Collapse to view only § 746. Extent of customer claims

§ 741.
Definitions for this subchapter
In this subchapter—
(1) “Commission” means Securities and Exchange Commission;
(2)
“customer” includes—
(A)
entity with whom a person deals as principal or agent and that has a claim against such person on account of a security received, acquired, or held by such person in the ordinary course of such person’s business as a stockbroker, from or for the securities account or accounts of such entity—
(i) for safekeeping;
(ii) with a view to sale;
(iii) to cover a consummated sale;
(iv) pursuant to a purchase;
(v) as collateral under a security agreement; or
(vi) for the purpose of effecting registration of transfer; and
(B)
entity that has a claim against a person arising out of—
(i) a sale or conversion of a security received, acquired, or held as specified in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph; or
(ii) a deposit of cash, a security, or other property with such person for the purpose of purchasing or selling a security;
(3)
“customer name security” means security—
(A) held for the account of a customer on the date of the filing of the petition by or on behalf of the debtor;
(B) registered in such customer’s name on such date or in the process of being so registered under instructions from the debtor; and
(C) not in a form transferable by delivery on such date;
(4)
“customer property” means cash, security, or other property, and proceeds of such cash, security, or property, received, acquired, or held by or for the account of the debtor, from or for the securities account of a customer—
(A)
including—
(i) property that was unlawfully converted from and that is the lawful property of the estate;
(ii) a security held as property of the debtor to the extent such security is necessary to meet a net equity claim of a customer based on a security of the same class and series of an issuer;
(iii) resources provided through the use or realization of a customer’s debit cash balance or a debit item includible in the Formula for Determination of Reserve Requirement for Brokers and Dealers as promulgated by the Commission under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934; and
(iv) other property of the debtor that any applicable law, rule, or regulation requires to be set aside or held for the benefit of a customer, unless including such property as customer property would not significantly increase customer property; but
(B)
not including—
(i) a customer name security delivered to or reclaimed by a customer under section 751 of this title; or
(ii) property to the extent that a customer does not have a claim against the debtor based on such property;
(5) “margin payment” means payment or deposit of cash, a security, or other property, that is commonly known to the securities trade as original margin, initial margin, maintenance margin, or variation margin, or as a mark-to-market payment, or that secures an obligation of a participant in a securities clearing agency;
(6)
“net equity” means, with respect to all accounts of a customer that such customer has in the same capacity—
(A)
(i) aggregate dollar balance that would remain in such accounts after the liquidation, by sale or purchase, at the time of the filing of the petition, of all securities positions in all such accounts, except any customer name securities of such customer; minus
(ii) any claim of the debtor against such customer in such capacity that would have been owing immediately after such liquidation; plus
(B) any payment by such customer to the trustee, within 60 days after notice under section 342 of this title, of any business related claim of the debtor against such customer in such capacity;
(7)
“securities contract”—
(A)
means—
(i) a contract for the purchase, sale, or loan of a security, a certificate of deposit, a mortgage loan, any interest in a mortgage loan, a group or index of securities, certificates of deposit, or mortgage loans or interests therein (including an interest therein or based on the value thereof), or option on any of the foregoing, including an option to purchase or sell any such security, certificate of deposit, mortgage loan, interest, group or index, or option, and including any repurchase or reverse repurchase transaction on any such security, certificate of deposit, mortgage loan, interest, group or index, or option (whether or not such repurchase or reverse repurchase transaction is a “repurchase agreement”, as defined in section 101);
(ii) any option entered into on a national securities exchange relating to foreign currencies;
(iii) the guarantee (including by novation) by or to any securities clearing agency of a settlement of cash, securities, certificates of deposit, mortgage loans or interests therein, group or index of securities, or mortgage loans or interests therein (including any interest therein or based on the value thereof), or option on any of the foregoing, including an option to purchase or sell any such security, certificate of deposit, mortgage loan, interest, group or index, or option (whether or not such settlement is in connection with any agreement or transaction referred to in clauses (i) through (xi));
(iv) any margin loan;
(v) any extension of credit for the clearance or settlement of securities transactions;
(vi) any loan transaction coupled with a securities collar transaction, any prepaid forward securities transaction, or any total return swap transaction coupled with a securities sale transaction;
(vii) any other agreement or transaction that is similar to an agreement or transaction referred to in this subparagraph;
(viii) any combination of the agreements or transactions referred to in this subparagraph;
(ix) any option to enter into any agreement or transaction referred to in this subparagraph;
(x) a master agreement that provides for an agreement or transaction referred to in clause (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), or (ix), together with all supplements to any such master agreement, without regard to whether the master agreement provides for an agreement or transaction that is not a securities contract under this subparagraph, except that such master agreement shall be considered to be a securities contract under this subparagraph only with respect to each agreement or transaction under such master agreement that is referred to in clause (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), or (ix); or
(xi) any security agreement or arrangement or other credit enhancement related to any agreement or transaction referred to in this subparagraph, including any guarantee or reimbursement obligation by or to a stockbroker, securities clearing agency, financial institution, or financial participant in connection with any agreement or transaction referred to in this subparagraph, but not to exceed the damages in connection with any such agreement or transaction, measured in accordance with section 562; and
(B) does not include any purchase, sale, or repurchase obligation under a participation in a commercial mortgage loan;
(8) “settlement payment” means a preliminary settlement payment, a partial settlement payment, an interim settlement payment, a settlement payment on account, a final settlement payment, or any other similar payment commonly used in the securities trade; and
(9) “SIPC” means Securities Investor Protection Corporation.
(Pub. L. 95–598, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2611; Pub. L. 97–222, § 8, July 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 237; Pub. L. 98–353, title III, § 482, July 10, 1984, 98 Stat. 382; Pub. L. 103–394, title V, § 501(d)(25), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4146; Pub. L. 109–8, title IX, § 907(a)(2), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 173; Pub. L. 109–390, § 5(a)(3), Dec. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 2697.)
§ 742.
Effect of section 362 of this title in this subchapter

Notwithstanding section 362 of this title, SIPC may file an application for a protective decree under the Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970. The filing of such application stays all proceedings in the case under this title unless and until such application is dismissed. If SIPC completes the liquidation of the debtor, then the court shall dismiss the case.

(Pub. L. 95–598, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2613; Pub. L. 97–222, § 9, July 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 237; Pub. L. 103–394, title V, § 501(d)(26), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4146.)
§ 743.
Notice

The clerk shall give the notice required by section 342 of this title to SIPC and to the Commission.

(Pub. L. 95–598, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2613; Pub. L. 99–554, title II, § 283(t), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3118; Pub. L. 103–394, title V, § 501(d)(27), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4146.)
§ 744.
Executory contracts

Notwithstanding section 365(d)(1) of this title, the trustee shall assume or reject, under section 365 of this title, any executory contract of the debtor for the purchase or sale of a security in the ordinary course of the debtor’s business, within a reasonable time after the date of the order for relief, but not to exceed 30 days. If the trustee does not assume such a contract within such time, such contract is rejected.

(Pub. L. 95–598, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2613; Pub. L. 97–222, § 10, July 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 238.)
§ 745.
Treatment of accounts
(a) Accounts held by the debtor for a particular customer in separate capacities shall be treated as accounts of separate customers.
(b) If a stockbroker or a bank holds a customer net equity claim against the debtor that arose out of a transaction for a customer of such stockbroker or bank, each such customer of such stockbroker or bank shall be treated as a separate customer of the debtor.
(c) Each trustee’s account specified as such on the debtor’s books, and supported by a trust deed filed with, and qualified as such by, the Internal Revenue Service, and under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, shall be treated as a separate customer account for each beneficiary under such trustee account.
(Pub. L. 95–598, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2613; Pub. L. 97–222, § 11, July 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 238; Pub. L. 98–353, title III, § 483, July 10, 1984, 98 Stat. 383; Pub. L. 103–394, title V, § 501(d)(28), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4146.)
§ 746.
Extent of customer claims
(a) If, after the date of the filing of the petition, an entity enters into a transaction with the debtor, in a manner that would have made such entity a customer had such transaction occurred before the date of the filing of the petition, and such transaction was entered into by such entity in good faith and before the qualification under section 322 of this title of a trustee, such entity shall be deemed a customer, and the date of such transaction shall be deemed to be the date of the filing of the petition for the purpose of determining such entity’s net equity.
(b)
An entity does not have a claim as a customer to the extent that such entity transferred to the debtor cash or a security that, by contract, agreement, understanding, or operation of law, is—
(1) part of the capital of the debtor; or
(2) subordinated to the claims of any or all creditors.
(Pub. L. 95–598, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2613; Pub. L. 97–222, § 12, July 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 238.)
§ 747.
Subordination of certain customer claims
Except as provided in section 510 of this title, unless all other customer net equity claims have been paid in full, the trustee may not pay in full or pay in part, directly or indirectly, any net equity claim of a customer that was, on the date the transaction giving rise to such claim occurred—
(1) an insider;
(2)
a beneficial owner of at least five percent of any class of equity securities of the debtor, other than—
(A) nonconvertible stock having fixed preferential dividend and liquidation rights; or
(B) interests of limited partners in a limited partnership;
(3) a limited partner with a participation of at least five percent in the net assets or net profits of the debtor; or
(4) an entity that, directly or indirectly, through agreement or otherwise, exercised or had the power to exercise control over the management or policies of the debtor.
(Pub. L. 95–598, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2613; Pub. L. 97–222, § 13, July 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 238.)
§ 748.
Reduction of securities to money

As soon as practicable after the date of the order for relief, the trustee shall reduce to money, consistent with good market practice, all securities held as property of the estate, except for customer name securities delivered or reclaimed under section 751 of this title.

(Pub. L. 95–598, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2614.)
§ 749.
Voidable transfers
(a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, any transfer of property that, but for such transfer, would have been customer property, may be avoided by the trustee, and such property shall be treated as customer property, if and to the extent that the trustee avoids such transfer under section 544, 545, 547, 548, or 549 of this title. For the purpose of such sections, the property so transferred shall be deemed to have been property of the debtor and, if such transfer was made to a customer or for a customer’s benefit, such customer shall be deemed, for the purposes of this section, to have been a creditor.
(b)
Notwithstanding sections 544, 545, 547, 548, and 549 of this title, the trustee may not avoid a transfer made before seven days after the order for relief if such transfer is approved by the Commission by rule or order, either before or after such transfer, and if such transfer is—
(1) a transfer of a securities contract entered into or carried by or through the debtor on behalf of a customer, and of any cash, security, or other property margining or securing such securities contract; or
(2) the liquidation of a securities contract entered into or carried by or through the debtor on behalf of a customer.
(Pub. L. 95–598, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2614; Pub. L. 97–222, § 14, July 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 238; Pub. L. 111–16, § 2(8), May 7, 2009, 123 Stat. 1607.)
§ 750.
Distribution of securities

The trustee may not distribute a security except under section 751 of this title.

(Pub. L. 95–598, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2614.)
§ 751.
Customer name securities

The trustee shall deliver any customer name security to or on behalf of the customer entitled to such security, unless such customer has a negative net equity. With the approval of the trustee, a customer may reclaim a customer name security after payment to the trustee, within such period as the trustee allows, of any claim of the debtor against such customer to the extent that such customer will not have a negative net equity after such payment.

(Pub. L. 95–598, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2614.)
§ 752.
Customer property
(a) The trustee shall distribute customer property ratably to customers on the basis and to the extent of such customers’ allowed net equity claims and in priority to all other claims, except claims of the kind specified in section 507(a)(2) of this title that are attributable to the administration of such customer property.
(b)
(1) The trustee shall distribute customer property in excess of that distributed under subsection (a) of this section in accordance with section 726 of this title.
(2) Except as provided in section 510 of this title, if a customer is not paid the full amount of such customer’s allowed net equity claim from customer property, the unpaid portion of such claim is a claim entitled to distribution under section 726 of this title.
(c) Any cash or security remaining after the liquidation of a security interest created under a security agreement made by the debtor, excluding property excluded under section 741(4)(B) of this title, shall be apportioned between the general estate and customer property in the same proportion as the general estate of the debtor and customer property were subject to such security interest.
(Pub. L. 95–598, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2614; Pub. L. 97–222, § 15, July 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 238; Pub. L. 98–353, title III, § 484, July 10, 1984, 98 Stat. 383; Pub. L. 109–8, title XV, § 1502(a)(3), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 216.)
§ 753.
Stockbroker liquidation and forward contract merchants, commodity brokers, stockbrokers, financial institutions, financial participants, securities clearing agencies, swap participants, repo participants, and master netting agreement participants

Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, the exercise of rights by a forward contract merchant, commodity broker, stockbroker, financial institution, financial participant, securities clearing agency, swap participant, repo participant, or master netting agreement participant under this title shall not affect the priority of any unsecured claim it may have after the exercise of such rights.

(Added Pub. L. 109–8, title IX, § 907(m), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 181.)