Collapse to view only § 14315. Position vacancy promotions: Army and Air Force officers

§ 14301.
Eligibility for consideration for promotion: general rules
(a)
One-Year Rule.—
An officer is eligible under this chapter for consideration for promotion by a promotion board convened under section 14101(a) of this title only if—
(1) the officer is on the reserve active-status list of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps; and
(2) during the one-year period ending on the date of the convening of the promotion board the officer has continuously performed service on either the reserve active-status list or the active-duty list (or on a combination of both lists).
(b)
Requirement for Consideration of All Officers In and Above the Zone.—
Whenever a promotion board (other than a vacancy promotion board) is convened under section 14101(a) of this title for consideration of officers in a competitive category who are eligible under this chapter for consideration for promotion to the next higher grade, each officer in the promotion zone, and each officer above the promotion zone, for that grade and competitive category shall be considered for promotion.
(c)
Certain Officers Not To Be Considered.—
A promotion board convened under section 14101(a) of this title may not consider for promotion to the next higher grade any of the following officers:
(1) An officer whose name is on a promotion list for that grade as a result of recommendation for promotion to that grade by an earlier selection board convened under that section or section 14502 of this title or under chapter 36 of this title.
(2) An officer who is recommended for promotion to that grade in the report of an earlier selection board convened under a provision referred to in paragraph (1), in the case of such a report that has not yet been approved by the President.
(3) An officer who has been approved for Federal recognition by a board convened under section 307 of title 32 and nominated by the President for promotion to that grade as a reserve of the Army or of the Air Force as the case may be, if that nomination is pending before the Senate.
(4) An officer who has been nominated by the President for promotion to that grade under any other provision of law, if that nomination is pending before the Senate.
(5) An officer in the grade of first lieutenant or, in the case of the Navy, lieutenant (junior grade) who is on an approved all-fully-qualified-officers list under section 14308(b)(4) of this title.
(6) An officer excluded under subsection (j).
(d)
Officers Below the Zone.—
The Secretary of the military department concerned may, by regulation, prescribe procedures to limit the officers to be considered by a selection board from below the promotion zone to those officers who are determined to be exceptionally well qualified for promotion. The regulations shall include criteria for determining which officers below the promotion zone are exceptionally well qualified for promotion.
(e)
Certain Reserve Officers of the Air Force.—
A reserve officer of the Air Force who (1) is in the Air National Guard of the United States and holds the grade of lieutenant colonel, colonel, or brigadier general, or (2) is in the Air Force Reserve and holds the grade of colonel or brigadier general, is not eligible for consideration for promotion by a mandatory promotion board convened under section 14101(a) of this title.
(f)
Nonconsideration of Officers Scheduled for Removal From Reserve Active-Status List.—
The Secretary of the military department concerned may, by regulation, provide for the exclusion from consideration for promotion by a promotion board of any officer otherwise eligible to be considered by the board who has an established date for removal from the reserve active-status list that is not more than 90 days after the date on which the selection board for which the officer would otherwise be eligible is to be convened.
(g)
Brigadier Generals.—
(1)
An officer who is a reserve component brigadier general of the Army or the Air Force who is not eligible for consideration for promotion under subsection (a) because the officer is not on the reserve active status list (as required by paragraph (1) of that subsection for such eligibility) is nevertheless eligible for consideration for promotion to the grade of major general by a promotion board convened under section 14101(a) of this title if—
(A) as of the date of the convening of the promotion board, the officer has been in an inactive status for less than one year; and
(B) immediately before the date of the officer’s most recent transfer to an inactive status, the officer had continuously served on the reserve active status list or the active-duty list (or a combination of the reserve active status list and the active-duty list) for at least one year.
(2)
An officer who is a reserve component brigadier general of the Army or the Air Force who is on the reserve active status list but who is not eligible for consideration for promotion under subsection (a) because the officer’s service does not meet the one-year-of-continuous-service requirement under paragraph (2) of that subsection is nevertheless eligible for consideration for promotion to the grade of major general by a promotion board convened under section 14101(a) of this title if—
(A) the officer was transferred from an inactive status to the reserve active status list during the one-year period preceding the date of the convening of the promotion board;
(B) immediately before the date of the officer’s most recent transfer to an active status, the officer had been in an inactive status for less than one year; and
(C) immediately before the date of the officer’s most recent transfer to an inactive status, the officer had continuously served for at least one year on the reserve active status list or the active-duty list (or a combination of the reserve active status list and the active-duty list).
(h)
Officers on Educational Delay.—
An officer on the reserve active-status list is ineligible for consideration for promotion, but shall remain on the reserve active-status list, while the officer—
(1) is pursuing a program of graduate level education in an educational delay status approved by the Secretary concerned; and
(2) is receiving from the Secretary financial assistance in connection with the pursuit of that program of education while in that status.
(i)
Reserve Officers Employed as Military Technician (dual Status).—
A reserve officer of the Army or Air Force employed as a military technician (dual status) under section 10216 of this title who has been retained beyond the mandatory removal date for years of service pursuant to subsection (f) of such section or section 14702(a)(2) of this title is not eligible for consideration for promotion by a mandatory promotion board convened under section 14101(a) of this title.
(j)
Authority To Allow Officers To Opt Out of Selection Board Consideration.—
(1) The Secretary of a military department may provide that an officer under the jurisdiction of the Secretary may, upon the officer’s request and with the approval of the Secretary, be excluded from consideration by a selection board convened under section 14101(a) of this title to consider officers for promotion to the next higher grade.
(2)
The Secretary concerned may only approve a request under paragraph (1) if—
(A) the basis for the request is to allow an officer to complete a broadening assignment, advanced education, another assignment of significant value to the Department, or a career progression requirement delayed by the assignment or education;
(B) the Secretary determines the exclusion from consideration is in the best interest of the military department concerned; and
(C) the officer has not previously failed of selection for promotion to the grade for which the officer requests the exclusion from consideration.
(k)
Certain Officers Not to Be Considered for Selection for Promotion.—
The Secretary of the military department concerned may provide that an officer who is in an active status, but is in a duty status in which the only points the officer accrues under section 12732(a)(2) of this title are pursuant to subparagraph (C)(i) of that section (relating to membership in a reserve component), shall not be considered for selection for promotion until completion of two years of service in such duty status. Any such officer may remain on the reserve active-status list.
(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, § 1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2931; amended
§ 14302.
Promotion zones
(a)
Promotion Zones Generally.—
For purposes of this chapter, a promotion zone is an eligibility category for the consideration of officers by a mandatory promotion board. A promotion zone consists of those officers on the reserve active-status list who are in the same grade and competitive category and who meet the requirements of both paragraphs (1) and (2) or the requirements of paragraph (3), as follows:
(1)
(A) In the case of officers in grades below colonel, for reserve officers of the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps, or captain, for officers of the Navy Reserve, those who have neither (i) failed of selection for promotion to the next higher grade, nor (ii) been removed from a list of officers recommended for promotion to that grade.
(B) In the case of officers in the grade of colonel or brigadier general, for reserve officers of the Army and Marine Corps, or in the grade of captain or rear admiral (lower half), for reserve officers of the Navy, those who have neither (i) been recommended for promotion to the next higher grade when considered in the promotion zone, nor (ii) been removed from a list of officers recommended for promotion to that grade.
(2) Those officers who are senior to the officer designated by the Secretary of the military department concerned to be the junior officer in the promotion zone eligible for consideration for promotion to the next higher grade and the officer so designated.
(3)
Those officers who—
(A) have been selected from below the zone for promotion to the next higher grade or by a vacancy promotion board, but whose names were removed from the list of officers recommended for promotion to that next higher grade resulting from that selection;
(B) have not failed of selection for promotion to that next higher grade; and
(C) are senior to the officer designated by the Secretary of the military department concerned to be the junior officer in the promotion zone eligible for consideration for promotion to that next higher grade and the officer so designated.
(b)
Officers Above the Zone.—
Officers on the reserve active-status list are considered to be above the promotion zone for a grade and competitive category if they—
(1) are eligible for consideration for promotion to the next higher grade;
(2) are in the same grade as those officers in the promotion zone for that competitive category; and
(3) are senior to the senior officer in the promotion zone for that competitive category.
(c)
Officers Below the Zone.—
Officers on the reserve active-status list are considered to be below the promotion zone for a grade and competitive category if they—
(1) are eligible for consideration for promotion to the next higher grade;
(2) are in the same grade as those officers in the promotion zone for that competitive category; and
(3) are junior to the junior officer in the promotion zone for that competitive category.
(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, § 1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2932; amended Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, § 515(b)(1)(RR), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3234.)
§ 14303.
Eligibility for consideration for promotion: minimum years of service in grade
(a)
Officers in Pay Grades O–1 and O–2.—
An officer who is on the reserve active-status list of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps and holds a permanent appointment in the grade of second lieutenant or first lieutenant as a reserve officer of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps, or in the grade of ensign or lieutenant (junior grade) as a reserve officer of the Navy, may not be promoted to the next higher grade, or granted Federal recognition in that grade, until the officer has completed the following years of service in grade:
(1) Eighteen months, in the case of an officer holding a permanent appointment in the grade of second lieutenant or ensign.
(2) Two years, in the case of an officer holding a permanent appointment in the grade of first lieutenant or lieutenant (junior grade).
(b)
Officers in Pay Grades O–3 and Above.—
Subject to subsection (d), an officer who is on the reserve active-status list of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps and holds a permanent appointment in a grade above first lieutenant, or who is on the reserve active-status list of the Navy in a grade above lieutenant (junior grade), may not be considered for selection for promotion to the next higher grade, or examined for Federal recognition in the next higher grade, until the officer has completed the following years of service in grade:
(1) Three years, in the case of an officer of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps holding a permanent appointment in the grade of captain, major, or lieutenant colonel or in the case of a reserve officer of the Navy holding a permanent appointment in the grade of lieutenant, lieutenant commander, or commander.
(2) One year, in the case of an officer of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps holding a permanent appointment in the grade of colonel or brigadier general or in the case of a reserve officer of the Navy holding a permanent appointment in the grade of captain or rear admiral (lower half).
This subsection does not apply to an adjutant general or assistant adjutant general of a State or to an appointment in a higher grade which is based upon a specific provision of law.
(c)
Authority To Lengthen Minimum Period in Grade.—
The Secretary concerned may prescribe a period of service in grade for eligibility for promotion, in the case of officers to whom subsection (a) applies, or for eligibility for consideration for promotion, in the case of officers to whom subsection (b) applies, that is longer than the applicable period specified in that subsection.
(d)
Waivers To Ensure Two Below-the-Zone Considerations.—
Subject to section 14307(b) of this title, the Secretary of the military department concerned may waive subsection (b) to the extent necessary to ensure that officers described in paragraph (1) of that subsection have at least two opportunities for consideration for promotion to the next higher grade as officers below the promotion zone.
(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, § 1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2933.)
§ 14304.
Eligibility for consideration for promotion: maximum years of service in grade
(a)
Consideration for Promotion Within Specified Times.—
(1) Officers described in paragraph (3) shall be placed in the promotion zone for that officer’s grade and competitive category, and shall be considered for promotion to the next higher grade by a promotion board convened under section 14101(a) of this title, far enough in advance of completing the years of service in grade specified in the following table so that, if the officer is recommended for promotion, the promotion may be effective on or before the date on which the officer will complete those years of service.

Current Grade

Maximum years of service in grade

First lieutenant or Lieutenant (junior grade)

5 years  

Captain or Navy Lieutenant

7 years  

Major or Lieutenant commander

7 years  

(2) Paragraph (1) is subject to subsections (a), (b), and (c) of section 14301 of this title and applies without regard to vacancies.
(3) Paragraph (1) applies to an officer who is on the reserve active-status list of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps and who holds a permanent appointment in the grade of first lieutenant, captain, or major as a reserve of the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps, or to an officer on the reserve active-status list of the Navy in the grade of lieutenant (junior grade), lieutenant, or lieutenant commander as a reserve of the Navy, and who, while holding that appointment, has not been considered by a selection board convened under section 14101(a) or 14502 of this title for promotion to the next higher grade.
(b)
Promotion Date.—
An officer holding a permanent grade specified in the table in subsection (a) who is recommended for promotion to the next higher grade by a selection board the first time the officer is considered for promotion while in or above the promotion zone and who is placed on an approved promotion list established under section 14308(a) of this title shall (if not promoted sooner or removed from that list by the President or by reason of declination) be promoted, without regard to the existence of a vacancy, on the date on which the officer completes the maximum years of service in grade specified in subsection (a). The preceding sentence is subject to the limitations of section 12011 of this title.
(c)
Waiver Authority for Navy and Marine Corps Running Mate System.—
If the Secretary of the Navy establishes promotion zones for officers on the reserve active-status list of the Navy or the Marine Corps Reserve in accordance with a running mate system under section 14306 of this title, the Secretary may waive the requirements of subsection (a) to the extent the Secretary considers necessary in any case in which the years of service for promotion, or for consideration for promotion, within those zones will exceed the maximum years of service in grade specified in subsection (a).
(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, § 1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2934.)
§ 14305.
Establishment of promotion zones: mandatory consideration for promotion
(a)
Establishment of Zone.—
Before convening a mandatory promotion board under section 14101(a) of this title, the Secretary of the military department concerned shall establish a promotion zone for officers serving in each grade and competitive category to be considered by the board.
(b)
Number in the Zone.—
The Secretary concerned shall determine the number of officers in the promotion zone for officers serving in any grade and competitive category from among officers who are eligible for promotion in that grade and competitive category under the provisions of sections 14303 and 14304 of this title and who are otherwise eligible for promotion.
(c)
The Secretary’s determination under subsection (b) shall be made on the basis of an estimate of the following:
(1) The number of officers needed in that competitive category in the next higher grade in each of the next five years.
(2) In the case of a promotion zone for officers to be promoted to a grade to which the maximum years of in grade criteria established in section 14304 of this title apply, the number of officers in that competitive category who are required to be considered for selection for promotion to the next higher grade under that section.
(3) The number of officers that should be placed in the promotion zone in each of the next five years to provide to officers in those years relatively similar opportunities for promotion.
(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, § 1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2935.)
§ 14306.
Establishment of promotion zones: Navy Reserve and Marine Corps Reserve running mate system
(a)
Authority of Secretary of the Navy.—
The Secretary of the Navy may by regulation implement section 14305 of this title by requiring that the promotion zone for consideration of officers on the reserve active-status list of the Navy or the Marine Corps for promotion to the next higher grade be determined in accordance with a running mate system as provided in subsection (b).
(b)
Assignment of Running Mates.—
An officer to whom a running mate system applies shall be assigned as a running mate an officer of the same grade on the active-duty list of the same armed force. The officer on the reserve active-status list is in the promotion zone and is eligible for consideration for promotion to the next higher grade by a selection board convened under section 14101(a) of this title when that officer’s running mate is in or above the promotion zone established for that officer’s grade under chapter 36 of this title.
(c)
Consideration of Officers Below the Zone Under a Running Mate System.—
If the Secretary of the Navy authorizes the selection of officers for promotion from below the promotion zone in accordance with section 14307 of this title, the number of officers to be considered from below the zone may be established through the application of the running mate system or otherwise as the Secretary determines to be appropriate to meet the needs of the Navy or Marine Corps.
(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, § 1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2935; amended Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, § 515(b)(3)(J), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3235.)
§ 14307.
Number of officers to be recommended for promotion
(a)
Determination of Maximum Number.—
Before convening a promotion board under section 14101(a) of this title for a grade and competitive category (other than a vacancy promotion board), the Secretary of the military department concerned, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, shall determine the maximum number of officers in that grade and competitive category that the board may recommend for promotion. The Secretary shall make the determination under the preceding sentence of the maximum number that may be recommended with a view to having on the reserve active-status list a sufficient number of officers in each grade and competitive category to meet the needs of the armed force concerned for officers on that list. In order to make that determination, the Secretary shall determine (1) the number of positions needed to accomplish mission objectives which require officers of such competitive category in the grade to which the board will recommend officers for promotion, (2) the estimated number of officers needed to fill vacancies in such positions during the period in which it is anticipated that officers selected for promotion will be promoted, (3) the number of officers authorized by the Secretary of the military department concerned to serve on the reserve active-status list in the grade and competitive category under consideration, and (4) any statutory limitation on the number of officers in any grade or category (or combination thereof) authorized to be on the reserve active-status list.
(b)
Below-the-Zone Selections.—
(1) The Secretary of the military department concerned may, when the needs of the armed force concerned require, authorize the consideration of officers in the grade of captain, major, or lieutenant colonel on the reserve active-status list of the Army or Air Force, in a grade above first lieutenant on the reserve active-status list of the Marine Corps, or in a grade above lieutenant (junior grade) on the reserve active-status list of the Navy, for promotion to the next higher grade from below the promotion zone.
(2) When selection from below the promotion zone is authorized, the Secretary shall establish the number of officers that may be recommended for promotion from below the promotion zone in each competitive category to be considered. That number may not exceed the number equal to 10 percent of the maximum number of officers that the board is authorized to recommend for promotion in such competitive category, except that the Secretary of Defense may authorize a greater number, not to exceed 15 percent of the total number of officers that the board is authorized to recommend for promotion, if the Secretary of Defense determines that the needs of the armed force concerned so require. If the maximum number determined under this paragraph is less than one, the board may recommend one officer for promotion from below the promotion zone.
(3) The number of officers recommended for promotion from below the promotion zone does not increase the maximum number of officers that the board is authorized to recommend for promotion under subsection (a).
(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, § 1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2936.)
§ 14308.
Promotions: how made
(a)
Promotion List.—
When the report of a selection board convened under section 14101(a) or 14502 of this title is approved by the President, the Secretary of the military department concerned shall place the names of all officers selected for promotion within a competitive category on a single list for that competitive category, to be known as a promotion list, in the order of seniority of those officers on the reserve active-status list or based on particular merit, as determined by the promotion board. A promotion list is considered to be established under this section as of the date of the approval of the report of the selection board under the preceding sentence.
(b)
Promotion; How Made; Order.—
(1) Officers on a promotion list for a competitive category shall be promoted in the manner specified in section 12203 of this title.
(2) Officers on a promotion list for a competitive category shall be promoted to the next higher grade in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the military department concerned. Except as provided in section 14311, 14312, or 14502(e) of this title or in subsection (d) or (e), promotions shall be made in the order in which the names of officers appear on the promotion list and after officers previously selected for promotion in that competitive category have been promoted.
(3) Officers to be promoted to the grade of first lieutenant or lieutenant (junior grade) shall be promoted in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the military department concerned.
(4)
(A) Officers in the permanent grade of first lieutenant or, in the case of the Navy, lieutenant (junior grade) who are on an approved all-fully-qualified-officers list shall be promoted to the next higher grade in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned. Such promotions shall be in the manner specified in section 12203 of this title.
(B) An all-fully-qualified-officers list shall be considered to be approved for purposes of subparagraph (A) when the list is approved by the President. When so approved, such a list shall be treated in the same manner as a promotion list under this chapter and chapter 1403 of this title.
(C) The Secretary of a military department may make a recommendation to the President for approval of an all-fully-qualified-officers list only when the Secretary determines that all officers on the list are needed in the next higher grade to accomplish mission objectives.
(D)
For purposes of this paragraph, an all-fully-qualified-officers list is a list of all officers on the reserve active-status list in a grade who the Secretary of the military department concerned determines—
(i) are fully qualified for promotion to the next higher grade; and
(ii) would be eligible for consideration for promotion to the next higher grade by a selection board convened under section 14101(a) of this title upon the convening of such a board.
(E) If the Secretary of the military department concerned determines that one or more officers or former officers were not placed on an all-fully-qualified-list under this paragraph because of administrative error, the Secretary may prepare a supplemental all-fully-qualified-officers list containing the names of any such officers for approval in accordance with this paragraph.
(c)
Date of Rank.—
(1) The date of rank of an officer appointed to a higher grade under this section is determined under section 741(d)(2) of this title.
(2) The date of rank of an officer appointed to a higher grade under this section may be adjusted in the same manner as an adjustment may be made under section 741(d)(4) of this title in the date of rank of an officer appointed to a higher grade under section 624(a) of this title. In any use of the authority under the preceding sentence, subparagraph (C)(ii) of such section shall be applied by substituting “reserve active-status list” for “active-duty list”.
(3) Except as provided in paragraph (2) or as otherwise specifically authorized by law, a reserve officer is not entitled to additional pay or allowances if the effective date of the officer’s promotion is adjusted to reflect a date earlier than the actual date of the officer’s promotion.
(d)
Officers With Running Mates.—
An officer to whom a running mate system applies under section 14306 of this title and who is selected for promotion is eligible for promotion to the grade for which selected when the officer who is that officer’s running mate becomes eligible for promotion under chapter 36 of this title. The effective date of the promotion of that officer shall be the same as that of the officer’s running mate in the grade to which the running mate is promoted.
(e)
Army Reserve and Air Force Reserve Promotions To Fill Vacancies.—
Subject to this section and to section 14311(e) of this title, and under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the military department concerned—
(1) an officer in the Army Reserve or the Air Force Reserve who is on a promotion list as a result of selection for promotion by a mandatory promotion board convened under section 14101(a) of this title or a board convened under section 14502 or chapter 36 of this title may be promoted at any time to fill a vacancy in a position to which the officer is assigned; and
(2) an officer in a grade below colonel in the Army Reserve or the Air Force Reserve who is on a promotion list as a result of selection for promotion by a vacancy promotion board convened under section 14101(a) of this title may be promoted at any time to fill the vacancy for which the officer was selected.
(f)
Effective Date of Promotion After Federal Recognition.—
(1) The effective date of a promotion of a reserve commissioned officer of the Army or the Air Force who is extended Federal recognition in the next higher grade in the Army National Guard or the Air National Guard under section 307 or 310 of title 32 shall be the date on which such Federal recognition in that grade is so extended.
(2) If the Secretary concerned determines that there was an undue delay in extending Federal recognition in the next higher grade in the Army National Guard or the Air National Guard to a reserve commissioned officer of the Army or the Air Force, and the delay was not attributable to the action (or inaction) of such officer, the effective date of the promotion concerned under paragraph (1) may be adjusted to a date determined by the Secretary concerned, but not earlier than the effective date of the State promotion.
(g)
Army and Air Force General Officer Promotions.—
A reserve officer of the Army or the Air Force who is on a promotion list for promotion to the grade of brigadier general or major general as a result of selection by a vacancy promotion board may be promoted to that grade only to fill a vacancy in the Army Reserve or the Air Force Reserve, as the case may be, in that grade.
(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, § 1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2937; amended Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title V, § 514(c), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1732; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §§ 505(b)(1), 506(b), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1086, 1089; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, § 511(d)(2), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2183; Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title V, § 502(b), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 806; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title V, § 518(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1754; Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title V, § 510(c), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1347.)
§ 14309.
Acceptance of promotion; oath of office
(a)
Acceptance.—
An officer who is appointed to a higher grade under this chapter shall be considered to have accepted the appointment on the date on which the appointment is made unless the officer expressly declines the appointment or is granted a delay of promotion under section 14312 of this title.
(b)
Oath.—
An officer who has served continuously since taking the oath of office prescribed in section 3331 of title 5 is not required to take a new oath upon appointment to a higher grade under this chapter.
(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, § 1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2938.)
§ 14310.
Removal of officers from a list of officers recommended for promotion
(a)
Removal by President.—
The President may remove the name of any officer from a promotion list at any time before the date on which the officer is promoted.
(b)
Removal for Withholding of Senate Advice and Consent.—
If the Senate does not give its advice and consent to the appointment to the next higher grade of an officer whose name is on a list of officers approved by the President for promotion (except in the case of promotions to a reserve grade to which appointments may be made by the President alone), the name of that officer shall be removed from the list.
(c)
Removal After 18 Months.—
(1) If an officer whose name is on a list of officers approved for promotion under section 14308(a) of this title to a grade for which appointment is required by section 12203(a) of this title to be made by and with the advice and consent of the Senate is not appointed to that grade under such section during the officer’s promotion eligibility period, the officer’s name shall be removed from the list unless as of the end of such period the Senate has given its advice and consent to the appointment.
(2) Before the end of the promotion eligibility period with respect to an officer under paragraph (1), the President may extend that period for purposes of paragraph (1) by an additional 12 months.
(3) In this subsection, the term “promotion eligibility period” means, with respect to an officer whose name is on a list of officers approved for promotion under section 14308(a) of this title to a grade for which appointment is required by section 12203(a) of this title to be made by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, the period beginning on the date on which the list is so approved and ending on the first day of the eighteenth month following the month during which the list is so approved.
(d)
Administrative Removal.—
Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned, if an officer on the reserve active-status list is discharged or dropped from the rolls or transferred to a retired status after having been recommended for promotion to a higher grade under this chapter or having been found qualified for Federal recognition in the higher grade under title 32, but before being promoted, the officer’s name shall be administratively removed from the list of officers recommended for promotion by a selection board.
(e)
Continued Eligibility for Promotion.—
An officer whose name is removed from a list under subsection (a), (b), or (c) continues to be eligible for consideration for promotion. If that officer is recommended for promotion by the next selection board convened for that officer’s grade and competitive category and the officer is promoted, the Secretary of the military department concerned may, upon the promotion, grant the officer the same date of rank, the same effective date for the pay and allowances of the grade to which promoted, and the same position on the reserve active-status list, as the officer would have had if the officer’s name had not been removed from the list.
(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, § 1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2938; amended Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, § 515(b), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2186; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title X, § 1063(a)(16), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 322; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title V, § 504(b), title X, § 1075(f)(7), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4208, 4376.)
§ 14311.
Delay of promotion: involuntary
(a)
Delay During Investigations and Proceedings.—
(1)
Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, the appointment of an officer to a higher grade may be delayed if any of the following applies before the date on which the appointment would otherwise be made:
(A) Sworn charges against the officer have been received by an officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction over the officer and the charges have not been disposed of.
(B) An investigation is being conducted to determine whether disciplinary action of any kind should be brought against the officer.
(C) A board of officers has been convened under section 14903 of this title to review the record of the officer.
(D) A criminal proceeding in a Federal or State court of competent jurisdiction is pending against the officer.
(E) Substantiated adverse information about the officer that is material to the decision to appoint the officer is under review by the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary concerned.
(2) If disciplinary action is not taken against the officer, if the charges against the officer are withdrawn or dismissed, if the officer is not separated by the Secretary of the military department concerned as the result of having been required to show cause for retention, if the officer is acquitted of the charges, or if, after a review of substantiated adverse information about the officer regarding the requirement for exemplary conduct set forth in section 7233, 8167, or 9233 of this title, as applicable, the officer is determined to be among the officers best qualified for promotion, as the case may be, then (unless action to delay the officer’s appointment to the higher grade has been taken under subsection (b)) the officer shall be retained on the promotion list (including an approved all-fully-qualified-officers list, if applicable), list of officers found qualified for Federal recognition, or list of officers nominated by the President to the Senate for appointment in a higher reserve grade and shall, upon promotion to the next higher grade, have the same date of rank, the same effective date for the pay and allowances of the grade to which promoted, and the same position on the reserve active-status list as the officer would have had if no delay had intervened, unless the Secretary concerned determines that the officer was unqualified for promotion for any part of the delay. If the Secretary makes such a determination, the Secretary may adjust such date of rank, effective date of pay and allowances, and position on the reserve active-status list as the Secretary considers appropriate under the circumstances.
(b)
Delay for Lack of Qualifications.—
Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, the appointment of an officer to a higher grade may also be delayed if there is cause to believe that the officer has not met the requirement for exemplary conduct set forth in section 7233, 8167, or 9233 of this title, as applicable, or is mentally, physically, morally, or professionally unqualified to perform the duties of the grade to which selected. If it is later determined by a civilian official of the Department of Defense (not below the level of Secretary of a military department) that the officer is qualified for promotion to the higher grade and, after a review of adverse information regarding the requirement for exemplary conduct set forth in section 7233, 8167, or 9233 of this title, as applicable, the officer is determined to be among the officers best qualified for promotion to the higher grade, the officer shall be retained on the promotion list (including an approved all-fully-qualified-officers list, if applicable), the list of officers found qualified for Federal recognition, or list of officers nominated by the President to the Senate for appointment in a higher reserve grade, and shall, upon promotion to that grade, have the same date of rank, the same effective date for pay and allowances of that grade, and the same position on the reserve active-status list as the officer would have had if no delay had intervened, unless the Secretary concerned determines that the officer was unqualified for promotion for any part of the delay. If the Secretary makes such a determination, the Secretary may adjust such date of rank, effective date of pay and allowances, and position on the reserve active-status list as the Secretary considers appropriate under the circumstances.
(c)
Notice to Officer.—
(1) The appointment of an officer to a higher grade may not be delayed under subsection (a) or (b) unless the officer is given written notice of the grounds for the delay. The preceding sentence does not apply if it is impracticable to give the officer written notice before the date on which the appointment to the higher grade would otherwise take effect, but in such a case the written notice shall be given as soon as practicable.
(2) An officer whose promotion is delayed under subsection (a) or (b) shall be given an opportunity to make a written statement to the Secretary of the military department concerned in response to the action taken. The Secretary shall give consideration to any such statement.
(d)
Maximum Length of Delay in Promotion.—
The appointment of an officer to a higher grade may not be delayed under subsection (a) or (b) for more than six months after the date on which the officer would otherwise have been promoted unless the Secretary concerned specifies a further period of delay. An officer’s appointment may not be delayed more than 90 days after final action has been taken in any criminal case against the officer in a Federal or State court of competent jurisdiction or more than 90 days after final action has been taken in any court-martial case against the officer. Except for court action, a promotion may not be delayed more than 18 months after the date on which the officer would otherwise have been promoted.
(e)
Delay Because of Limitations on Officer Strength in Grade or Duties to Which Assigned.—
(1) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, the promotion of a reserve officer on the reserve active-status list who is serving on active duty, or who is on full-time National Guard duty for administration of the reserves or the National Guard, to a grade to which the strength limitations of section 12011 of this title apply shall be delayed if necessary to ensure compliance with those strength limitations. The delay shall expire when the Secretary determines that the delay is no longer required to ensure such compliance.
(2) The promotion of an officer described in paragraph (1) shall also be delayed while the officer is on duty described in that paragraph unless the Secretary of the military department concerned, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, determines that the duty assignment of the officer requires a higher grade than the grade currently held by the officer.
(3) The date of rank and position on the reserve active-status list of a reserve officer whose promotion to or Federal recognition in the next higher grade was delayed under paragraph (1) or (2) solely as the result of the limitations imposed under the regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense or contained in section 12011 of this title shall be the date on which the officer would have been promoted to or recognized in the higher grade had such limitations not existed.
(4) If an officer whose promotion is delayed under paragraph (1) or (2) completes the period of active duty or full-time National Guard duty that the officer is required by law or regulation to perform as a member of a reserve component, the officer may request release from active duty or full-time National Guard duty. If the request is granted, the officer’s promotion shall be effective upon the officer’s release from such duty. The date of rank and position on the reserve active-status list of the officer shall be the date the officer would have been promoted to or recognized in the higher grade had the limitations imposed under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense contained in section 12011 of this title not existed. If an officer whose promotion is delayed under paragraph (1) or (2) has not completed the period of active duty or full-time National Guard duty that the officer is required by law or regulation to perform as a member of a reserve component, the officer may be retained on active duty or on full-time National Guard duty in the grade in which the officer was serving before the officer’s being found qualified for Federal recognition or the officer’s selection for the promotion until the officer completes that required period of duty.
(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, § 1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2939; amended Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, § 505(c)(2)(B), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1088; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title V, § 511(b), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2182; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title X, § 1075(g)(4), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4377; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, § 809(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1840.)
§ 14312.
Delay of promotion: voluntary
(a)
Authority for Voluntary Delays.—
(1) The Secretary of the military department concerned may, by regulation, permit delays of a promotion of an officer who is recommended for promotion by a mandatory selection board convened under section 14101(a) or a special selection board convened under section 14502 of this title at the request of the officer concerned. Such delays, in the case of any promotion, may extend for any period not to exceed three years from the date on which the officer would otherwise be promoted.
(2)
Regulations under this section shall provide that—
(A) a request for such a delay of promotion must be submitted by the officer concerned before the delay may be approved; and
(B) denial of such a request shall not be considered to be a failure of selection for promotion unless the officer declines to accept a promotion under circumstances set forth in subsection (c).
(b)
Effect of Approval of Request.—
If a request for delay of a promotion under subsection (a) is approved, the officer’s name shall remain on the promotion list during the authorized period of delay (unless removed under any other provision of law). Upon the end of the period of the authorized delay, or at any time during such period, the officer may accept the promotion, which shall be effective on the date of acceptance. Such an acceptance of a promotion shall be made in accordance with regulations prescribed under this section.
(c)
Effect of Declining a Promotion.—
An officer’s name shall be removed from the promotion list and, if the officer is serving in a grade below colonel or, in the case of the Navy, captain, the officer shall be considered to have failed of selection for promotion if any of the following applies:
(1) The Secretary concerned has not authorized voluntary delays of promotion under subsection (a) to the grade concerned and the officer declines to accept an appointment to a higher grade.
(2) The Secretary concerned has authorized voluntary delays of promotion under subsection (a), but has denied the request of the officer for a delay of promotion and the officer then declines to accept an appointment to a higher grade.
(3) The Secretary concerned has approved the request of an officer for a delay of promotion and, upon the end of the period of delay authorized in accordance with regulations prescribed under subsection (a), the officer then declines to accept an appointment to a higher grade.
(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, § 1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2941.)
§ 14313.
Authority to vacate promotions to grade of brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half)
(a)
Authority.—
The President may vacate the appointment of a reserve officer to the grade of brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half) if the period of time during which the officer has served in that grade after promotion to that grade is less than 18 months.
(b)
Effect of Promotion Being Vacated.—
Except as provided in subsection (c), an officer whose promotion to the grade of brigadier general is vacated under this section holds the grade of colonel as a reserve of the armed force of which the officer is a member. An officer whose promotion to the grade of rear admiral (lower half) is vacated under this section holds the grade of captain in the Navy Reserve. Upon assuming the lower grade, the officer shall have the same position on the reserve active-status list as the officer would have had if the officer had not served in the higher grade.
(c)
Special Rule for Officers Serving as Adjutant General.—
In the case of an officer serving as an adjutant general or assistant adjutant general whose promotion to the grade of brigadier general is vacated under this section, the officer then holds the reserve grade held by that officer immediately before the officer’s appointment as adjutant general or assistant adjutant general.
(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, § 1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2942; amended Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, § 515(b)(1)(SS), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3234.)
§ 14314.
Army and Air Force commissioned officers: generals ceasing to occupy positions commensurate with grade; State adjutants general
(a)
General Officers.—
Within 30 days after a reserve officer of the Army or the Air Force on the reserve active-status list in a general officer grade ceases to occupy a position commensurate with that grade (or commensurate with a higher grade), the Secretary concerned shall transfer or discharge the officer in accordance with whichever of the following the officer elects:
(1) Transfer the officer in grade to the Retired Reserve, if the officer is qualified and applies for the transfer.
(2) Transfer the officer in grade to the inactive status list of the Standby Reserve, if the officer is qualified.
(3) Discharge the officer from the officer’s reserve appointment and, if the officer is qualified and applies therefor, appoint the officer in the reserve grade held by the officer as a reserve officer before the officer’s appointment in a general officer grade.
(4) Discharge the officer from the officer’s reserve appointment.
(b)
Adjutants General.—
If a reserve officer who is federally recognized in the Army National Guard or the Air National Guard solely because of the officer’s appointment as adjutant general or assistant adjutant general of a State ceases to occupy that position, the Secretary concerned, not later than 30 days after the date on which the officer ceases to occupy that position, shall—
(1) withdraw that officer’s Federal recognition; and
(2)
require that the officer—
(A) be transferred in grade to the Retired Reserve, if the officer is qualified and applies for the transfer;
(B) be discharged from the officer’s reserve appointment and appointed in the reserve grade held by the officer as a reserve officer immediately before the appointment of that officer as adjutant general or assistant adjutant general, if the officer is qualified and applies for that appointment; or
(C) be discharged from the officer’s reserve appointment.
(c)
Credit for Service in Grade.—
An officer who is appointed under subsection (a)(3) or (b)(2)(B) shall be credited with an amount of service in the grade in which appointed that is equal to the amount of prior service in an active status in that grade and in any higher grade.
(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, § 1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2942; amended Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title V, § 544(c), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2523.)
§ 14315.
Position vacancy promotions: Army and Air Force officers
(a)
Officers Eligible for Consideration For Vacancy Promotions Below Brigadier General.—
A reserve officer of the Army who is in the Army Reserve, or a reserve officer of the Air Force who is in the Air Force Reserve, who is on the reserve active-status list in the grade of first lieutenant, captain, major, or lieutenant colonel is eligible for consideration for promotion to the next higher grade under this section if each of the following applies:
(1) The officer is occupying or, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary concerned, has been recommended to occupy a position in the same competitive category as the officer and for which a grade higher than the one held by that officer is authorized.
(2) The officer is fully qualified to meet all requirements for the position as established by the Secretary of the military department concerned.
(3) The officer has held the officer’s present grade for the minimum period of service prescribed in section 14303 of this title for eligibility for consideration for promotion to the higher grade.
(b)
Consideration for Vacancy Promotion to Brigadier General or Major General.—
(1) A reserve officer of the Army who is in the Army Reserve and on the reserve active-status list in the grade of colonel or brigadier general may be considered for promotion to the next higher grade under this section if the officer (A) is assigned to the duties of a general officer of the next higher reserve grade in the Army Reserve or is recommended for such an assignment under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army, (B) has held the officer’s present grade for the minimum period of service prescribed in section 14303 of this title for eligibility for consideration for promotion to the higher grade, and (C) meets the standards for consideration prescribed by the Secretary of the Army.
(2) A reserve officer of the Air Force who is in the Air Force Reserve and on the reserve active-status list in the grade of colonel or brigadier general may be considered for promotion to the next higher grade under this section if the officer (A) is assigned to the duties of a general officer of the next higher reserve grade or is recommended for such an assignment under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Air Force, and (B) meets the standards for consideration prescribed by the Secretary of the Air Force.
(c)
Vacancy Promotion Boards.—
Consideration for promotion under this section shall be by a vacancy promotion board convened under section 14101(a) of this title.
(d)
Effect of Nonselection.—
An officer who is considered for promotion under this section and is not selected shall not be considered to have failed of selection for promotion.
(e)
Special Rule for Officers Failed of Selection.—
A reserve officer of the Army or the Air Force who is considered as failed of selection for promotion under section 14501 of this title to a grade may be considered for promotion under this section or, if selected, promoted to that grade only if the Secretary of the military department concerned finds that the officer is the only qualified officer available to fill the vacancy. The Secretary concerned may not delegate the authority under the preceding sentence.
(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, § 1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2943; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, § 1501(b)(25), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 497; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title V, § 514(d), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1732; Pub. L. 106–398, § 1 [[div. A], title V, § 501], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–98; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title V, § 512(b), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1460.)
§ 14316.
Army National Guard and Air National Guard: appointment to and Federal recognition in a higher reserve grade after selection for promotion
(a)
Opportunity for Promotion To Fill a Vacancy in the Guard.—
If an officer of the Army National Guard of the United States or the Air National Guard of the United States is recommended by a mandatory selection board convened under section 14101(a) or a special selection board convened under section 14502 of this title for promotion to the next higher grade, an opportunity shall be given to the appropriate authority of the State to promote that officer to fill a vacancy in the Army National Guard or the Air National Guard of that jurisdiction.
(b)
Automatic Federal Recognition.—
An officer of the Army National Guard of the United States or the Air National Guard of the United States who is on a promotion list for promotion to the next higher grade as a result of selection for promotion as described in subsection (a) and who before the date of promotion is appointed in that higher grade to fill a vacancy in the Army National Guard or Air National Guard shall—
(1) be extended Federal recognition in that grade, without the examination prescribed in section 307 of title 32; and
(2) subject to section 14311(e) of this title, be promoted to that reserve grade effective on the date of the officer’s appointment in that grade in the Army National Guard or Air National Guard.
(c)
National Guard Officers Failed of Selection.—
An officer who is considered as failed of selection for promotion under section 14501 of this title to a grade may be extended Federal recognition in that grade only if the Secretary of the military department concerned finds that the officer is the only qualified officer available to fill a vacancy. The Secretary concerned may not delegate the authority under the preceding sentence.
(d)
Transfer to Army Reserve or Air Force Reserve.—
If, on the date on which an officer of the Army National Guard of the United States or of the Air National Guard of the United States who is on a promotion list as described in subsection (a) is to be promoted, the officer has not been promoted to fill a vacancy in the higher grade in the Army National Guard or the Air National Guard, the officer’s Federal recognition in the officer’s reserve grade shall be withdrawn and the officer shall be promoted and transferred to the Army Reserve or the Air Force Reserve as appropriate.
(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, § 1611, Oct. 5, 1994,
§ 14317.
Officers in transition to and from the active-status list or active-duty list
(a)
Effect of Transfer to Inactive Status or Retired Status.—
If a reserve officer on the reserve active-status list is transferred to an inactive status or to a retired status after having been recommended for promotion to a higher grade under this chapter or chapter 36 of this title, or after having been found qualified for Federal recognition in the higher grade under title 32, but before being promoted, the officer—
(1) shall be treated as if the officer had not been considered and recommended for promotion by the selection board or examined and been found qualified for Federal recognition; and
(2) may not be placed on a promotion list or promoted to the higher grade after returning to an active status,
unless the officer is again recommended for promotion by a selection board convened under chapter 36 of this title or section 14101(a) or 14502 of this title or examined for Federal recognition under title 32.
(b)
Effect of Placement on Active-Duty List.—
A reserve officer who is on a promotion list as a result of selection for promotion by a mandatory promotion board convened under section 14101(a) or a special selection board convened under section 14502 of this title and who before being promoted is placed on the active-duty list of the same armed force and placed in the same competitive category shall, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, be placed on an appropriate promotion list for officers on the active-duty list established under chapter 36 of this title.
(c)
Officers on a Promotion List Removed From Active-Duty List.—
An officer who is on the active-duty list and is on a promotion list as the result of selection for promotion by a selection board convened under chapter 36 of this title and who before being promoted is removed from the active-duty list and placed on the reserve active-status list of the same armed force and in the same competitive category (including a regular officer who on removal from the active-duty list is appointed as a reserve officer and placed on the reserve active-status list) shall, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense, be placed on an appropriate promotion list established under this chapter.
(d)
Officers Selected for Position Vacancies.—
(1)
Except as provided in subsection (e), if a reserve officer is ordered to active duty (other than active duty for training) or full-time National Guard duty (other than full-time National Guard duty for training only) after being recommended for promotion under section 14315 of this title to fill a position vacancy or examined for Federal recognition under title 32, and before being promoted to fill that vacancy, the officer shall not be promoted while serving such active duty or full-time National Guard duty unless the officer—
(A) is ordered to active duty as a member of the unit in which the vacancy exists when that unit is ordered to active duty; or
(B) has been ordered to or is serving on active duty in support of a contingency operation.
(2) If, under this subsection, the name of an officer is removed from a list of officers recommended for promotion, the officer shall be treated as if the officer had not been considered for promotion or examined for Federal recognition.
(e)
Officers Ordered to Active Duty in Time of War or National Emergency.—
(1)
A reserve officer who is not on the active-duty list and who is ordered to active duty in time of war or national emergency may, if eligible, be considered for promotion—
(A) by a mandatory promotion board convened under section 14101(a) of this title or a special selection board convened under section 14502 of this title; or
(B) in the case of an officer who has been ordered to or is serving on active duty in support of a contingency operation, by a vacancy promotion board convened under section 14101(a) of this title, or by examination for Federal recognition under title 32.
(2) An officer may not be considered for promotion under this subsection after the end of the two-year period beginning on the date on which the officer is ordered to active duty.
(3) An officer may not be considered for promotion under this subsection during a period when the operation of this section has been suspended by the President under section 123(a) of this title.
(4) Consideration of an officer for promotion under this subsection shall be under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the military department concerned.
(Added Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title XVI, § 1611, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2945; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, § 1501(b)(26), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 497; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, § 1073(a)(68), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1904; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title V, § 512(a), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1459; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title V, § 513, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4441.)