References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original “this Act”, meaning act June 19, 1934, ch. 652, 48 Stat. 1064, known as the Communications Act of 1934, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 609 of this title and Tables.

For definition of Canal Zone, referred to in pars. (28) and (58), see section 3602(b) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Part II of subchapter III of this chapter, referred to in pars. (38), (41), and (43), is classified to section 351 et seq. of this title. Part III of subchapter III of this chapter, referred to in par. (38)(A), is classified to section 381 et seq. of this title.

Codification

In par. (41)(A), “chapter 71 of title 46” substituted for “the Act of May 12, 1948 (46 U.S.C. 229a–h)” on authority of Pub. L. 98–89, § 2(b), Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 598, section 1 of which enacted Title 46, Shipping.

References to Philippine Islands in pars. (28) and (58) of this section omitted on authority of Proc. No. 2695, issued pursuant to section 1394 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, which proclamation recognized the independence of Philippine Islands as of July 4, 1946. Proc. No. 2695 is set out under section 1394 of Title 22.

Amendments

2010—Pub. L. 111–260 added pars. (53) to (59), reordered pars. in alphabetical order based on headings of pars., and renumbered pars. as so reordered, resulting in the renumbering of pars. (1) to (59) as pars. (2) to (13), (15) to (17), (20) to (24), (26), (28) to (35), (37) to (59), (1), (14), (18), (19), (25), (36), and (27), respectively.

1997—Pars. (49) to (52). Pub. L. 105–33 added par. (49) and redesignated former pars. (49) to (51) as (50) to (52), respectively.

1996—Pub. L. 104–104, § 3(a)(2), (c)(4)–(8), redesignated subsecs. (a) to (ff) as pars. (1) to (32), respectively, realigned margins, inserted headings and words “The term”, changed capitalization, added pars. (33) to (51), reordered pars. in alphabetical order based on headings of pars., and renumbered pars. as so reordered.

Subsecs. (e), (n). Pub. L. 104–104, § 3(c)(1), redesignated clauses (1) to (3) as (A) to (C), respectively.

Subsec. (r). Pub. L. 104–104, § 3(a)(1), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (w). Pub. L. 104–104, § 3(c)(2), redesignated pars. (1) to (5) as subpars. (A) to (E), respectively.

Subsecs. (y), (z). Pub. L. 104–104, § 3(c)(3), redesignated pars. (1) and (2) as subpars. (A) and (B), respectively.

1993—Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 103–66, § 6002(b)(2)(B)(ii)(I), inserted cl. (1) designation and added cls. (2) and (3).

Subsec. (gg). Pub. L. 103–66, § 6002(b)(2)(B)(ii)(II), struck out subsec. (gg) which read as follows: “ ‘Private land mobile service’ means a mobile service which provides a regularly interacting group of base, mobile, portable, and associated control and relay stations (whether licensed on an individual, cooperative, or multiple basis) for private one-way or two-way land mobile radio communications by eligible users over designated areas of operation.”

1982—Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 97–259, § 120(b)(2), substituted “a radio” for “the radio”, inserted “or receivers” after “between mobile stations”, and inserted provision that “mobile service” includes both one-way and two-way radio communication services.

Subsec. (gg). Pub. L. 97–259, § 120(b)(1), added subsec. (gg).

1968—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 90–299 inserted “(other than section 223 of this title)” after “subchapter II of this chapter”.

1965—Subsec. (w)(5). Pub. L. 89–121, § 1(1), added par. (5).

Subsec. (x). Pub. L. 89–121, § 1(2), among other changes, substituted “radiotelegraph auto alarm” for “auto-alarm” wherever appearing, “receiving apparatus which responds to the radiotelegraph alarm signal” for “receiver” in two places, and “country in which the ship is registered” for “country to which the ship belongs” and for “country of origin”.

Subsec. (y). Pub. L. 89–121, § 1(3), struck out “qualified operator” from pars. (1) and (2), and substituted “country in which the ship is registered” for “country to which the ship belongs”.

Subsec. (z). Pub. L. 89–121, § 1(4)(D), (E), added subsec. (z) and redesignated former subsec. (z) as (aa).

Subsec. (aa). Pub. L. 89–121, § 1(4)(A), (D), redesignated former subsec. (z) as (aa) and former subsec. (aa) as (bb).

Subsecs. (bb) to (dd). Pub. L. 89–121, § 1(4)(A), redesignated former subsecs. (aa) to (cc) as (bb) to (dd) and former subsec. (dd) as (ee).

Subsec. (ee). Pub. L. 89–121, § 1(4)(A), (B), redesignated former subsec. (dd) as (ee), and repealed former subsec. (ee) which defined “existing installation”.

Subsecs. (ff), (gg). Pub. L. 89–121, § 1(4)(B), (C), redesignated subsec. (gg) as (ff) and repealed former subsec. (ff) which defined “new installation”.

1956—Subsec. (y)(2). Act Aug. 6, 1956, substituted “parts II and III of subchapter III of this chapter” for “part II of subchapter III of this chapter”.

1954—Subsec. (e). Act Apr. 27, 1954, § 2, obviated any possible construction that the Commission is empowered to assert common-carrier jurisdiction over point-to-point communication by radio between two points within a single State when the only possible claim that such an operation constitutes an interstate communication rests on the fact that the signal may traverse the territory of another State.

Subsec. (u). Act Apr. 27, 1954, § 3, inserted reference to clauses (3) and (4) of section 152(b) of this title.

Subsecs. (ee), (ff). Act Aug. 13, 1954, ch. 729, added subsecs. (ee) and (ff).

Subsec. (gg), “Great Lakes Agreement”. Act Aug. 13, 1954, ch. 735, added another subsec. (ee) which for purposes of codification was designated subsec. (gg).

1952—Subsecs. (bb) to (dd). Act July 16, 1952, added subsecs. (bb) to (dd).

1937—Subsecs. (w) to (aa). Act May 20, 1937, added subsecs. (w) to (aa).

Effective Date of 1956 Amendment

Amendment by act Aug. 6, 1956, effective Mar. 1, 1957, see section 4 of act Aug. 6, 1956, set out as an Effective Date note under section 381 of this title.

Effective Date of 1954 Amendment

Amendment by act Aug. 13, 1954, ch. 735, effective Nov. 13, 1954, see section 6 of act Aug. 13, 1954, set out as an Effective Date note under section 507 of this title.

Effective Date of 1952 Amendment

Section 19 of act July 16, 1952, provided that: “This Act [enacting section 1343 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, amending this section and sections 154, 155, 307 to 312, 315, 316, 319, 402, 405, 409, and 410 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 609 of this title] shall take effect on the date of its enactment [July 16, 1952], but—

“(1)
Insofar as the amendments made by this Act to the Communications Act of 1934 [this chapter] provide for procedural changes, requirements imposed by such changes shall not be mandatory as to any agency proceeding (as defined in the Administrative Procedure Act) [see sections 551 et seq. and 701 et seq. of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees] with respect to which hearings have been commenced prior to the date of enactment of this Act [July 16, 1952].
“(2)
The amendments made by this Act to section 402 of the Communications Act of 1934 [section 402 of this title] (relating to judicial review of orders and decisions of the Commission) shall not apply with respect to any action or appeal which is pending before any court on the date of enactment of this Act [July 16, 1952].”

Limitation on Liability

Pub. L. 111–260, § 2, Oct. 8, 2010, 124 Stat. 2751, provided that:

“(a)
In General.—
Except as provided in subsection (b), no person shall be liable for a violation of the requirements of this Act [see Short Title of 2010 Amendment note set out under section 609 of this title] (or of the provisions of the Communications Act of 1934 [47 U.S.C. 151 et seq.] that are amended or added by this Act) with respect to video programming, online content, applications, services, advanced communications services, or equipment used to provide or access advanced communications services to the extent such person—
“(1)
transmits, routes, or stores in intermediate or transient storage the communications made available through the provision of advanced communications services by a third party; or
“(2)
provides an information location tool, such as a directory, index, reference, pointer, menu, guide, user interface, or hypertext link, through which an end user obtains access to such video programming, online content, applications, services, advanced communications services, or equipment used to provide or access advanced communications services.
“(b)
Exception.—
The limitation on liability under subsection (a) shall not apply to any person who relies on third party applications, services, software, hardware, or equipment to comply with the requirements of this Act (or of the provisions of the Communications Act of 1934 that are amended or added by this Act) with respect to video programming, online content, applications, services, advanced communications services, or equipment used to provide or access advanced communications services.”

Proprietary Technology

Pub. L. 111–260, § 3, Oct. 8, 2010, 124 Stat. 2752, provided that: “No action taken by the Federal Communications Commission to implement this Act [see Short Title of 2010 Amendment note set out under section 609 of this title] or any amendment made by this Act shall mandate the use or incorporation of proprietary technology.”

Great Lakes Agreement

The Great Lakes Agreement, referred to in this section, relates to the bilateral Agreement for the Promotion of Safety on the Great Lakes by Means of Radio, signed at Ottawa, Canada, Feb. 21, 1952; entered into force Nov. 13, 1954, 3 UST 4926. A subsequent agreement for Promotion of Safety on the Great Lakes by Means of Radio, 1973, was signed at Ottawa, Canada, Feb. 26, 1973, and entered into force May 16, 1975, 25 UST 935.

Safety Convention

The United States was a party to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, signed at London May 31, 1929, entered into force as to the United States, Nov. 7, 1936, 50 Stat. 1121, 1306. For subsequent International Conventions for the Safety of Life at Sea to which the United States has been a party, see section 1602 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, and notes thereunder.

Definitions

Pub. L. 113–200, title I, § 112, Dec. 4, 2014, 128 Stat. 2066, provided that: “In this title [amending sections 325, 338, 534, and 543 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 325, 338, and 534 of this title]:

“(1)
Appropriate congressional committees.—
The term ‘appropriate congressional committees’ means the Committee on Energy and Commerce and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate.
“(2)
Commission.—
The term ‘Commission’ means the Federal Communications Commission.”

Pub. L. 111–260, title II, § 206, Oct. 8, 2010, 124 Stat. 2776, provided that: “In this title [amending sections 303, 330, and 613 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 303 and 613 of this title]:

“(1)
Advisory committee.—
The term ‘Advisory Committee’ means the advisory committee established in section 201 [47 U.S.C. 613 note].
“(2)
Chairman.—
The term ‘Chairman’ means the Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission.
“(3)
Commission.—
The term ‘Commission’ means the Federal Communications Commission.
“(4)
Emergency information.—
The term ‘emergency information’ has the meaning given such term in section 79.2 of title 47, Code of Federal Regulations.
“(5)
Internet protocol.—
The term ‘Internet protocol’ includes Transmission Control Protocol and a successor protocol or technology to Internet protocol.
“(6)
Navigation device.—
The term ‘navigation device’ has the meaning given such term in section 76.1200 of title 47, Code of Federal Regulations.
“(7)
Video description.—
The term ‘video description’ has the meaning given such term in section 713 of the Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. 613).
“(8)
Video programming.—
The term ‘video programming’ has the meaning given such term in section 713 of the Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. 613).”

Pub. L. 105–33, title III, § 3001(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 258, provided that: “Except as otherwise provided in this title [enacting section 337 of this title, amending this section and sections 303, 309, and 923 to 925 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 254, 309, and 925 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 309 of this title], the terms used in this title have the meanings provided in section 3 of the Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. 153), as amended by this section.”

Pub. L. 104–104, § 3(b), Feb. 8, 1996, 110 Stat. 61, provided that: “Except as otherwise provided in this Act [see Short Title of 1996 Amendment note set out under section 609 of this title], the terms used in this Act have the meanings provided in section 3 of the Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. 153), as amended by this section.”