United States Code

USC most recently checked for updates: Oct 30, 2020

§ 1446.
Price support levels for designated nonbasic agricultural commodities
(a)
The Secretary is authorized and directed to make available (without regard to the provisions of sections 1447 to 1449 of this title) price support to producers for oilseeds (including soybeans, sunflower seed, canola, rapeseed, safflower, flaxseed, mustard seed, and such other oilseeds as the Secretary may determine), sunflower seeds, honey, milk, sugar beets, and sugarcane in accordance with this subchapter.
(b)
The price of honey shall be supported through loans, purchases, or other operations at a level not in excess of 90 per centum nor less than 60 per centum of the parity price thereof; and the price of tung nuts for each crop of tung nuts through the 1976 crop shall be supported through loans, purchases, or other operations at a level not in excess of 90 per centum nor less than 60 per centum of the parity price therefor: Provided, That in any crop year through the 1976 crop year in which the Secretary determines that the domestic production of tung oil will be less than the anticipated domestic demand for such oil, the price of tung nuts shall be supported at not less than 65 per centum of the parity price therefor.
(c)
Except as provided in section 1446e 1
1
 See References in Text note below.
of this title, the price of milk shall be supported at such level not in excess of 90 per centum nor less than 75 per centum of the parity price therefor as the Secretary determines necessary in order to assure an adequate supply of pure and wholesome milk to meet current needs, reflect changes in the cost of production, and assure a level of farm income adequate to maintain productive capacity sufficient to meet anticipated future needs. Such price support shall be provided through the purchase of milk and the products of milk.
(d)
Notwithstanding any other provision of law—
(1)
(A)
During the period beginning on January 1, 1986, and ending on December 31, 1990, the price of milk shall be supported as provided in this subsection.
(B)
During the period beginning on January 1, 1986, and ending on December 31, 1986, the price of milk shall be supported at a rate equal to $11.60 per hundredweight for milk containing 3.67 percent milkfat.
(C)
(i)
During the period beginning on January 1, 1987, and ending on September 30, 1987, the price of milk shall be supported at a rate equal to $11.35 per hundredweight for milk containing 3.67 percent milkfat.
(ii)
Except as provided in subparagraph (D), during the period beginning on October 1, 1987, and ending on December 31, 1990, the price of milk shall be supported at a rate equal to $11.10 per hundredweight for milk containing 3.67 percent milkfat.
(D)
(i)
Subject to clause (ii), if for each of the calendar years 1988 and 1990, the level of purchases of milk and the products of milk under this subsection (less sales under section 1427 of this title for unrestricted use), as estimated by the Secretary on January 1 of such calendar year, will exceed 5,000,000,000 pounds (milk equivalent), on January 1 of such calendar year, the Secretary shall reduce by 50 cents the rate of price support for milk as in effect on such date.
(ii)
The rate of price support for milk may not be reduced under clause (i) unless—
(I)
the milk production termination program under paragraph (3) achieved a reduction in the production of milk by participants in the program of at least 12,000,000,000 pounds during the 18 months of the program; or
(II)
the Secretary submits to Congress a certification, including a statement of facts in support of the certification of the Secretary, that reasonable contract offers were extended by the Secretary under such program but such offers were not accepted by a sufficient number of producers making reasonable bids for contr
(E)
If for any of the calendar years 1988, 1989, and 1990, the level of purchases of milk and the products of milk under this subsection (less sales under section 1427 of this title for unrestricted use), as estimated by the Secretary on January 1 of such calendar year, will not exceed 2,500,000,000 pounds (milk equivalent), the Secretary shall increase by 50 cents the rate of price support for milk in effect on such date.
(F)
The price of milk shall be supported through the purchase of milk and the products of milk.
(2)
(A)
Beginning after March 31, 1986, the Secretary shall provide for a reduction to be made in the price received by producers for all milk produced in the United States and marketed by producers for commercial use.
(B)
Except as provided in subparagraphs (E) and (F), the amount of the reduction under subparagraph (A) in the price received by producers shall be—
(i)
the period beginning on April 1, 1986, and ending on December 31, 1986, 40 cents per hundredweight of milk marketed; and
(ii)
during the first 9 months of 1987, 25 cents per hundredweight of milk marketed.
(C)
The funds represented by the reduction in price, required under this paragraph to be applied to the marketings of milk by a producer, shall be collected and remitted to the Commodity Credit Corporation, at such time and in such manner as prescribed by the Secretary, by each person making payment to a producer for milk purchased from such producer, except that in the case of a producer who markets milk of the producer’s own production directly to consumers, such funds shall be remitted directly to the Corporation by such producer.
(D)
The funds remitted to the Corporation under this paragraph shall be considered as included in the payments to a producer of milk for purposes of the minimum price provisions of the Agricultural Adjustment Act (7 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), reenacted with amendments by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937.
(E)
(i)
In lieu of any reductions in payments made by the Secretary for the purchase of milk and the products of milk under this subsection during the period beginning March 1, 1986, and ending September 30, 1986, required under the order issued by the President on February 1, 1986, under section 252 1 of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Public Law 99–177) [2 U.S.C. 902], the Secretary shall increase the amount of the reduction required under subparagraph (A) during the period beginning April 1, 1986, and ending September 30, 1986, as the sole means of meeting any reductions required under the order in payments made by the Secretary for the purchase of milk and the products of milk under this subsection.
(ii)
The aggregate amount of any increased reduction under clause (i) shall be equal, to the extent practicable, to the aggregate amount of the reduction that would otherwise be required under the order referred to in clause (i) in payments made by the Secretary for the purchase of milk and the products of milk under this subsection during the period beginning March 1, 1986, and ending September 30, 1986, except that the amount of any increased reduction under clause (i) may not exceed 12 cents per hundredweight of milk marketed.
(F)
(i)
The Secretary—
(I)
notwithstanding the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 and any order issued by the President under section 252 1 of such Act [2 U.S.C. 902] for a fiscal year; and
(II)
in lieu of making any reduction in payments for the purchase of milk or the products of milk under this subsection during such fiscal year under any such order;
shall provide for the reduction (measured in cents per hundredweight of milk marketed) under subparagraph (A) during the period beginning on October 1 and ending on September 30 of such fiscal year as the sole means of achieving any reduction in budget outlays under the milk price-support program that otherwise would be required under either such order and only for the purpose of substituting for any reduction in payments made by the Secretary for the purchase of milk or the products of milk under either such order.
(ii)
The aggregate amount of any reduction under subparagraph (A) resulting from the operation of clause (i) may not exceed the aggregate amount of the reduction in budget outlays under the milk price-support program, as estimated by the Secretary, that otherwise would have been achieved under either such order by reducing payments made by the Secretary for the purchase of milk or the products of milk under this subsection during such fiscal year.
(F)
2
2
 So in original. Probably should be “(G)”.
During calendar year 1988, the Secretary shall provide for a reduction of 2½ cents per hundredweight to be made in the price received by producers for all milk produced in the United States and marketed by producers for commercial use.
(3)
(A)
(i)
The Secretary shall establish and carry out under this paragraph a milk production termination program for the 18-month period beginning April 1, 1986.
(ii)
Under the milk production termination program required under this subparagraph, the Secretary, at the request of any producer of milk in the United States who submits to the Secretary a bid, may offer to enter into a contract with the producer for the purpose of terminating the production of milk by the producer in return for a payment to be made by the Secretary.
(iii)
For the 18-month period for which the milk production termination program under this subparagraph is in effect, the Secretary shall—
(I)
as soon as practicable, determine the total number of dairy cattle the Secretary estimates will be marketed for slaughter as a result of such program; and
(II)
by regulation specify marketing procedures to ensure that greater numbers of dairy cattle slaughtered as a result of the production termination program provided for in this section shall be slaughtered in each of the periods of April through August 1986, and March through August 1987 than for the other months of the program. Such procedures also shall ensure that such sales of dairy cattle for slaughter shall occur on a basis estimated by the Secretary that maintains historical seasonal marketing patterns. During such 18-month period, the Secretary shall limit the total number of dairy cattle marketed for slaughter under the program in excess of the historical dairy herd culling rate to no more than 7 percent of the national dairy herd per calendar year.
(iv)
Each contract made under this subparagraph shall provide that—
(I)
the producer shall sell for slaughter or for export all the dairy cattle in which such producer owns an interest;
(II)
during a period of 3, 4, or 5 years, as specified by the Secretary in each producer contract and beginning on the day the producer completes compliance with subclause (I), the producer neither shall acquire any interest in dairy cattle or in the production of milk nor acquire, or make available to any person, any milk production capacity of a facility that becomes available because of compliance by a producer with such subclause unless the Secretary shall by regulation otherwise permit; and
(III)
if the producer fails to comply with such contract, the producer shall repay to the Secretary the entire payment received under the contract, including simple interest payable at a rate prescribed by the Secretary, which shall, to the extent practicable, reflect the cost to the Corporation of its borrowings from the Treasury of the United States, commencing on the date payment is first received under such contract.
(v)
Any producer of milk who seeks to enter into a contract for payments under this paragraph shall provide the Secretary with (I) evidence of such producer’s marketing history; (II) the size and composition of the producer’s dairy herd during the period the marketing history is determined; and (III) the size and composition of the producer’s dairy herd at the time the bid is submitted, as the Secretary deems necessary and appropriate.
(vi)
Except as provided in subparagraph (D), no producer who commenced marketing of milk in the 15-month period ending March 31, 1986, shall be eligible to enter into a contract for payments under this subparagraph.
(vii)
A contract entered into under this paragraph by a producer who by reason of death cannot perform or assign such contract may be performed or assigned by the estate of such producer.
(B)
The Secretary may establish and carry out a milk diversion or milk production termination program for any of the calendar years 1988, 1989, and 1990 as necessary to avoid the creation of burdensome excess supplies of milk or milk products.
(C)
In setting the terms and conditions of any milk diversion or milk production termination under this paragraph and of each contract made under this subparagraph, the Secretary shall take into account any adverse effect of such program or contracts on beef, pork, and poultry producers in the United States and shall take all feasible steps to minimize such effect.
(D)
A producer who commenced marketing milk after December 31, 1984, shall be eligible to enter into a contract for payments under this subparagraph if such producer’s entire milk production facility and entire dairy herd were transferred to the producer by reason of a gift from, or the death of, a member or members of the family of the producer. The term “member of the family of the producer” means (i) an ancestor of the producer, (ii) the spouse of the producer, (iii) a lineal descendant of the producer, or the producer’s spouse, or a parent of the producer, or (iv) the spouse of any such lineal descendant.
(E)
Application for payment shall be made by producers through the county committees established under section 590h(b) of title 16.
(F)
to (J) Repealed. Pub. L. 99–198, title I, § 101(b)(1), (2), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1363, 1365.
(K)
Redesignated (E).
(L)
Repealed. Pub. L. 99–198, title I, § 101(b)(2), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1365.
(M)
A contract entered into under this paragraph by a producer who by reason of death cannot perform or assign such contract may be performed or assigned, in accordance with subparagraph (L), by the estate of such producer.
(N)
If the provisions for reductions in the price received for milk marketed for commercial use as provided for in paragraph (2) are held to be invalid by any court, or the Secretary is restrained or enjoined by any court from implementing such provisions, the Secretary shall immediately suspend making any diversion payments under this paragraph for the period beginning with the date of such court action and shall resume making such payments only if such court action is overruled, stayed, or terminated.
(4)
Each producer who markets milk and each person required to make payment to the Corporation under this subsection shall keep such records and make such reports, in such manner, as the Secretary determines necessary to carry out this subsection. The Secretary may make such investigations as the Secretary deems necessary for the effective administration of this subsection or to determine whether any person subject to the provisions of this subsection has engaged or is engaged or is about to engage in any act or practice that constitutes or will constitute a violation of any provision of this subsection or regulation issued under this subsection. For the purpose of such investigation, the Secretary may administer oaths and affirmations, subpena witnesses, compel their attendance, take evidence, and require the production of any records that are relevant to the inquiry. Such attendance of witnesses and the production of any such records may be required from any place in the United States. In case of contumacy by, or refusal to obey a subpena to, any person, the Secretary may invoke the aid of any court of the United States within the jurisdiction of which such investigation or proceeding is carried on, or where such person resides or carries on business, in requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of records. Such court may issue an order requiring such person to appear before the Secretary to produce records or to give testimony on the matter under investigation. Any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by such court as a contempt thereof. All process in any such case may be served in the judicial district of which such person is an inhabitant or wherever such person may be found.
(5)
(A)
The district courts of the United States are vested with jurisdiction specifically to enforce, and to prevent and restrain any person from violating, any provision of this subsection or any regulation issued under this subsection. Any such civil action authorized to be brought under this subsection shall be referred to the Attorney General for appropriate action. The Secretary is not required, however, to refer to the Attorney General minor violations of this subsection whenever the Secretary believes that the administration and enforcement of this subsection would be adequately served by suitable written notice or warning to any person committing such violation.
(B)
(i)
Each person as to whom there is a failure to make a reduction in the price of milk received by such person as required by paragraph (2) or who fails to remit to the Corporation the funds required to be collected and remitted by paragraph (2)(B) shall be liable, in addition to any amount due, to a marketing penalty at a rate equal to the support price for milk in effect at the time the failure occurs on the quantity of milk as to which the failure applies. The Secretary may reduce any such marketing penalty in such amount as the Secretary determines equitable in any case in which the Secretary determines that the failure was unintentional or without knowledge on the part of the person concerned. Each person who knowingly violates any other provision of this subsection, or any regulation issued under this subsection, shall be liable for a civil penalty of not more than $1,000 for each such violation. Any penalty provided for under this subparagraph shall be assessed by the Secretary after notice and opportunity for a hearing.
(ii)
Each person who buys, from a producer with respect to whom there is in effect at the time of such sale a contract entered into under paragraph (3), one or more dairy cattle sold for slaughter or export, who knows that such cattle are sold for slaughter or export, and who fails to cause the slaughter or export of such cattle within a reasonable time after receiving such cattle shall be liable for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 with respect to each of such cattle.
(iii)
Each person who retains or acquires an interest in dairy cattle or the production of milk in violation of a contract entered into under this paragraph shall be liable, in addition to any amount due under paragraph (3)(A)(iv), to a marketing penalty on the quantity of milk produced during the period in which such ownership is prohibited under the contract. Such penalty shall be computed at the rate or rates of the support price for milk in effect during the period in which the milk production occurred.
(iv)
Each person who makes a false statement in a bid submitted under paragraph (3) as to (I) the marketings of milk for commercial use by the producer, or (II) the size or composition of the dairy herd that produced such marketings, or (III) the size or composition of the dairy herd at the time the bid is submitted shall be subject, in addition to any amount due under paragraph (3)(A)(iv) or clause (iii) of this subparagraph, to a civil penalty of $5,000 for each head of cattle to which such statement applied.
(v)
Each person who makes a false statement as to the number of dairy cattle that was sold for slaughter or export under a contract under paragraph (3)(A) shall be subject, in addition to any amount due under paragraph (3)(A)(iv) or clause (iii) of this subparagraph, to a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each head of cattle to which such statement applied.
(C)
Any person against whom a penalty is assessed under subparagraph (B) may obtain review of such penalty in an appropriate district court of the United States by filing a civil action in such court not later than thirty days after such penalty is imposed. The Secretary shall promptly file in such court a certified copy of the record upon which the penalty is based. The findings of the Secretary may be set aside only if found to be unsupported by substantial evidence.
(D)
The district courts of the United States shall have jurisdiction to review and enforce any penalty imposed under subparagraph (B).
(E)
The remedies provided in this paragraph shall be in addition to, and not exclusive of, other remedies that may be available.
(F)
In carrying out this subsection, the Secretary may, as the Secretary deems appropriate—
(i)
use the services of State and county committees established under section 590h(b) of title 16; and
(ii)
enter into agreements to use, on a reimbursable or nonreimbursable basis, the services of administrators of Federal milk marketing orders and State milk marketing programs.
(6)
The term “United States” as used in paragraphs (2) and (3) of this subsection means the forty-eight contiguous States in the continental United States.
(7)
The Secretary shall carry out this subsection through the Commodity Credit Corporation.
(Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title II, § 201, 63 Stat. 1052; Aug. 28, 1954, ch. 1041, title II, §§ 203(a), 204(b), title VII, § 709, 68 Stat. 899, 912; Apr. 2, 1956, ch. 159, § 1, 70 Stat. 86; July 20, 1956, ch. 661, 70 Stat. 596; Pub. L. 85–835, title V, § 503, Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 996; Pub. L. 86–799, Sept. 16, 1960, 74 Stat. 1054; Pub. L. 91–524, title II, § 202, Nov. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1361; Pub. L. 93–86, § 1(3)(B), (C), Aug. 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 222, 223; Pub. L. 93–225, Dec. 29, 1973, 87 Stat. 942; Pub. L. 95–113, title II, § 203, title IX, §§ 901, 902, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 920, 949; Pub. L. 96–127, § 1, Nov. 28, 1979, 93 Stat. 981; Pub. L. 96–494, title II, § 202(c), Dec. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 2570; Pub. L. 97–6, Mar. 31, 1981, 95 Stat. 8; Pub. L. 97–35, title I, § 150, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 369; Pub. L. 97–98, title I, § 103, title VIII, § 801, title IX, § 901, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1219, 1256, 1257; Pub. L. 97–253, title I, § 101, Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 763; Pub. L. 98–180, title I, § 102(a), Nov. 29, 1983, 97 Stat. 1128; Pub. L. 99–114, § 1, Oct. 1, 1985, 99 Stat. 488; Pub. L. 99–157, § 1, Nov. 15, 1985, 99 Stat. 818; Pub. L. 99–182, § 1, Dec. 13, 1985, 99 Stat. 1173; Pub. L. 99–198, title I, § 101(a)–(e), title VIII, § 801, title IX, § 901, title X, §§ 1008, 1041, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1362–1365
cite as: 7 USC 1446