1
 See References in Text note below.
of this title (as in effect prior to
2
 So in original. Probably should be “subclause”.
(II), shall provide such other safeguards as the Commissioner of Social Security determines to be necessary or appropriate to protect the confidentiality of the social security account numbers.
3
 So in original. Probably should be “amendments made by, such Act.”
4
 So in original.
account number of any individual, or any derivative of such number, on any check issued for any payment by the Federal, State, or local agency.
5
 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.
the designation of such person as a representative payee has been revoked pursuant to
6
 So in original. Probably should be followed by “and”.
7
 So in original. There are no subpars. (A) and (B).
 (i) The Commissioner of Social Security shall make annual grants directly to the protection and advocacy system serving each of the States and the American Indian consortium for the purpose of conducting reviews of representative payees in accordance with this subparagraph. The total amount used by the Commissioner for such grants each year—
References in Text

Subsecs. (e) and (q) of section 418 of this title, referred to in subsec. (c)(1)(D)(i), (5)(F)(iii), which related to payments and reports by States, and to time limitation on assessments, respectively, were repealed, and subsec. (f) of section 418 of this title was redesignated as subsec. (e), by Pub. L. 99–509, title IX, § 9002(c)(1), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1971.

Section 7(a) of the Privacy Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(C)(ii), is section 7(a) of Pub. L. 93–579, which is set out as a note under section 552a of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

The Food and Nutrition Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(C)(iii)(I), (II), is Pub. L. 88–525, Aug. 31, 1964, 78 Stat. 703, which is classified generally to chapter 51 (§ 2011 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of Title 7 and Tables.

The Federal Crop Insurance Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(C)(iv), is subtitle A of title V of act Feb. 16, 1938, ch. 30, 52 Stat. 72, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§ 1501 et seq.) of chapter 36 of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1501 of Title 7 and Tables.

Section 7212(a)(2) of the 9/11 Commission Implementation Act of 2004, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(C)(vi)(II), is section 7212(a)(2) of Pub. L. 108–458, which was formerly set out as a note under section 30301 of Title 49, Transportation.

The Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsecs. (c)(2)(C)(viii)(II), (H) and (j)(2)(B)(iii), is classified generally to Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

The Longshore and Harbor Workers’ Compensation Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(C)(ix), is act Mar. 4, 1927, ch. 509, 44 Stat. 1424, which is classified generally to chapter 18 (§ 901 et seq.) of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 901 of Title 33 and Tables.

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(C)(x), is Pub. L. 111–148, Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 119. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 18001 of this title and Tables.

The Railroad Retirement Act of 1937, referred to in subsecs. (c)(5)(D) and (i), is act Aug. 29, 1935, ch. 812, 49 Stat. 867, as amended generally. See par. for Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 below.

The Railroad Retirement Act of 1974, referred to in subsecs. (c)(5)(D), (i), and (o), is act Aug. 29, 1935, ch. 812, as amended generally by Pub. L. 93–445, title I, § 101, Oct. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 1305, which is classified generally to subchapter IV (§ 231 et seq.) of chapter 9 of Title 45, Railroads. Pub. L. 93–445 completely amended and revised the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 (approved June 24, 1937, ch. 382, 50 Stat. 307), and as thus amended and revised, the 1937 Act was redesignated the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974. Previously, the 1937 Act had completely amended and revised the Railroad Retirement Act of 1935 (approved Aug. 29, 1935, ch. 812, 49 Stat. 967). Section 201 of the 1937 Act provided that the 1935 Act, as in force prior to amendment by the 1937 Act, may be cited as the Railroad Retirement Act of 1935; and that the 1935 Act, as amended by the 1937 Act may be cited as the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937. The Railroad Retirement Acts of 1935 and 1937 were classified to subchapter II (§ 215 et seq.) and subchapter III (§ 228a et seq.), respectively, of chapter 9 of Title 45. For further details and complete classification of these Acts to the Code, see Codification note set out preceding section 231 of Title 45, section 231t of Title 45, and Tables.

Title VIII of the Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(5)(F)(i), probably means former title VIII of the Social Security Act, which was classified to subchapter VIII (§ 1001 et seq.) of this chapter, and was omitted from the Code as superseded by the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

Subchapter E of chapter 1 and subchapter A of chapter 9 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, referred to in subsec. (c)(5)(F)(i), were comprised of sections 480 to 482 and 1400 to 1432, respectively, and were repealed (subject to certain exceptions) by section 7851(a)(1)(A), (3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, Title 26. The Internal Revenue Code of 1954 was redesignated the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 by Pub. L. 99–514, § 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095. For table of comparisons of the 1939 Code to the 1986 Code, see Table I preceding section 1 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code. See also section 7852(b) of Title 26 for provision that references in any other law to a provision of the 1939 Code, unless expressly incompatible with the intent thereof, shall be deemed a reference to the corresponding provision of the 1986 Code.

For provision deeming a reference in other laws to a provision of the 1939 Code as a reference to the corresponding provisions of the 1986 Code, see section 7852(b) of the 1986 Code. For table of comparisons of the 1939 Code to the 1986 Code, see table preceding section 1 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code. The Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is classified generally to Title 26.

Chapters 2 and 21 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, referred to in subsec. (c)(5)(F)(i), were redesignated chapters 2 and 21 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, and are classified to sections 1401 et seq. and 3101 et seq., respectively, of Title 26.

The Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000, referred to in subsec. (j)(6)(C)(vi), (ix)(I), (II), is Pub. L. 106–402, Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1677. Subtitle C of title I of the Act is classified generally to part C (§ 15041 et seq.) of subchapter I of chapter 144 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 15001 of this title and Tables.

The Peace Corps Act, referred to in subsec. (p)(1), is Pub. L. 87–293, Sept. 22, 1961, 75 Stat. 612, which is classified principally to chapter 34 (§ 2501 et seq.) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2501 of Title 22 and Tables.

Section 3122 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, referred to in subsec. (p)(1), redesignated section 3122 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 by Pub. L. 99–514, § 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, and is classified to section 3122 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

The Help America Vote Act of 2002, referred to in subsec. (r)(8)(A), is Pub. L. 107–252, Oct. 29, 2002, 116 Stat. 1666, which was formerly classified principally to chapter 146 (§ 15301 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering in Title 52, Voting and Elections, and is now classified principally to chapter 209 (§ 20901 et seq.) of Title 52. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

October 13, 1988, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(C)(v), was in the original “the date of the enactment of such subclause”, and was translated as if it read “the date of the enactment of such clause”, as the probable intent of Congress. The clause in question, cl. (ii) of subsec. (c)(2)(C), was originally enacted as subcl. (II) of subsec. (c)(2)(C)(i), see 1988 Amendment note below, and was subsequently redesignated as cl. (ii) of subsec. (c)(2)(C), see 1990 Amendment note below.

August 15, 1994, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(E)(iii), was in the original “the date of the enactment of this subparagraph” and “that date”, which were translated as meaning the date of enactment of Pub. L. 103–296, which added subsec. (c)(2)(E) and redesignated former subsec. (c)(2)(E) as (c)(2)(F).

In subsec. (g), act June 25, 1948, as amended by act May 24, 1949, substituted United States District Court for the District of Columbia, for District Court of the United States for the District of Columbia.

In subsec. (h), Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VI, §2663(a)(4)(D), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1162, substituted “section 1331 or 1346 of title 28” for text which, in the original, was “section 24 of the Judicial Code of the United States”. See 1984 Amendment note below. Prior to the enactment of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, by act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 869, section 24 of the Judicial Code was classified to section 41 of former Title 28, Judicial Code and Judiciary. For disposition of section 41 of former Title 28, see Table I.

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (j)(1)(C). Pub. L. 115–165, § 201(a), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (j)(2)(B)(i)(VII). Pub. L. 115–165, § 202(a)(1)(A), added subcl. (VII).

Subsec. (j)(2)(B)(iv), (v). Pub. L. 115–165, § 202(a)(1)(B), added cls. (iv) and (v).

Subsec. (j)(2)(C)(i)(VI). Pub. L. 115–165, § 202(a)(2)(A), added subcl. (VI).

Subsec. (j)(2)(C)(i)(VII). Pub. L. 115–165, § 203(a), added subcl. (VII).

Subsec. (j)(2)(C)(vi). Pub. L. 115–165, § 202(a)(2)(B), added cl. (vi).

Subsec. (j)(3)(D) to (H). Pub. L. 115–165, § 102(a), added subpar. (D), redesignated former subpars. (D) to (G) as (E) to (H), respectively, in subpar. (E), substituted “(C), and (D)” for “and (C)”, and, in subpar. (F), substituted “(E)” for “(D)” in two places.

Subsec. (j)(6). Pub. L. 115–165, § 105(a)(1), struck out subpar. (A) designation and subpar. (B) which related to report on periodic onsite reviews and other reviews of representative payees in connection with benefits under this subchapter.

Subsec. (j)(6)(A). Pub. L. 115–165, § 101(b)(4), inserted concluding provisions.

Subsec. (j)(6)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 115–165, § 101(b)(1)–(3), added cl. (iv).

Subsec. (j)(6)(C). Pub. L. 115–165, § 101(a), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (j)(11). Pub. L. 115–165, § 103(a)(1), added par. (11).

Subsec. (j)(12). Pub. L. 115–165, § 105(a)(2), added par. (12).

2015—Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(x). Pub. L. 114–10, § 501(a)(1), realigned margins of cl. (x) authorizing collection and use of names and social security account numbers for certain administrative purposes.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(xi), (xii). Pub. L. 114–10, § 501(a)(2), redesignated cl. (x), prohibiting use of social security account numbers on checks issued for payment by governmental agencies, and cl. (xi) as cls. (xi) and (xii), respectively.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(xiii). Pub. L. 114–10, § 501(a)(3), added cl. (xiii).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 114–74 inserted “or divorced wife or divorced husband” after “the wife or husband”.

2010—Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(x). Pub. L. 111–318, § 2(a)(1), added cl. (x) prohibiting use of social security account numbers on checks issued for payment by governmental agencies.

Pub. L. 111–148, § 1414(a)(2), added cl. (x) authorizing collection and use of names and social security account numbers for certain administrative purposes.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(xi). Pub. L. 111–318, § 2(b)(1), added cl. (xi).

Subsec. (r)(9). Pub. L. 111–148, § 6402(b)(3), added par. (9).

2008—Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(iii)(I), (II). Pub. L. 110–246, § 4002(b)(1)(B), (2)(V), substituted “Food and Nutrition Act of 2008” for “Food Stamp Act of 1977”.

2006—Subsec. (p)(3). Pub. L. 109–241 substituted “of Homeland Security” for “of Transportation” in two places.

2004—Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(vi). Pub. L. 108–458 designated existing provisions as subcl. (I) and added subcl. (II).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 108–203, § 411(a), substituted “and, in any case in which the Commissioner has not made a decision fully favorable to the individual, a transcript of the additional record and testimony” for “and a transcript of the additional record and testimony”.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 108–271 substituted “Government Accountability Office” for “General Accounting Office”.

Subsec. (j)(2)(B)(i)(IV) to (VI). Pub. L. 108–203, § 103(a)(1), added subcls. (IV) and (V) and redesignated former subcl. (IV) as (VI).

Subsec. (j)(2)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 108–203, § 103(a)(2), added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (j)(2)(C)(i)(II). Pub. L. 108–203, § 103(a)(3), substituted “subparagraph (B)(i)(VI)” for “subparagraph (B)(i)(IV),,” and “section 1383(a)(2)(B)(ii)(VI)” for “section 1383(a)(2)(B)(ii)(IV)”.

Subsec. (j)(2)(C)(i)(IV), (V). Pub. L. 108–203, § 103(a)(4), added subcls. (IV) and (V).

Subsec. (j)(2)(C)(v)(I). Pub. L. 108–203, § 105(a)(2), substituted “paragraph (10)” for “paragraph (9)”.

Pub. L. 108–203, § 102(a)(1)(A), substituted “a certified community-based nonprofit social service agency (as defined in paragraph (9))” for “a community-based nonprofit social service agency licensed or bonded by the State”.

Subsec. (j)(3)(E). Pub. L. 108–203, § 106(a)(2), added subpar. (E). Former subpar. (E) redesignated (F).

Subsec. (j)(3)(F). Pub. L. 108–203, § 106(a)(1), redesignated subpar. (E) as (F). Former subpar. (F) redesignated (G).

Pub. L. 108–203, § 105(a)(2), substituted “paragraph (10)” for “paragraph (9)”.

Pub. L. 108–203, § 102(a)(1)(B), substituted “certified community-based nonprofit social service agencies (as defined in paragraph (9))” for “community-based nonprofit social service agencies”.

Subsec. (j)(3)(G). Pub. L. 108–203, § 106(a)(1), redesignated subpar. (F) as (G).

Subsec. (j)(4)(A)(i). Pub. L. 108–203, § 104(a)(2), which directed amendment of cl. (i) in concluding provisions by substituting “A qualified organization may not collect a fee from an individual for any month with respect to which the Commissioner of Social Security or a court of competent jurisdiction has determined that the organization misused all or part of the individual’s benefit, and any amount so collected by the qualified organization for such month shall be treated as a misused part of the individual’s benefit for purposes of paragraphs (5) and (6). The Commissioner” for “The Secretary”, was executed by making the substitution for “The Commissioner of Social Security” to reflect the probable intent of Congress. See 1994 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 108–203, § 104(a)(1), substituted “Except as provided in the next sentence, a” for “A” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (j)(4)(B). Pub. L. 108–203, § 105(a)(2), substituted “paragraph (10)” for “paragraph (9)” in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 108–203, § 102(a)(1)(C), substituted “any certified community-based nonprofit social service agency (as defined in paragraph (9))” for “any community-based nonprofit social service agency which is bonded or licensed in each State in which it serves as a representative payee” in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (j)(5). Pub. L. 108–203, § 101(a)(1), designated first sentence of existing provisions as introductory provisions and inserted “In any case in which a representative payee that—” after “misused benefits.”, added subpars (A) and (B), and designated second sentence of existing provisions as concluding provisions and inserted “misuses all or part of an individual’s benefit paid to such representative payee, the Commissioner of Social Security shall certify for payment to the beneficiary or the beneficiary’s alternative representative payee an amount equal to the amount of such benefit so misused. The provisions of this paragraph are subject to the limitations of paragraph (7)(B).” before “The Commissioner of Social Security shall make”.

Subsec. (j)(6). Pub. L. 108–203, § 102(b)(1), amended par. (6) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (6) read as follows: “The Commissioner of Social Security shall include as a part of the annual report required under section 904 of this title information with respect to the implementation of the preceding provisions of this subsection, including the number of cases in which the representative payee was changed, the number of cases discovered where there has been a misuse of funds, how any such cases were dealt with by the Commissioner of Social Security, the final disposition of such cases, including any criminal penalties imposed, and such other information as the Commissioner of Social Security determines to be appropriate.”

Subsec. (j)(6)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 108–203, § 105(a)(3), substituted “paragraph (10)” for “paragraph (9)”.

Subsec. (j)(7). Pub. L. 108–203, § 105(a)(1), (4), added par. (7) and redesignated former par. (7) as (8).

Subsec. (j)(8). Pub. L. 108–203, § 105(a)(1), redesignated par. (7) as (8). Former par. (8) redesignated (9).

Pub. L. 108–203, § 101(a)(2), added par. (8).

Subsec. (j)(9). Pub. L. 108–203, § 105(a)(1), redesignated par. (8) as (9). Former par. (9) redesignated (10).

Pub. L. 108–203, § 102(a)(1)(D), added par. (9).

Subsec. (j)(10). Pub. L. 108–203, § 105(a)(1), redesignated par. (9) as (10).

2002—Subsec. (r)(8). Pub. L. 107–252 added par. (8).

2001—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 107–90 inserted “(or five or more years of service, all of which accrues after December 31, 1995)” after “ten years of service”.

1999—Subsec. (j)(1)(A). Pub. L. 106–169, § 251(b)(2)(A), inserted “1007 or” before “1383(a)(2)”.

Subsec. (j)(2)(B)(i)(I). Pub. L. 106–169, § 251(b)(2)(B), inserted “, subchapter VIII,” before “or subchapter XVI”.

Subsec. (j)(2)(B)(i)(III). Pub. L. 106–169, § 251(b)(2)(C), inserted “, 1011,” before “or 1383a”.

Subsec. (j)(2)(B)(i)(IV). Pub. L. 106–169, § 251(b)(2)(D), inserted “, the designation of such person as a representative payee has been revoked pursuant to section 1007(a) of this title,” before “or payment of benefits” and “, subchapter VIII,” before “or subchapter XVI”.

Subsec. (j)(2)(B)(ii)(I). Pub. L. 106–169, § 251(b)(2)(E), inserted “whose designation as a representative payee has been revoked pursuant to section 1007(a) of this title,” before “or with respect to whom” and “, subchapter VIII,” before “or subchapter XVI”.

Subsec. (j)(2)(B)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 106–169, § 251(b)(2)(F), inserted “, 1011,” before “or 1383a”.

Subsec. (j)(2)(C)(i)(II). Pub. L. 106–169, § 251(b)(2)(G), inserted “, the designation of such person as a representative payee has been revoked pursuant to section 1007(a) of this title,” before “or payment of benefits”.

Subsec. (j)(3)(E)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 106–169, § 251(b)(2)(H), inserted “, section 1007 of this title,” before “or section 1383(a)(2) of this title”.

Subsec. (j)(3)(F). Pub. L. 106–169, § 251(b)(2)(I), inserted “1007 or” before “1383(a)(2)”.

Subsec. (j)(4)(B)(i). Pub. L. 106–169, § 251(b)(2)(J), inserted “1007 or” before “1383(a)(2)”.

1997—Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 105–34, § 1090(b)(1)(A), inserted at end “With respect to an application for a social security account number for an individual who has not attained the age of 18 before such application, such evidence shall include the information described in subparagraph (C)(ii).”

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 105–34, § 1090(b)(1)(B), inserted “the Commissioner of Social Security and” after “available to” in second sentence.

Subsec. (c)(2)(H). Pub. L. 105–34, § 1090(b)(1)(C), added subpar. (H).

1996—Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(vi). Pub. L. 104–193 inserted “an agency administering a program funded under part A of subchapter IV or” before “an agency operating” and substituted “part D of such subchapter” for “part A or D of subchapter IV of this chapter”.

Subsec. (j)(1)(B). Pub. L. 104–121, § 105(a)(2)(A), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: “In the case of an individual entitled to benefits based on disability, if alcoholism or drug addiction is a contributing factor material to the Commissioner’s determination that the individual is under a disability, certification of payment of such benefits to a representative payee shall be deemed to serve the interest of such individual under this subchapter. In any case in which such certification is so deemed under this subparagraph to serve the interest of an individual, the Commissioner of Social Security shall include, in such individual’s notification of entitlement, a notice that alcoholism or drug addiction is a contributing factor material to the Commissioner’s determination of such individual’s disability and that the Commissioner of Social Security is therefore required to make a certification of payment of such individual’s benefits to a representative payee.”

Subsec. (j)(2)(C)(v). Pub. L. 104–121, § 105(a)(2)(B), substituted “described in paragraph (1)(B)” for “entitled to benefits based on disability, if alcoholism or drug addiction is a contributing factor material to the Commissioner’s determination that the individual is under a disability”.

Subsec. (j)(2)(D)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 104–121, § 105(a)(2)(C), substituted “described in paragraph (1)(B).” for “(if alcoholism or drug addiction is a contributing factor material to the Commissioner’s determination that the individual is under a disability) is eligible for benefits under this subchapter by reason of disability..”

Subsec. (j)(4)(A)(i)(II). Pub. L. 104–121, § 105(a)(2)(D), substituted “described in paragraph (1)(B)” for “entitled to benefits based on disability and alcoholism or drug addiction is a contributing factor material to the Commissioner’s determination that the individual is under a disability”.

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (b)(1), (2). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted wherever appearing “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”, “Commissioner’s” for “Secretary’s”, “the Commissioner may” for “he may”, “the Commissioner shall” for “he shall”, and “the Commissioner’s” for “his” except in the phrase “his or her rights”.

Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 103–296, § 321(a)(7), realigned margin.

Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 103–296, § 321(a)(7), realigned margin.

Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(D)(i). Pub. L. 103–296, § 321(c)(6)(B), substituted “Code of 1986” for “Code of 1954”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” in two places and “the Commissioner deems” for “he deems”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(i). Pub. L. 103–296, § 304(a)(1), substituted “(F)” for “(E)” in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “In carrying out the Commissioner’s duties” for “In carrying out his duties” in introductory provisions and “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 103–296, § 321(a)(8), substituted “nonpublic” for “non-public”.

Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(iii). Pub. L. 103–296, § 321(a)(9)(B), redesignated the cl. (iii) as added by Pub. L. 101–624, § 2201(b)(3), as cl. (iv).

Pub. L. 103–296, § 316(a), amended cl. (iii) as added by Pub. L. 101–624, § 1735(a)(3), by inserting subcl. (I) designation before “In the administration” and by substituting subcls. (II) to (IV) for “The Secretary of Agriculture shall restrict, to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Health and Human Services, access to social security account numbers obtained pursuant to this clause only to officers and employees of the United States whose duties or responsibilities require access for the administration or enforcement of the Food Stamp Act of 1977. The Secretary of Agriculture shall provide such other safeguards as the Secretary of Health and Human Services determines to be necessary or appropriate to protect the confidentiality of the social security account numbers.”

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(iii)(III), (IV). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(1), in cl. (iii) as amended by Pub. L. 103–296, § 316(a), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary of Health and Human Services”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(iv). Pub. L. 103–296, § 321(a)(9)(B), redesignated the cl. (iii) as added by Pub. L. 101–624, § 2201(b)(3), as cl. (iv). Former cl. (iv) redesignated (v).

Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(1), in cl. (iv) as redesignated by Pub. L. 103–296, § 321(a)(9)(B), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary of Health and Human Services” in two places.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(v). Pub. L. 103–296, § 321(a)(9)(B), (C), redesignated cl. (iv) as (v), and substituted “policy set forth in clause (i)” for “policy set forth in subclause (I) of clause (i)” and “clause (ii)” for “subclause (II) of clause (i)”. Former cl. (v) redesignated (vi).

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(vi). Pub. L. 103–296, § 321(a)(9)(B), redesignated cl. (v) as (vi). Former cl. (vi) redesignated (vii).

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(vii). Pub. L. 103–296, § 321(a)(9)(B), redesignated cl. (vi) as (vii). Former cl. (vii) added by Pub. L. 101–624, § 1735(b), redesignated (viii).

Pub. L. 103–296, § 321(a)(9)(A), struck out cl. (vii) added by Pub. L. 101–624, § 2201(c), which was substantially identical to the cl. (vii) added by Pub. L. 101–624, § 1735(b).

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(viii). Pub. L. 103–296, § 321(a)(9)(B), (D), redesignated the cl. (vii) added by Pub. L. 101–624, § 1735(b), as (viii) and inserted “a social security account number or” before “a request for” in subcl. (IV).

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(ix). Pub. L. 103–296, § 318, added cl. (ix).

Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(1), amended cl. (ix) as added by Pub. L. 103–296, § 318, by substituting “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary of Health and Human Services” in two places.

Subsec. (c)(2)(D)(i)(I), (II). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(E). Pub. L. 103–296, § 304(a)(3), added subpar. (E). Former subpar. (E) redesignated (F).

Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), in subpar. (E) added by Pub. L. 103–296, § 304(a)(3), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(F), (G). Pub. L. 103–296, § 304(a)(2), redesignated subpars. (E) and (F) as (F) and (G), respectively.

Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), in subpars. (F) and (G) as redesignated by Pub. L. 103–296, § 304(a)(2), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner’s” for “Secretary’s” and “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), in introductory provisions, substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” and substituted “the Commissioner’s” for “his” wherever appearing, in subpars. (A) and (B), substituted “Commissioner’s” for “Secretary’s”, and in subpar. (C), substituted “Commissioner’s records as” for “Secretary’s records as”, “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”, and “the Commissioner’s records the” for “his records the”.

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), in introductory provisions substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” and substituted “the Commissioner’s” for “his” in two places.

Subsec. (c)(5)(B). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner’s” for “Secretary’s” in two places.

Subsec. (c)(5)(F). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “the Commissioner’s” for “his” in introductory provisions, “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” in cl. (ii), and “Commissioner’s” for “Secretary’s” in closing provisions.

Subsec. (c)(5)(F)(i). Pub. L. 103–296, § 321(c)(3), inserted “or the Internal Revenue Code of 1986” after “Code of 1954”.

Subsec. (c)(5)(G), (J), (6), (7). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing and “the Commissioner’s” for “his” before “records” in two places in par. (7).

Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 103–296, § 206(a)(1)(B), added par. (8). Former par. (8) redesignated (9).

Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 103–296, § 206(a)(1)(A), redesignated par. (8) as (9).

Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), in par. (9) as redesignated by Pub. L. 103–296, § 206(a)(1)(A), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing, “the Commissioner’s” for “his” before “jurisdiction”, and “by the Commissioner” for “by him”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing, “the Commissioner’s” for “his” wherever appearing except in second sentence, and “the Commissioner files” for “he files”.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing and “Commissioner’s” for “Secretary’s”.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 103–296, § 321(a)(10), made technical amendment to heading.

Subsec. (j)(1). Pub. L. 103–296, § 201(a)(1)(A), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), in last sentence inserted “, if the interest of the individual under this subchapter would be served thereby,” after “payee or”, and added subpar. (B).

Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), in par. (1) as amended by Pub. L. 103–296, § 201(a)(1)(A), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing and “Commissioner’s” for “Secretary’s” in two places in subpar. (B).

Subsec. (j)(2)(A) to (C)(iv). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (j)(2)(C)(v). Pub. L. 103–296, § 201(a)(2)(A), added cl. (v).

Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), in cl. (v) as added by Pub. L. 103–296, § 201(a)(2)(A), substituted “Commissioner’s” for “Secretary’s” in introductory provisions and “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” in subcl. (IV) and closing provisions.

Subsec. (j)(2)(D)(i). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” in two places.

Subsec. (j)(2)(D)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 103–296, § 201(a)(1)(B), substituted “, under the age of 15 years, or (if alcoholism or drug addiction is a contributing factor material to the Secretary’s determination that the individual is under a disability) is eligible for benefits under this subchapter by reason of disability.” for “or under the age of 15”.

Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), in subcl. (II) as amended by Pub. L. 103–296, § 201(a)(1)(B), substituted “Commissioner’s” for “Secretary’s” in two places.

Subsec. (j)(2)(D)(iii), (E), (3)(A), (B), (D), (E). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing and “Commissioner’s” for “Secretary’s” in par. (2)(E)(i) and (ii).

Subsec. (j)(4)(A). Pub. L. 103–296, § 201(a)(2)(B)(i), designated existing provisions as cl. (i), redesignated former cls. (i) and (ii) as subcls. (I) and (II), respectively, added new subcl. (II) and struck out former subcl. (II) (as redesignated) which read “$25.00 per month.”, inserted “The Secretary shall adjust annually (after 1995) each dollar amount set forth in subclause (II) under procedures providing for adjustments in the same manner and to the same extent as adjustments are provided for under the procedures used to adjust benefit amounts under section 415(i)(2)(A) of this title, except that any amount so adjusted that is not a multiple of $1.00 shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of $1.00.” before “Any agreement” in concluding provisions, and added cl. (ii).

Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), in subpar. (A) as amended by Pub. L. 103–296, § 201(a)(2)(B)(i), substituted “Commissioner’s” for “Secretary’s” and “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (j)(4)(B). Pub. L. 103–296, § 201(a)(2)(B)(ii), in introductory provisions, inserted “State or local government agency whose mission is to carry out income maintenance, social service, or health care-related activities, any State or local government agency with fiduciary responsibilities, or any” after “means any”, substituted “representative payee, if such agency,” for “representative payee and which,”, substituted a period for “, and” at end of cl. (ii), and struck out cl. (iii) which read as follows: “was in existence on October 1, 1988.”

Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (j)(4)(D). Pub. L. 103–296, § 201(a)(2)(B)(iii), struck out subpar. (D) which read as follows: “This paragraph shall cease to be effective on July 1, 1994.”

Subsec. (j)(5). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (j)(6). Pub. L. 103–296, § 321(f)(2)(A), made technical correction to Pub. L. 101–508, § 5105(d)(1)(A). See 1990 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), in par. (6) as amended by Pub. L. 103–296, § 321(f)(2)(A), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (j)(7). Pub. L. 103–296, § 201(a)(2)(C), added par. (7).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(2), (4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary”, “Social Security Administration” for “Department of Health and Human Services”, “by the Commissioner” for “by him”, “upon the Commissioner” for “upon him”, and “the Commissioner’s” for “his”.

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security may, in the Commissioner’s discretion” for “Secretary may, in his discretion”.

Subsec. (p)(1), (2). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing, “the Commissioner’s” for “Secretary’s” in par. (1), and “to the Commissioner” for “to him” in par. (2).

Subsecs. (q), (r). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing, “the Commissioner finds” for “he finds” in subsec. (q)(2), and “the Commissioner may” for “he may” in subsec. (q)(3).

Subsec. (s). Pub. L. 103–296, § 321(a)(11), made technical amendment to heading.

Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” in two places in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (t). Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” in closing provisions.

Subsec. (u). Pub. L. 103–296, § 206(d)(1), added subsec. (u).

Pub. L. 103–296, § 107(a)(4), in subsec. (u) added by Pub. L. 103–296, § 206(d)(1), substituted “Commissioner of Social Security” for “Secretary” wherever appearing.

1990—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 101–508, § 5107(a)(1), added par. (3).

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 101–624, §§ 1735(a), (b), 2201(b), (c), made similar amendments redesignating subcls. (I) and (II) of former cl. (i) as cls. (i) and (ii), respectively, adding two cls. (iii) which are different, redesignating former cls. (ii) to (iv) as (iv) to (vi), respectively, and adding two substantially identical cls. (vii). Cls. (iii) and (vii), as added by § 1735 of Pub. L. 101–624, are set out first and cls. (iii) and (vii), as added by § 2201 of Pub. L. 101–624, are set out second.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 101–508, § 5105(a)(1)(A), inserted heading “Representative payees”.

Subsec. (j)(1). Pub. L. 101–508, § 5105(a)(1)(A), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “When it appears to the Secretary that the interest of an applicant entitled to a payment would be served thereby, certification of payment may be made, regardless of the legal competency or incompetency of the individual entitled thereto, either for direct payment to such applicant, or for his use and benefit to a relative or some other person.”

Subsec. (j)(2). Pub. L. 101–508, § 5105(a)(2)(A)(i), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: “Any certification made under paragraph (1) for payment to a person other than the individual entitled to such payment must be made on the basis of an investigation, carried out either prior to such certification or within forty-five days after such certification, and on the basis of adequate evidence that such certification is in the interest of the individual entitled to such payment (as determined by the Secretary in regulations). The Secretary shall ensure that such certifications are adequately reviewed.”

Subsec. (j)(3)(B), (C). Pub. L. 101–508, § 5105(b)(1)(A)(i), (ii), redesignated subpars. (C) and (D) as (B) and (C), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: “Subparagraph (A) shall not apply in any case where the other person to whom such payment is made is a parent or spouse of the individual entitled to such payment who lives in the same household as such individual. The Secretary shall require such parent or spouse to verify on a periodic basis that such parent or spouse continues to live in the same household as such individual.”

Subsec. (j)(3)(D). Pub. L. 101–508, § 5105(b)(1)(A)(ii), (iii), redesignated subpar. (E) as (D) and substituted “(A), (B), and (C)” for “(A), (B), (C), and (D)”. Former subpar. (D) redesignated (C).

Subsec. (j)(3)(E), (F). Pub. L. 101–508, § 5105(b)(1)(A)(ii), (iv), added subpars. (E) and (F) and redesignated former subpar. (E) as (D).

Subsec. (j)(4). Pub. L. 101–508, § 5105(a)(3)(A)(i), added par. (4). Former par. (4) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (j)(5). Pub. L. 101–508, § 5105(c)(1), added par. (5) relating to negligent failure of the Secretary to investigate or monitor. Former par. (5), relating to annual report, redesignated (6).

Pub. L. 101–508, § 5105(a)(3)(A)(i), redesignated par. (4), relating to annual report, as (5).

Subsec. (j)(6). Pub. L. 101–508, § 5105(d)(1)(A), as amended by Pub. L. 103–296, § 321(f)(2)(A), amended par. (6) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (6) read as follows:

“(A) The Secretary shall make an initial report to each House of the Congress on the implementation of paragraphs (2) and (3) within 270 days after October 9, 1984.

“(B) The Secretary shall include as a part of the annual report required under section 904 of this title, information with respect to the implementation of paragraphs (2) and (3), including the number of cases in which the payee was changed, the number of cases discovered where there has been a misuse of funds, how any such cases were dealt with by the Secretary, the final disposition of such cases, including any criminal penalties imposed, and such other information as the Secretary determines to be appropriate.”

Pub. L. 101–508, § 5105(c)(1), redesignated par. (5), relating to annual report, as (6).

Subsec. (s). Pub. L. 101–508, § 5109(a)(1), added subsec. (s).

1989—Subsec. (c)(5)(H). Pub. L. 101–239, § 10304, struck out “if there is an absence of an entry in the Secretary’s records of wages having been paid by such employer to such individual in such period” before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (t). Pub. L. 101–239, § 10303(a), added subsec. (t).

1988—Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(i). Pub. L. 100–647, § 8009(a)(1), inserted “and subparagraph (E)” after “subparagraph (A)”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(i). Pub. L. 100–485, § 125(a)(1), designated existing provisions as subcl. (I) and added subcl. (II).

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 100–485, § 125(a)(2), substituted “subclause (I) of clause (i)” for “clause (i) of this subparagraph” and inserted at end “If and to the extent that any such provision is inconsistent with the requirement set forth in subclause (II) of clause (i), such provision shall, on and after October 13, 1988, be null, void, and of no effect.”

Subsec. (c)(2)(C)(iii). Pub. L. 100–647, § 8016(a)(1), substituted “of this Act” for “of the Social Security Act”, which for purposes of codification was translated as “of this chapter”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(D). Pub. L. 100–647, § 8008(a)(2), added subpar. (D). Former subpar. (D) redesignated (E).

Subsec. (c)(2)(E). Pub. L. 100–647, § 8009(a)(3), added subpar. (E). Former subpar. (E) redesignated (F).

Pub. L. 100–647, § 8008(a)(1), redesignated former subpar. (D) as (E).

Subsec. (c)(2)(F). Pub. L. 100–647, § 8009(a)(2), redesignated former subpar. (E) as (F).

Subsec. (p)(1). Pub. L. 100–647, § 8015(a)(1), substituted “the Secretary shall not make determinations as to the amounts of remuneration for such service, or the periods in which or for which such remuneration was paid” for “the Secretary shall not make determinations as to whether an individual has performed such service, the periods of such service, the amounts of remuneration for such service which constitute wages under the provisions of section 409 of this title, or the periods in which or for which such wages were paid” and inserted at end “Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to affect the Secretary’s authority to determine under sections 409 and 410 of this title whether any such service constitutes employment, the periods of such employment, and whether remuneration paid for any such service constitutes wages.”

1986—Subsec. (c)(1)(D)(i). Pub. L. 99–509, § 9002(c)(2)(A), inserted “(as in effect prior to December 31, 1986)”.

Subsec. (c)(5)(F)(iii). Pub. L. 99–509, § 9002(c)(2)(B), inserted “(as in effect prior to December 31, 1986)” and “(as so in effect)”.

1984—Subsec. (c)(5)(D). Pub. L. 98–369, § 2663(a)(4)(A), inserted “of 1937 or 1974” after “Railroad Retirement Act” in two places.

Subsec. (c)(5)(I). Pub. L. 98–369, § 2663(a)(4)(B), inserted “or section 7(b)(7) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–369, § 2663(a)(4)(C), substituted “an order” for “on order”.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 98–369, § 2663(a)(4)(D), substituted “section 1331 or 1346 of title 28” for “section 24 of the Judicial Code of the United States”. See Codification note above.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 98–369, § 2663(a)(4)(E), substituted “the Fiscal Service of the Department of the Treasury” for “the Division of Disbursement of the Treasury Department”.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 98–460 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added pars. (2) to (4).

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 98–369, § 2663(j)(4), substituted “Department of Health and Human Services” for “Federal Security Agency”.

Subsec. (p)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, § 2663(a)(4)(F), substituted “section 3122 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954” for “section 1420(e) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939”.

Subsec. (r)(4). Pub. L. 98–369, § 2661(h)(1), substituted “subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (3)” for “paragraph (3)(A) and (B)”.

Subsec. (r)(7). Pub. L. 98–369, § 2661(h)(2), substituted “this Act” for “the Act” which was translated as “this title”.

1983—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–21, §§ 301(d)(1), 309(i)(1), in par. (1) inserted “divorced husband,” after “husband,”, “surviving divorced husband,” after “widower,”, and “surviving divorced father,” after “surviving divorced mother,”.

Pub. L. 97–455 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 98–21, §§ 301(d)(2), 309(i)(2), inserted “surviving divorced husband,” after “wife,” and “surviving divorced father,” after “surviving divorced mother,”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(D). Pub. L. 98–21, § 345(a), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (r). Pub. L. 98–21, § 336, added subsec. (r).

1980—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–265, § 305(a), inserted provisions relating to the information that must accompany a decision by the Secretary.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 96–265, § 307, substituted “The court may, on motion of the Secretary made for good cause shown before he files his answer, remand the case to the Secretary for further action by the Secretary, and it may at any time order additional evidence to be taken before the Secretary, but only upon a showing that there is new evidence which is material and that there is good cause for the failure to incorporate such evidence into the record in a prior proceeding;” for “The court shall, on motion of the Secretary made before he files his answer, remand the case to the Secretary for further action by the Secretary, and may, at any time, on good cause shown, order additional evidence to be taken before the Secretary,”.

1978—Subsec. (p)(3). Pub. L. 95–600 substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for “Secretary of the Treasury” in two places.

1977—Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 95–216, § 353(f)(2)(A), struck out “(as defined in section 411(e) of this title)” after “taxable year”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(D). Pub. L. 95–216, § 353(f)(2)(B), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 95–216, § 353(f)(2)(C), inserted “before 1978” after “calendar year”.

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–202 substituted provisions that a request for a hearing following the decision of the Secretary be made within sixty days after notice of such decision is received for provisions which authorized the Secretary to prescribe by regulation the period within which to file a request, including the limitation that the period so prescribed be not less than six months after notice of the decision was mailed.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 94–455 added subpar. (C).

1974—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 93–445, § 302(a), inserted parenthetical provision covering service under the Railroad Retirement Acts of 1937 and 1974 and certification to the Railroad Retirement Board and payment on behalf of the Managing Trustee in accordance with the provisions of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974.

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 93–445, § 303, substituted “annuity under section 2 of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974” for “section 5 of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937”, “section 6(b) of such Act” for “subsection (f)(1) of such section”, and “section 3(i) of such Act” for “section 4 of such Act”.

1972—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 92–603 designated existing provisions as par. (A) and added par. (B).

1970—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 91–452 struck out subsec. (f) which related to the immunity from prosecution of any person compelled to testify or produce evidence after claiming his privilege against self-incrimination.

1968—Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 90–248, § 171(a), added subsec. (q).

1965—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–97, § 308(d)(9), substituted in second sentence “wife, divorced wife, widow, surviving divorced wife, surviving divorced mother,” for “wife, widow, former wife divorced,”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 89–97, § 308(d)(10), substituted “surviving divorced wife, surviving divorced mother,” for “former wife divorced,”.

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 89–97, § 330, provided that Secretary of the Treasury may authorize surviving payee or payees of a combined benefit check to cash one or more such checks which were not negotiated before one of payees died, provided that part of proceeds from each check that represents an overpayment is to be adjusted or recovered as provided in section 404(a) of this title.

1961—Subsec. (p)(1). Pub. L. 87–293 provided that head of Federal agency having control of service or such agents as the head may designate would make determinations with respect to employment and wages in case of service performed by volunteers and volunteer leaders in Peace Corps.

1960—Subsec. (c)(5)(F). Pub. L. 86–778, § 102(f)(2), authorized the Secretary to add, change, or delete entries to conform his records to assessments of amounts due under an agreement pursuant to section 418 of this title, if such assessments are made within the period specified in subsection (q) of such section, or allowances of credits or refunds of overpayments by a State under an agreement pursuant to such section, and inserted references to chapters 2 and 21 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 86–507 inserted “or by certified mail” after “registered mail” in two places.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 86–778, § 702(a), inserted sentence providing that any action instituted in accordance with this subsection shall survive notwithstanding any change in the person occupying the office of Secretary or any vacancy in such office.

Subsec. (p)(1). Pub. L. 86–778, § 103(j)(2)(E), substituted “subsection (l)(1)” for “subsection (m)(1)”.

1956—Subsec. (b). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, § 111(a), required requests with respect to decisions to be filed within such period as the Secretary prescribes by regulation, which period may not be less than six months after notice of the decision is mailed.

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, § 107(b), substituted “three months” for “two months”.

Subsec. (c)(5)(F). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, § 117, struck out provisions prohibiting inclusion in records of amount of self-employment income in excess of the amount which had been deleted as payments erroneously included in such records as wages paid to such individual in such taxable year, which provisions are now covered by subsec. (c)(5)(J) of this section.

Subsec. (c)(5)(J). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, § 117, added subpar. (J).

Subsec. (p)(1). Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 837, provided for determinations with respect to service performed as a member of a uniformed service to which the provisions of section 410(m)(1) of this title are applicable.

1954—Subsec. (o). Act Sept. 1, 1954, § 101(a)(5), substituted “section 410(a)(9)” for “section 410(a)(10)”.

Subsec. (p)(3). Act Sept. 1, 1954, § 101(c)(3), inserted provisions making subsec. (p)(1) and (2) applicable to services performed by a civilian employee in the Coast Guard Exchanges or certain other activities at Coast Guard installations.

1952—Subsec. (o). Act July 18, 1952, substituted “subsection (a) or (e) of section 417 of this title” for “section 417(a) of this title”.

1950—Act Aug. 28, 1950, § 109(b)(1), substituted “Administrator” for “Board”, “Administrator’s” for “Board’s”, “he”, “him”, and “his” for “it”, and “its”, wherever appearing.

Subsec. (b). Act Aug. 28, 1950, § 108(a), inserted “former wife divorced, husband, widower,” after “widow”.

Subsec. (c). Act Aug. 28, 1950, § 108(b), amended subsec. (c) generally to include definitions, to provide for the maintaining of records of self-employed persons, to allow for the revision of the Administrator’s record, to authorize corrections after the times limitations if an application for monthly benefits or a lump-sum death payment is filed within the time limitation and no final decision has been made on it, to continue the requirement that written notice of any deletion or reduction of wages be given to the individual whose record is involved, to give the Administrator discretion to prescribe the period, after any change or refusal to change his records, within which an individual may be granted a hearing, and to provide for judicial review.

Subsec. (l). Act Aug. 28, 1950, § 109(b)(2), amended subsec. (l) generally.

Subsecs. (o), (p). Act Aug. 28, 1950, § 108(c), added subsecs. (o) and (p).

1939—Act Aug. 10, 1939, omitted former section 405 relating to payments of $500 or less to estates, and added subsecs. (a) to (n).

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–165, title I, § 102(d), Apr. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1261, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1007 and 1383 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 13, 2018].”

Pub. L. 115–165, title I, § 103(a)(4), Apr. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1262, provided that:

“(A)
In general.—
The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section and section 671 of this title] shall apply with respect to months beginning on or after the date that is 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 13, 2018].
“(B)
Exception if state legislation required.—
In the case of a State plan under part E of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 670 et seq.] that the Secretary of Health and Human Services determines requires State legislation (other than legislation appropriating funds) in order for the plan to meet the additional requirement imposed by the amendments made under this subsection, such plan shall not be regarded as failing to comply with the requirements of such title [42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.] solely on the basis of its failure to meet this additional requirement before the first day of the first calendar quarter beginning after the close of the first regular session of the State legislature that begins after the date of the enactment of this Act. For purposes of the previous sentence, in the case of a State that has a 2-year legislative session, each year of such session shall be deemed to be a separate regular session of the State legislature.”

Pub. L. 115–165, title II, § 201(b), Apr. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1266, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date that is 2 years after the date of the enactment of this section [Apr. 13, 2018].”

Pub. L. 115–165, title II, § 202(d), Apr. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1271, provided that: “Subject to subsection (e) [set out as a note under this section], the amendments made by subsections (a), (b), and (c) [amending this section and sections 1007 and 1383 of this title] shall apply with respect to any individual appointed to serve as a representative payee pursuant to section 205(j), 807, or 1631(a)(2) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 405(j), 1007, 1383(a)(2)] on or after January 1, 2019.”

Pub. L. 115–165, title II, § 203(d), Apr. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1273, provided that:

“(1)
New appointments.—
Subject to paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1007 and 1383 of this title] shall apply with respect to any individual appointed to serve as a representative payee under title II, title VIII, or title XVI of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq., 1001 et seq., 1381 et seq.] on or after January 1, 2019.
“(2)
Prior appointments.—
With respect to individuals serving as a representative payee whose benefits under this title [probably means title II], title VIII, or title XVI [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq., 1001 et seq., 1381 et seq.] are certified for payment to another representative payee as of January 1, 2019, the Commissioner shall take any steps necessary to terminate such individual’s service as a representative payee as soon as possible, but no later than January 1, 2024.”

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–10, title V, § 501(d), Apr. 16, 2015, 129 Stat. 164, provided that:

“(1)
In general.—
Clause (xiii) of section 205(c)(2)(C) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 405(c)(2)(C)), as added by subsection (a)(3), shall apply with respect to Medicare cards issued on and after an effective date specified by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, but in no case shall such effective date be later than the date that is four years after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 16, 2015].
“(2)
Reissuance.—
The Secretary shall provide for the reissuance of Medicare cards that comply with the requirements of such clause not later than four years after the effective date specified by the Secretary under paragraph (1).”

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–318, § 2(a)(2), Dec. 18, 2010, 124 Stat. 3455, provided that: “The amendment made by this subsection [amending this section] shall apply with respect to checks issued after the date that is 3 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 2010].”

Pub. L. 111–318, § 2(b)(2), Dec. 18, 2010, 124 Stat. 3455, provided that: “The amendment made by this subsection [amending this section] shall apply with respect to employment of prisoners, or entry into contract with prisoners, after the date that is 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 2010].”

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Amendment by section 4002(b)(1)(B), (2)(V) of Pub. L. 110–246 effective Oct. 1, 2008, see section 4407 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as a note under section 1161 of Title 2, The Congress.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendments

Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, § 7214(b), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3832, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a)(2) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to licenses, registrations, and identification cards issued or reissued 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 17, 2004].”

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–458 effective Dec. 17, 2004, notwithstanding any other provision of such Act, see section 7219 of Pub. L. 108–458, set out as a note under section 1202 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Pub. L. 108–203, title I, § 101(d), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 497, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1007, 1382b, and 1383 of this title] shall apply to any case of benefit misuse by a representative payee with respect to which the Commissioner of Social Security makes the determination of misuse on or after January 1, 1995.”

Pub. L. 108–203, title I, § 102(a)(3), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 498, provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section and section 1383 of this title] shall take effect on the first day of the thirteenth month beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 2, 2004].”

Pub. L. 108–203, title I, § 103(d), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 503, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1007 and 1383 of this title] shall take effect on the first day of the thirteenth month beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 2, 2004].”

Pub. L. 108–203, title I, § 104(c), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 504, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1383 of this title] shall apply to any month involving benefit misuse by a representative payee in any case with respect to which the Commissioner of Social Security or a court of competent jurisdiction makes the determination of misuse after 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 2, 2004].”

Pub. L. 108–203, title I, § 105(d), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 505, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1007 and 1383 of this title] shall apply to benefit misuse by a representative payee in any case with respect to which the Commissioner of Social Security or a court of competent jurisdiction makes the determination of misuse after 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 2, 2004].”

Pub. L. 108–203, title I, § 106(d), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 506, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1007 and 1383 of this title] shall take effect 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 2, 2004].”

Pub. L. 108–203, title IV, § 411(b), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 527, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to final determinations issued (upon remand) on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 2, 2004].”

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–90, title I, § 103(j), Dec. 21, 2001, 115 Stat. 882, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 231a to 231f, 231q, and 231r of Title 45, Railroads] shall take effect on January 1, 2002.”

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–34, title X, § 1090(b)(2), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 962, provided that:

“(A)
The amendment made by paragraph (1)(A) [amending this section] shall apply to applications made after the date which is 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 5, 1997].
“(B)
The amendments made by subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply to information obtained on, before, or after the date of the enactment of this Act.”

Effective Date of 1996 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–193 effective July 1, 1997, with transition rules relating to State options to accelerate such date, rules relating to claims, actions, and proceedings commenced before such date, rules relating to closing out of accounts for terminated or substantially modified programs and continuance in office of Assistant Secretary for Family Support, and provisions relating to termination of entitlement under AFDC program, see section 116 of Pub. L. 104–193, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note under section 601 of this title.

Pub. L. 104–121, title I, § 105(a)(5), Mar. 29, 1996, 110 Stat. 853, as amended by Pub. L. 106–170, title IV, § 401(a), (b), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1906, provided that:

“(A)
The amendments made by paragraphs (1) and (4) [amending sections 423 and 425 of this title] shall apply to any individual who applies for, or whose claim is finally adjudicated with respect to, benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.] based on disability on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 29, 1996], and, in the case of any individual who has applied for, and whose claim has been finally adjudicated with respect to, such benefits before such date of enactment, such amendments shall apply only with respect to such benefits for months beginning on or after January 1, 1997.
“(B)
The amendments made by paragraphs (2) and (3) [amending this section and section 422 of this title] shall take effect on July 1, 1996, with respect to any individual—
“(i)
whose claim for benefits is finally adjudicated on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 29, 1996]; or
“(ii)
whose entitlement to benefits is based upon an entitlement redetermination made pursuant to subparagraph (C).
“(C)
Within 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 29, 1996], the Commissioner of Social Security shall notify each individual who is entitled to monthly insurance benefits under title II of the Social Security Act based on disability for the month in which this Act is enacted and whose entitlement to such benefits would terminate by reason of the amendments made by this subsection [amending this section and sections 422, 423, and 425 of this title]. If such an individual reapplies for benefits under title II of such Act (as amended by this Act) based on disability within 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Commissioner of Social Security shall, not later than January 1, 1997, complete the entitlement redetermination (including a new medical determination) with respect to such individual pursuant to the procedures of such title.
“(D)
For purposes of this paragraph, an individual’s claim, with respect to benefits under title II based on disability, which has been denied in whole before the date of the enactment of this Act, may not be considered to be finally adjudicated before such date if, on or after such date—
“(i)
there is pending a request for either administrative or judicial review with respect to such claim; or
“(ii)
there is pending, with respect to such claim, a readjudication by the Commissioner of Social Security pursuant to relief in a class action or implementation by the Commissioner of a court remand order.
“(E)
Notwithstanding the provisions of this paragraph, with respect to any individual for whom the Commissioner of Social Security does not perform the entitlement redetermination before the date prescribed in subparagraph (C), the Commissioner shall perform such entitlement redetermination in lieu of a continuing disability review whenever the Commissioner determines that the individual’s entitlement is subject to redetermination based on the preceding provisions of this paragraph, and the provisions of section 223(f) [42 U.S.C. 423(f)] shall not apply to such redetermination.”

[Pub. L. 106–170, title IV, § 401(c), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1907, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending section 105(a)(5) of Pub. L. 104–121, set out above] shall take effect as if included in the enactment of section 105 of the Contract with America Advancement Act of 1996 (Public Law 104–121; 110 Stat. 852 et seq.).”]

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by section 107(a)(1), (2), (4) of Pub. L. 103–296 effective Mar. 31, 1995, see section 110(a) of Pub. L. 103–296, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Pub. L. 103–296, title II, § 201(a)(1)(D), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1491, provided that:

“(i)
General rule.—
Except as provided in clause (ii), the amendments made by this paragraph [amending this section] shall apply with respect to benefits paid in months beginning after 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 15, 1994].
“(ii)
Treatment of current beneficiaries.—
In any case in which—
“(I)
an individual is entitled to benefits based on disability (as defined in section 205(j)(7) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 405(j)(7)], as amended by this section),
“(II)
the determination of disability was made by the Secretary of Health and Human Services during or before the 180-day period following the date of the enactment of this Act, and
“(III)
alcoholism or drug addiction is a contributing factor material to the Secretary’s determination that the individual is under a disability,
the amendments made by this paragraph shall apply with respect to benefits paid in months after the month in which such individual is notified by the Secretary in writing that alcoholism or drug addiction is a contributing factor material to the Secretary’s determination and that the Secretary is therefore required to make a certification of payment of such individual’s benefits to a representative payee.”

Pub. L. 103–296, title II, § 201(a)(2)(B)(iii), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1493, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective July 1, 1994.

Pub. L. 103–296, title II, § 201(a)(2)(D), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1494, provided that: “Except as provided in subparagraph (B)(iii) [set out above], the amendments made by this paragraph [amending this section] shall apply with respect to months beginning after 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 15, 1994].”

Pub. L. 103–296, title II, § 206(a)(3), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1509, provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section and section 1383 of this title] shall apply to translations made on or after October 1, 1994.”

Pub. L. 103–296, title II, § 206(d)(3), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1515, provided that: “The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section and section 1383 of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 1994, and shall apply to determinations made before, on, or after such date.”

Pub. L. 103–296, title III, § 304(c), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1521, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1320b–10 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 15, 1994].”

Pub. L. 103–296, title III, § 321(f)(5), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1542, provided that: “Each amendment made by this subsection [amending this section and sections 406, 423, 1320a–6, and 1383 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–508] to which such amendment relates, except that the amendments made by paragraph (3)(B) [amending sections 406 and 1320a–6 of this title] shall apply with respect to favorable judgments made after 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 15, 1994].”

Effective Date of 1990 Amendments

Amendment by section 1735(a), (b) of Pub. L. 101–624 effective and implemented first day of month beginning 120 days after publication of implementing regulations to be promulgated not later than Oct. 1, 1991, see section 1781(a) of Pub. L. 101–624, set out as a note under section 2012 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Pub. L. 101–508, title V, § 5105(a)(5), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–262, provided that:

“(A)
Use and selection of representative payees.—
The amendments made by paragraphs (1) and (2) [amending this section and section 1383 of this title] shall take effect July 1, 1991, and shall apply only with respect to—
“(i)
certifications of payment of benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.] to representative payees made on or after such date; and
“(ii)
provisions for payment of benefits under title XVI of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1381 et seq.] to representative payees made on or after such date.
“(B)
Compensation of representative payees.—
The amendments made by paragraph (3) [amending this section and section 1383 of this title] shall take effect July 1, 1991, and the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall prescribe initial regulations necessary to carry out such amendments not later than such date.”

Pub. L. 101–508, title V, § 5105(b)(1)(B), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–263, provided that: “The amendments made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall take effect October 1, 1992, and the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall take such actions as are necessary to ensure that the requirements of section 205(j)(3)(E) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 405(j)(3)(E)] (as amended by subparagraph (A) of this paragraph) are satisfied as of such date.”

Pub. L. 101–508, title V, § 5105(d)(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–266, provided that: “The amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this section and section 1383 of this title] shall apply with respect to annual reports issued for years after 1991.”

Pub. L. 101–508, title V, § 5107(b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–269, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1383 of this title] shall apply with respect to adverse determinations made on or after July 1, 1991.”

Pub. L. 101–508, title V, § 5109(b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–271, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1383 of this title] shall apply with respect to notices issued on or after July 1, 1991.”

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–239, title X, § 10303(c), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2483, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1383 of this title] shall apply to visits to field offices of the Social Security Administration on or after January 1, 1990.”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendments

Pub. L. 100–647, title VIII, § 8009(b), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3787, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to benefits entitlement to which commences after the sixth month following the month in which this Act is enacted [November 1988].”

Amendment by section 8015(a)(1) of Pub. L. 100–647 applicable to determinations relating to service commenced in any position on or after Nov. 10, 1988, see section 8015(a)(3) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 3122 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendment by section 8016(a)(1) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective Nov. 10, 1988, except that any amendment to a provision of a particular Public Law which is referred to by its number, or to a provision of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.], or to Title 26, as added or amended by a provision of a particular Public Law which is so referred to, effective as though included or reflected in the relevant provisions of that Public Law at the time of its enactment, see section 8016(b) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 3111 of Title 26.

Pub. L. 100–485, title I, § 125(b), Oct. 13, 1988, 102 Stat. 2354, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall become effective on the first day of the 25th month which begins on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 13, 1988].”

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–509 effective with respect to payments due with respect to wages paid after Dec. 31, 1986, including wages paid after such date by a State (or political subdivision thereof) that modified its agreement pursuant to section 418(e)(2) of this title prior to Oct. 21, 1986, with certain exceptions, see section 9002(d) of Pub. L. 99–509 set out as a note under section 418 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendments

Pub. L. 98–460, § 16(d), Oct. 9, 1984, 98 Stat. 1811, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 408, 1383, and 1383a of this title] shall become effective on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 9, 1984], and, in the case of the amendments made by subsection (c) [amending sections 408 and 1383a of this title], shall apply with respect to violations occurring on or after such date.”

Amendment by section 2661(h) of Pub. L. 98–369 effective as though included in the enactment of the Social Security Amendments of 1983, Pub. L. 98–21, see section 2664(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Amendment by section 2663(a)(4), (j)(4) of Pub. L. 98–369 effective July 18, 1984, but not to be construed as changing or affecting any right, liability, status, or interpretation which existed (under the provisions of law involved) before that date, see section 2664(b) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendments

Amendment by sections 301(d) and 309(i) of Pub. L. 98–21 applicable only with respect to monthly payments payable under this subchapter for months after April, 1983, see section 310 of Pub. L. 98–21, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Pub. L. 98–21, title III, § 345(b), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 137, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to all new and replacement social security cards issued more than 193 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 20, 1983].”

Pub. L. 97–455, § 4(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2500, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to reconsiderations (of findings described in section 205(b)(2)(B) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 405(b)(2)(B)]) which are requested on or after such date as the Secretary of Health and Human Services may specify, but in any event not later than January 1, 1984.”

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–265, title III, § 305(c), June 9, 1980, 94 Stat. 457, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1383 of this title] shall apply with respect to decisions made on or after the first day of the 13th month following the month in which this Act is enacted [June, 1980].”

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–600 effective Oct. 4, 1976, see section 703(r) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 46 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–216 effective Jan. 1, 1978, see section 353(g) of Pub. L. 95–216, set out as a note under section 418 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–202, § 5, Jan. 2, 1976, 89 Stat. 1136, provided that: “The amendments made by the first two sections of this Act [amending section 1383 of this title], and the provisions of section 3 [enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1383 of this title], shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 2, 1976]. The amendment made by section 4 of this Act [amending this section] shall apply with respect to any decision or determination of which notice is received, by the individual requesting the hearing involved, after February 29, 1976. The amendment made by the first section of this Act [amending section 1383 of this title], to the extent that it changes the period within which hearings must be requested, shall apply with respect to any decision or determination of which notice is received, by the individual requesting the hearing involved, on or after the date of the enactment of this Act.”

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Pub. L. 93–445, title III, § 302(b), Jan. 2, 1976, 89 Stat. 1136, provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to benefits payable to individuals who first become entitled to benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.] after 1974.”

Amendment by section 303 of Pub. L. 93–445 effective Jan. 1, 1975, see section 603 of Pub. L. 93–445, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–452 effective on sixtieth day following Oct. 15, 1970, and not to affect any immunity to which any individual is entitled under this section by reason of any testimony given before sixtieth day following Oct. 15, 1970, see section 260 of Pub. L. 91–452, set out as an Effective Date; Savings Provisions note under section 6001 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Pub. L. 90–248, title I, § 171(b), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 877, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) of this section [amending this section] shall be effective with respect to written requests filed under section 205(q) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 405(q)] after June 30, 1968.”

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Amendment by section 308(d)(9), (10) of Pub. L. 89–97 applicable with respect to monthly insurance benefits under this subchapter beginning with the second month following July 1965, but, in the case of an individual who was not entitled to a monthly insurance benefit under section 402 of this title for the first month following July 1965, only on the basis of an application filed in or after July 1965, see section 308(e) of Pub. L. 89–97, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Effective Date of 1961 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–293 applicable with respect to service performed after Sept. 22, 1961, but in the case of persons serving under the Peace Corps agency established by executive order applicable with respect to service performed on or after the effective date of enrollment, see section 202(c) of Pub. L. 87–293, set out as a note under section 3121 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by section 102(f)(2) of Pub. L. 86–778 effective on first day of second calendar year following 1960, see section 102(f)(3) of Pub. L. 86–778, set out as a note under section 418 of this title.

Amendment by section 103(j)(2)(E) of Pub. L. 86–778 effective Sept. 13, 1960, see section 103(v)(1) of Pub. L. 86–778, set out as a note under section 402 of this title.

Pub. L. 86–778, title VII, § 702(b), Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 993, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to actions which are pending in court on the date of the enactment of this Act or are commenced after such date.”

Effective Date of 1956 Amendments

Amendment by act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 837, effective Jan. 1, 1957, see Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 837, title VI, § 603(a), 70 Stat. 887.

Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, title I, § 111(b), 70 Stat. 831, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall be effective upon enactment [Aug. 1, 1956]; except that the period of time prescribed by the Secretary pursuant to the third sentence of section 205(b) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 405(b)], as amended by subsection (a) of this section, with respect to decisions notice of which has been mailed by him to any individual prior to the enactment of this Act may not terminate for such individual less than six months after the date of enactment of this Act.”

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

Act Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1206, title I, § 101(n), 68 Stat. 1061, provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (3) of subsection (g) [amending section 411 of this title] shall be applicable only with respect to taxable years beginning after 1950. The amendments made by paragraphs (1), (2), and (4) of such subsection [amending section 411 of this title] and by subsection (d) [amending section 411 of this title] shall, except for purposes of section 203 of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 403], be applicable only with respect to taxable years ending after 1954. The amendments made by paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (a) [amending section 409 of this title] shall be applicable only with respect to remuneration paid after 1954. The amendments made by paragraphs (4), (5), and (6) of subsection (a) [amending sections 410 and 418 of this title] shall be applicable only with respect to services (whether performed after 1954 or prior to 1955) for which the remuneration is paid after 1954. The amendment made by paragraph (3) of subsection (c) [amending this section] shall become effective January 1, 1955. The other amendments made by this section (other than the amendments made by subsections (h), (i), (j) and (m)[)] [amending section 410 of this title] shall be applicable only with respect to services performed after 1954. For purposes of section 203 of the Social Security Act, the amendments made by paragraphs (1), (2), and (4) of subsection (g) [amending section 411 of this title] and by subsection (d) [amending section 411 of this title] shall be effective with respect to net earnings from self-employment derived after 1954. The amount of net earnings from self-employment derived during any taxable year ending in, and not with the close of, 1955 shall be credited equally to the calendar quarter in which such taxable year ends and to each of the three or fewer preceding quarters any part of which is in such taxable year; and, for purposes of the preceding sentence of this subsection, net earnings from self-employment so credited to calendar quarters in 1955 shall be deemed to have been derived after 1954.”

Effective Date of 1950 Amendment

Act Aug. 28, 1950, ch. 809, title I, § 108(d), 64 Stat. 521, provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (c) of this section [amending this section] shall take effect on September 1, 1950. The amendment made by subsection (b) of this section [amending this section] shall take effect January 1, 1951, except that, effective on September 1, 1950, the husband or former wife divorced of an individual shall be treated the same as a parent of such individual, and the legal representative of an individual or his estate shall be treated the same as the individual, for purposes of section 205(c) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 405(c)] as in effect prior to the enactment of this Act [Aug. 28, 1950].”

Act Aug. 28, 1950, ch. 809, title I, § 101(b)(2), 64 Stat. 488, provided that: “Section 205(m) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 405(m)] is repealed effective with respect to monthly payments under section 202 of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 402], as amended by this Act, for months after August 1950.”

Effective Date of 1939 Amendment

Act Aug. 10, 1939, ch. 666, title II, § 201, 53 Stat. 1362, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective Jan. 1, 1940.

Repeals: Amendments and Application of Amendments Unaffected

Section 202(b)(3) of Pub. L. 87–293, cited as a credit to this section, was repealed by Pub. L. 89–572, § 5(a), Sept. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 765. Such repeal not deemed to affect amendments to this section contained in such provisions, and continuation in full force and effect until modified by appropriate authority of all determinations, authorization, regulation, orders, contracts, agreements, and other actions issued, undertaken, or entered into under authority of the repealed provisions, see section 5(b) of Pub. L. 89–572, set out as a note under section 2515 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

For termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, see note set out preceding section 1681 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

Regulations

Pub. L. 115–165, title II, § 201(c), Apr. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1266, provided that: “Not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of this section [Apr. 13, 2018], the Commissioner of Social Security shall promulgate regulations specifying the information an individual is required to provide to the Commissioner in order to designate another individual to serve as the individual’s representative payee under section 205(j)(1)(C) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 405(j)(1)(C)] (as added by subsection (a)).”

Pub. L. 115–165, title II, § 202(f), Apr. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1272, provided that: “Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this section [Apr. 13, 2018], the Commissioner of Social Security shall issue regulations to establish a process for reviewing each individual serving as a representative payee pursuant to section 205(j), 807, or 1631(a)(2) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 405(j), 1007, 1383(a)(2)] (other than individuals with respect to whom an exemption has been granted under section 205(j)(2)(C)(vi), 807(d)(2)(D), or 1631(a)(2)(B)(xvii) [42 U.S.C. 405(j)(2)(C)(vi), 1007(d)(2)(D), 1383(a)(2)(B)(xvii)]) not less than once every 5 years to determine whether any such individual has been convicted of a felony as described in subsection (e)(1) of this section.”

Construction and Implementation of Provisions in Pub. L. 114–10

Pub. L. 114–10, title V, § 519, Apr. 16, 2015, 129 Stat. 175, provided that: “Except as explicitly provided in this subtitle [subtitle A (§§ 501–519) of title V of Pub. L. 114–10, amending this section and sections 1320a–7a, 1395b–7, 1395l, 1395m, 1395w–104, 1395x, 1395y, 1395kk, 1395kk–1, 1395ddd, and 1395iii of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 1320a–7a, 1395b–7, 1395l, 1395m, 1395y, 1395kk, and 1395kk–1 of this title], nothing in this subtitle, including the amendments made by this subtitle, shall be construed as preventing the use of notice and comment rulemaking in the implementation of the provisions of, and the amendments made by, this subtitle.”

Pub. L. 114–10, title V, § 501(b), Apr. 16, 2015, 129 Stat. 163, provided that: “In implementing clause (xiii) of section 205(c)(2)(C) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 405(c)(2)(C)), as added by subsection (a)(3), the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall do the following:

“(1)
In general.—
Establish a cost-effective process that involves the least amount of disruption to, as well as necessary assistance for, Medicare beneficiaries and health care providers, such as a process that provides such beneficiaries with access to assistance through a toll-free telephone number and provides outreach to providers.
“(2)
Consideration of medicare beneficiary identified.—
Consider implementing a process, similar to the process involving Railroad Retirement Board beneficiaries, under which a Medicare beneficiary identifier which is not a Social Security account number (or derivative thereof) is used external to the Department of Health and Human Services and is convertible over to a Social Security account number (or derivative thereof) for use internal to such Department and the Social Security Administration.”

Availability of Grant Funds

Pub. L. 115–165, title I, § 101(c), Apr. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1259, provided that:

“(1)
Protection and advocacy system grants.—
Grants described under clause (i) of subparagraph (C) of section 205(j)(6) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 405(j)(6)] (as added by subsection (a)) shall be awarded on August 1, 2018, and annually thereafter, and funds provided by such grants to a protection and advocacy system may be used to reimburse the protection and advocacy system for amounts expended by the protection and advocacy system during the period beginning on May 1, 2018, and ending on such date for hiring and start-up costs in preparation to carry out reviews of representative payees in accordance with such subparagraph.
“(2)
National association grants.—
Grants described under clause (v) of such subparagraph shall be awarded on May 1, 2018, and annually thereafter.”

Notification to Beneficiaries

Pub. L. 115–165, title II, § 201(d), Apr. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1266, provided that: “Not later than January 1, 2020, and annually thereafter, the Commissioner of Social Security shall notify each individual entitled to a benefit under title II , VIII , or XVI of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq., 1001 et seq., 1381 et seq.] of the name of any individual designated to serve as the individual’s representative payee under section 205(j)(1)(C) of such Act [42 U.S.C. 405(j)(1)(C)] (as added by subsection (a)).”

Application to Prior Appointments.

Pub. L. 115–165, title II, § 202(e), Apr. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1271, provided that:

“(1)
In general.—
Not later than January 1, 2024, the Commissioner of Social Security shall conduct a review of each individual serving as a representative payee pursuant to [section] 205(j), 807, or 1631(a)(2) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 405(j), 1007, 1383(a)(2)], to determine whether such individual has been convicted of a felony as described in section 205(j)(2)(B)(i)(VII), 807(b)(2)(G), or 1631(a)(2)(B)(ii)(VII), respectively [42 U.S.C. 405(j)(2)(B)(i)(VII), 1007(b)(2)(G), 1383(a)(2)(B)(ii)(VII)] (as such provisions are added by this section). Except as provided in section 205(j)(2)(C)(vi), 807(d)(2)(D), or 1631(a)(2)(B)(xvii) [42 U.S.C. 405(j)(2)(C)(vi), 1007(d)(2)(D), 1383(a)(2)(B)(xvii)] (as so added), any individual determined by the Commissioner to have been so convicted may not serve as a representative payee on or after the date of such determination.
“(2)
Priority.—
In conducting reviews under paragraph (1), the Commissioner shall prioritize reviews of the following categories of individuals, in the following order:
“(A)
An individual serving as representative payee for 15 or more individuals.
“(B)
An individual serving as representative payee for an individual who is not related to the representative payee.
“(C)
An individual serving as representative payee for an individual who has attained the age of 18 and is not the spouse of the representative payee.”

Social Security Number Fraud Prevention

Pub. L. 115–59, Sept. 15, 2017, 131 Stat. 1152, provided that:

“SECTION 1.
SHORT TITLE.

“This Act may be cited as the ‘Social Security Number Fraud Prevention Act of 2017’.

“SEC. 2.
RESTRICTION OF SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBERS ON DOCUMENTS SENT BY MAIL.
“(a)
Restriction.—
An agency may not include the social security account number of an individual on any document sent by mail unless the head of the agency determines that the inclusion of the social security account number on the document is necessary.
“(b)
Regulations.—
Not later than 5 years after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 15, 2017], the head of each CFO Act agency shall issue regulations specifying the circumstances under which inclusion of a social security account number on a document sent by mail is necessary. Such regulations shall include—
“(1)
instructions for the partial redaction of social security account numbers where feasible; and
“(2)
a requirement that social security account numbers not be visible on the outside of any package sent by mail.
“(c)
Report.—
Not later than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, and not later than the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth-year anniversary of such date of enactment, the head of each CFO Act agency shall submit to the Committee on Ways and Means and the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform [now Committee on Oversight and Reform] of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Finance and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate, and any other appropriate authorizing committees of the House of Representatives and the Senate, a report on the implementation of subsection (a) that includes the following:
“(1)
The title and identification number of any document used by the CFO Act agency during the previous year that includes the complete social security account number of an individual.
“(2)
For the first report submitted, a plan that describes how the CFO Act agency will comply with the requirements of subsection (a).
“(3)
For the final report submitted, the title and identification number of each document used by the CFO Act agency for which the head of the agency has determined, in accordance with regulations issued pursuant to subsection (b), that the inclusion of a social security account number on such document is necessary, and the rationale for such determination.
“(4)
For any other report that is not the first or final report submitted, an update on the implementation of the plan described under paragraph (2).
“(d)
Definitions.—
In this section:
“(1)
Agency.—
The term ‘agency’ has the meaning given that term in section 551 of title 5, United States Code, but includes an establishment in the legislative or judicial branch of the Government (except the Senate, the House of Representatives, and the Architect of the Capitol, and any activities under the direction of the Architect of the Capitol).
“(2)
CFO act agency.—
The term ‘CFO Act agency’ means the agencies listed in paragraphs (1) and (2) of section 901(b) of title 31, United States Code.
“(e)
Effective Date.—
Subsection (a) shall apply with respect to any document sent by mail on or after the date that is 5 years after the date of the enactment of this Act.”

Social Security Cards and Numbers

Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, § 7213, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3830, provided that:

“(a)
Security Enhancements.—
The Commissioner of Social Security shall—
“(1)
not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 17, 2004]—
“(A)
restrict the issuance of multiple replacement social security cards to any individual to 3 per year and 10 for the life of the individual, except that the Commissioner may allow for reasonable exceptions from the limits under this paragraph on a case-by-case basis in compelling circumstances;
“(B)
establish minimum standards for the verification of documents or records submitted by an individual to establish eligibility for an original or replacement social security card, other than for purposes of enumeration at birth; and
“(C)
require independent verification of any birth record submitted by an individual to establish eligibility for a social security account number, other than for purposes of enumeration at birth, except that the Commissioner may allow for reasonable exceptions from the requirement for independent verification under this subparagraph on a case by case basis in compelling circumstances; and
“(2)
notwithstanding section 205(r) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 405(r)) and any agreement entered into thereunder, not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act with respect to death indicators and not later than 36 months after the date of enactment of this Act with respect to fraud indicators, add death and fraud indicators to the social security number verification systems for employers, State agencies issuing driver’s licenses and identity cards, and other verification routines that the Commissioner determines to be appropriate.
“(b)
Interagency Security Task Force.—
The Commissioner of Social Security, in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security, shall form an interagency task force for the purpose of further improving the security of social security cards and numbers. Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 17, 2004], the task force shall establish, and the Commissioner shall provide for the implementation of, security requirements, including—
“(1)
standards for safeguarding social security cards from counterfeiting, tampering, alteration, and theft;
“(2)
requirements for verifying documents submitted for the issuance of replacement cards; and
“(3)
actions to increase enforcement against the fraudulent use or issuance of social security numbers and cards.
“(c)
Enumeration at Birth.—
“(1)
Improvement of application process.—
As soon as practicable after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 17, 2004], the Commissioner of Social Security shall undertake to make improvements to the enumeration at birth program for the issuance of social security account numbers to newborns. Such improvements shall be designed to prevent—
“(A)
the assignment of social security account numbers to unnamed children;
“(B)
the issuance of more than 1 social security account number to the same child; and
“(C)
other opportunities for fraudulently obtaining a social security account number.
“(2)
Report to congress.—
Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Commissioner shall transmit to each House of Congress a report specifying in detail the extent to which the improvements required under paragraph (1) have been made.
“(d)
Study Regarding Process for Enumeration at Birth.—
“(1)
In general.—
As soon as practicable after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 17, 2004], the Commissioner of Social Security shall conduct a study to determine the most efficient options for ensuring the integrity of the process for enumeration at birth. This study shall include an examination of available methods for reconciling hospital birth records with birth registrations submitted to agencies of States and political subdivisions thereof and with information provided to the Commissioner as part of the process for enumeration at birth.
“(2)
Report.—
“(A)
In general.—
Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act, the Commissioner shall submit a report to the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate regarding the results of the study conducted under paragraph (1).
“(B)
Contents.—
The report submitted under subparagraph (A) shall contain such recommendations for legislative changes as the Commissioner considers necessary to implement needed improvements in the process for enumeration at birth.
“(e)
Authorization of Appropriations.—
There are authorized to be appropriated to the Commissioner of Social Security for each of the fiscal years 2005 through 2009, such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section.”

Development of Prototype of Counterfeit-Resistant Social Security Card

Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title VI, § 657, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–719, provided that:

“(a)
Development.—
“(1)
In general.—
The Commissioner of Social Security (in this section referred to as the ‘Commissioner’) shall, in accordance with the provisions of this section, develop a prototype of a counterfeit-resistant social security card. Such prototype card—
“(A)
shall be made of a durable, tamper-resistant material such as plastic or polyester;
“(B)
shall employ technologies that provide security features, such as magnetic stripes, holograms, and integrated circuits; and
“(C)
shall be developed so as to provide individuals with reliable proof of citizenship or legal resident alien status.
“(2)
Assistance by attorney general.—
The Attorney General shall provide such information and assistance as the Commissioner deems necessary to achieve the purposes of this section.
“(b)
Studies and Reports.—
“(1)
In general.—
The Comptroller General and the Commissioner of Social Security shall each conduct a study, and issue a report to the Congress, that examines different methods of improving the social security card application process.
“(2)
Elements of studies.—
The studies shall include evaluations of the cost and work load implications of issuing a counterfeit-resistant social security card for all individuals over a 3, 5, and 10 year period. The studies shall also evaluate the feasibility and cost implications of imposing a user fee for replacement cards and cards issued to individuals who apply for such a card prior to the scheduled 3, 5, and 10 year phase-in options.
“(3)
Distribution of reports.—
Copies of the reports described in this subsection, along with facsimiles of the prototype cards as described in subsection (a), shall be submitted to the Committees on Ways and Means and Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committees on Finance and Judiciary of the Senate not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1996].”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior act:

Pub. L. 104–193, title I, § 111, Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2176.

Ninety-Day Delay in Deferral or Suspension of Benefits for Current Beneficiaries

Pub. L. 103–296, title II, § 201(a)(1)(C), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1491, provided that: “In the case of an individual who, as of 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 15, 1994], has been determined to be under a disability, if alcoholism or drug addiction is a contributing factor material to the determination of the Secretary of Health and Human Services that the individual is under a disability, the Secretary may, notwithstanding clauses (i) and (ii) of section 205(j)(2)(D) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 405(j)(2)(D)], make direct payment of benefits to such individual during the 90-day period commencing with the date on which such individual is provided the notice described in subparagraph (D)(ii) of this paragraph [set out above], until such time during such period as the selection of a representative payee is made pursuant to section 205(j) of such Act [42 U.S.C. 405(j)].”

Study Regarding Feasibility, Cost, and Equity of Requiring Representative Payees for All Disability Beneficiaries Suffering From Alcoholism or Drug Addiction

Pub. L. 103–296, title II, § 201(a)(1)(E), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1491, required the Secretary of Health and Human Services, as soon as practicable after Aug. 15, 1994, to conduct a study of the feasibility, cost, and equity of requiring representative payees for all disability beneficiaries under title II or XVI of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 401 et seq., 1381 et seq.) who suffer from alcoholism or drug addiction, irrespective of whether the alcoholism or drug addiction was material to the determination of disability; the feasibility, cost, and equity of providing benefits through non-cash means; and the extent to which child beneficiaries and children’s representative payees are afflicted by drug addition or alcoholism and ways of addressing such affliction, and required the Secretary to submit a report to the appropriate committees of Congress by Dec. 31, 1995.

Annual Reports on Reviews of OASDI and SSI Cases

Pub. L. 103–296, title II, § 206(g), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1516, as amended by Pub. L. 103–296, title I, § 108(b)(10)(B), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1483, provided that: “The Commissioner of Social Security shall annually submit to the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate a report on the extent to which the Commissioner has exercised his authority to review cases of entitlement to monthly insurance benefits under title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.] and supplemental security income cases under title XVI of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1381 et seq.], and the extent to which the cases reviewed were those that involved a high likelihood or probability of fraud.”

Report on Feasibility of Obtaining Ready Access to Certain Criminal Fraud Records

Pub. L. 101–508, title V, § 5105(a)(2)(B), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–260, provided that, as soon as practicable after Nov. 5, 1990, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, in consultation with the Attorney General of the United States and the Secretary of the Treasury, was to study the feasibility of establishing and maintaining a current list of the names and social security account numbers of individuals who had been convicted of a violation of 18 U.S.C. 495 for use in investigations undertaken pursuant to 42 U.S.C. 405(j)(2) or 42 U.S.C. 1383(a)(2)(B), and to submit study results and recommendations to the appropriate committees of Congress by July 1, 1992.

Reports on Organizations Serving as Representative Payees and Fees for Services

Pub. L. 101–508, title V, § 5105(a)(3)(B), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–262, required the Secretary of Health and Human Services to transmit a report to the appropriate committees of Congress by Jan. 1, 1993, setting forth the number and types of qualified organizations which had served as representative payees and had collected fees for such service pursuant to any amendment made by section 5105(a)(3)(A) of Pub. L. 101–508 (amending this section and section 1383 of this title), and required the Comptroller General of the United States to conduct a study of the advantages and disadvantages of allowing qualified organizations serving as representative payees to charge such fees and to transmit a report to the appropriate committees of Congress by July 1, 1992.

Study Relating to Feasibility of Screening of Individuals With Criminal Records

Pub. L. 101–508, title V, § 5105(a)(4), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–262, required the Secretary of Health and Human Services, as soon as practicable after Nov. 5, 1999, to conduct a study of the feasibility of determining the type of representative payee applicant most likely to have a felony or misdemeanor conviction, the suitability of individuals with prior convictions to serve as representative payees, and the circumstances under which such applicants could be allowed to serve as representative payees and to transmit study results to the appropriate committees of Congress by July 1, 1992.

Study Relating to More Stringent Oversight of High-Risk Representative Payees

Pub. L. 101–508, title V, § 5105(b)(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–263, required the Secretary of Health and Human Services, as soon as practicable after Nov. 5, 1990, to conduct a study of the need for a more stringent accounting system for high-risk representative payees than was otherwise generally provided under 42 U.S.C. 405(j)(3) or 42 U.S.C. 1383(a)(2)(C), and to report to the appropriate committees of Congress the results of the study and any recommendations by July 1, 1992.

Demonstration Projects Relating to Provision of Information to Local Agencies Providing Child and Adult Protective Services

Pub. L. 101–508, title V, § 5105(b)(3), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–264, required the Secretary of Health and Human Services, as soon as practicable after Nov. 5, 1990, to implement a demonstration project to make available to the State agencies responsible for regulating care facilities or providing for child and adult protective services a list of addresses where benefits under titles II and XVI of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 401 et seq., 1381 et seq.) were received by five or more individuals, and to report to the appropriate committees of Congress by July 1, 1992, on the feasibility and desirability of legislation implementing the programs established pursuant to section 5105(b)(3) of Pub. L. 101–508 on a permanent basis.

Counterfeiting of Social Security Account Number Cards

Pub. L. 99–603, title I, § 101(f), Nov. 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 3373, directed the Comptroller General of the United States to investigate technological alternatives for producing and issuing social security account number cards that are more resistant to counterfeiting and to report to the appropriate committees of Congress not later than one year after Nov. 6, 1986.

Conduct of Face-to-Face Reconsiderations in Disability Cases

Pub. L. 97–455, § 5, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2500, provided that: “The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall take such steps as may be necessary or appropriate to assure public understanding of the importance the Congress attaches to the face-to-face reconsiderations provided for in section 205(b)(2) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 405(b)(2)] (as added by section 4 of this Act). For this purpose the Secretary shall—

“(1)
provide for the establishment and implementation of procedures for the conduct of such reconsiderations in a manner which assures that beneficiaries will receive reasonable notice and information with respect to the time and place of reconsideration and the opportunities afforded to introduce evidence and be represented by counsel; and
“(2)
advise beneficiaries who request or are entitled to request such reconsiderations of the procedures so established, of their opportunities to introduce evidence and be represented by counsel at such reconsiderations, and of the importance of submitting all evidence that relates to the question before the Secretary or the State agency at such reconsiderations.”

Inclusion of Self-Employment Income in Records of Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare

Pub. L. 89–97, title III, § 331(c), July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 402, provided that: “Notwithstanding any provision of section 205(c)(5)(F) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 405(c)(5)(F)], the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services] may conform, before April 16, 1970, his records to tax returns or statements of earnings which constitute self-employment income solely by reason of the filing of a certificate which is effective under section 1402(e)(5) of such Code [section 1402(e)(5) of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code].”

Pub. L. 86–778, title I, § 101(e), Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 928, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, § 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “The provisions of section 205(c)(5)(F) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 405(c)(5)(F)], insofar as they prohibit inclusion in the records of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Health and Human Services] of self-employment income for a taxable year when the return or statement including such income is filed after the time limitation following such taxable year, shall not be applicable to earnings which are derived in any taxable year ending before 1960 and which constitute self-employment income solely by reason of the filing of a certificate which is effective under section 1402(e)(3)(B) or (5) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] [former section 1402(e)(3)(B) or (5) of Title 26].”