§ 1485. Housing and related facilities for elderly persons and families or other persons and families of low income (a) Direct loans; authorization; terms and conditions; revolving fund; appropriation
(1) no such loan shall exceed the development cost or the value of the security, whichever is less;
(2) such a loan may be made for a period of up to 30 years from the making of the loan; and
(3) such a loan, when made to a consumer cooperative for cooperative housing purposes, may, notwithstanding any other provision of law, be made upon the condition that any person who is admitted as an eligible member and tenant of the cooperative may not subsequently be deprived of his membership or tenancy by reason of his no longer meeting the income eligibility requirements established by the Secretary.
There is authorized to be appropriated not to exceed $50,000,000, which shall constitute a revolving fund to be used by the Secretary in carrying out this subsection.
(b) Insurance of loans; authorization; terms and conditions; utilization of Agricultural Credit Insurance FundThe Secretary is authorized to insure and make commitments to insure loans made to any individual, corporation, association, trust, Indian tribe, or partnership to provide rental or cooperative housing and related facilities for elderly or handicapped persons or families or other persons and families of moderate income in rural areas, in accordance with terms and conditions substantially identical with those specified in [section 1472 of this title]; except that—
(1) no such loan shall exceed the development cost or the value of the security, whichever is less;
(2) such a loan may be made for a period of up to 30 years from the making of the loan, but the Secretary may provide for periodic payments based on an amortization schedule of 50 years with a final payment of the balance due at the end of the term of the loan;
(3) for insuring such loans, the Secretary shall utilize the Agricultural Credit Insurance Fund subject to all the provisions of
[section 1929 of title 7] and the second and third sentences of section 1928 1 See References in Text note below. of title 7, including the authority in section 1929(f)(1) of title 7 to utilize the insurance fund to make, sell, and insure loans which could be insured under this subsection; but the aggregate of the principal amounts of such loans made by the Secretary and not disposed of shall not exceed $10,000,000 outstanding at any one time; and the Secretary may take liens running to the United States though the notes may be held by other lenders;
(4) such a loan, when made to a consumer cooperative for cooperative housing purposes, may, notwithstanding any other provision of law, be made upon the condition that any person who is admitted as an eligible member and tenant of the cooperative may not subsequently be deprived of his membership or tenancy by reason of his no longer meeting the income eligibility requirements established by the Secretary;
(5) loans may be made to owners who are otherwise eligible under this section to purchase and convert single-family residences to rental units of two or more dwellings; and
(6) the Secretary may make a new loan to the current borrower to finance the final payment of the original loan for an additional period not to exceed twenty years, if— (A) the Secretary determines—
(i) it is more cost-efficient and serves the tenant base more effectively to maintain the current property than to build a new property in the same location; or
(ii) the property has been maintained to such an extent that it warrants retention in the current portfolio because it can be expected to continue providing decent, safe, and affordable rental units for the balance of the loan; and
(B) the Secretary determines—
(i) current market studies show that a need for low-income rural rental housing still exists for that area; and
(ii) any other criteria established by the Secretary has been met.
(c) Equity recapture loans and loans to nonprofit organizations and public agenciesWith respect to a loan made or insured under subsection (a) or (b), the Secretary is authorized to—
(1) make or insure an equity loan in the form of a supplemental loan for the purpose of equity takeout to the owner of housing financed with a loan made or insured under this section pursuant to a contract entered into before December 15, 1989, for the purpose of extending the affordability of the housing for low income families or persons and very low-income families or persons for not less than 20 years, except that such loan may not exceed 90 percent of the value of the equity in the project as determined by the Secretary;
(2) transfer and reamortize an existing loan in connection with assistance provided under paragraph (1); and
(3) make or insure a loan to enable a nonprofit organization or public agency to make a purchase described in
[section 1472(c)(5) of this title]. (d) Construction requirements; detached units for cooperative housing
No loan shall be made or insured under subsection (a) or (b) unless the Secretary finds that the construction involved will be undertaken in an economical manner and will not be of elaborate or extravagant design or materials. However, specifically designed equipment required by elderly or handicapped persons or families shall not be considered elaborate or extravagant. A loan may be made or insured under subsection (a) or (b) with respect to detached units, including those on scattered sites, for cooperative housing.
(e) DefinitionsAs used in this section—
(1) the term “housing” means new or existing housing suitable for dwelling use by occupants eligible under this section, and such term also means manufactured home rental parks where either the lots or both the lots and the homes are available for use by occupants eligible under this section; and such term also means congregate housing facilities for elderly or handicapped persons or families who require some supervision and central services but are otherwise able to care for themselves; such housing for the handicapped may be utilized in conjunction with educational and training facilities;
(2) the term “related facilities” includes cafeterias or dining halls, community rooms or buildings, appropriate recreation facilities, and other essential service facilities;
(3) the term “congregate housing” means housing in which (A) some of the units may not have kitchen facilities, and (B) there is a central dining facility to provide wholesome and economic meals for elderly or handicapped persons or families.
(4) the term “development cost” means the costs of constructing, purchasing, improving, altering, or repairing new or existing housing and related facilities and purchasing and improving the necessary land, including necessary and appropriate fees and charges, initial operating expenses up to 2 per centum of the aforementioned costs, approved by the Secretary, impact fees, local charges for installation, provision, or use of infrastructure, and local assessments for public improvements and services imposed by State and local governments. Such fees and charges may include payments of qualified consulting organizations or foundations which operate on a nonprofit basis and which render services or assistance to nonprofit corporations or consumer cooperatives who provide housing and related facilities for low or moderate income families. Notwithstanding the first sentence of this paragraph, the term “development cost” shall not include any initial operating expenses in the case of any nonprofit corporation or consumer cooperative that is financing housing under this section and has been allocated a low-income housing tax credit by a housing credit agency pursuant to
[section 42 of title 26]. (f) Administrative expenses
Amounts made available pursuant to
[section 1483 of this title] shall be available for administrative expenses incurred under this section. (g) Loans for financing transfers of memberships in cooperatives
Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (a) and (b) of this section, the Secretary may make and insure loans to consumer cooperatives to enable such cooperatives to finance the transfers of memberships in the cooperatives upon such terms and conditions as low- and moderate-income persons can reasonably afford, except that such loans shall not be made upon terms more favorable than are authorized under
[section 1490a(a) of this title], and that the total loan to a cooperative under this section shall not exceed the value of the property. (h) Project transfers
After August 6, 1996, the ownership or control of a project for which a loan is made or insured under this section may be transferred only if the Secretary determines that such transfer would further the provision of housing and related facilities for low-income families or persons and would be in the best interests of residents and the Federal Government.
(2) Actions to expedite project approvals (A) In general
The Secretary shall take actions to facilitate timely approval of requests to transfer ownership or control, for the purpose of rehabilitation or preservation, of multifamily housing projects for which assistance is provided by the Secretary of Agriculture in conjunction with any low-income housing tax credits under
[section 42 of title 26] or tax-exempt housing bonds. (B) Consultation
The Secretary of Agriculture shall consult with the Commissioner of the Internal Revenue Service and take such actions as are appropriate in conjunction with such consultation to simplify the coordination of rules, regulations, forms (including applications forms for project transfers), and approval requirements 2 So in original. The word “for” probably should appear. multifamily housing projects for which assistance is provided by the Secretary of Agriculture in conjunction with any low-income housing tax credits under
[section 42 of title 26] or tax-exempt housing bonds. (C) Existing requirements
Any actions taken pursuant to this paragraph shall be taken in a manner that provides for full compliance with any existing requirements under law or regulation that are designed to protect families receiving Federal housing assistance, including income targeting, rent, and fair housing provisions, and shall also comply with requirements regarding environmental review and protection and wages paid to laborers.
In implementing the changes required under this paragraph, the Secretary shall solicit recommendations regarding such changes from project owners and sponsors, investors and stakeholders in housing tax credits, State and local housing finance agencies, tenant advocates, and other stakeholders in such projects.
(i) Limitations on cost increases after approval for project involving newly constructed or substantially rehabilitated units; applicable factors
After approving a project involving newly constructed or substantially rehabilitated units under this section, the Secretary shall limit cost increases to those approved by the Secretary. The Secretary may approve those increases only for unforeseen factors beyond the owner’s control, design changes required by the Secretary or the local government, or changes in financing approved by the Secretary.
(j) Contract preferences for providing units in newly constructed projects
For the purpose of achieving the lowest cost in providing units in newly constructed projects assisted under this section, the Secretary shall give a preference in entering into contracts under this section for projects which are to be located on specific tracts of land provided by States, units of local government, or others if the Secretary determines that the tract of land is suitable for such housing, and that affording such preference will be cost effective.
(k) Management fees
The Secretary shall assure that management fees are not excessive when a project developed under this section is managed by the developer or an affiliate of the developer.
(l) Determination of market feasibility of projectFor purposes of determining the market feasibility of any project to be assisted under this section—
(1) in the case of any applicant who applies for rental assistance payments under
[section 1490a of this title] in connection with such project, the Secretary shall consider the availability of such rental assistance payments with respect to the project and shall require such applicant to demonstrate that a market exists for persons and families eligible for such rental assistance payments; and (2) in the case of any applicant whose project is expected to utilize any assistance under a program of a State, or political subdivision thereof, that is similar to such assistance payments under [section 1490a of this title], the Secretary shall only require such applicant to demonstrate that—
(A) a market exists for persons and families eligible for such program of assistance;
(B) such program of assistance will provide rental assistance for a period of not less than five years, and, at the option of the applicant, either that there is a reasonable assurance that the contract for assistance will be extended or renewed, or for the term of the loan remaining after the period of such assistance, that an adequate rental market exists for the project without such assistance; and
(C) during the term of such rental assistance contracts, such State or political subdivision shall make available the amounts required for such rental assistance not less than annually.
(m) Standards for housing and related facilities rehabilitated or repaired; establishment, criteria, etc.
The Secretary shall establish standards for housing and related facilities rehabilitated or repaired with amounts received under a loan made or insured under this section. Standards established by the Secretary under this subsection shall provide that except for substantial rehabilitation the particular items or systems repaired or rehabilitated must meet appropriate levels of quality or performance comparable to those levels prescribed by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development for rehabilitation, but shall not require that such items or systems or the remainder of the property meet the standards which are applicable to new construction. The Secretary shall ensure that standards prescribed under this subsection provide decent, safe, and sanitary housing and related facilities.
(n) Assistance to projects located on more than one site
The Secretary may not deny assistance under this section or
[section 1490a of this title] on the basis that the project involved is to be located on more than one site. (o) Rental assistance payments as affecting assistance to projects or occupancy by eligible persons
The Secretary may not (1) deny assistance under this section on the basis that rental assistance payments under
[section 1490a of this title] may be required unless the authority to provide such assistance is not available; or (2) promulgate any regulation that would have the effect of denying occupancy to eligible persons on the basis that such persons require rental assistance payments under [section 1490a of this title]. (p) Occupancy by low income persons and families other than very low-income persons and families
(1) To the extent assistance is available under
[section 1490a(a)(2) of this title], not more than 25 per centum of the dwelling units which were available for occupancy under this section prior to November 30, 1983, and which will be leased on or after November 30, 1983, shall be available for leasing by low income persons and families other than very low-income persons and families.
(2) To the extent assistance is available under
[section 1490a(a)(2) of this title], not more than 5 per centum of the dwelling units which become available for occupancy under this section on or after November 30, 1983, shall be available for leasing by low income persons and families other than very low-income persons and families.
(3) Units in projects financed under this section which become available for occupancy after November 30, 1983, shall not be available for occupancy by persons and families other than very low-income persons and families if the authority to provide assistance for such persons is available.
(4) In projects financed under this section, units that have been allocated a low-income housing tax credit by a housing credit agency pursuant to
[section 42 of title 26] shall not be available for occupancy by persons or families other than persons or families with incomes not in excess of the qualifying income applicable to such units pursuant to subparagraph (A) or (B) of [section 42(g)(1) of title 26].
(5) The Secretary shall coordinate the processing of any application for a loan under this section for a project and the processing of any application for assistance under
[section 1490a(a)(2) of this title] with respect to housing units in the same project in an economical and efficient manner. At the time the Secretary enters into a commitment to make or insure a loan under this section the Secretary shall obligate amounts for assistance payments under [section 1490a(a)(2) of this title] for the project, to the extent that such amounts are available and the Secretary determines such assistance is necessary for the market feasibility of the project. (q) Determination of income of person or family occupying financed housing
In determining the income of a person or family occupying housing financed under this section, the Secretary shall consider the value of that person’s or family’s assets in the same manner as the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development considers such value for the purpose of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [
[42 U.S.C. 1437] et seq.]. (r) Operating reserve and equity contribution requirements; regulations to implement adjustment by negotiated rulemaking procedure (1) the 3 So in original. Probably should be capitalized. Secretary—
(A) may require that the initial operating reserve under this section may be in the form of an irrevocable letter of credit; and
(B) except as provided in paragraph (2), may require not more than a 3 percent contribution to equity, except that the Secretary shall require a 5 percent contribution in the case of a project that is allocated a low-income housing tax credit pursuant to
[section 42 of title 26].
(3) Not later than 60 days after August 6, 1996, the Secretary shall issue regulations to implement subsection (r)(2) in accordance with the negotiated rulemaking procedures set forth in subchapter III of chapter 5 of title 5: Provided, That if the negotiated rulemaking is not completed within the designated time, the Secretary shall proceed to promulgate regulations under the rulemaking authority contained in
[section 557 of title 5]. (s) Limitation of fees on loans
No fee other than a late fee may be imposed by or for the Secretary or any other Federal agency on or with respect to a loan made or insured under this section.
(t) Equity takeout loans (1) AuthorityThe Secretary is authorized to guarantee an equity loan (in the form of a supplemental loan) to an owner of housing financed with a loan made or insured under subsection (b), only if the Secretary determines, after taking into account local market conditions, that there is reasonable likelihood that the housing will continue as decent, safe, and sanitary housing for the remaining life of the original loan on the project made or insured under subsection (b) and that such an equity loan is—
(A) necessary to provide a fair return on the owner’s investment in the housing;
(B) the least costly alternative for the Federal Government that is consistent with carrying out the purposes of this subsection; and
(C) would not impose an undue hardship on tenants or an unreasonable cost to the Federal Government.
The amount of loans guaranteed under this subsection shall be subject to limits provided in appropriations Acts.
The Secretary is authorized to guarantee an equity loan under this subsection after the expiration of the 20-year period beginning on the date that an existing loan under subsection (b) of this section was made or insured. Not more than one equity loan under this subsection may be provided for any project.
(3) Amount of the takeout
The amount of an equity loan under this subsection shall not exceed the difference between the outstanding principal on debt secured by the project and 90 percent of the appraised value of the project. The appraised value of the project shall be determined by 2 independent appraisers, 1 of whom shall be selected by the Secretary and 1 of whom shall be selected by the owner. If the 2 appraisers fail to agree on the value of the project, the Secretary and the owner shall jointly select a third appraiser whose appraisal shall be binding on the Secretary and the owner. The amount of the equity loan shall not exceed 30 percent of the amount of the original appraised value of the project made or insured under subsection (b).
(4) Submission of plan
An owner requesting an equity loan under this subsection shall submit a plan acceptable to the Secretary to ensure that the cost of amortizing an equity loan under paragraph (1) does not result in the displacement of very-low-income tenants or substantially alter the income mix of the tenants in the project.
The Secretary shall issue final regulations within 180 days from December 15, 1989.
(6) Effective date
The requirements of this subsection shall apply to any loan obligated under this section on or after December 15, 1989. This subsection shall not require retroactive reserve account payments with respect to any loan that was obligated on or after December 15, 1989, and on or before June 16, 1990, but reserve account payments shall be required for such loans beginning on November 28, 1990.
(u) Reuse of loan authority
Loan authority that is obligated under this section but that is not expended due to any action that removes the original borrower, may be reallocated to a different borrower during the same fiscal year in which the loan authority was obligated. Any loan authority under this section appropriated or made available within limits established in appropriations Acts shall remain available until expended.
(v) Assumption of loans
The Secretary may provide for the assumption or transfer of a loan or loan obligation under this section to any person or entity qualified to receive a loan or loan obligation under this section in any case of default or foreclosure with respect to the original borrower. The Secretary shall provide in each assumption or transfer under this subsection for the assumption of the obligations, rights, and interests under the terms of the loan or loan obligation or such other terms as the Secretary determines appropriate.
(w) Set-aside of rural rental housing funds (1) AuthorityExcept as provided in paragraph (2), the Secretary shall set aside from amounts made available for each State for loans under this section, not less than 9 percent of the amounts available in each fiscal year. Amounts set aside shall be available only for nonprofit entities in the State, which may not be wholly or partially owned or controlled by a for-profit entity. A partnership, that has as its general partner a nonprofit entity or the nonprofit entity’s for-profit subsidiary, is eligible to receive funds set aside under this subsection to sponsor a project which is receiving low-income housing tax credits authorized under [section 42 of title 26]. For the purposes of this subsection, a nonprofit entity is an organization that—
(A) will own an interest in a project to be financed under this section and will materially participate in the development and the operation of the project;
(B) is a private organization that has nonprofit, tax exempt status under section 501(c)(3) or
[section 501(c)(4) of title 26];
(C) has among its purposes the planning, development, or management of low-income housing or community development projects; and
(D) is not affiliated with or controlled by a for-profit organization.
(2) Minimum State set-aside
If the amount set aside under paragraph (1) for any State is less than $750,000 in any fiscal year, the Secretary shall pool such amount together with set-aside amounts from other States whose set-aside is less than $750,000, and shall make such amounts available for such eligible entities under paragraph (1) in any such State. The Secretary shall establish a procedure to provide that any amounts pooled under this paragraph from the allocation for any State in any fiscal year that are not obligated during a reasonable period in such year shall be made available for any such eligible entities under paragraph (1) in such State. The Secretary may provide amounts available for reallocation under this subsection in excess of $750,000 in a given State, if such amounts are necessary to finance a project under this section.
(3) Unused amounts (A) Equitable distribution
Any amounts set aside under this subsection from the allocation for any State that are not obligated by 9 months after the allocation, shall first be pooled and made available to any other eligible nonprofit entity in any State as defined in this subsection. The Secretary shall make reasonable efforts to ensure that pooled funds are distributed under this subparagraph in an equitable manner.
(B) Return to the States
After funds have been pooled and obligated for 30 days, the Secretary shall return any remaining funds to the States on a proportional basis for use by any other eligible entity as defined in this section.
(x) Uniform project costs; coordination of housing resources and tax benefitsThe Secretary shall—
(1) establish standard guidelines for State offices that describe allowable development costs which are required for development of all projects under this section, without regard to whether the project was allocated a low-income housing tax credit;
(2) require each State to establish a process for coordinating the selection of projects under this section with the housing needs and priorities as established in a State comprehensive housing affordability strategy under
[section 12705 of this title] and a low-income housing tax credit allocation plan under [section 42 of title 26]; and
(3) develop, in consultation with housing credit agencies (as that term is defined under
[section 42 of title 26]), uniform procedures for identifying and sharing information on project costs, builder profit, identity of interests relationships, and other factors, as appropriate, with the relevant housing credit agency for projects that are allocated a low-income housing tax credit pursuant to [section 42(h) of title 26] for the purpose of achieving compliance with [section 3545(d) of this title]. (y) Service coordinators (1) GrantsThe Secretary may make grants under this subsection, with respect to any project that the Secretary determines has a sufficient number of frail elderly residents, for the cost of employing or otherwise retaining the services of one or more individuals to coordinate services provided to frail elderly residents of the project (in this subsection referred to as a “service coordinator”), who shall be responsible for—
(A) assessing the supportive service needs of frail elderly residents of the project, based on objective criteria and interviews with such residents;
(B) working with service providers to design the provision of services to meet the needs of frail elderly residents of the project, taking into consideration the needs and desires of such residents and their ability and willingness to pay for such services, as expressed by the residents;
(C) mobilizing public and private resources to obtain funding for such services for such residents;
(D) monitoring and evaluating the impact and effectiveness of any supportive services provided for such residents;
(E) consulting and coordinating with any appropriate public and private agencies regarding the provision of supportive services; and
(F) performing such other duties that the Secretary deems appropriate to enable frail elderly persons residing in federally assisted housing to live with dignity and independence.
Individuals employed as service coordinators pursuant to this subsection shall meet the minimum qualifications and standards established under
[section 8011(d)(4) of this title] for service coordinators under a congregate housing services program. (3) Application and selection
The Secretary shall provide for the form and manner of applications for grants under this subsection and for the selection of applicants to receive the grants.
(4) “Frail elderly” defined
For purposes of this subsection, the term “frail elderly” has the meaning given the term in
[section 8011(k) of this title]. (z) Accounting and recordkeeping requirements (1) Accounting standards
The Secretary shall require that borrowers in programs authorized by this section maintain accounting records in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles for all projects that receive funds from loans made or guaranteed by the Secretary under this section.
(2) Record retention requirements
The Secretary shall require that borrowers in programs authorized by this section retain for a period of not less than 6 years and make available to the Secretary in a manner determined by the Secretary, all records required to be maintained under this subsection and other records identified by the Secretary in applicable regulations.
(aa) Double damages for unauthorized use of housing projects assets and income (1) Action to recover assets or income (A) In general
The Secretary may request the Attorney General to bring an action in a United States district court to recover any assets or income used by any person in violation of the provisions of a loan made or guaranteed by the Secretary under this section or in violation of any applicable statute or regulation.
(B) Improper documentation
For purposes of this subsection, a use of assets or income in violation of the applicable loan, loan guarantee, statute, or regulation shall include any use for which the documentation in the books and accounts does not establish that the use was made for a reasonable operating expense or necessary repair of the project or for which the documentation has not been maintained in accordance with the requirements of the Secretary and in reasonable condition for proper audit.
(C) DefinitionFor the purposes of this subsection, the term “person” means—
(i) any individual or entity that borrows funds in accordance with programs authorized by this section;
(ii) any individual or entity holding 25 percent or more interest of any entity that borrows funds in accordance with programs authorized by this section; and
(iii) any officer, director, or partner of an entity that borrows funds in accordance with programs authorized by this section.
(2) Amount recoverable (A) In general
In any judgment favorable to the United States entered under this subsection, the Attorney General may recover double the value of the assets and income of the project that the court determines to have been used in violation of the provisions of a loan made or guaranteed by the Secretary under this section or any applicable statute or regulation, plus all costs related to the action, including reasonable attorney and auditing fees.
(B) Application of recovered funds
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary may use amounts recovered under this subsection for activities authorized under this section and such funds shall remain available for such use until expended.
(3) Time limitation
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, an action under this subsection may be commenced at any time during the 6-year period beginning on the date that the Secretary discovered or should have discovered the violation of the provisions of this section or any related statutes or regulations.
(4) Continued availability of other remedies
The remedy provided in this subsection is in addition to and not in substitution of any other remedies available to the Secretary or the United States.
[July 15, 1949, ch. 338], title V, § 515, as added [Pub. L. 87–723, § 4(b)], Sept. 28, 1962, [76 Stat. 671]; amended [Pub. L. 88–340], June 30, 1964, [78 Stat. 233]; [Pub. L. 88–560, title V, § 501(d)] Sept. 2, 1964, [78 Stat. 796]; [Pub. L. 89–117, title X, § 1005(c)], Aug. 10, 1965, [79 Stat. 501]; [Pub. L. 89–754, title VIII], §§ 804, 805, Nov. 3, 1966, [80 Stat. 1282]; [Pub. L. 91–78, § 1], Sept. 30, 1969, [83 Stat. 125]; [Pub. L. 91–152, title IV, § 413(a)], Dec. 24, 1969, [83 Stat. 398]; [Pub. L. 91–609, title VIII, § 803(c)], Dec. 31, 1970, [84 Stat. 1807]; [Pub. L. 93–117, § 13(b)], Oct. 2, 1973, [87 Stat. 423]; [Pub. L. 93–383, title V], §§ 509(b), 510, Aug. 22, 1974, [88 Stat. 695]; [Pub. L. 95–60, § 4(b)], June 30, 1977, [91 Stat. 258]; [Pub. L. 95–80, § 4(b)], July 31, 1977, [91 Stat. 340]; [Pub. L. 95–128, title V], §§ 501(b), 507(a)(3), 508, Oct. 12, 1977, [91 Stat. 1138], 1140, 1141; [Pub. L. 95–406, § 7(b)], Sept. 30, 1978, [92 Stat. 881]; [Pub. L. 95–557, title V, § 501(e)], Oct. 31, 1978, [92 Stat. 2111]; [Pub. L. 96–71, § 5(b)], Sept. 28, 1979, [93 Stat. 502]; [Pub. L. 96–105, § 5(b)], Nov. 8, 1979, [93 Stat. 795]; [Pub. L. 96–153, title V, § 501(f)], Dec. 21, 1979, [93 Stat. 1134]; [Pub. L. 96–372, § 6(b)], Oct. 3, 1980, [94 Stat. 1364]; [Pub. L. 96–399, title V], §§ 501(b), 502, 503, 507(c), Oct. 8, 1980, [94 Stat. 1668], 1670; [Pub. L. 97–35, title III, § 351(b)], Aug. 13, 1981, [95 Stat. 420]; [Pub. L. 97–289, § 3(a)], Oct. 6, 1982, [96 Stat. 1231]; [Pub. L. 98–35, § 3(a)], May 26, 1983, [97 Stat. 198]; [Pub. L. 98–109, § 4(a)], Oct. 1, 1983, [97 Stat. 746]; [Pub. L. 98–181, title I] [title V, §§ 511(b), 512], Nov. 30, 1983, [97 Stat. 1244]; [Pub. L. 98–479, title I, § 105(e)], Oct. 17, 1984, [98 Stat. 2227]; [Pub. L. 99–120, § 3(a)], Oct. 8, 1985, [99 Stat. 503]; [Pub. L. 99–156, § 3(a)], Nov. 15, 1985, [99 Stat. 816];