (I) or (II), the Secretary shall—
(aa)
in the case of a troubled public housing agency with 1,250 or more units, petition for the appointment of a receiver pursuant to subparagraph (A)(ii); or
(bb)
in the case of a troubled public housing agency with fewer than 1,250 units, either petition for the appointment of a receiver pursuant to subparagraph (A)(ii), or take possession of the public housing agency (including all or part of any project or program of the agency) pursuant to subparagraph (A)(iv) and appoint, on a competitive or noncompetitive basis, an individual or entity as an administrative receiver to assume the responsibilities of the Secretary for the administration of all or part of the public housing agency (including all or part of any project or program of the agency).
(IV)
During the period between the date on which a petition is filed under subclause (III)(aa) and the date on which a receiver assumes responsibility for the management of the public housing agency under such subclause, the Secretary may take possession of the public housing agency (including all or part of any project or program of the agency) pursuant to subparagraph (A)(iv) and may appoint, on a competitive or noncompetitive basis, an individual or entity as an administrative receiver to assume the responsibilities of the Secretary for the administration of all or part of the public housing agency (including all or part of any project or program of the agency).
This subparagraph shall not be construed to limit the courses of action available to the Secretary under subparagraph (A).
(C)
If a receiver is appointed pursuant to subparagraph (A)(ii), in addition to the powers accorded by the court appointing the receiver, the receiver—
(i)
may abrogate any contract to which the United States or an agency of the United States is not a party that, in the receiver’s written determination (which shall include the basis for such determination), substantially impedes correction of the substantial default, but only after the receiver determines that reasonable efforts to renegotiate such contract have failed;
(ii)
may demolish and dispose of all or part of the assets of the public housing agency (including all or part of any project of the agency) in accordance with section 1437p of this title, including disposition by transfer of properties to resident-supported nonprofit entities;
(iii)
if determined to be appropriate by the Secretary, may seek the establishment, as permitted by applicable State and local law, of 1 or more new public housing agencies;
(iv)
if determined to be appropriate by the Secretary, may seek consolidation of all or part of the agency (including all or part of any project or program of the agency), as permitted by applicable State and local laws, into other well-managed public housing agencies with the consent of such well-managed agencies; and
(v)
shall not be required to comply with any State or local law relating to civil service requirements, employee rights (except civil rights), procurement, or financial or administrative controls that, in the receiver’s written determination (which shall include the basis for such determination), substantially impedes correction of the substantial default.
(D)
(i)
If, pursuant to subparagraph (A)(iv), the Secretary takes possession of all or part of the public housing agency, including all or part of any project or program of the agency, the Secretary—
(I)
may abrogate any contract to which the United States or an agency of the United States is not a party that, in the written determination of the Secretary (which shall include the basis for such determination), substantially impedes correction of the substantial default, but only after the Secretary determines that reasonable efforts to renegotiate such contract have failed;
(II)
may demolish and dispose of all or part of the assets of the public housing agency (including all or part of any project of the agency) in accordance with section 1437p of this title, including disposition by transfer of properties to resident-supported nonprofit entities;
(III)
may seek the establishment, as permitted by applicable State and local law, of 1 or more new public housing agencies;
(IV)
may seek consolidation of all or part of the agency (including all or part of any project or program of the agency), as permitted by applicable State and local laws, into other well-managed public housing agencies with the consent of such well-managed agencies;
(V)
shall not be required to comply with any State or local law relating to civil service requirements, employee rights (except civil rights), procurement, or financial or administrative controls that, in the Secretary’s written determination (which shall include the basis for such determination), substantially impedes correction of the substantial default; and
(VI)
shall, without any action by a district court of the United States, have such additional authority as a district court of the United States would have the authority to confer upon a receiver to achieve the purposes of the receivership.
(ii)
If, pursuant to subparagraph (B)(ii)(III)(bb), the Secretary appoints an administrative receiver to assume the responsibilities of the Secretary for the administration of all or part of the public housing agency (including all or part of any project or program of the agency), the Secretary may delegate to the administrative receiver any or all of the powers given the Secretary by this subparagraph, as the Secretary determines to be appropriate and subject to clause (iii).
(iii)
An administrative receiver may not take an action described in subclause (III) or (IV) of clause (i) unless the Secretary first approves an application by the administrative receiver to authorize such action.
(E)
The Secretary may make available to receivers and other entities selected or appointed pursuant to this paragraph such assistance as the Secretary determines in the discretion of the Secretary is necessary and available to remedy the substantial deterioration of living conditions in individual public housing projects or other related emergencies that endanger the health, safety, and welfare of public housing residents or families assisted under section 1437f of this title. A decision made by the Secretary under this paragraph shall not be subject to review in any court of the United States, or in any court of any State, territory, or possession of the United States.
(F)
In any proceeding under subparagraph (A)(ii), upon a determination that a substantial default has occurred and without regard to the availability of alternative remedies, the court shall appoint a receiver to conduct the affairs of all or part of the public housing agency in a manner consistent with this chapter and in accordance with such further terms and conditions as the court may provide. The receiver appointed may be another public housing agency, a private management corporation, or any other person or appropriate entity. The court shall have power to grant appropriate temporary or preliminary relief pending final disposition of the petition by the Secretary.
(G)
The appointment of a receiver pursuant to this paragraph may be terminated, upon the petition of any party, when the court determines that all defaults have been cured or the public housing agency is capable again of discharging its duties.
(H)
If the Secretary (or an administrative receiver appointed by the Secretary) takes possession of a public housing agency (including all or part of any project or program of the agency), or if a receiver is appointed by a court, the Secretary or receiver shall be deemed to be acting not in the official capacity of that person or entity, but rather in the capacity of the public housing agency, and any liability incurred, regardless of whether the incident giving rise to that liability occurred while the Secretary or receiver was in possession of
(4)
Sanctions for improper use of amounts.—
(A)
In general.—
In addition to any other actions authorized under this chapter, if the Secretary finds that a public housing agency receiving assistance amounts under section 1437g of this title for public housing has failed to comply substantially with any provision of this chapter relating to the public housing program, the Secretary may—
(i)
terminate assistance payments under this 6
6
 So in original. The word “this” probably should not appear.
section 1437g of this title to the agency;
(ii)
withhold from the agency amounts from the total allocations for the agency pursuant to section 1437g of this title;
(iii)
reduce the amount of future assistance payments under section 1437g of this title to the agency by an amount equal to the amount of such payments that were not expended in accordance with this chapter;
(iv)
limit the availability of assistance amounts provided to the agency under section 1437g of this title to programs, projects, or activities not affected by such failure to comply;
(v)
withhold from the agency amounts allocated for the agency under section 1437f of this title; or
(vi)
order other corrective action with respect to the agency.
(B)
Termination of compliance action.—
If the Secretary takes action under subparagraph (A) with respect to a public housing agency, the Secretary shall—
(i)
in the case of action under subparagraph (A)(i), resume payments of assistance amounts under section 1437g of this title to the agency in the full amount of the total allocations under section 1437g of this title for the agency at the time that the Secretary first determines that the agency will comply with the provisions of this chapter relating to the public housing program;
(ii)
in the case of action under clause (ii) or (v) of subparagraph (A), make withheld amounts available as the Secretary considers appropriate to ensure that the agency complies with the provisions of this chapter relating to such program;
(iii)
in the case of action under subparagraph (A)(iv), release such restrictions at the time that the Secretary first determines that the agency will comply with the provisions of this chapter relating to such program; or
(iv)
in the case of action under subparagraph (vi), cease such action at the time that the Secretary first determines that the agency will comply with the provisions of this chapter relating to such program.
(5)
The Secretary shall submit to the Congress annually, as a part of the report of the Secretary under section 3536 of this title, a report that—
(A)
identifies the public housing agencies that have been designated as troubled under paragraph (2);
(B)
describes the grounds on which such public housing agencies were designated as troubled and continue to be so designated;
(C)
describes the agreements that have been entered into with such agencies under such paragraph;
(D)
describes the status of progress under such agreements;
(E)
describes any action that has been taken in accordance with paragraph (3), including an accounting of the authorized funds that have been expended to support such actions; and
(F)
describes the status of any public housing agency designated as troubled with respect to the program for assistance from the Capital Fund under section 1437g(d) of this title and specifies the amount of assistance the agency received under such program.
(6)
(A)
To the extent that the Secretary determines such action to be necessary in order to ensure the accuracy of any certification made under this section, the Secretary shall require an independent auditor to review documentation or other information maintained by a public housing agency pursuant to this section to substantiate each certification submitted by the agency or corporation relating to the performance of that agency or corporation.
(B)
The Secretary may withhold, from assistance otherwise payable to the agency or corporation under section 1437g of this title, amounts sufficient to pay for the reasonable costs of any review under this paragraph.
(7)
The Secretary shall apply the provisions of this subsection to resident management corporations in the same manner as applied to public housing agencies.
(k)
Administrative grievance procedure regulations: grounds of adverse action, hearing, examination of documents, representation, evidence, decision; judicial hearing; eviction and termination procedures
The Secretary shall by regulation require each public housing agency receiving assistance under this chapter to establish and implement an administrative grievance procedure under which tenants will—
(1)
be advised of the specific grounds of any proposed adverse public housing agency action;
(2)
have an opportunity for a hearing before an impartial party upon timely request within any period applicable under subsection (l);
(3)
have an opportunity to examine any documents or records or regulations related to the proposed action;
(4)
be entitled to be represented by another person of their choice at any hearing;
(5)
be entitled to ask questions of witnesses and have others make statements on their behalf; and
(6)
be entitled to receive a written decision by the public housing agency on the proposed action.
For any grievance concerning an eviction or termination of tenancy that involves any activity that threatens the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises of other tenants or employees of the public housing agency or any violent or drug-related criminal activity on or off such premises, or any activity resulting in a felony conviction, the agency may (A) establish an expedited grievance procedure as the Secretary shall provide by rule under section 553 of title 5, or (B) exclude from its grievance procedure any such grievance, in any jurisdiction which requires that prior to eviction, a tenant be given a hearing in court which the Secretary determines provides the basic elements of due process (which the Secretary shall establish by rule under section 553 of title 5). Such elements of due process shall not include a requirement that the tenant be provided an opportunity to examine relevant documents within the possession of the public housing agency. The agency shall provide to the tenant a reasonable opportunity, prior to hearing or trial, to examine any relevant documents, records, or regulations directly related to the eviction or termination.
(l)
Leases; terms and conditions; maintenance; termination
Each public housing agency shall utilize leases which—
(1)
have a term of 12 months and shall be automatically renewed for all purposes except for noncompliance with the requirements under section 1437j(c) of this title (relating to community service requirements); except that nothing in this subchapter shall prevent a resident from seeking timely redress in court for failure to renew based on such noncompliance;
(2)
do not contain unreasonable terms and conditions;
(3)
obligate the public housing agency to maintain the project in a decent, safe, and sanitary condition;
(4)
require the public housing agency to give adequate written notice of termination of the lease which shall not be less than—
(A)
a reasonable period of time, but not to exceed 30 days—
(i)
if the health or safety of other tenants, public housing agency employees, or persons residing in the immediate vicinity of the premises is threatened; or
(ii)
in the event of any drug-related or violent criminal activity or any felony conviction;
(B)
14 days in the case of nonpayment of rent; and
(C)
30 days in any other case, except that if a State or local law provides for a shorter period of time, such shorter period shall apply;
(5)
require that the public housing agency may not terminate the tenancy except for serious or repeated violation of the terms or conditions of the lease or for other good cause;
(6)
provide that any criminal activity that threatens the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by other tenants or any drug-related criminal activity on or off such premises, engaged in by a public housing tenant, any member of the tenant’s household, or any guest or other person under the tenant’s control, shall be cause for termination of tenancy;
(7)
specify that with respect to any notice of eviction or termination, notwithstanding any State law, a public housing tenant shall be informed of the opportunity, prior to any hearing or trial, to examine any relevant documents, records, or regulations directly related to the eviction or termination;
(7)
7
7
 So in original. Probably should be “(8)”.
provide that any occupancy in violation of section 13661(b) of this title (relating to ineligibility of illegal drug users and alcohol abusers) or the furnishing of any false or misleading information pursuant to section 13662 of this title (relating to termination of tenancy and assistance for illegal drug users and alcohol abusers) shall be cause for termination of tenancy; 8
8
 So in original. Probably should be followed by “and”.
(9)
provide that it shall be cause for immediate termination of the tenancy of a public housing tenant if such tenant—
(A)
is fleeing to avoid prosecution, or custody or confinement after conviction, under the laws of the place from which the individual flees, for a crime, or attempt to commit a crime, which is a felony under the laws of the place from which the individual flees, or which, in the case of the State of New Jersey, is a high misdemeanor under the laws of such State; or
(2)
9
9
 So in original. Probably should be “(B)”.
is violating a condition of probation or parole imposed under Federal or State law.
For purposes of paragraph (5),4 the term “drug-related criminal activity” means the illegal manufacture, sale, distribution, use, or possession with intent to manufacture, sell, distribute, or use, of a controlled substance (as defined in section 802 of title 21).
(m)
Reporting requirements; limitation

The Secretary shall not impose any unnecessarily duplicative or burdensome reporting requirements on tenants or public housing agencies assisted under this chapter.

(n)
Notice to post office regarding eviction for criminal activity

When a public housing agency evicts an individual or family from a dwelling unit for engaging in criminal activity, including drug-related criminal activity, the public housing agency shall notify the local post office serving that dwelling unit that such individual or family is no longer residing in the dwelling unit.

(o)
Public housing assistance for foster care children
In providing housing in low-income housing projects, each public housing agency may coordinate with any local public agencies involved in providing for the welfare of children to make available dwelling units to—
(1)
families identified by the agencies as having a lack of adequate housing that is a primary factor—
(A)
in the imminent placement of a child in foster care; or
(B)
in preventing the discharge of a child from foster care and reunification with his or her family; and
(2)
youth, upon discharge from foster care, in cases in which return to the family or extended family or adoption is not available.
(p)
Repealed. Pub. L. 105–276, title V, § 519(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2561
(q)
Availability of records
(1)
In general
(A)
Provision of information

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, except as provided in subparagraph (C), the National Crime Information Center, police departments, and other law enforcement agencies shall, upon request, provide information to public housing agencies regarding the criminal conviction records of adult applicants for, or tenants of, covered housing assistance for purposes of applicant screening, lease enforcement, and eviction.

(B)
Requests by owners of project-based section 8 [42 U.S.C. 1437f] housing

A public housing agency may make a request under subparagraph (A) for information regarding applicants for, or tenants of, housing that is provided project-based assistance under section 1437f of this title only if the housing is located within the jurisdiction of the agency and the owner of such housing has requested that the agency obtain such information on behalf of the owner. Upon such a request by the owner, the agency shall make a request under subparagraph (A) for the information. The agency may not make such information available to the owner but shall perform determinations for the owner regarding screening, lease enforcement, and eviction based on criteria supplied by the owner.

(C)
Exception

A law enforcement agency described in subparagraph (A) shall provide information under this paragraph relating to any criminal conviction of a juvenile only to the extent that the release of such information is authorized under the law of the applicable State, tribe, or locality.

(2)
Opportunity to dispute

Before an adverse action is taken with regard to assistance under this subchapter on the basis of a criminal record, the public housing agency shall provide the tenant or applicant with a copy of the criminal record and an opportunity to dispute the accuracy and relevance of that record.

(3)
Fees

A public housing agency may be charged a reasonable fee for information provided under paragraph (1). In the case of a public housing agency obtaining information pursuant to paragraph (1)(B) for another owner of housing, the agency may pass such fee on to the owner initiating the request and may charge additional reasonable fees for making the request on behalf of the owner and taking other actions for owners under this subsection.

(4)
Records management
Each public housing agency shall establish and implement a system of records management that ensures that any criminal record received by the public housing agency is—
(A)
maintained confidentially;
(B)
not misused or improperly disseminated; and
(C)
destroyed, once the purpose for which the record was requested has been accomplished.
(5)
Confidentiality

A public housing agency receiving information under this subsection may use such information only for the purposes provided in this subsection and such information may not be disclosed to any person who is not an officer, employee, or authorized representative of the agency and who has a job-related need to have access to the information in connection with admission of applicants, eviction of tenants, or termination of assistance. For judicial eviction proceedings, disclosures may be made to the extent necessary. The Secretary shall, by regulation, establish procedures necessary to ensure that information provided under this subsection to a public housing agency is used, and confidentiality of such information is maintained, as required under this subsection. The Secretary shall establish standards for confidentiality of information obtained under this subsection by public housing agencies on behalf of owners.

(6)
Penalty

Any person who knowingly and willfully requests or obtains any information concerning an applicant for, or tenant of, covered housing assistance pursuant to the authority under this subsection under false pretenses, or any person who knowingly and willfully discloses any such information in any manner to any individual not entitled under any law to receive it, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and fined not more than $5,000. The term “person” as used in this paragraph include 11

11
 So in original. Probably should be “includes”.
an officer, employee, or authorized representative of any public housing agency.

(7)
Civil action

Any applicant for, or tenant of, covered housing assistance affected by (A) a negligent or knowing disclosure of information referred to in this subsection about such person by an officer, employee, or authorized representative of any public housing agency, which disclosure is not authorized by this subsection, or (B) any other negligent or knowing action that is inconsistent with this subsection, may bring a civil action for damages and such other relief as may be appropriate against any public housing agency responsible for such unauthorized action. The district court of the United States in the district in which the affected applicant or tenant resides, in which such unauthorized action occurred, or in which the officer, employee, or representative alleged to be responsible for any such unauthorized action resides, shall have jurisdiction in such matters. Appropriate relief that may be ordered by such district courts shall include reasonable attorney’s fees and other litigation costs.

(8)
Definitions
For purposes of this subsection, the following definitions shall apply:
(A)
Adult

The term “adult” means a person who is 18 years of age or older, or who has been convicted of a crime as an adult under any Federal, State, or tribal law.

(B)
Covered housing assistance
The term “covered housing assistance” means—
(i)
a dwelling unit in public housing;
(ii)
a dwelling unit in housing that is provided project-based assistance under section 1437f of this title, including new construction and substantial rehabilitation projects; and
(iii)
tenant-based assistance under section 1437f of this title.
(C)
Owner

The term “owner” means, with respect to covered housing assistance described in subparagraph (B)(ii), the entity or private person (including a cooperative or public housing agency) that has the legal right to lease or sublease dwelling units in the housing assisted.

(r)
Site-based waiting lists
(1)
Authority

A public housing agency may establish procedures for maintaining waiting lists for admissions to public housing projects of the agency, which may include (notwithstanding any other law, regulation, handbook, or notice to the contrary) a system of site-based waiting lists under which applicants may apply directly at or otherwise designate the project or projects in which they seek to reside. All such procedures shall comply with all provisions of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.], the Fair Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 3601 et seq.], and other applicable civil rights laws.

(2)
Notice

Any system described in paragraph (1) shall provide for the full disclosure by the public housing agency to each applicant of any option available to the applicant in the selection of the project in which to reside.

(s)
Authority to require access to criminal records

A public housing agency may require, as a condition of providing admission to the public housing program or assisted housing program under the jurisdiction of the public housing agency, that each adult member of the household provide a signed, written authorization for the public housing agency to obtain records described in subsection (q)(1) regarding such member of the household from the National Crime Information Center, police departments, and other law enforcement agencies.

(t)
Obtaining information from drug abuse treatment facilities
(1)
Authority

Notwithstanding any other provision of law other than the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 201 et seq.), a public housing agency may require each person who applies for admission to public housing to sign one or more forms of written consent authorizing the agency to receive information from a drug abuse treatment facility that is solely related to whether the applicant is currently engaging in the illegal use of a controlled substance.

(2)
Confidentiality of applicant’s records
(A)
Limitation on information requested

In a form of written consent, a public housing agency may request only whether the drug abuse treatment facility has reasonable cause to believe that the applicant is currently engaging in the illegal use of a controlled substance.

(B)
Records management
Each public housing agency that receives information under this subsection from a drug abuse treatment facility shall establish and implement a system of records management that ensures that any information received by the public housing agency under this subsection—
(i)
is maintained confidentially in accordance with section 543 of the Public Health Service Act [42 U.S.C. 290dd–2];
(ii)
is not misused or improperly disseminated; and
(iii)
is destroyed, as applicable—
(I)
not later than 5 business days after the date on which the public housing agency gives final approval for an application for admission; or
(II)
if the public housing agency denies the application for admission, in a timely manner after the date on which the statute of limitations for the commencement of a civil action from the applicant based upon that denial of admission has expired.
(C)
Expiration of written consent

In addition to the requirements of subparagraph (B), an applicant’s signed written consent shall expire automatically after the public housing agency has made a final decision to either approve or deny the applicant’s application for admittance to public housing.

(3)
Prohibition of discriminatory treatment of applicants
(A)
Forms signed

A public housing agency may only require an applicant for admission to public housing to sign one or more forms of written consent under this subsection if the public housing agency requires all such applicants to sign the same form or forms of written consent.

(B)
Circumstances of inquiry
A public housing agency may only make an inquiry to a drug abuse treatment facility under this subsection if—
(i)
the public housing agency makes the same inquiry with respect to all applicants; or
(ii)
the public housing agency only makes the same inquiry with respect to each and every applicant with respect to whom—
(I)
the public housing agency receives information from the criminal record of the applicant that indicates evidence of a prior arrest or conviction; or
(II)
the public housing agency receives information from the records of prior tenancy of the applicant that demonstrates that the applicant—
(aa)
engaged in the destruction of property;
(bb)
engaged in violent activity against another person; or
(cc)
interfered with the right of peaceful enjoyment of the premises of another tenant.
(4)
Fee permitted

A drug abuse treatment facility may charge a public housing agency a reasonable fee for information provided under this subsection.

(5)
Disclosure permitted by treatment facilities

A drug abuse treatment facility shall not be liable for damages based on any information required to be disclosed pursuant to this subsection if such disclosure is consistent with section 543 of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 290dd–2).

(6)
Option to not request information

A public housing agency shall not be liable for damages based on its decision not to require each person who applies for admission to public housing to sign one or more forms of written consent authorizing the public housing agency to receive information from a drug abuse treatment facility under this subsection.

(7)
Definitions
For purposes of this subsection, the following definitions shall apply:
(A)
Drug abuse treatment facility
The term “drug abuse treatment facility” means an entity that—
(i)
is—
(I)
an identified unit within a general medical care facility; or
(II)
an entity other than a general medical care facility; and
(ii)
holds itself out as providing, and provides, diagnosis, treatment, or referral for treatment with respect to the illegal use of a controlled substance.
(B)
Controlled substance

The term “controlled substance” has the meaning given the term in section 802 of title 21.

(C)
Currently engaging in the illegal use of a controlled substance

The term “currently engaging in the illegal use of a controlled substance” means the illegal use of a controlled substance that occurred recently enough to justify a reasonable belief that an applicant’s illegal use of a controlled substance is current or that continuing illegal use of a controlled substance by the applicant is a real and ongoing problem.

(8)
Effective date

This subsection shall take effect on October 21, 1998, and without the necessity of guidance from, or any regulation issued by, the Secretary.

(Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, title I, § 6, as added Pub. L. 93–383, title II, § 201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 659; amended Pub. L. 96–153, title II, § 206(a), Dec. 21, 1979, 93 Stat. 1108; Pub. L. 96–399, title II, §§ 201(c), (e), 202(c), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1625, 1629; Pub. L. 97–35, title III, § 322(c), (d), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 402; Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title II, §§ 201(c), 203(a), 204, 205, 214(b)], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1177–1179, 1185; Pub. L. 98–479, title I, § 102(b)(4), (5), title II, § 204(b)(1), Oct. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 2221, 2233; Pub. L. 99–160, title I, § 101, Nov. 25, 1985, 99 Stat. 910; Pub. L. 100–242, title I, §§ 112(b)(2), 116, 170(d), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1824, 1826, 1867; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 100–358, § 5, June 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 681; Pub. L. 100–628, title X, §§ 1001(b), 1014(a)(1), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3263, 3269; Pub. L. 100–690, title V, § 5101, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4300; Pub. L. 101–144, title II, Nov. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 846; Pub. L. 101–625, title V, §§ 501, 502(a), (c)(1), 503(a), (b), 504–506, 572, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4180, 4181, 4183–4185, 4236; Pub. L. 102–139, title II, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 756, 757; Pub. L. 102–550, title I, §§ 112, 113, title VI, §§ 622(b), 625(a)(2), 682(a), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3689, 3817, 3820, 3830; Pub. L. 103–233, title I, § 101(c)(1), title III, § 303, Apr. 11, 1994, 108 Stat. 357, 370; Pub. L. 103–327, title II, Sept. 28, 1994, 108 Stat. 2315; Pub. L. 104–99, title IV, § 402(d)(1), (6)(A)(i), Jan. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 41, 42; Pub. L. 104–120, § 9(a)–(c), Mar. 28, 1996, 110 Stat. 836, 837; Pub. L. 104–193, title IX, § 903(a)(1), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2348; Pub. L. 104–330, title V, § 501(b)(3), Oct. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 4042; Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §§ 511(d), 512(b), 514(a)(1), (2)(A), 519(b), 520(b), 521, 525, 529, 530, 564, 565(a), 575, 576(d)(1), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2539, 2543, 2547, 2561, 2563, 2568, 2569, 2627, 2628, 2634, 2640; Pub. L. 109–162, title VI, § 607, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3048; Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(f), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 761; Pub. L. 113–4, title VI, § 601(b)(1), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 107.)
cite as: 42 USC 1437d