Collapse to view only § 1468c. Separability

§ 1461.
Short title

This chapter may be cited as the “Home Owners’ Loan Act.”

(June 13, 1933, ch. 64, § 1 (part), 48 Stat. 128; Pub. L. 101–73, title III, § 301, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 277.)
§ 1462.
Definitions
For purposes of this chapter—
(1)
Corporation

The term “Corporation” means the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

(2)
Savings association

The term “savings association” means a savings association, as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1813], the deposits of which are insured by the Corporation.

(3)
Federal savings association

The term “Federal savings association” means a Federal savings association or a Federal savings bank chartered under section 1464 of this title.

(4)
National bank

The term “national bank” has the same meaning as in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1813].

(5)
Federal banking agencies

The term “Federal banking agencies” means the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

(6)
State

The term “State” has the same meaning as in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1813].

(7)
Affiliate

The term “affiliate” means any person that controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, a savings association, except as provided in section 1467a of this title.

(8)
Board

The term “Board”, other than in the context of the Board of Directors of the Corporation, means the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

(9)
Comptroller

The term “Comptroller” means the Comptroller of the Currency.

(10)
Appropriate Federal banking agency

The term “appropriate Federal banking agency” has the same meaning as in section 3(q) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1813(q)).

(11)
Functionally regulated subsidiary

The term “functionally regulated subsidiary” has the same meaning as in section 5(c)(5) of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C. 1844(c)(5)).

(June 13, 1933, ch. 64, § 2, 48 Stat. 128; June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, § 508(a), 48 Stat. 1264; May 28, 1935, ch. 150, § 10, 49 Stat. 296; 1947 Reorg. Plan No. 3, eff. July 27, 1947, 12 F.R. 4981, 61 Stat. 954; Aug. 11, 1955, ch. 783, title I, § 109(a)(3), 69 Stat. 640; Pub. L. 95–630, title XII, § 1201, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3710; Pub. L. 97–320, title I, § 114(a), Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1475; Pub. L. 101–73, title III, § 301, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 277; Pub. L. 111–203, title III, § 369(2), title VI, § 604(h)(1), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1557, 1602.)
§ 1462a.
Administrative provisions
(a)
Powers
In accordance with subtitle A of title III of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the appropriate Federal banking agency shall have all powers which—
(1) were vested in the Federal Home Loan Bank Board (in the Board’s capacity as such) or the Chairman of such Board on the day before the date of the enactment of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act of 1989 [Aug. 9, 1989]; and
(2)
were not—
(A) transferred to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Federal Housing Finance Board, the Resolution Trust Corporation, or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation pursuant to any amendment made by such Act; or
(B) established under any provision of law repealed by such Act.
(b)
State homestead provisions

No provision of this chapter or any other provision of law administered by the appropriate Federal banking agency shall be construed as superseding any homestead provision of any State constitution, including any implementing State statute, in effect on September 29, 1994, or any subsequent amendment to such a State constitutional or statutory provision in effect on September 29, 1994, that exempts the homestead of any person from foreclosure, or forced sale, for the payment of all debts, other than a purchase money obligation relating to the homestead, taxes due on the homestead, or an obligation arising from work and material used in constructing improvements on the homestead.

(June 13, 1933, ch. 64, § 3, as added Pub. L. 101–73, title III, § 301, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 278; amended Pub. L. 103–325, title III, § 331(c), Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2232; Pub. L. 103–328, title I, § 102(b)(5), Sept. 29, 1994, 108 Stat. 2352; Pub. L. 109–351, title VII, § 712, Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 1994
§ 1463.
Supervision of savings associations
(a)
Savings associations
(1)
Examination and safe and sound operation
(A)
Federal savings associations

The Comptroller shall provide for the examination and safe and sound operation of Federal savings associations.

(B)
State savings associations

The Corporation shall provide for the examination and safe and sound operation of State savings associations.

(2)
Regulations for savings associations

The Comptroller may prescribe regulations with respect to savings associations, as the Comptroller determines to be appropriate to carry out the purposes of this chapter.

(3)
Safe and sound housing credit to be encouraged

The Comptroller and the Corporation shall exercise all powers granted to the Comptroller and the Corporation under this chapter so as to encourage savings associations to provide credit for housing safely and soundly.

(b)
Accounting and disclosure
(1)
In general

The Comptroller shall, by regulation, prescribe uniform accounting and disclosure standards for savings associations, to be used in determining savings associations’ compliance with all applicable regulations.

(2)
Specific requirements for accounting standards
Subject to section 1464(t) of this title, the uniform accounting standards prescribed under paragraph (1) shall—
(A) incorporate generally accepted accounting principles to the same degree that such principles are used to determine compliance with regulations prescribed by the Federal banking agencies; and
(B) allow for no deviation from full compliance with such standards as are in effect after December 31, 1993.
(3)
Authority to prescribe more stringent accounting standards

The Comptroller may at any time prescribe accounting standards more stringent than required under paragraph (2) if the Comptroller determines that the more stringent standards are necessary to ensure the safe and sound operation of savings associations.

(c)
Stringency of standards

The regulations of the Comptroller and the policies of the Comptroller and the Corporation governing the safe and sound operation of savings associations, including regulations and policies governing asset classification and appraisals, shall be no less stringent than those established by the Comptroller for national banks.

(d)
Investment of certain funds in accounts of savings associations

The savings accounts and share accounts of savings associations insured by the Corporation shall be lawful investments and may be accepted as security for all public funds of the United States, fiduciary and trust funds under the authority or control of the United States or any officer thereof, and for the funds of all corporations organized under the laws of the United States (subject to any regulatory authority otherwise applicable), regardless of any limitation of law upon the investment of any such funds or upon the acceptance of security for the investment or deposit of any of such funds.

(e)
Participation by savings associations in lotteries and related activities
(1)
Participation prohibited
No savings association may—
(A) deal in lottery tickets;
(B) deal in bets used as a means or substitute for participation in a lottery;
(C) announce, advertise, or publicize the existence of any lottery; or
(D) announce, advertise, or publicize the existence or identity of any participant or winner, as such, in a lottery.
(2)
Use of facilities prohibited
No savings association may permit—
(A) the use of any part of any of its own offices by any person for any purpose forbidden to the institution under paragraph (1); or
(B) direct access by the public from any of its own offices to any premises used by any person for any purpose forbidden to the institution under paragraph (1).
(3)
Definitions
For purposes of this subsection—
(A)
Deal in

The term “deal in” includes making, taking, buying, selling, redeeming, or collecting.

(B)
Lottery
The term “lottery” includes any arrangement, other than a savings promotion raffle, under which—
(i) 3 or more persons (hereafter in this subparagraph referred to as the “participants”) advance money or credit to another in exchange for the possibility or expectation that 1 or more but not all of the participants (hereafter in this paragraph referred to as the “winners”) will receive by reason of those participants’ advances more than the amounts those participants have advanced; and
(ii)
the identity of the winners is determined by any means which includes—
(I) a random selection;(II) a game, race, or contest; or(III) any record or tabulation of the result of 1 or more events in which any participant has no interest except for the bearing that event has on the possibility that the participant may become a winner.
(C)
Lottery ticket

The term “lottery ticket” includes any right, privilege, or possibility (and any ticket, receipt, record, or other evidence of any such right, privilege, or possibility) of becoming a winner in a lottery.

(D)
Savings promotion raffle

The term “savings promotion raffle” means a contest in which the sole consideration required for a chance of winning designated prizes is obtained by the deposit of a specified amount of money in a savings account or other savings program, where each ticket or entry has an equal chance of being drawn, such contest being subject to regulations that may from time to time be promulgated by the appropriate prudential regulator (as defined in section 5481 of this title).

(4)
Exception for State lotteries

Paragraphs (1) and (2) shall not apply with respect to any savings association accepting funds from, or performing any lawful services for, any State operating a lottery, or any officer or employee of such a State who is charged with administering the lottery.

(5)
Regulations

The Comptroller shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to provide for enforcement of this subsection and to prevent any evasion of any provision of this subsection.

(f)
Federally related mortgage loan disclosures

A savings association may not make a federally related mortgage loan to an agent, trustee, nominee, or other person acting in a fiduciary capacity without requiring that the identity of the person receiving the beneficial interest of such loan shall at all times be revealed to the savings association. At the request of the appropriate Federal banking agency, the savings association shall report to the appropriate Federal banking agency the identity of such person and the nature and amount of the loan.

(g)
Preemption of State usury laws
(1) Notwithstanding any State law, a savings association may charge interest on any extension of credit at a rate of not more than 1 percent in excess of the discount rate on 90-day commercial paper in effect at the Federal Reserve bank in the Federal Reserve district in which such savings association is located or at the rate allowed by the laws of the State in which such savings association is located, whichever is greater.
(2) If the rate prescribed in paragraph (1) exceeds the rate such savings association would be permitted to charge in the absence of this subsection, the receiving or charging a greater rate of interest than that prescribed by paragraph (1), when knowingly done, shall be deemed a forfeiture of the entire interest which the extension of credit carries with it, or which has been agreed to be paid thereon. If such greater rate of interest has been paid, the person who paid it may recover, in a civil action commenced in a court of appropriate jurisdiction not later than 2 years after the date of such payment, an amount equal to twice the amount of the interest paid from the savings association taking or receiving such interest.
(h)
Form and maturity of securities
No savings association shall—
(1) issue securities which guarantee a definite maturity except with the specific approval of the appropriate Federal banking agency, or
(2) issue any securities the form of which has not been approved by the appropriate Federal banking agency.
(June 13, 1933, ch. 64, § 4, as added Pub. L. 101–73, title III, § 301, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 280; amended Pub. L. 111–203, title III, § 369(4), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1558; Pub. L. 113–251, § 3(d), Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 2889.)
§ 1464.
Federal savings associations
(a)
In general
In order to provide thrift institutions for the deposit of funds and for the extension of credit for homes and other goods and services, the Comptroller of the Currency is authorized, under such regulations as the Comptroller of the Currency may prescribe—
(1) to provide for the organization, incorporation, examination, operation, and regulation of associations to be known as Federal savings associations (including Federal savings banks), and
(2) to issue charters therefor,
giving primary consideration of the best practices of thrift institutions in the United States. The lending and investment powers conferred by this section are intended to encourage such institutions to provide credit for housing safely and soundly.
(b)
Deposits and related powers
(1)
Deposit accounts
(A)
Subject to the terms of its charter and regulations of the Comptroller of the Currency, a Federal savings association may—
(i) raise funds through such deposit, share, or other accounts, including demand deposit accounts (hereafter in this section referred to as “accounts”); and
(ii) issue passbooks, certificates, or other evidence of accounts.
(B) A Federal savings association may not permit any overdraft (including an intraday overdraft) on behalf of an affiliate, or incur any such overdraft in such savings association’s account at a Federal reserve bank or Federal home loan bank on behalf of an affiliate.

All savings accounts and demand accounts shall have the same priority upon liquidation. Holders of accounts and obligors of a Federal savings association shall, to such extent as may be provided by its charter or by regulations of the Comptroller of the Currency, be members of the savings association, and shall have such voting rights and such other rights as are thereby provided.

(C) A Federal savings association may require not less than 14 days notice prior to payment of savings accounts if the charter of the savings association or the regulations of the Comptroller of the Currency so provide.
(D) If a Federal savings association does not pay all withdrawals in full (subject to the right of the association, where applicable, to require notice), the payment of withdrawals from accounts shall be subject to such rules and procedures as may be prescribed by the savings association’s charter or by regulation of the Comptroller of the Currency. Except as authorized in writing by the Comptroller of the Currency, any Federal savings association that fails to make full payment of any withdrawal when due shall be deemed to be in an unsafe or unsound condition.
(E) Accounts may be subject to check or to withdrawal or transfer on negotiable or transferable or other order or authorization to the Federal savings association, as the Comptroller of the Currency may by regulation provide.
(F) A Federal savings association may establish remote service units for the purpose of crediting savings or demand accounts, debiting such accounts, crediting payments on loans, and the disposition of related financial transactions, as provided in regulations prescribed by the Comptroller of the Currency.
(2)
Other liabilities

To such extent as the Comptroller of the Currency may authorize in writing, a Federal savings association may borrow, may give security, may be surety as defined by the Comptroller of the Currency and may issue such notes, bonds, debentures, or other obligations, or other securities, including capital stock.

(3)
Loans from State housing finance agencies
(A)
In general

Subject to regulation by the Comptroller of the Currency but without regard to any other provision of this subsection, any Federal savings association that is in compliance with the capital standards in effect under subsection (t) may borrow funds from a State mortgage finance agency of the State in which the head office of such savings association is situated to the same extent as State law authorizes a savings association organized under the laws of such State to borrow from the State mortgage finance agency.

(B)
Interest rate

A Federal savings association may not make any loan of funds borrowed under subparagraph (A) at an interest rate which exceeds by more than 1¾ percent per annum the interest rate paid to the State mortgage finance agency on the obligations issued to obtain the funds so borrowed.

(4)
Mutual capital certificates
In accordance with regulations issued by the Comptroller of the Currency, mutual capital certificates may be issued and sold directly to subscribers or through underwriters. Such certificates may be included in calculating capital for the purpose of subsection (t) to the extent permitted by the Comptroller of the Currency. The issuance of certificates under this paragraph does not constitute a change of control or ownership under this chapter or any other law unless there is in fact a change in control or reorganization. Regulations relating to the issuance and sale of mutual capital certificates shall provide that such certificates—
(A) are subordinate to all savings accounts, savings certificates, and debt obligations;
(B) constitute a claim in liquidation on the general reserves, surplus, and undivided profits of the Federal savings association remaining after the payment in full of all savings accounts, savings certificates, and debt obligations;
(C) are entitled to the payment of dividends; and
(D) may have a fixed or variable dividend rate.
(c)
Loans and investments
To the extent specified in regulations of the Comptroller, a Federal savings association may invest in, sell, or otherwise deal in the following loans and other investments:
(1)
Loans or investments without percentage of assets limitation
Without limitation as a percentage of assets, the following are permitted:
(A)
Account loans

Loans on the security of its savings accounts and loans specifically related to transaction accounts.

(B)
Residential real property loans

Loans on the security of liens upon residential real property.

(C)
United States Government securities

Investments in obligations of, or fully guaranteed as to principal and interest by, the United States.

(D)
Federal home loan bank and Federal National Mortgage Association securities

Investments in the stock or bonds of a Federal home loan bank or in the stock of the Federal National Mortgage Association.

(E)
Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation instruments

Investments in mortgages, obligations, or other securities which are or have been sold by the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation pursuant to section 305 or 306 of the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation Act [12 U.S.C. 1454 or 1455].

(F)
Other Government securities

Investments in obligations, participations, securities, or other instruments issued by, or fully guaranteed as to principal and interest by, the Federal National Mortgage Association, the Student Loan Marketing Association, the Government National Mortgage Association, or any agency of the United States. A savings association may issue and sell securities which are guaranteed pursuant to section 306(g) of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1721(g)].

(G)
Deposits

Investments in accounts of any insured depository institution, as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1813].

(H)
State securities

Investments in obligations issued by any State or political subdivision thereof (including any agency, corporation, or instrumentality of a State or political subdivision). A Federal savings association may not invest more than 10 percent of its capital in obligations of any one issuer, exclusive of investments in general obligations of any issuer.

(I)
Purchase of insured loans

Purchase of loans secured by liens on improved real estate which are insured or guaranteed under the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.], the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944, or chapter 37 of title 38.

(J)
Home improvement and manufactured home loans

Loans made to repair, equip, alter, or improve any residential real property, and loans made for manufactured home financing.

(K)
Insured loans to finance the purchase of fee simple

Loans insured under section 240 of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1715z–5].

(L)
Loans to financial institutions, brokers, and dealers
Loans to—
(i) financial institutions with respect to which the United States or an agency or instrumentality thereof has any function of examination or supervision, or
(ii) any broker or dealer registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission,
which are secured by loans, obligations, or investments in which the Federal savings association has the statutory authority to invest directly.
(M)
Liquidity investments

Investments (other than equity investments), identified by the Comptroller, for liquidity purposes, including cash, funds on deposit at a Federal reserve bank or a Federal home loan bank, or bankers’ acceptances.

(N)
Investment in the national housing partnership corporation, partnerships, and joint ventures

Investments in shares of stock issued by a corporation authorized to be created pursuant to title IX of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 [42 U.S.C. 3931 et seq.], and investments in any partnership, limited partnership, or joint venture formed pursuant to section 907(a) or 907(c) of such Act [42 U.S.C. 3937(a) or (c)].

(O)
Certain HUD insured or guaranteed investments
Loans that are secured by mortgages—
(i) insured under title X of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1749aa et seq.],1
1 See References in Text note below.
or
(ii) guaranteed under title IV of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968, under part B of the National Urban Policy and New Community Development Act of 1970 [42 U.S.C. 4511 et seq.], or under section 802 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 [42 U.S.C. 1440].
(P)
State housing corporation investments
Obligations of and loans to any State housing corporation, if—
(i) such obligations or loans are secured directly, or indirectly through an agent or fiduciary, by a first lien on improved real estate which is insured under the provisions of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.], and
(ii) in the event of default, the holder of the obligations or loans has the right directly, or indirectly through an agent or fiduciary, to cause to be subject to the satisfaction of such obligations or loans the real estate described in the first lien or the insurance proceeds under the National Housing Act.
(Q)
Investment companies
A Federal savings association may invest in, redeem, or hold shares or certificates issued by any open-end management investment company which—
(i) is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission under the Investment Company Act of 1940 [15 U.S.C. 80a–1 et seq.], and
(ii) the portfolio of which is restricted by such management company’s investment policy (changeable only if authorized by shareholder vote) solely to investments that a Federal savings association by law or regulation may, without limitation as to percentage of assets, invest in, sell, redeem, hold, or otherwise deal in.
(R)
Mortgage-backed securities
Investments in securities that—
(i) are offered and sold pursuant to section 4(5) of the Securities Act of 1933; 1 or
(ii) are mortgage related securities (as defined in section 3(a)(41) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) [15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(41)],
subject to such regulations as the Comptroller may prescribe, including regulations prescribing minimum size of the issue (at the time of initial distribution) or minimum aggregate sales price, or both.
(S)
Small business related securities

Investments in small business related securities (as defined in section 78c(a)(53) of title 15), subject to such regulations as the Comptroller may prescribe, including regulations concerning the minimum size of the issue (at the time of the initial distribution), the minimum aggregate sales price, or both.

(T)
Credit card loans

Loans made through credit cards or credit card accounts.

(U)
Educational loans

Loans made for the payment of educational expenses.

(2)
Loans or investments limited to a percentage of assets or capital
The following loans or investments are permitted, but only to the extent specified:
(A)
Commercial and other loans

Secured or unsecured loans for commercial, corporate, business, or agricultural purposes. The aggregate amount of loans made under this subparagraph may not exceed 20 percent of the total assets of the Federal savings association, and amounts in excess of 10 percent of such total assets may be used under this subparagraph only for small business loans, as that term is defined by the Comptroller.

(B)
Nonresidential real property loans
(i)
In general

Loans on the security of liens upon nonresidential real property. Except as provided in clause (ii), the aggregate amount of such loans shall not exceed 400 percent of the Federal savings association’s capital, as determined under subsection (t).

(ii)
Exception
The Comptroller may permit a savings association to exceed the limitation set forth in clause (i) if the Comptroller determines that the increased authority—
(I) poses no significant risk to the safe and sound operation of the association, and(II) is consistent with prudent operating practices.
(iii)
Monitoring

If the Comptroller permits any increased authority pursuant to clause (ii), the Comptroller shall closely monitor the Federal savings association’s condition and lending activities to ensure that the savings association carries out all authority under this paragraph in a safe and sound manner and complies with this subparagraph and all relevant laws and regulations.

(C)
Investments in personal property

Investments in tangible personal property, including vehicles, manufactured homes, machinery, equipment, or furniture, for rental or sale. Investments under this subparagraph may not exceed 10 percent of the assets of the Federal savings association.

(D)
Consumer loans and certain securities

A Federal savings association may make loans for personal, family, or household purposes, including loans reasonably incident to providing such credit, and may invest in, sell, or hold commercial paper and corporate debt securities, as defined and approved by the Comptroller. Loans and other investments under this subparagraph may not exceed 35 percent of the assets of the Federal savings association, except that amounts in excess of 30 percent of the assets may be invested only in loans which are made by the association directly to the original obligor and with respect to which the association does not pay any finder, referral, or other fee, directly or indirectly, to any third party.

(3)
Loans or investments limited to 5 percent of assets
The following loans or investments are permitted, but not to exceed 5 percent of assets of a Federal savings association for each subparagraph:
(A)
Community development investments

Investments in real property and obligations secured by liens on real property located within a geographic area or neighborhood receiving concentrated development assistance by a local government under title I of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 [42 U.S.C. 5301 et seq.]. No investment under this subparagraph in such real property may exceed an aggregate of 2 percent of the assets of the Federal savings association.

(B)
Nonconforming loans

Loans upon the security of or respecting real property or interests therein used for primarily residential or farm purposes that do not comply with the limitations of this subsection.

(C)
Construction loans without security
Loans—
(i) the principal purpose of which is to provide financing with respect to what is or is expected to become primarily residential real estate; and
(ii)
with respect to which the association—
(I) relies substantially on the borrower’s general credit standing and projected future income for repayment, without other security; or(II) relies on other assurances for repayment, including a guarantee or similar obligation of a third party.
The aggregate amount of such investments shall not exceed the greater of the Federal savings association’s capital or 5 percent of its assets.
(4)
Other loans and investments
The following additional loans and other investments to the extent authorized below:
(A)
Business development credit corporations

A Federal savings association that is in compliance with the capital standards prescribed under subsection (t) may invest in, lend to, or to 2

2 So in original.
commit itself to lend to, any business development credit corporation incorporated in the State in which the home office of the association is located in the same manner and to the same extent as savings associations chartered by such State are authorized. The aggregate amount of such investments, loans, and commitments of any such Federal savings association shall not exceed one-half of 1 percent of the association’s total outstanding loans or $250,000, whichever is less.

(B)
Service corporations

Investments in the capital stock, obligations, or other securities of any corporation organized under the laws of the State in which the Federal savings association’s home office is located, if such corporation’s entire capital stock is available for purchase only by savings associations of such State and by Federal associations having their home offices in such State. No Federal savings association may make any investment under this subparagraph if the association’s aggregate outstanding investment under this subparagraph would exceed 3 percent of the association’s assets. Not less than one-half of the investment permitted under this subparagraph which exceeds 1 percent of the association’s assets shall be used primarily for community, inner-city, and community development purposes.

(C)
Foreign assistance investments

Investments in housing project loans having the benefit of any guaranty under section 221 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2181] or loans having the benefit of any guarantee under section 224 of such Act [22 U.S.C. 2184],1 or any commitment or agreement with respect to such loans made pursuant to either of such sections and in the share capital and capital reserve of the Inter-American Savings and Loan Bank. This authority extends to the acquisition, holding, and disposition of loans guaranteed under section 221 or 222 of such Act [22 U.S.C. 2181 or 2182]. Investments under this subparagraph shall not exceed 1 percent of the Federal savings association’s assets.

(D)
Small business investment companies

A Federal savings association may invest in stock, obligations, or other securities of any small business investment company formed pursuant to section 301(d) of the Small Business Investment Act of 1958 [15 U.S.C. 681(d)] 1 for the purpose of aiding members of a Federal home loan bank. A Federal savings association may not make any investment under this subparagraph if its aggregate outstanding investment under this subparagraph would exceed 1 percent of the assets of such savings association.

(E)
Bankers’ banks

A Federal savings association may purchase for its own account shares of stock of a bankers’ bank, described in Paragraph Seventh of section 24 of this title or in section 27(b) of this title, on the same terms and conditions as a national bank may purchase such shares.

(F)
New Markets Venture Capital companies

A Federal savings association may invest in stock, obligations, or other securities of any New Markets Venture Capital company as defined in section 689 of title 15, except that a Federal savings association may not make any investment under this subparagraph if its aggregate outstanding investment under this subparagraph would exceed 5 percent of the capital and surplus of such savings association.

(5)
Transition rule for savings associations acquiring banks
(A)
In general

If, under section 5(d)(3) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1815(d)(3)],1 a savings association acquires all or substantially all of the assets of a bank, the appropriate Federal banking agency may permit the savings association to retain any such asset during the 2-year period beginning on the date of the acquisition.

(B)
Extension

The appropriate Federal banking agency may extend the 2-year period described in subparagraph (A) for not more than 1 year at a time and not more than 2 years in the aggregate, if the appropriate Federal banking agency determines that the extension is consistent with the purposes of this chapter.

(6)
Definitions
For purposes of this subsection, the following definitions shall apply:
(A)
Residential property

The terms “residential real property” or “residential real estate” mean leaseholds, homes (including condominiums and cooperatives, except that in connection with loans on individual cooperative units, such loans shall be adequately secured as defined by the Comptroller) and, combinations of homes or dwelling units and business property, involving only minor or incidental business use, or property to be improved by construction of such structures.

(B)
Loans

The term “loans” includes obligations and extensions or advances of credit; and any reference to a loan or investment includes an interest in such a loan or investment.

(d)
Regulatory authority
(1)
In general
(A)
Enforcement

The appropriate Federal banking agency shall have power to enforce this section, section 8 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1818], and regulations prescribed hereunder. In enforcing any provision of this section, regulations prescribed under this section, or any other law or regulation, or in any other action, suit, or proceeding to which the appropriate Federal banking agency is a party or in which the appropriate Federal banking agency is interested, and in the administration of conservatorships and receiverships, the appropriate Federal banking agency may act in the name of the appropriate Federal banking agency and through the attorneys of the appropriate Federal banking agency. Except as otherwise provided, the Comptroller shall be subject to suit (other than suits on claims for money damages) by any Federal savings association or director or officer thereof with respect to any matter under this section or any other applicable law, or regulation thereunder, in the United States district court for the judicial district in which the savings association’s home office is located, or in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, and the Comptroller may be served with process in the manner prescribed by the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

(B)
Ancillary provisions
(i) In making examinations of savings associations, examiners appointed by the appropriate Federal banking agency shall have power to make such examinations of the affairs of all affiliates of such savings associations as shall be necessary to disclose fully the relations between such savings associations and their affiliates and the effect of such relations upon such savings associations. For purposes of this subsection, the term “affiliate” has the same meaning as in section 2(b) of the Banking Act of 1933 [12 U.S.C. 221a(b)], except that the term “member bank” in section 2(b) shall be deemed to refer to a savings association.
(ii) In the course of any examination of any savings association, upon request by the appropriate Federal banking agency, prompt and complete access shall be given to all savings association officers, directors, employees, and agents, and to all relevant books, records, or documents of any type.
(iii) Upon request made in the course of supervision or oversight of any savings association, for the purpose of acting on any application or determining the condition of any savings association, including whether operations are being conducted safely, soundly, or in compliance with charters, laws, regulations, directives, written agreements, or conditions imposed in writing in connection with the granting of an application or other request, the appropriate Federal banking agency shall be given prompt and complete access to all savings association officers, directors, employees, and agents, and to all relevant books, records, or documents of any type.
(iv) If prompt and complete access upon request is not given as required in this subsection, the appropriate Federal banking agency may apply to the United States district court for the judicial district (or the United States court in any territory) in which the principal office of the institution is located, or in which the person denying such access resides or carries on business, for an order requiring that such information be promptly provided.
(v)
In connection with examinations of savings associations and affiliates thereof, the appropriate Federal banking agency may—
(I) administer oaths and affirmations and examine and to 2 take and preserve testimony under oath as to any matter in respect of the affairs or ownership of any such savings association or affiliate, and(II) issue subpoenas and, for the enforcement thereof, apply to the United States district court for the judicial district (or the United States court in any territory) in which the principal office of the savings association or affiliate is located, or in which the witness resides or carries on business.
Such courts shall have jurisdiction and power to order and require compliance with any such subpoena.
(vi) In any proceeding under this section, the appropriate Federal banking agency may administer oaths and affirmations, take depositions, and issue subpenas. The Comptroller may prescribe regulations with respect to any such proceedings. The attendance of witnesses and the production of documents provided for in this subsection may be required from any place in any State or in any territory at any designated place where such proceeding is being conducted.
(vii) Any party to a proceeding under this section may apply to the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, or the United States district court for the judicial district (or the United States court in any territory) in which such proceeding is being conducted, or where the witness resides or carries on business, for enforcement of any subpoena issued pursuant to this subsection or section 10(c) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1820(c)], and such courts shall have jurisdiction and power to order and require compliance therewith. Witnesses subpoenaed under this section shall be paid the same fees and mileage that are paid witnesses in the district courts of the United States. All expenses of the appropriate Federal banking agency in connection with this section shall be considered as nonadministrative expenses. Any court having jurisdiction of any proceeding instituted under this section by a savings association, or a director or officer thereof, may allow to any such party reasonable expenses and attorneys’ fees. Such expenses and fees shall be paid by the savings association.
(2)
Conservatorships and receiverships
(A)
Grounds for appointing conservator or receiver for insured savings association

The appropriate Federal banking agency may appoint a conservator or receiver for an insured savings association if the appropriate Federal banking agency determines, in the discretion of the appropriate Federal banking agency, that 1 or more of the grounds specified in section 11(c)(5) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1821(c)(5)] exists.

(B)
Power of appointment; judicial review

The appropriate Federal banking agency shall have exclusive power and jurisdiction to appoint a conservator or receiver for a Federal savings association. If, in the opinion of the appropriate Federal banking agency, a ground for the appointment of a conservator or receiver for a savings association exists, the appropriate Federal banking agency is authorized to appoint ex parte and without notice a conservator or receiver for the savings association. In the event of such appointment, the association may, within 30 days thereafter, bring an action in the United States district court for the judicial district in which the home office of such association is located, or in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, for an order requiring the appropriate Federal banking agency to remove such conservator or receiver, and the court shall upon the merits dismiss such action or direct the appropriate Federal banking agency to remove such conservator or receiver. Upon the commencement of such an action, the court having jurisdiction of any other action or proceeding authorized under this subsection to which the association is a party shall stay such action or proceeding during the pendency of the action for removal of the conservator or receiver.

(C)
Replacement

The appropriate Federal banking agency may, without any prior notice, hearing, or other action, replace a conservator with another conservator or with a receiver, but such replacement shall not affect any right which the association may have to obtain judicial review of the original appointment, except that any removal under this subparagraph shall be removal of the conservator or receiver in office at the time of such removal.

(D)
Court action

Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, no court may take any action for or toward the removal of any conservator or receiver or, except at the request of the appropriate Federal banking agency, to restrain or affect the exercise of powers or functions of a conservator or receiver.

(E)
Powers
(i)
In general

A conservator shall have all the powers of the members, the stockholders, the directors, and the officers of the association and shall be authorized to operate the association in its own name or to conserve its assets in the manner and to the extent authorized by the appropriate Federal banking agency.

(ii)
FDIC as conservator or receiver

Except as provided in section 21A 1 of the Federal Home Loan Bank Act [12 U.S.C. 1441a], the appropriate Federal banking agency, at the Director’s 3

3 So in original. Probably should be “appropriate Federal banking agency’s”.
discretion, may appoint the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as conservator for a savings association. The appropriate Federal banking agency shall appoint only the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as receiver for a savings association for the purpose of liquidation or winding up the affairs of such savings association. The conservator or receiver so appointed shall, as such, have power to buy at its own sale. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, as such conservator or receiver, shall have all the powers of a conservator or receiver, as appropriate, granted under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1811

(F)
Disclosure requirement for those acting on behalf of conservator

A conservator shall require that any independent contractor, consultant, or counsel employed by the conservator in connection with the conservatorship of a savings association pursuant to this section shall fully disclose to all parties with which such contractor, consultant, or counsel is negotiating, any limitation on the authority of such contractor, consultant, or counsel to make legally binding representations on behalf of the conservator.

(3)
Regulations
(A)
In general

The Comptroller may prescribe regulations for the reorganization, consolidation, liquidation, and dissolution of savings associations, for the merger of insured savings associations with insured savings associations, for savings associations in conservatorship and receivership, and for the conduct of conservatorships and receiverships. The Comptroller may, by regulation or otherwise, provide for the exercise of functions by members, stockholders, directors, or officers of a savings association during conservatorship and receivership.

(B)
FDIC as conservator or receiver

In any case where the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation is the conservator or receiver, any regulations prescribed by the Comptroller shall be consistent with any regulations prescribed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation pursuant to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1811 et seq.].

(4)
Refusal to comply with demand

Whenever a conservator or receiver appointed by the appropriate Federal banking agency demands possession of the property, business, and assets of any savings association, or of any part thereof, the refusal by any director, officer, employee, or agent of such association to comply with the demand shall be punishable by a fine of not more than $5,000 or imprisonment for not more than one year, or both.

(5)
“Savings association” defined

As used in this subsection, the term “savings association” includes any savings association or former savings association that retains deposits insured by the Corporation, notwithstanding termination of its status as an institution insured by the Corporation.

(6)
Compliance with monetary transaction recordkeeping and report requirements
(A)
Compliance procedures required

The Comptroller shall prescribe regulations requiring savings associations to establish and maintain procedures reasonably designed to assure and monitor the compliance of such associations with the requirements of subchapter II of chapter 53 of title 31.

(B)
Examinations of savings associations to include review of compliance procedures
(i)
In general

Each examination of a savings association by the appropriate Federal banking agency shall include a review of the procedures required to be established and maintained under subparagraph (A).

(ii)
Exam report requirement

The report of examination shall describe any problem with the procedures maintained by the association.

(C)
Order to comply with requirements
If the appropriate Federal banking agency determines that a savings association—
(i) has failed to establish and maintain the procedures described in subparagraph (A); or
(ii) has failed to correct any problem with the procedures maintained by such association which was previously reported to the association by the appropriate Federal banking agency,
the appropriate Federal banking agency shall issue an order under section 8 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1818] requiring such association to cease and desist from its violation of this paragraph or regulations prescribed under this paragraph.
(7)
Regulation and examination of savings association service companies, subsidiaries, and service providers
(A)
General examination and regulatory authority

A service company or subsidiary that is owned in whole or in part by a savings association shall be subject to examination and regulation by the appropriate Federal banking agency to the same extent as that savings association.

(B)
Examination by other banking agencies

The appropriate Federal banking agency may authorize any other Federal banking agency that supervises any other owner of part of the service company or subsidiary to perform an examination described in subparagraph (A).

(C)
Applicability of section 8 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act

A service company or subsidiary that is owned in whole or in part by a saving association shall be subject to the provisions of section 8 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1818] as if the service company or subsidiary were an insured depository institution. In any such case, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or the Comptroller, as appropriate, shall be deemed to be the appropriate Federal banking agency, pursuant to section 3(q) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1813(q)].

(D)
Service performed by contract or otherwise
Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), if a savings association, a subsidiary thereof, or any savings and loan affiliate or entity, as identified by section 8(b)(9) 1 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1818(b)(9)], that is regularly examined or subject to examination by the appropriate Federal banking agency, causes to be performed for itself, by contract or otherwise, any service authorized under this chapter or, in the case of a State savings association, any applicable State law, whether on or off its premises—
(i) such performance shall be subject to regulation and examination by the appropriate Federal banking agency to the same extent as if such services were being performed by the savings association on its own premises; and
(ii)
the savings association shall notify the appropriate Federal banking agency of the existence of the service relationship not later than 30 days after the earlier of—
(I) the date on which the contract is entered into; or(II) the date on which the performance of the service is initiated.
(E)
Administration by the Comptroller and the Corporation

The Comptroller may issue such regulations, and the appropriate Federal banking agency may issue such orders, including those issued pursuant to section 8 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1818], as may be necessary to administer and carry out this paragraph and to prevent evasion of this paragraph.

(8)
Definitions
For purposes of this section—
(A)
the term “service company” means—
(i)
any corporation—
(I) that is organized to perform services authorized by this chapter or, in the case of a corporation owned in part by a State savings association, authorized by applicable State law; and(II) all of the capital stock of which is owned by 1 or more insured savings associations; and
(ii)
any limited liability company—
(I) that is organized to perform services authorized by this chapter or, in the case of a company, 1 of the members of which is a State savings association, authorized by applicable State law; and(II) all of the members of which are 1 or more insured savings associations;
(B) the term “limited liability company” means any company, partnership, trust, or similar business entity organized under the law of a State (as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1813]) that provides that a member or manager of such company is not personally liable for a debt, obligation, or liability of the company solely by reason of being, or acting as, a member or manager of such company; and
(C) the terms “State savings association” and “subsidiary” have the same meanings as in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act.
(e)
Character and responsibility
A charter may be granted only—
(1) to persons of good character and responsibility,
(2) if in the judgment of the Comptroller a necessity exists for such an institution in the community to be served,
(3) if there is a reasonable probability of its usefulness and success, and
(4) if the association can be established without undue injury to properly conducted existing local thrift and home financing institutions.
(f)
Federal home loan bank membership

After the end of the 6-month period beginning on November 12, 1999, a Federal savings association may become a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank System, and shall qualify for such membership in the manner provided by the Federal Home Loan Bank Act [12 U.S.C. 1421 et seq.].

(g)
Preferred shares
(h)
Discriminatory State and local taxation pro­hibited

No State, county, municipal, or local taxing authority may impose any tax on Federal savings associations or their franchise, capital, reserves, surplus, loans, or income greater than that imposed by such authority on other similar local mutual or cooperative thrift and home financing institutions.

(i)
Conversions
(1)
In general

Any savings association which is, or is eligible to become, a member of a Federal home loan bank may convert into a Federal savings association (and in so doing may change directly from the mutual form to the stock form, or from the stock form to the mutual form). Such conversion shall be subject to such regulations as the Comptroller shall prescribe. Thereafter such Federal savings association shall be entitled to all the benefits of this section and shall be subject to examination and regulation to the same extent as other associations incorporated pursuant to this chapter.

(2)
Authority of Comptroller
(A) No savings association may convert from the mutual to the stock form, or from the stock form to the mutual form, except in accordance with the regulations of the Comptroller.
(B) Any aggrieved person may obtain review of a final action of the Comptroller which approves or disapproves a plan of conversion pursuant to this subsection only by complying with the provisions of section 1467a(j) of this title within the time limit and in the manner therein prescribed, which provisions shall apply in all respects as if such final action were an order the review of which is therein provided for, except that such time limit shall commence upon publication of notice of such final action in the Federal Register or upon the giving of such general notice of such final action as is required by or approved under regulations of the Comptroller, whichever is later.
(C) Any Federal savings association may change its designation from a Federal savings association to a Federal savings bank, or the reverse.
(3)
Conversion to State association
(A)
Any Federal savings association may convert itself into a savings association or savings bank organized pursuant to the laws of the State in which the principal office of such Federal savings association is located if—
(i) the State permits the conversion of any savings association or savings bank of such State into a Federal savings association;
(ii)
such conversion of a Federal savings association into such a State savings association is determined—
(I) upon the vote in favor of such conversion cast in person or by proxy at a special meeting of members or stockholders called to consider such action, specified by the law of the State in which the home office of the Federal savings association is located, as required by such law for a State-chartered institution to convert itself into a Federal savings association, but in no event upon a vote of less than 51 percent of all the votes cast at such meeting, and(II) upon compliance with other requirements reciprocally equivalent to the requirements of such State law for the conversion of a State-chartered institution into a Federal savings association;
(iii) notice of the meeting to vote on conversion shall be given as herein provided and no other notice thereof shall be necessary; the notice shall expressly state that such meeting is called to vote thereon, as well as the time and place thereof; and such notice shall be mailed, postage prepaid, at least 30 and not more than 60 days prior to the date of the meeting, to the Comptroller and to each member or stockholder of record of the Federal savings association at the member’s or stockholder’s last address as shown on the books of the Federal savings association;
(iv) when a mutual savings association is dissolved after conversion, the members or shareholders of the savings association will share on a mutual basis in the assets of the association in exact proportion to their relative share or account credits;
(v) when a stock savings association is dissolved after conversion, the stockholders will share on an equitable basis in the assets of the association; and
(vi) such conversion shall be effective upon the date that all the provisions of this chapter shall have been fully complied with and upon the issuance of a new charter by the State wherein the savings association is located.
(B)
(i) The act of conversion constitutes consent by the institution to be bound by all the requirements that the Comptroller may impose under this chapter.
(ii) The savings association shall upon conversion and thereafter be authorized to issue securities in any form currently approved at the time of issue by the Comptroller for issuance by similar savings associations in such State.
(iii) If the insurance of accounts is terminated in connection with such conversion, the notice and other action shall be taken as provided by law and regulations for the termination of insurance of accounts.
(4)
Savings bank activities
(A)
To the extent authorized by the Comptroller, but subject to section 18(m)(3) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1828(m)(3)]—
(i) any Federal savings bank chartered as such prior to October 15, 1982, may continue to make any investment or engage in any activity not otherwise authorized under this section, to the degree it was permitted to do so as a Federal savings bank prior to October 15, 1982; and
(ii) any Federal savings bank in existence on August 9, 1989, and formerly organized as a mutual savings bank under State law may continue to make any investment or engage in any activity not otherwise authorized under this section, to the degree it was authorized to do so as a mutual savings bank under State law.
(B) The authority conferred by this paragraph may be utilized by any Federal savings association that acquires, by merger or consolidation, a Federal savings bank enjoying grandfather rights hereunder.
(5)
Conversion to national or State bank
(A)
In general

Any Federal savings association chartered and in operation before November 12, 1999, with branches in operation before November 12, 1999, in 1 or more States, may convert, at its option, with the approval of the Comptroller for each national bank, and with the approval of the appropriate State bank supervisor and the appropriate Federal banking agency for each State bank, into 1 or more national or State banks, each of which may encompass 1 or more of the branches of the Federal savings association in operation before November 12, 1999, in 1 or more States subject to subparagraph (B).

(B)
Conditions of conversion
The authority in subparagraph (A) shall apply only if each resulting national or State bank—
(i) will meet all financial, management, and capital requirements applicable to the resulting national or State bank; and
(ii) if more than 1 national or State bank results from a conversion under this subparagraph, has received approval from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation under section 5(a) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1815(a)].
(C)
No merger application under FDIA required

No application under section 18(c) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1828(c)] shall be required for a conversion under this paragraph.

(D)
Definitions

For purposes of this paragraph, the terms “State bank” and “State bank supervisor” have the same meanings as in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1813].

(6)
Limitation on certain conversions by Federal savings associations

A Federal savings association may not convert to a State bank or State savings association during any period in which the Federal savings association is subject to a cease and desist order (or other formal enforcement order) issued by, or a memorandum of understanding entered into with, the Office of Thrift Supervision or the Comptroller of the Currency with respect to a significant supervisory matter.

(j)
Subscription for shares
(k)
Depository of public money

When designated for that purpose by the Secretary of the Treasury, a savings association the deposits of which are insured by the Corporation shall be a depository of public money and may be employed as fiscal agent of the Government under such regulations as may be prescribed by the Secretary and shall perform all such reasonable duties as fiscal agent of the Government as may be required of it. A savings association the deposits of which are insured by the Corporation may act as agent for any other instrumentality of the United States when designated for that purpose by such instrumentality, including services in connection with the collection of taxes and other obligations owed the United States, and the Secretary of the Treasury may deposit public money in any such savings association, and shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection.

(l)
Retirement accounts

A Federal savings association is authorized to act as trustee of any trust created or organized in the United States and forming part of a stock bonus, pension, or profit-sharing plan which qualifies or qualified for specific tax treatment under section 401(d) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 U.S.C. 401(d)] and to act as trustee or custodian of an individual retirement account within the meaning of section 408 of such Code [26 U.S.C. 408] if the funds of such trust or account are invested only in savings accounts or deposits in such Federal savings association or in obligations or securities issued by such Federal savings association. All funds held in such fiduciary capacity by any Federal savings association may be commingled for appropriate purposes of investment, but individual records shall be kept by the fiduciary for each participant and shall show in proper detail all transactions engaged in under this paragraph.

(m)
Branching
(1)
In general
(A) No savings association incorporated under the laws of the District of Columbia or organized in the District or doing business in the District shall establish any branch or move its principal office or any branch without the Director’s 4
4 So in original. Probably should be “Comptroller’s”.
prior written approval.
(B) No savings association shall establish any branch in the District of Columbia or move its principal office or any branch in the District without the Director’s 4 prior written approval.
(2)
“Branch” defined

For purposes of this subsection the term “branch” means any office, place of business, or facility, other than the principal office as defined by the Comptroller, of a savings association at which accounts are opened or payments are received or withdrawals are made, or any other office, place of business, or facility of a savings association defined by the Comptroller as a branch within the meaning of such sentence.

(n)
Trusts
(1)
Permits

The Comptroller may grant by special permit to a Federal savings association applying therefor the right to act as trustee, executor, administrator, guardian, or in any other fiduciary capacity in which State banks, trust companies, or other corporations which compete with Federal savings associations are permitted to act under the laws of the State in which the Federal savings association is located. Subject to the regulations of the Comptroller, service corporations may invest in State or federally chartered corporations which are located in the State in which the home office of the Federal savings association is located and which are engaged in trust activities.

(2)
Segregation of assets

A Federal savings association exercising any or all of the powers enumerated in this section shall segregate all assets held in any fiduciary capacity from the general assets of the association and shall keep a separate set of books and records showing in proper detail all transactions engaged in under this subsection. The State banking authority involved may have access to reports of examination made by the Comptroller insofar as such reports relate to the trust department of such association but nothing in this subsection shall be construed as authorizing such State banking authority to examine the books, records, and assets of such associations.

(3)
Prohibitions

No Federal savings association shall receive in its trust department deposits of current funds subject to check or the deposit of checks, drafts, bills of exchange, or other items for collection or exchange purposes. Funds deposited or held in trust by the association awaiting investment shall be carried in a separate account and shall not be used by the association in the conduct of its business unless it shall first set aside in the trust department United States bonds or other securities approved by the Comptroller.

(4)
Separate lien

In the event of the failure of a Federal savings association, the owners of the funds held in trust for investment shall have a lien on the bonds or other securities so set apart in addition to their claim against the estate of the association.

(5)
Deposits

Whenever the laws of a State require corporations acting in a fiduciary capacity to deposit securities with the State authorities for the protection of private or court trusts, Federal savings associations so acting shall be required to make similar deposits. Securities so deposited shall be held for the protection of private or court trusts, as provided by the State law. Federal savings associations in such cases shall not be required to execute the bond usually required of individuals if State corporations under similar circumstances are exempt from this requirement. Federal savings associations shall have power to execute such bond when so required by the laws of the State involved.

(6)
Oaths and affidavits

In any case in which the laws of a State require that a corporation acting as trustee, executor, administrator, or in any capacity specified in this section, shall take an oath or make an affidavit, the president, vice president, cashier, or trust officer of such association may take the necessary oath or execute the necessary affidavit.

(7)
Certain loans prohibited

It shall be unlawful for any Federal savings association to lend any officer, director, or employee any funds held in trust under the powers conferred by this section. Any officer, director, or employee making such loan, or to whom such loan is made, may be fined not more than $50,000 or twice the amount of that person’s gain from the loan, whichever is greater, or may be imprisoned not more than 5 years, or may be both fined and imprisoned, in the discretion of the court.

(8)
Factors to be considered
In reviewing applications for permission to exercise the powers enumerated in this section, the Comptroller may consider—
(A) the amount of capital of the applying Federal savings association,
(B) whether or not such capital is sufficient under the circumstances of the case,
(C) the needs of the community to be served, and
(D) any other facts and circumstances that seem to it proper.
The Comptroller may grant or refuse the application accordingly, except that no permit shall be issued to any association having capital less than the capital required by State law of State banks, trust companies, and corporations exercising such powers.
(9)
Surrender of charter
(A) Any Federal savings association may surrender its right to exercise the powers granted under this subsection, and have returned to it any securities which it may have deposited with the State authorities, by filing with the Comptroller a certified copy of a resolution of its board of directors indicating its intention to surrender its right.
(B) Upon receipt of such resolution, the Comptroller, if satisfied that such Federal savings association has been relieved in accordance with State law of all duties as trustee, executor, administrator, guardian or other fiduciary, may in the Director’s 4 discretion, issue to such association a certificate that such association is no longer authorized to exercise the powers granted by this subsection.
(C) Upon the issuance of such a certificate by the Comptroller, such Federal savings association (i) shall no longer be subject to the provisions of this section or the regulations of the Comptroller made pursuant thereto, (ii) shall be entitled to have returned to it any securities which it may have deposited with State authorities, and (iii) shall not exercise thereafter any of the powers granted by this section without first applying for and obtaining a new permit to exercise such powers pursuant to the provisions of this section.
(D) The Comptroller may prescribe regulations necessary to enforce compliance with the provisions of this subsection.
(10)
Revocation
(A) In addition to the authority conferred by other law, if, in the opinion of the Comptroller, a Federal savings association is unlawfully or unsoundly exercising, or has unlawfully or unsoundly exercised, or has failed for a period of 5 consecutive years to exercise, the powers granted by this subsection or otherwise fails or has failed to comply with the requirements of this subsection, the Comptroller may issue and serve upon the association a notice of intent to revoke the authority of the association to exercise the powers granted by this subsection. The notice shall contain a statement of the facts constituting the alleged unlawful or unsound exercise of powers, or failure to exercise powers, or failure to comply, and shall fix a time and place at which a hearing will be held to determine whether an order revoking authority to exercise such powers should issue against the association.
(B) Such hearing shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of subsection (d)(1)(B), and subject to judicial review as therein provided, and shall be fixed for a date not earlier than 30 days and not later than 60 days after service of such notice unless the Comptroller sets an earlier or later date at the request of any Federal savings association so served.
(C) Unless the Federal savings association so served shall appear at the hearing by a duly authorized representative, it shall be deemed to have consented to the issuance of the revocation order. In the event of such consent, or if upon the record made at any such hearing, the Comptroller shall find that any allegation specified in the notice of charges has been established, the Comptroller may issue and serve upon the association an order prohibiting it from accepting any new or additional trust accounts and revoking authority to exercise any and all powers granted by this subsection, except that such order shall permit the association to continue to service all previously accepted trust accounts pending their expeditious divestiture or termination.
(D) A revocation order shall become effective not earlier than the expiration of 30 days after service of such order upon the association so served (except in the case of a revocation order issued upon consent, which shall become effective at the time specified therein), and shall remain effective and enforceable, except to such extent as it is stayed, modified, terminated, or set aside by action of the Comptroller or a reviewing court.
(o)
Conversion of State savings banks
(1) Subject to the provisions of this subsection and under regulations of the Comptroller, the Comptroller may authorize the conversion of a State-chartered savings bank into a Federal savings bank, if such conversion is not in contravention of State law, and provide for the organization, incorporation, operation, examination, and regulation of such institution.
(2)
(A) Any Federal savings bank chartered pursuant to this subsection shall continue to be insured by the Deposit Insurance Fund.
(B) The Comptroller shall notify the Corporation of any application under this chapter for conversion to a Federal charter by an institution insured by the Corporation, shall consult with the Corporation before disposing of the application, and shall notify the Corporation of the determination of the Comptroller with respect to such application.
(C) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, if the Corporation determines that conversion into a Federal stock savings bank or the chartering of a Federal stock savings bank is necessary to prevent the default of a savings bank it insures or to reopen a savings bank in default that it insured, or if the Corporation determines, with the concurrence of the Comptroller, that severe financial conditions exist that threaten the stability of a savings bank insured by the Corporation and that such a conversion or charter is likely to improve the financial condition of such savings bank, the Corporation shall provide the Comptroller with a certificate of such determination, the reasons therefor in conformance with the requirements of this chapter, and the bank shall be converted or chartered by the Comptroller, pursuant to the regulations thereof, from the time the Corporation issues the certificate.
(D)
A bank may be converted under subparagraph (C) only if the board of trustees of the bank—
(i) has specified in writing that the bank is in danger of closing or is closed, or that severe financial conditions exist that threaten the stability of the bank and a conversion is likely to improve the financial condition of the bank; and
(ii) has requested in writing that the Corporation use the authority of subparagraph (C).
(E)
(i) Before making a determination under subparagraph (D), the Corporation shall consult the State bank supervisor of the State in which the bank in danger of closing is chartered. The State bank supervisor shall be given a reasonable opportunity, and in no event less than 48 hours, to object to the use of the provisions of subparagraph (D).
(ii) If the State supervisor objects during such period, the Corporation may use the authority of subparagraph (D) only by an affirmative vote of three-fourths of the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors shall provide the State supervisor, as soon as practicable, with a written certification of its determination.
(3) A Federal savings bank chartered under this subsection shall have the same authority with respect to investments, operations, and activities, and shall be subject to the same restrictions, including those applicable to branching and discrimination, as would apply to it if it were chartered as a Federal savings bank under any other provision of this chapter.
(p)
Conversions
(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, and consistent with the purposes of this chapter, the Comptroller may authorize (or in the case of a Federal savings association, require) the conversion of any mutual savings association or Federal mutual savings bank that is insured by the Corporation into a Federal stock savings association or Federal stock savings bank, or charter a Federal stock savings association or Federal stock savings bank to acquire the assets of, or merge with such a mutual institution under the regulations of the Comptroller.
(2)
Authorizations under this subsection may be made only—
(A) if the Comptroller has determined that severe financial conditions exist which threaten the stability of an association and that such authorization is likely to improve the financial condition of the association,
(B) when the Corporation has contracted to provide assistance to such association under section 13 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1823], or
(C) to assist an institution in receivership.
(3) A Federal savings bank chartered under this subsection shall have the same authority with respect to investments, operations and activities, and shall be subject to the same restrictions, including those applicable to branching and discrimination, as would apply to it if it were chartered as a Federal savings bank under any other provision of this chapter, and may engage in any investment, activity, or operation that the institution it acquired was engaged in if that institution was a Federal savings bank, or would have been authorized to engage in had that institution converted to a Federal charter.
(q)
Tying arrangements
(1)
A savings association may not in any manner extend credit, lease, or sell property of any kind, or furnish any service, or fix or vary the consideration for any of the foregoing, on the condition or requirement—
(A) that the customer shall obtain additional credit, property, or service from such savings association, or from any service corporation or affiliate of such association, other than a loan, discount, deposit, or trust service;
(B) that the customer provide additional credit, property, or service to such association, or to any service corporation or affiliate of such association, other than those related to and usually provided in connection with a similar loan, discount, deposit, or trust service; and
(C) that the customer shall not obtain some other credit, property, or service from a competitor of such association, or from a competitor of any service corporation or affiliate of such association, other than a condition or requirement that such association shall reasonably impose in connection with credit transactions to assure the soundness of credit.
(2)
(A) Any person may sue for and have injunctive relief, in any court of the United States having jurisdiction over the parties, against threatened loss or damage by reason of a violation of paragraph (1), under the same conditions and principles as injunctive relief against threatened conduct that will cause loss or damage is granted by courts of equity and under the rules governing such proceedings.
(B) Upon the execution of proper bond against damages for an injunction improvidently granted and a showing that the danger of irreparable loss or damage is immediate, a preliminary injunction may issue.
(3) Any person injured by a violation of paragraph (1) may bring an action in any district court of the United States in which the defendant resides or is found or has an agent, without regard to the amount in controversy, or in any other court of competent jurisdiction, and shall be entitled to recover three times the amount of the damages sustained, and the cost of suit, including a reasonable attorney’s fee. Any such action shall be brought within 4 years from the date of the occurrence of the violation.
(4)
(5) For purposes of this subsection, the term “loan” includes obligations and extensions or advances of credit.
(6)
Exceptions.—
The Board may, by regulation or order, permit such exceptions to the prohibitions of this subsection as the Board in 5
5 So in original. Probably should be preceded by a comma.
consultation with the Comptroller and the Corporation, considers will not be contrary to the purposes of this subsection and which conform to exceptions granted by the Board pursuant to section 1972 of this title.
(r)
Out-of-State branches
(1) No Federal savings association may establish, retain, or operate a branch outside the State in which the Federal savings association has its home office, unless the association qualifies as a domestic building and loan association under section 7701(a)(19) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 U.S.C. 7701(a)(19)] or meets the asset composition test imposed by subparagraph (C) of that section on institutions seeking so to qualify, or qualifies as a qualified thrift lender, as determined under section 1467a(m) of this title. No out-of-State branch so established shall be retained or operated unless the total assets of the Federal savings association attributable to all branches of the Federal savings association in that State would qualify the branches as a whole, were they otherwise eligible, for treatment as a domestic building and loan association under section 7701(a)(19) or as a qualified thrift lender, as determined under section 1467a(m) of this title, as applicable.
(2)
The limitations of paragraph (1) shall not apply if—
(A) the branch results from a transaction authorized under section 13(k) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1823(k)];
(B) the branch was authorized for the Federal savings association prior to October 15, 1982;
(C) the law of the State where the branch is located, or is to be located, would permit establishment of the branch if the association was a savings association or savings bank chartered by the State in which its home office is located; or
(D) the branch was operated lawfully as a branch under State law prior to the association’s conversion to a Federal charter.
(3) The Comptroller of the Currency, for good cause shown, may allow Federal savings associations up to 2 years to comply with the requirements of this subsection.
(s)
Minimum capital requirements
(1)
In general
Consistent with the purposes of section 908 of the International Lending Supervision Act of 1983 [12 U.S.C. 3907] and the capital requirements established pursuant to such section by the appropriate Federal banking agencies (as defined in section 903(1) of such Act [12 U.S.C. 3902(1)]), the Comptroller of the Currency shall require all savings associations to achieve and maintain adequate capital by—
(A) establishing minimum levels of capital for savings associations; and
(B) using such other methods as the Comptroller of the Currency determines to be appropriate.
(2)
Minimum capital levels may be determined by Comptroller of the Currency case-by-case

The Comptroller of the Currency may, consistent with subsection (t), establish the minimum level of capital for a savings association at such amount or at such ratio of capital-to-assets as the Comptroller of the Currency determines to be necessary or appropriate for such association in light of the particular circumstances of the association.

(3)
Unsafe or unsound practice

In the discretion of the appropriate Federal banking agency, the appropriate Federal banking agency,6

6 So in original. The comma probably should not appear.
may treat the failure of any savings association to maintain capital at or above the minimum level required by the Comptroller under this subsection or subsection (t) as an unsafe or unsound practice.

(4)
Directive to increase capital
(A)
Plan may be required

In addition to any other action authorized by law, including paragraph (3), the appropriate Federal banking agency may issue a directive requiring any savings association which fails to maintain capital at or above the minimum level required by the appropriate Federal banking agency to submit and adhere to a plan for increasing capital which is acceptable to the appropriate Federal banking agency.

(B)
Enforcement of plan

Any directive issued and plan approved under subparagraph (A) shall be enforceable under section 8 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1818] to the same extent and in the same manner as an outstanding order which was issued under section 8 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act and has become final.

(5)
Plan taken into account in other proceedings
The appropriate Federal banking agency may—
(A) consider a savings association’s progress in adhering to any plan required under paragraph (4) whenever such association or any affiliate of such association (including any company which controls such association) seeks the approval of the appropriate Federal banking agency for any proposal which would have the effect of diverting earnings, diminishing capital, or otherwise impeding such association’s progress in meeting the minimum level of capital required by the appropriate Federal banking agency; and
(B) disapprove any proposal referred to in subparagraph (A) if the appropriate Federal banking agency determines that the proposal would adversely affect the ability of the association to comply with such plan.
(t)
Capital standards
(1)
In general
(A)
Requirement for standards to be prescribed
The appropriate Federal banking agency shall, by regulation, prescribe and maintain uniformly applicable capital standards for savings associations. Those standards shall include—
(i) a leverage limit;
(ii) a tangible capital requirement; and
(iii) a risk-based capital requirement.
(B)
Compliance

A savings association is not in compliance with capital standards for purposes of this subsection unless it complies with all capital standards prescribed under this paragraph.

(C)
Stringency

The standards prescribed under this paragraph shall be no less stringent than the capital standards applicable to national banks.

(2)
Content of standards
(A)
Leverage limit

The leverage limit prescribed under paragraph (1) shall require a savings association to maintain core capital in an amount not less than 3 percent of the savings association’s total assets.

(B)
Tangible capital requirement

The tangible capital requirement prescribed under paragraph (1) shall require a savings association to maintain tangible capital in an amount not less than 1.5 percent of the savings association’s total assets.

(C)
Risk-based capital requirement

Notwithstanding paragraph (1)(C), the risk-based capital requirement prescribed under paragraph (1) may deviate from the risk-based capital standards applicable to national banks to reflect interest-rate risk or other risks, but such deviations shall not, in the aggregate, result in materially lower levels of capital being required of savings associations under the risk-based capital requirement than would be required under the risk-based capital standards applicable to national banks.

(3)
[Repealed].
(4)
[Repealed].
(5)
Separate capitalization required for certain subsidiaries
(A)
In general

In determining compliance with capital standards prescribed under paragraph (1), all of a savings association’s investments in and extensions of credit to any subsidiary engaged in activities not permissible for a national bank shall be deducted from the savings association’s capital.

(B)
Exception for agency activities

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply with respect to a subsidiary engaged, solely as agent for its customers, in activities not permissible for a national bank unless the appropriate Federal banking agency, in the sole discretion of the appropriate Federal banking agency, determines that, in the interests of safety and soundness, this subparagraph should cease to apply to that subsidiary.

(C)
Other exceptions
Subparagraph (A) shall not apply with respect to any of the following:
(i)
Mortgage banking subsidiaries

A savings association’s investments in and extensions of credit to a subsidiary engaged solely in mortgage-banking activities.

(ii)
Subsidiary insured depository institutions
A savings association’s investments in and extensions of credit to a subsidiary—
(I) that is itself an insured depository institution or a company the sole investment of which is an insured depository institution, and(II) that was acquired by the parent insured depository institution prior to May 1, 1989.
(iii)
Certain Federal savings banks
Any Federal savings association existing as a Federal savings association on August 9, 1989
(I) that was chartered prior to October 15, 1982, as a savings bank or a cooperative bank under State law; or(II) that acquired its principal assets from an association that was chartered prior to October 15, 1982, as a savings bank or a cooperative bank under State law.
(D)
Repealed. Pub. L. 111–203, title III, § 369(5)(L)(iii)(II), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1562
(E)
Consolidation of subsidiaries not separately capitalized

In determining compliance with capital standards prescribed under paragraph (1), the assets and liabilities of each of a savings association’s subsidiaries (other than any subsidiary described in subparagraph (C)(ii)) shall be consolidated with the savings association’s assets and liabilities, unless all of the savings association’s investments in and extensions of credit to the subsidiary are deducted from the savings association’s capital pursuant to subparagraph (A).

(6)
Consequences of failing to comply with capital standards
(A)
[Reserved].
(B)
On or after January 1, 1991
On or after January 1, 1991, the appropriate Federal banking agency—
(i) shall prohibit any asset growth by any savings association not in compliance with capital standards, except as provided in subparagraph (C); and
(ii) shall require any savings association not in compliance with capital standards to comply with a capital directive issued by the appropriate Federal banking agency (which may include such restrictions, including restrictions on the payment of dividends and on compensation, as the appropriate Federal banking agency determines to be appropriate).
(C)
Limited growth exception
The appropriate Federal banking agency may permit any savings association that is subject to subparagraph (B) to increase its assets in an amount not exceeding the amount of net interest credited to the savings association’s deposit liabilities if—
(i) the savings association obtains the prior approval of the appropriate Federal banking agency;
(ii) any increase in assets is accompanied by an increase in tangible capital in an amount not less than 6 percent of the increase in assets (or, in the discretion of the appropriate Federal banking agency if the leverage limit then applicable is less than 6 percent, in an amount equal to the increase in assets multiplied by the percentage amount of the leverage limit);
(iii) any increase in assets is accompanied by an increase in capital not less in percentage amount than required under the risk-based capital standard then applicable;
(iv) any increase in assets is invested in low-risk assets, such as first mortgage loans secured by 1- to 4-family residences and fully secured consumer loans; and
(v) the savings association’s ratio of core capital to total assets is not less than the ratio existing on January 1, 1991.
(D)
Additional restrictions in case of excessive risks or rates

The appropriate Federal banking agency may restrict the asset growth of any savings association that the appropriate Federal banking agency determines is taking excessive risks or paying excessive rates for deposits.

(E)
Failure to comply with plan, regulation, or order

The appropriate Federal banking agency may treat as an unsafe and unsound practice any material failure by a savings association to comply with any plan, regulation, or order under this paragraph.

(F)
Effect on other regulatory authority

This paragraph does not limit any authority of the appropriate Federal banking agency under this chapter or any other provision of law.

(7)
Exemption from certain sanctions
(A)
Application for exemption

Any savings association not in compliance with the capital standards prescribed under paragraph (1) may apply to the appropriate Federal banking agency for an exemption from any applicable sanction or penalty for noncompliance which the appropriate Federal banking agency may impose under this chapter.

(B)
Effect of grant of exemption

If the appropriate Federal banking agency approves any savings association’s application under subparagraph (A), the only sanction or penalty to be imposed by the appropriate Federal banking agency under this chapter for the savings association’s failure to comply with the capital standards prescribed under paragraph (1) is the growth limitation contained in paragraph (6)(B) or paragraph (6)(C), whichever is applicable.

(C)
Standards for approval or disapproval
(i)
Approval
The appropriate Federal banking agency may approve an application for an exemption if the appropriate Federal banking agency determines that—
(I) such exemption would pose no significant risk to the Deposit Insurance Fund;(II) the savings association’s management is competent;(III) the savings association is in substantial compliance with all applicable statutes, regulations, orders, and supervisory agreements and directives; and(IV) the savings association’s management has not engaged in insider dealing, speculative practices, or any other activities that have jeopardized the association’s safety and soundness or contributed to impairing the association’s capital.
(ii)
Denial or revocation of approval
The appropriate Federal banking agency shall deny any application submitted under clause (i) and revoke any prior approval granted with respect to any such application if the appropriate Federal banking agency determines that the association’s failure to meet any capital standards prescribed under paragraph (1) is accompanied by—
(I) a pattern of consistent losses;(II) substantial dissipation of assets;(III) evidence of imprudent management or business behavior;(IV) a material violation of any Federal law, any law of any State to which such association is subject, or any applicable regulation; or(V) any other unsafe or unsound condition or activity, other than the failure to meet such capital standards.
(D)
Submission of plan required
Any application submitted under subparagraph (A) shall be accompanied by a plan which—
(i) meets the requirements of paragraph (6)(A)(ii); and
(ii) is acceptable to the appropriate Federal banking agency.
(E)
Failure to comply with plan

The appropriate Federal banking agency shall treat as an unsafe and unsound practice any material failure by any savings association which has been granted an exemption under this paragraph to comply with the provisions of any plan submitted by such association under subparagraph (D).

(F)
Exemption not available with respect to unsafe or unsound practices

This paragraph does not limit any authority of the appropriate Federal banking agency under any other provision of law, including section 8 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1818], to take any appropriate action with respect to any unsafe or unsound practice or condition of any savings association, other than the failure of such savings association to comply with the capital standards prescribed under paragraph (1).

(8)
[Repealed].
(9)
Definitions
For purposes of this subsection—
(A)
Core capital

Unless the Comptroller prescribes a more stringent definition, the term “core capital” means core capital as defined by the Comptroller of the Currency for national banks, less any unidentifiable intangible assets.

(B)
Tangible capital

The term “tangible capital” means core capital minus any intangible assets (as intangible assets are defined by the Comptroller for national banks).

(C)
Total assets

The term “total assets” means total assets (as total assets are defined by the Comptroller of the Currency for national banks) adjusted in the same manner as total assets would be adjusted in determining compliance with the leverage limit applicable to national banks if the savings association were a national bank.

(10)
Use of Comptroller’s definitions
(A)
In general

The standards prescribed under paragraph (1) shall include all relevant substantive definitions established by the Comptroller of the Currency for national banks.

(B)
Special rule

If the Comptroller of the Currency has not made effective regulations defining core capital or establishing a risk-based capital standard, the appropriate Federal banking agency shall use the definition and standard contained in the Comptroller’s most recently published final regulations.

(u)
Limits on loans to one borrower
(1)
In general

Section 5200 of the Revised Statutes [12 U.S.C. 84] shall apply to savings associations in the same manner and to the same extent as it applies to national banks.

(2)
Special rules
(A)
Notwithstanding paragraph (1), a savings association may make loans to one borrower under one of the following clauses:
(i) For any purpose, not to exceed $500,000.
(ii)
To develop domestic residential housing units, not to exceed the lesser of $30,000,000 or 30 percent of the savings association’s unimpaired capital and unimpaired surplus, if—
(I) the savings association is and continues to be in compliance with the fully phased-in capital standards prescribed under subsection (t);(II) the appropriate Federal banking agency, by order, permits the savings association to avail itself of the higher limit provided by this clause;(III) loans made under this clause to all borrowers do not, in aggregate, exceed 150 percent of the savings association’s unimpaired capital and unimpaired surplus; and(IV) such loans comply with all applicable loan-to-value requirements.
(B) A savings association’s loans to one borrower to finance the sale of real property acquired in satisfaction of debts previously contracted in good faith shall not exceed 50 percent of the savings association’s unimpaired capital and unimpaired surplus.
(3)
Authority to impose more stringent restrictions

The appropriate Federal banking agency may impose more stringent restrictions on a savings association’s loans to one borrower if the appropriate Federal banking agency determines that such restrictions are necessary to protect the safety and soundness of the savings association.

(v)
Reports of condition
(1)
In general
Each association shall make reports of conditions to the appropriate Federal banking agency which shall be in a form prescribed by the appropriate Federal banking agency and shall contain—
(A) information sufficient to allow the identification of potential interest rate and credit risk;
(B) a description of any assistance being received by the association, including the type and monetary value of such assistance;
(C) the identity of all subsidiaries and affiliates of the association;
(D) the identity, value, type, and sector of investment of all equity investments of the associations and subsidiaries; and
(E) other information that the appropriate Federal banking agency may prescribe.
(2)
Public disclosure
(A)
Reports required under paragraph (1) and all information contained therein shall be available to the public upon request, unless the appropriate Federal banking agency determines—
(i) that a particular item or classification of information should not be made public in order to protect the safety or soundness of the institution concerned or institutions concerned, or the Deposit Insurance Fund; or
(ii) that public disclosure would not otherwise be in the public interest.
(B) Any determination made by the appropriate Federal banking agency under subparagraph (A) not to permit the public disclosure of information shall be made in writing, and if the appropriate Federal banking agency restricts any item of information for savings institutions generally, the appropriate Federal banking agency shall disclose the reason in detail in the Federal Register.
(C) The determinations of the appropriate Federal banking agency under subparagraph (A) shall not be subject to judicial review.
(3)
Access by certain parties
(A) Notwithstanding paragraph (2), the persons described in subparagraph (B) shall not be denied access to any information contained in a report of condition, subject to reasonable requirements of confidentiality. Those requirements shall not prevent such information from being transmitted to the Comptroller General of the United States for analysis.
(B)
The following persons are described in this subparagraph for purposes of subparagraph (A):
(i) the Chairman and ranking minority member of the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate and their designees; and
(ii) the Chairman and ranking minority member of the Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs of the House of Representatives and their designees.
(4)
First tier penalties
Any savings association which—
(A)
maintains procedures reasonably adapted to avoid any inadvertent and unintentional error and, as a result of such an error—
(i) fails to submit or publish any report or information required by the appropriate Federal banking agency under paragraph (1) or (2), within the period of time specified by the appropriate Federal banking agency; or
(ii) submits or publishes any false or misleading report or information; or
(B) inadvertently transmits or publishes any report which is minimally late,
shall be subject to a penalty of not more than $2,000 for each day during which such failure continues or such false or misleading information is not corrected. The savings association shall have the burden of proving by a preponderence 7
7 So in original. Probably should be “preponderance”.
of the evidence that an error was inadvertent and unintentional and that a report was inadvertently transmitted or published late.
(5)
Second tier penalties
Any savings association which—
(A) fails to submit or publish any report or information required by the appropriate Federal banking agency under paragraph (1) or (2), within the period of time specified by the appropriate Federal banking agency; or
(B) submits or publishes any false or misleading report or information,
in a manner not described in paragraph (4) shall be subject to a penalty of not more than $20,000 for each day during which such failure continues or such false or misleading information is not corrected.
(6)
Third tier penalties

If any savings association knowingly or with reckless disregard for the accuracy of any information or report described in paragraph (5) submits or publishes any false or misleading report or information, the appropriate Federal banking agency may assess a penalty of not more than $1,000,000 or 1 percent of total assets, whichever is less, per day for each day during which such failure continues or such false or misleading information is not corrected.

(7)
Assessment

Any penalty imposed under paragraph (4), (5), or (6) shall be assessed and collected by the appropriate Federal banking agency in the manner provided in subparagraphs (E), (F), (G), and (I) of section 8(i)(2) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1818(i)(2)(E), (F), (G), (I)] (for penalties imposed under such section), and any such assessment (including the determination of the amount of the penalty) shall be subject to the provisions of such subsection.

(8)
Hearing

Any savings association against which any penalty is assessed under this subsection shall be afforded a hearing if such savings association submits a request for such hearing within 20 days after the issuance of the notice of assessment. Section 8(h) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1818(h)] shall apply to any proceeding under this subsection.

(w)
Forfeiture of franchise for money laundering or cash transaction reporting offenses
(1)
In general
(A)
Conviction of title 18 offense
(I)
Duty to notify

If a Federal savings association has been convicted of any criminal offense under section 1956 or 1957 of title 18, the Attorney General shall provide to the Comptroller a written notification of the conviction and shall include a certified copy of the order of conviction from the court rendering the decision.

(II)
Notice of termination; pretermination hearing

After receiving written notification from the Attorney General of such a conviction, the Comptroller shall issue to the savings association a notice of the intention of the Comptroller to terminate all rights, privileges, and franchises of the savings association and schedule a pretermination hearing.

(B)
Conviction of title 31 offenses

If a Federal savings association is convicted of any criminal offense under section 5322 or 5324 of title 31 after receiving written notification from the Attorney General, the Comptroller may issue to the savings association a notice of the intention of the Comptroller to terminate all rights, privileges, and franchises of the savings association and schedule a pretermination hearing.

(C)
Judicial review

Subsection (d)(1)(B)(vii) shall apply to any proceeding under this subsection.

(2)
Factors to be considered
In determining whether a franchise shall be forfeited under paragraph (1), the Comptroller shall take into account the following factors:
(A) The extent to which directors or senior executive officers of the savings association knew of, were 8
8 So in original. Probably should be “or were”.
involved in, the commission of the money laundering offense of which the association was found guilty.
(B) The extent to which the offense occurred despite the existence of policies and procedures within the savings association which were designed to prevent the occurrence of any such offense.
(C) The extent to which the savings association has fully cooperated with law enforcement authorities with respect to the investigation of the money laundering offense of which the association was found guilty.
(D) The extent to which the savings association has implemented additional internal controls (since the commission of the offense of which the savings association was found guilty) to prevent the occurrence of any other money laundering offense.
(E) The extent to which the interest of the local community in having adequate deposit and credit services available would be threatened by the forfeiture of the franchise.
(3)
Successor liability

This subsection shall not apply to a successor to the interests of, or a person who acquires, a savings association that violated a provision of law described in paragraph (1), if the successor succeeds to the interests of the violator, or the acquisition is made, in good faith and not for purposes of evading this subsection or regulations prescribed under this subsection.

(4)
“Senior executive officer” defined

The term “senior executive officer” has the same meaning as in regulations prescribed under section 32(f) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1831i(f)].

(x)
Home State citizenship

In determining whether a Federal court has diversity jurisdiction over a case in which a Federal savings association is a party, the Federal savings association shall be considered to be a citizen only of the State in which such savings association has its home office.

(June 13, 1933, ch. 64, § 5, 48 Stat. 132; Apr. 27, 1934, ch. 168, §§ 5, 6, 48 Stat. 645, 646; May 28, 1935, ch. 150, § 18, 49 Stat. 297; Aug. 10, 1939, ch. 666, title IX, § 909, 53 Stat. 1402; Aug. 6, 1947, ch. 503, 61 Stat. 786; July 3, 1948, ch. 825, § 1, 62 Stat. 1239; Oct. 20, 1951, ch. 521, title III, § 313(d), 65 Stat. 490; July 14, 1952, ch. 723, § 12, 66 Stat. 604; Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, title II, § 204(b), title V, § 503, 68 Stat. 622, 634; Aug. 11, 1955, ch. 783, title I, § 110, 69 Stat. 641; Aug. 7, 1956, ch. 1029, title VI, § 604, 70 Stat. 1114; Pub. L. 85–857, § 13(f), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1264; Pub. L. 86–372, title VIII, § 805, Sept. 23, 1959, 73 Stat. 687; Pub. L. 86–507, § 1(11), June 11, 1960, 74 Stat. 200; Pub. L. 87–70, title IX, § 901, June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 189; Pub. L. 87–779, § 1, Oct. 9, 1962, 76 Stat. 778; Pub. L. 87–834, § 6(e)(1),
§ 1464a.
Election to operate as a covered savings association
(a)
Definition

In this section, the term “covered savings association” means a Federal savings association that makes an election that is approved under subsection (b).

(b)
Election
(1)
In general

In accordance with the rules issued under subsection (f), a Federal savings association with total consolidated assets equal to or less than $20,000,000,000, as reported by the association to the Comptroller as of December 31, 2017, may elect to operate as a covered savings association by submitting a notice to the Comptroller of that election.

(2)
Approval

A Federal savings association shall be deemed to be approved to operate as a covered savings association beginning on the date that is 60 days after the date on which the Comptroller receives the notice submitted under paragraph (1), unless the Comptroller notifies the Federal savings association that the Federal savings association is not eligible.

(c)
Rights and duties
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, and except as otherwise provided in this section, a covered savings association shall—
(1) have the same rights and privileges as a national bank that has the main office of the national bank situated in the same location as the home office of the covered savings association; and
(2) be subject to the same duties, restrictions, penalties, liabilities, conditions, and limitations that would apply to a national bank described in paragraph (1).
(d)
Treatment of covered savings associations
A covered savings association shall be treated as a Federal savings association for the purposes—
(1) of governance of the covered savings association, including incorporation, bylaws, boards of directors, shareholders, and distribution of dividends;
(2) of consolidation, merger, dissolution, conversion (including conversion to a stock bank or to another charter), conservatorship, and receivership; and
(3) determined by regulation of the Comptroller.
(e)
Existing branches

A covered savings association may continue to operate any branch or agency that the covered savings association operated on the date on which an election under subsection (b) is approved.

(f)
Rule making
The Comptroller shall issue rules to carry out this section—
(1) that establish streamlined standards and procedures that clearly identify required documentation and timelines for an election under subsection (b);
(2)
that require a Federal savings association that makes an election under subsection (b) to identify specific assets and subsidiaries that—
(A) do not conform to the requirements for assets and subsidiaries of a national bank; and
(B) are held by the Federal savings association on the date on which the Federal savings association submits a notice of the election;
(3)
that establish—
(A) a transition process for bringing the assets and subsidiaries described in paragraph (2) into conformance with the requirements for a national bank; and
(B) procedures for allowing the Federal savings association to submit to the Comptroller an application to continue to hold assets and subsidiaries described in paragraph (2) after electing to operate as a covered savings association;
(4)
that establish standards and procedures to allow a covered savings association to—
(A) terminate an election under subsection (b) after an appropriate period of time; and
(B) make a subsequent election under subsection (b) after terminating an election under subparagraph (A);
(5) that clarify requirements for the treatment of covered savings associations, including the provisions of law that apply to covered savings associations; and
(6) as the Comptroller determines necessary in the interests of safety and soundness.
(g)
Grandfathered covered savings associations

Subject to the rules issued under subsection (f), a covered savings association may continue to operate as a covered savings association if, after the date on which the election is made under subsection (b), the covered savings association has total consolidated assets greater than $20,000,000,000.

(June 13, 1933, ch. 64, § 5A, as added Pub. L. 115–174, title II, § 206, May 24, 2018, 132 Stat. 1310.)
§ 1465.
State law preemption standards for Federal savings associations clarified
(a)
In general

Any determination by a court or by the Director or any successor officer or agency regarding the relation of State law to a provision of this chapter or any regulation or order prescribed under this chapter shall be made in accordance with the laws and legal standards applicable to national banks regarding the preemption of State law.

(b)
Principles of conflict preemption applicable

Notwithstanding the authorities granted under sections 1463 and 1464 of this title, this chapter does not occupy the field in any area of State law.

(c)
Visitorial powers

The provisions of sections 1

1 So in original. Probably should be “section”.
25b(i) of this title shall apply to Federal savings associations, and any subsidiary thereof, to the same extent and in the same manner as if such savings associations, or subsidiaries thereof, were national banks or subsidiaries of national banks, respectively.

(d)
Enforcement actions

The ability of the Comptroller of the Currency to bring an enforcement action under this chapter or section 45 of title 15 does not preclude any private party from enforcing rights granted under Federal or State law in the courts.

(June 13, 1933, ch. 64, § 6, as added and amended Pub. L. 111–203, title X, §§ 1046(a), 1047(b), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2017, 2018.)
§ 1466.
Applicability

The provisions of this chapter shall apply to the United States and to Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands.

(June 13, 1933, ch. 64, § 7, 48 Stat. 134; July 14, 1952, ch. 723, § 10(b), 66 Stat. 604; Pub. L. 86–70, § 9(b), June 25, 1959, 73 Stat. 142; Pub. L. 86–624, § 5(b), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 411; Pub. L. 101–73, title III, § 301, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 315.)
§ 1466a.
District associations
(a)
In general

The Comptroller shall, with respect to all incorporated or unincorporated building, building or loan, building and loan, or homestead associations, and similar institutions, of or transacting or doing business in the District of Columbia, or maintaining any office in the District of Columbia (other than Federal savings associations), have the same powers and functions as to examination, operation, and regulation as the Comptroller has with respect to Federal savings associations.

(b)
Additional powers

Any such association or institution incorporated under the laws of, or organized in, the District of Columbia shall have in addition to any existing statutory authority such statutory authority as is vested in Federal savings associations.

(c)
Charter amendments

Charters, certificates of incorporation, articles of incorporation, constitutions, bylaws, or other organic documents of associations or institutions referred to in subsection (b) of this section may, without regard to anything contained therein or otherwise, be amended in such manner and to such extent and upon such votes if any as the Comptroller may by regulation or otherwise provide.

(d)
Limitation

Nothing in this section shall cause, or permit the Comptroller to cause, District of Columbia associations to be or become Federal savings associations, or require the Comptroller to impose on District of Columbia associations the same regulations as are imposed on Federal savings associations.

(June 13, 1933, ch. 64, § 8, as added Pub. L. 91–609, title IX, § 913, Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1815; amended Pub. L. 101–73, title III, § 301, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 315; Pub. L. 111–203, title III, § 369(6), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1563.)
§ 1467.
Examination fees
(a)
Examination of savings associations
The cost of conducting examinations of savings associations pursuant to section 1464(d) of this title shall be assessed by—
(1) the Comptroller, against each such Federal savings association, as the Comptroller deems necessary or appropriate; and
(2) the Corporation, against each such State savings association, as the Corporation deems necessary or appropriate.
(b)
Examination of affiliates

The cost of conducting examinations of affiliates of savings associations pursuant to this chapter may be assessed by the Comptroller or Corporation, as appropriate 1

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.
against each affiliate that is examined as the Comptroller or Corporation, as appropriate 1 deems necessary or appropriate.

(c)
Assessment against association in case of affiliate’s refusal to pay
(1)
In general
Subject to paragraph (2), if any affiliate of any savings association—
(A) refuses to pay any assessment under subsection (b); or
(B) fails to pay any such assessment before the end of the 60-day period beginning on the date of the assessment,
the appropriate Federal banking agency may assess such cost against, and collect such cost from, such savings association.
(2)
Affiliate of more than 1 savings association

If any affiliate referred to in paragraph (1) is an affiliate of more than 1 savings association, the assessment with respect to the affiliate against, and collected from, any affiliated savings association in such proportions as the appropriate Federal banking agency may prescribe.

(d)
Civil money penalty for affiliate’s refusal to cooperate
(1)
Penalty imposed
If any affiliate of any savings association—
(A) refuses to permit any examiner appointed by the appropriate Federal banking agency to make an examination; or
(B) refuses to provide any information required to be disclosed in the course of any examination,
the savings association shall forfeit and pay a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each day that any such refusal continues.
(2)
Assessment and collection

Any penalty imposed under paragraph (1) shall be assessed and collected by the appropriate Federal banking agency, in the manner provided in section 8(i)(2) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1818(i)(2)].

(e)
Regulations
The Comptroller may prescribe regulations with respect to—
(1) the computation of, and the assessment for, the cost of conducting examinations pursuant to this section; and
(2) the collection and use of such assessments and any fees under this section.
Such regulations may establish formulas to determine a fee or schedule of fees to cover the costs of examinations and also to cover the cost of processing applications, filings, notices, and requests for approvals by the appropriate Federal banking agency or the designee of the Comptroller.
(f)
[Reserved].
(g)
Costs of other examinations
(1)
Examination of fiduciary activities

In addition to any assessment imposed pursuant to subsection (a), the cost of conducting examinations of fiduciary activities of savings associations which exercise fiduciary powers (including savings associations or similar institutions in the District of Columbia) shall be assessed by the appropriate Federal banking agency against such savings associations (or similar institutions).

(2)
Examinations in excess of 2 per calendar year

If any savings association or affiliate of a savings association is examined by the appropriate Federal banking agency for the savings association more than 2 times in any calendar year, the cost of conducting such additional examinations shall be assessed, in addition to any assessment imposed pursuant to subsection (a), by the appropriate Federal banking agency or the Corporation, as the case may be, against such savings association or affiliate.

(h)
Additional information

Any savings association and any affiliate of any savings association shall provide the appropriate Federal banking agency with access to any information or report with respect to any examination made by any public regulatory authority and furnish any additional information with respect thereto as the appropriate Federal banking agency may require.

(i)
Treatment of examination assessments
(1)
Deposits

Amounts received by the appropriate Federal banking agency from assessments under this section (other than an assessment under subsection (d)(2)) or section 1467a(b)(4) of this title may be deposited in the manner provided in section 5234 of the Revised Statutes [12 U.S.C. 192] with respect to assessments by the Comptroller of the Currency.

(2)
Assessments are not Government funds

The amounts received by the appropriate Federal banking agency from any assessment under this section shall not be construed to be Government or public funds or appropriated money.

(3)
Assessments are not subject to apportionment of funds

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the amounts received by the appropriate Federal banking agency from any assessment under this section shall not be subject to apportionment for the purpose of chapter 15 of title 31 or under any other authority.

(j)
Processing fee

The appropriate Federal banking agency may, in the sole discretion of the appropriate Federal banking agency, assess against any person that submits to the appropriate Federal banking agency an application, filing, notice, or request a fee to cover the cost of processing such submission.

(k)
Fees for examinations and supervisory activities

The appropriate Federal banking agency may assess against an institution fees to fund the direct and indirect expenses of the Office as the appropriate Federal banking agency deems necessary or appropriate. The fees may be imposed more frequently than annually at the discretion of the appropriate Federal banking agency.

(l)
Working capital

The appropriate Federal banking agency is authorized to impose fees and assessments pursuant to subsections (a), (b), (e), and (k) of this section, in excess of actual expenses for any given year, to permit the appropriate Federal banking agency to maintain a working capital fund. The appropriate Federal banking agency shall remit to the payors of such fees and assessments any funds collected in excess of what he deems necessary to maintain such working capital fund.

(m)
Use of funds

The appropriate Federal banking agency is authorized to use the combined resources retained through fees and assessments imposed pursuant to this section to pay all direct and indirect salary and administrative expenses of the Office, including contracts and purchases of property and services, and the direct and indirect expenses of the examinations and supervisory activities of the Office.

(June 13, 1933, ch. 64, § 9, as added Pub. L. 100–86, title IV, § 402(a), Aug. 10, 1987, 101 Stat. 605; amended Pub. L. 101–73, title III, § 301, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 316; Pub. L. 102–242, title I, § 114(c), Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2248; Pub. L. 111–203, title III, § 369(7), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1563.)
§ 1467a.
Regulation of holding companies
(a)
Definitions
(1)
In general
As used in this section, unless the context otherwise requires—
(A)
Savings association

The term “savings association” includes a savings bank or cooperative bank which is deemed by the appropriate Federal banking agency to be a savings association under subsection (l).

(B)
Uninsured institution

The term “uninsured institution” means any depository institution the deposits of which are not insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

(C)
Company

The term “company” means any corporation, partnership, trust, joint-stock company, or similar organization, but does not include the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Resolution Trust Corporation, any Federal home loan bank, or any company the majority of the shares of which is owned by the United States or any State, or by an instrumentality of the United States or any State.

(D)
Savings and loan holding company
(i)
In general

Except as provided in clause (ii), the term “savings and loan holding company” means any company that directly or indirectly controls a savings association or that controls any other company that is a savings and loan holding company.

(ii)
Exclusion
The term “savings and loan holding company” does not include—
(I) a bank holding company that is registered under, and subject to, the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C. 1841 et seq.), or to any company directly or indirectly controlled by such company (other than a savings association);(II) a company that controls a savings association that functions solely in a trust or fiduciary capacity as described in section 2(c)(2)(D) of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C. 1841(c)(2)(D)); or(III) a company described in subsection (c)(9)(C) solely by virtue of such company’s control of an intermediate holding company established pursuant to section 1467b of this title.
(E)
Multiple savings and loan holding company

The term “multiple savings and loan holding company” means any savings and loan holding company which directly or indirectly controls 2 or more savings associations.

(F)
Diversified savings and loan holding company

The term “diversified savings and loan holding company” means any savings and loan holding company whose subsidiary savings association and related activities as permitted under paragraph (2) of subsection (c) of this section represented, on either an actual or a pro forma basis, less than 50 percent of its consolidated net worth at the close of its preceding fiscal year and of its consolidated net earnings for such fiscal year, as determined in accordance with regulations issued by the appropriate Federal banking agency.

(G)
Subsidiary

The term “subsidiary” has the same meaning as in section 1813 of this title.

(H)
Affiliate

The term “affiliate” of a savings association means any person which controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, such savings association.

(I)
Bank holding company

The terms “bank holding company” and “bank” have the meanings given to such terms in section 2 of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 [12 U.S.C. 1841].

(J)
Acquire

The term “acquire” has the meaning given to such term in section 1823(f)(8) of this title.

(2)
Control
For purposes of this section, a person shall be deemed to have control of—
(A) a savings association if the person directly or indirectly or acting in concert with one or more other persons, or through one or more subsidiaries, owns, controls, or holds with power to vote, or holds proxies representing, more than 25 percent of the voting shares of such savings association, or controls in any manner the election of a majority of the directors of such association;
(B) any other company if the person directly or indirectly or acting in concert with one or more other persons, or through one or more subsidiaries, owns, controls, or holds with power to vote, or holds proxies representing, more than 25 percent of the voting shares or rights of such other company, or controls in any manner the election or appointment of a majority of the directors or trustees of such other company, or is a general partner in or has contributed more than 25 percent of the capital of such other company;
(C) a trust if the person is a trustee thereof; or
(D) a savings association or any other company if the Board determines, after reasonable notice and opportunity for hearing, that such person directly or indirectly exercises a controlling influence over the management or policies of such association or other company.
(3)
Exclusions
Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection, the term “savings and loan holding company” does not include—
(A) any company by virtue of its ownership or control of voting shares of a savings association or a savings and loan holding company acquired in connection with the underwriting of securities if such shares are held only for such period of time (not exceeding 120 days unless extended by the Board) as will permit the sale thereof on a reasonable basis; and
(B) any trust (other than a pension, profit-sharing, shareholders’, voting, or business trust) which controls a savings association or a savings and loan holding company if such trust by its terms must terminate within 25 years or not later than 21 years and 10 months after the death of individuals living on the effective date of the trust, and is (i) in existence on June 26, 1967, or (ii) a testamentary trust created on or after June 26, 1967.
(4)
Special rule relating to qualified stock issuance

No savings and loan holding company shall be deemed to control a savings association solely by reason of the purchase by such savings and loan holding company of shares issued by such savings association, or issued by any savings and loan holding company (other than a bank holding company) which controls such savings association, in connection with a qualified stock issuance if such purchase is approved by the Board under subsection (q)(1)(D), unless the acquiring savings and loan holding company, directly or indirectly, or acting in concert with 1 or more other persons, or through 1 or more subsidiaries, owns, controls, or holds with power to vote, or holds proxies representing, more than 15 percent of the voting shares of such savings association or holding company.

(b)
Registration and examination
(1)
In general

Within 90 days after becoming a savings and loan holding company, each savings and loan holding company shall register with the Board on forms prescribed by the Board, which shall include such information, under oath or otherwise, with respect to the financial condition, ownership, operations, management, and intercompany relationships of such holding company and its subsidiaries, and related matters, as the Board may deem necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this section. Upon application, the Board may extend the time within which a savings and loan holding company shall register and file the requisite information.

(2)
Reports
(A)
In general

Each savings and loan holding company and each subsidiary thereof, other than a savings association, shall file with the Board, such reports as may be required by the Board. Such reports shall be made under oath or otherwise, and shall be in such form and for such periods, as the Board may prescribe. Each report shall contain such information concerning the operations of such savings and loan holding company and its subsidiaries as the Board may require.

(B)
Use of existing reports and other supervisory information
The Board shall, to the fullest extent possible, use—
(i) reports and other supervisory information that the savings and loan holding company or any subsidiary thereof has been required to provide to other Federal or State regulatory agencies;
(ii) externally audited financial statements of the savings and loan holding company or subsidiary;
(iii) information that is otherwise available from Federal or State regulatory agencies; and
(iv) information that is otherwise required to be reported publicly.
(C)
Availability

Upon the request of the Board, a savings and loan holding company or a subsidiary of a savings and loan holding company shall promptly provide to the Board any information described in clauses (i) through (iii) of subparagraph (B).

(3)
Books and records

Each savings and loan holding company shall maintain such books and records as may be prescribed by the Board.

(4)
Examinations
(A)
In general
Subject to subtitle B of the Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010 [12 U.S.C. 5511 et seq.], the Board may make examinations of a savings and loan holding company and each subsidiary of a savings and loan holding company system, in order to—
(i)
inform the Board of—
(I) the nature of the operations and financial condition of the savings and loan holding company and the subsidiary;(II)
the financial, operational, and other risks within the savings and loan holding company system that may pose a threat to—
(aa) the safety and soundness of the savings and loan holding company or of any depository institution subsidiary of the savings and loan holding company; or(bb) the stability of the financial system of the United States; and(III) the systems of the savings and loan holding company for monitoring and controlling the risks described in subclause (II); and
(ii)
monitor the compliance of the savings and loan holding company and the subsidiary with—
(I) this chapter;(II) Federal laws that the Board has specific jurisdiction to enforce against the company or subsidiary; and(III) other than in the case of an insured depository institution or functionally regulated subsidiary, any other applicable provisions of Federal law.
(B)
Use of reports to reduce examinations
For purposes of this subsection, the Board shall, to the fullest extent possible, rely on—
(i) the examination reports made by other Federal or State regulatory agencies relating to a savings and loan holding company and any subsidiary; and
(ii) the reports and other information required under paragraph (2).
(C)
Coordination with other regulators
The Board shall—
(i) provide reasonable notice to, and consult with, the appropriate Federal banking agency, the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, or State regulatory agency, as appropriate, for a subsidiary that is a depository institution or a functionally regulated subsidiary of a savings and loan holding company before commencing an examination of the subsidiary under this section; and
(ii) to the fullest extent possible, avoid duplication of examination activities, reporting requirements, and requests for information.
(5)
Agent for service of process

The Board may require any savings and loan holding company, or persons connected therewith if it is not a corporation, to execute and file a prescribed form of irrevocable appointment of agent for service of process.

(6)
Release from registration

The Board may at any time, upon the motion or application of the Board, release a registered savings and loan holding company from any registration theretofore made by such company, if the Board determines that such company no longer has control of any savings association.

(c)
Holding company activities
(1)
Prohibited activities
Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, no savings and loan holding company and no subsidiary which is not a savings association shall—
(A) engage in any activity or render any service for or on behalf of a savings association subsidiary for the purpose or with the effect of evading any law or regulation applicable to such savings association;
(B) commence any business activity, other than the activities described in paragraph (2); or
(C) continue any business activity, other than the activities described in paragraph (2), after the end of the 2-year period beginning on the date on which such company received approval under subsection (e) of this section to become a savings and loan holding company subject to the limitations contained in this subparagraph.
(2)
Exempt activities
The prohibitions of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (1) shall not apply to the following business activities of any savings and loan holding company or any subsidiary (of such company) which is not a savings association:
(A) Furnishing or performing management services for a savings association subsidiary of such company.
(B) Conducting an insurance agency or escrow business.
(C) Holding, managing, or liquidating assets owned or acquired from a savings association subsidiary of such company.
(D) Holding or managing properties used or occupied by a savings association subsidiary of such company.
(E) Acting as trustee under deed of trust.
(F)
Any other activity—
(i) which the Board, by regulation, has determined to be permissible for bank holding companies under section 4(c) of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 [12 U.S.C. 1843(c)], unless the Board, by regulation, prohibits or limits any such activity for savings and loan holding companies; or
(ii) in which multiple savings and loan holding companies were authorized (by regulation) to directly engage on March 5, 1987.
(G) In the case of a savings and loan holding company, purchasing, holding, or disposing of stock acquired in connection with a qualified stock issuance if the purchase of such stock by such savings and loan holding company is approved by the Board pursuant to subsection (q)(1)(D).
(H)
Any activity that is permissible for a financial holding company (as such term is defined under section 2(p) of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C. 1841(p)) 1
1 So in original. Probably should be followed by another closing parenthesis.
to conduct under section 4(k) of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 [12 U.S.C. 1843(k)] if—
(i) the savings and loan holding company meets all of the criteria to qualify as a financial holding company, and complies with all of the requirements applicable to a financial holding company, under sections 4(l) and 4(m) of the Bank Holding Company Act 2
2 So in original. Probably should be followed by “of 1956”.
[12 U.S.C. 1843(l), (m)] and section 2903(c) of this title as if the savings and loan holding company was a bank holding company; and
(ii) the savings and loan holding company conducts the activity in accordance with the same terms, conditions, and requirements that apply to the conduct of such activity by a bank holding company under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 [12 U.S.C. 1841 et seq.] and the Board’s regulations and interpretations under such Act.
(3)
Certain limitations on activities not applicable to certain holding companies
Notwithstanding paragraphs (4) and (6) of this subsection, the limitations contained in subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (1) shall not apply to any savings and loan holding company (or any subsidiary of such company) which controls—
(A) only 1 savings association, if the savings association subsidiary of such company is a qualified thrift lender (as determined under subsection (m)); or
(B)
more than 1 savings association, if—
(i)
all, or all but 1, of the savings association subsidiaries of such company were initially acquired by the company or by an individual who would be deemed to control such company if such individual were a company—
(I) pursuant to an acquisition under section 1823(c) or 1823(k) of this title or section 408(m) 3
3 See References in Text note below.
of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1730a(m)]; or
(II) pursuant to an acquisition in which assistance was continued to a savings association under section 1823(i) of this title; and
(ii) all of the savings association subsidiaries of such company are qualified thrift lenders (as determined under subsection (m)).
(4)
Prior approval of certain new activities required
(A)
In general

No savings and loan holding company and no subsidiary which is not a savings association shall commence, either de novo or by an acquisition (in whole or in part) of a going concern, any activity described in paragraph (2)(F)(i) of this subsection without the prior approval of the Board.

(B)
Factors to be considered
In considering any application under subparagraph (A) by any savings and loan holding company or any subsidiary of any such company which is not a savings association, the Board shall consider—
(i) whether the performance of the activity described in such application by the company or the subsidiary can reasonably be expected to produce benefits to the public (such as greater convenience, increased competition, or gains in efficiency) that outweigh possible adverse effects of such activity (such as undue concentration of resources, decreased or unfair competition, conflicts of interest, or unsound financial practices);
(ii) the managerial resources of the companies involved; and
(iii) the adequacy of the financial resources, including capital, of the companies involved.
(C)
Board may differentiate between new and ongoing activities

In prescribing any regulation or considering any application under this paragraph, the Board may differentiate between activities commenced de novo and activities commenced by the acquisition, in whole or in part, of a going concern.

(D)
Approval or disapproval by order

The approval or disapproval of any application under this paragraph by the Board shall be made in an order issued by the Board containing the reasons for such approval or disapproval.

(5)
Grace period to achieve compliance

If any savings association referred to in paragraph (3) fails to maintain the status of such association as a qualified thrift lender, the Board may allow, for good cause shown, any company that controls such association (or any subsidiary of such company which is not a savings association) up to 3 years to comply with the limitations contained in paragraph (1)(C).

(6)
Special provisions relating to certain companies affected by 1987 amendments
(A)
Exception to 2-year grace period for achieving compliance

Notwithstanding paragraph (1)(C), any company which received approval under subsection (e) of this section to acquire control of a savings association between March 5, 1987, and August 10, 1987, shall not continue any business activity other than an activity described in paragraph (2) after August 10, 1987.

(B)
Exemption for activities lawfully engaged in before March 5, 1987

Notwithstanding paragraph (1)(C) and subject to subparagraphs (C) and (D), any savings and loan holding company which received approval, before March 5, 1987, under subsection (e) of this section to acquire control of a savings association may engage, directly or through any subsidiary (other than a savings association subsidiary of such company), in any activity in which such company or such subsidiary was lawfully engaged on such date.

(C)
Termination of subparagraph (B) exemption
The exemption provided under subparagraph (B) for activities engaged in by any savings and loan holding company or a subsidiary of such company (which is not a savings association) which would otherwise be prohibited under paragraph (1)(C) shall terminate with respect to such activities of such company or subsidiary upon the occurrence (after August 10, 1987) of any of the following:
(i) The savings and loan holding company acquires control of a bank or an additional savings association (other than a savings association acquired pursuant to section 1823(c) or 1823(k) of this title or section 406(f) or 408(m) 3 of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1729(f) or 1730a(m)]).
(ii) Any savings association subsidiary of the savings and loan holding company fails to qualify as a domestic building and loan association under section 7701(a)(19) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 U.S.C. 7701(a)(19)].
(iii)
The savings and loan holding company engages in any business activity—
(I) which is not described in paragraph (2); and(II) in which it was not engaged on March 5, 1987.
(iv) Any savings association subsidiary of the savings and loan holding company increases the number of locations from which such savings association conducts business after March 5, 1987 (other than an increase which occurs in connection with a transaction under section 1823(c) or (k) of this title or section 408(m) 3 of the National Housing Act.
(v) Any savings association subsidiary of the savings and loan holding company permits any overdraft (including an intraday overdraft), or incurs any such overdraft in its account at a Federal Reserve bank, on behalf of an affiliate, unless such overdraft is the result of an inadvertent computer or accounting error that is beyond the control of both the savings association subsidiary and the affiliate.
(D)
Order to terminate subparagraph (B) activity

Any activity described in subparagraph (B) may also be terminated by the Board, after opportunity for hearing, if the Board determines, having due regard for the purposes of this chapter, that such action is necessary to prevent conflicts of interest or unsound practices or is in the public interest.

(7)
Foreign savings and loan holding company

Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, any savings and loan holding company organized under the laws of a foreign country as of June 1, 1984 (including any subsidiary thereof which is not a savings association), which controls a single savings association on August 10, 1987, shall not be subject to this subsection with respect to any activities of such holding company which are conducted exclusively in a foreign country.

(8)
Exemption for bank holding companies

Except for paragraph (1)(A), this subsection shall not apply to any company that is treated as a bank holding company for purposes of section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 [12 U.S.C. 1843], or any of its subsidiaries.

(9)
Prevention of new affiliations between S&L holding companies and commercial firms
(A)
In general
Notwithstanding paragraph (3), no company may directly or indirectly, including through any merger, consolidation, or other type of business combination, acquire control of a savings association after May 4, 1999, unless the company is engaged, directly or indirectly (including through a subsidiary other than a savings association), only in activities that are permitted—
(i) under paragraph (1)(C) or (2) of this subsection; or
(ii) for financial holding companies under section 4(k) of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 [12 U.S.C. 1843(k)].
(B)
Prevention of new commercial affiliations

Notwithstanding paragraph (3), no savings and loan holding company may engage directly or indirectly (including through a subsidiary other than a savings association) in any activity other than as described in clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (A).

(C)
Preservation of authority of existing unitary S&L holding companies
Subparagraphs (A) and (B) do not apply with respect to any company that was a savings and loan holding company on May 4, 1999, or that becomes a savings and loan holding company pursuant to an application pending before the Office on or before that date, and that—
(i) meets and continues to meet the requirements of paragraph (3); and
(ii) continues to control not fewer than 1 savings association that it controlled on May 4, 1999, or that it acquired pursuant to an application pending before the Office on or before that date, or the successor to such savings association.
(D)
Corporate reorganizations permitted
This paragraph does not prevent a transaction that—
(i) involves solely a company under common control with a savings and loan holding company from acquiring, directly or indirectly, control of the savings and loan holding company or any savings association that is already a subsidiary of the savings and loan holding company; or
(ii) involves solely a merger, consolidation, or other type of business combination as a result of which a company under common control with the savings and loan holding company acquires, directly or indirectly, control of the savings and loan holding company or any savings association that is already a subsidiary of the savings and loan holding company.
(E)
Authority to prevent evasions

The Board may issue interpretations, regulations, or orders that the Board determines necessary to administer and carry out the purpose and prevent evasions of this paragraph, including a determination (in consultation with the appropriate Federal banking agency) that, notwithstanding the form of a transaction, the transaction would in substance result in a company acquiring control of a savings association.

(F)
Preservation of authority for family trusts
Subparagraphs (A) and (B) do not apply with respect to any trust that becomes a savings and loan holding company with respect to a savings association, if—
(i) not less than 85 percent of the beneficial ownership interests in the trust are continuously owned, directly or indirectly, by or for the benefit of members of the same family, or their spouses, who are lineal descendants of common ancestors who controlled, directly or indirectly, such savings association on May 4, 1999, or a subsequent date, pursuant to an application pending before the Office on or before May 4, 1999; and
(ii) at the time at which such trust becomes a savings and loan holding company, such ancestors or lineal descendants, or spouses of such descendants, have directly or indirectly controlled the savings association continuously since May 4, 1999, or a subsequent date, pursuant to an application pending before the Office on or before May 4, 1999.
(d)
Transactions with affiliates

Transactions between any subsidiary savings association of a savings and loan holding company and any affiliate (of such savings association subsidiary) shall be subject to the limitations and prohibitions specified in section 1468 of this title.

(e)
Acquisitions
(1)
In general
It shall be unlawful for—
(A)
any savings and loan holding company directly or indirectly, or through one or more subsidiaries or through one or more transactions—
(i) to acquire, except with the prior written approval of the Board, the control of a savings association or a savings and loan holding company, or to retain the control of such an association or holding company acquired or retained in violation of this section as heretofore or hereafter in effect;
(ii) to acquire, except with the prior written approval of the Board, by the process of merger, consolidation, or purchase of assets, another savings association or a savings and loan holding company, or all or substantially all of the assets of any such association or holding company;
(iii)
to acquire, by purchase or otherwise, or to retain, except with the prior written approval of the Board, more than 5 percent of the voting shares of a savings association not a subsidiary, or of a savings and loan holding company not a subsidiary, or in the case of a multiple savings and loan holding company (other than a company described in subsection (c)(8)), to acquire or retain, and the Board may not authorize acquisition or retention of, more than 5 percent of the voting shares of any company not a subsidiary which is engaged in any business activity other than the activities specified in subsection (c)(2). This clause shall not apply to shares of a savings association or of a savings and loan holding company—
(I) held as a bona fide fiduciary (whether with or without the sole discretion to vote such shares);(II) held temporarily pursuant to an underwriting commitment in the normal course of an underwriting business;(III) held in an account solely for trading purposes;(IV) over which no control is held other than control of voting rights acquired in the normal course of a proxy solicitation;(V) acquired in securing or collecting a debt previously contracted in good faith, during the 2-year period beginning on the date of such acquisition or for such additional time (not exceeding 3 years) as the Board may permit if the Board determines that such an extension will not be detrimental to the public interest;(VI) acquired under section 408(m) 3 of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1730a(m)] or section 1823(k) of this title;(VII) held by any insurance company, as defined in section 2(a)(17) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 [15 U.S.C. 80a–2(a)(17)], except as provided in paragraph (6); or(VIII) acquired pursuant to a qualified stock issuance if such purchase is approved by the Board under subsection (q)(1)(D);
 except that the aggregate amount of shares held under this clause (other than under subclauses (I), (II), (III), (IV), and (VI)) may not exceed 15 percent of all outstanding shares or of the voting power of a savings association or savings and loan holding company; or
(iv) to acquire the control of an uninsured institution, or to retain for more than one year after February 14, 1968, or from the date on which such control was acquired, whichever is later, except that the Board may upon application by such company extend such one-year period from year to year, for an additional period not exceeding 3 years, if the Board finds such extension is warranted and is not detrimental to the public interest; and
(B) any other company, without the prior written approval of the Board, directly or indirectly, or through one or more subsidiaries or through one or more transactions, to acquire the control of one or more savings associations, except that such approval shall not be required in connection with the control of a savings association, (i) acquired by devise under the terms of a will creating a trust which is excluded from the definition of “savings and loan holding company” under subsection (a) of this section, (ii) acquired in connection with a reorganization in which a person or group of persons, having had control of a savings association for more than 3 years, vests control of that association in a newly formed holding company subject to the control of the same person or group of persons, or (iii) acquired by a bank holding company that is registered under, and subject to, the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 [12 U.S.C. 1841 et seq.], or any company controlled by such bank holding company. The Board shall approve an acquisition of a savings association under this subparagraph unless the Board finds the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of the company and association involved to be such that the acquisition would be detrimental to the association or the insurance risk of the Deposit Insurance Fund, and shall render a decision within 90 days after submission to the Board of the complete record on the application.
Consideration of the managerial resources of a company or savings association under subparagraph (B) shall include consideration of the competence, experience, and integrity of the officers, directors, and principal shareholders of the company or association.
(2)
Factors to be considered
The Board shall not approve any acquisition under subparagraph (A)(i) or (A)(ii), or of more than one savings association under subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) of this subsection, any acquisition of stock in connection with a qualified stock issuance, any acquisition under paragraph (4)(A), or any transaction under section 1823(k) of this title, except in accordance with this paragraph. In every case, the Board shall take into consideration the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of the company and association involved, the effect of the acquisition on the association, the insurance risk to the Deposit Insurance Fund, and the convenience and needs of the community to be served, and shall render a decision within 90 days after submission to the Board of the complete record on the application. Consideration of the managerial resources of a company or savings association shall include consideration of the competence, experience, and integrity of the officers, directors, and principal shareholders of the company or association. Before approving any such acquisition, except a transaction under section 1823(k) of this title, the Board shall request from the Attorney General and consider any report rendered within 30 days on the competitive factors involved. The Board shall not approve any proposed acquisition—
(A) which would result in a monopoly, or which would be in furtherance of any combination or conspiracy to monopolize or to attempt to monopolize the savings and loan business in any part of the United States,
(B) the effect of which in any section of the country may be substantially to lessen competition, or tend to create a monopoly, or which in any other manner would be in restraint of trade, unless it finds that the anticompetitive effects of the proposed acquisition are clearly outweighed in the public interest by the probable effect of the acquisition in meeting the convenience and needs of the community to be served,
(C) if the company fails to provide adequate assurances to the Board that the company will make available to the Board such information on the operations or activities of the company, and any affiliate of the company, as the Board determines to be appropriate to determine and enforce compliance with this chapter,
(D) in the case of an application involving a foreign bank, if the foreign bank is not subject to comprehensive supervision or regulation on a consolidated basis by the appropriate authorities in the bank’s home country, or
(E)
in the case of an application by a savings and loan holding company to acquire an insured depository institution, if—
(i) the home State of the insured depository institution is a State other than the home State of the savings and loan holding company;
(ii) the applicant (including all insured depository institutions which are affiliates of the applicant) controls, or upon consummation of the transaction would control, more than 10 percent of the total amount of deposits of insured depository institutions in the United States; and
(iii) the acquisition does not involve an insured depository institution in default or in danger of default, or with respect to which the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation provides assistance under section 1823 of this title.
(3)
Interstate acquisitions
No acquisition shall be approved by the Board under this subsection which will result in the formation by any company, through one or more subsidiaries or through one or more transactions, of a multiple savings and loan holding company controlling savings associations in more than one State, unless—
(A) such company, or a savings association subsidiary of such company, is authorized to acquire control of a savings association subsidiary, or to operate a home or branch office, in the additional State or States pursuant to section 1823(k) of this title;
(B) such company controls a savings association subsidiary which operated a home or branch office in the additional State or States as of March 5, 1987; or
(C) the statutes of the State in which the savings association to be acquired is located permit a savings association chartered by such State to be acquired by a savings association chartered by the State where the acquiring savings association or savings and loan holding company is located or by a holding company that controls such a State chartered savings association, and such statutes specifically authorize such an acquisition by language to that effect and not merely by implication.
(4)
Acquisitions by certain individuals
(A)
In general

Notwithstanding subsection (h)(2), any director or officer of a savings and loan holding company, or any individual who owns, controls, or holds with power to vote (or holds proxies representing) more than 25 percent of the voting shares of such holding company, may acquire control of any savings association not a subsidiary of such savings and loan holding company with the prior written approval of the Board.

(B)
Treatment of certain holding companies

If any individual referred to in subparagraph (A) controls more than 1 savings and loan holding company or more than 1 savings association, any savings and loan holding company controlled by such individual shall be subject to the activities limitations contained in subsection (c) to the same extent such limitations apply to multiple savings and loan holding companies, unless all or all but 1 of the savings associations (including any institution deemed to be a savings association under subsection (l) of this section) controlled directly or indirectly by such individual was acquired pursuant to an acquisition described in subclause (I) or (II) of subsection (c)(3)(B)(i).

(5)
Acquisitions pursuant to certain security interests

This subsection and subsection (c)(2) of this section do not apply to any savings and loan holding company which acquired the control of a savings association or of a savings and loan holding company pursuant to a pledge or hypothecation to secure a loan, or in connection with the liquidation of a loan, made in the ordinary course of business. It shall be unlawful for any such company to retain such control for more than one year after February 14, 1968, or from the date on which such control was acquired, whichever is later, except that the Board may upon application by such company extend such one-year period from year to year, for an additional period not exceeding 3 years, if the Board finds such extension is warranted and would not be detrimental to the public interest.

(6)
Shares held by insurance affiliates
Shares described in clause (iii)(VII) of paragraph (1)(A) shall not be excluded for purposes of clause (iii) of such paragraph if—
(A) all shares held under such clause (iii)(VII) by all insurance company affiliates of such savings association or savings and loan holding company in the aggregate exceed 5 percent of all outstanding shares or of the voting power of the savings association or savings and loan holding company; or
(B) such shares are acquired or retained with a view to acquiring, exercising, or transferring control of the savings association or savings and loan holding company.
(7)
Definitions
For purposes of paragraph (2)(E)—
(A) the terms “default”, “in danger of default”, and “insured depository institution” have the same meanings as in section 1813 of this title; and
(B)
the term “home State” means—
(i) with respect to a national bank, the State in which the main office of the bank is located;
(ii) with respect to a State bank or State savings association, the State by which the savings association is chartered;
(iii) with respect to a Federal savings association, the State in which the home office (as defined by the regulations of the Board 4
4 So in original. Probably should be “Director”.
of the Office of Thrift Supervision, or, on and after the transfer date,3 the Comptroller of the Currency) of the Federal savings association is located; and
(iv) with respect to a savings and loan holding company, the State in which the amount of total deposits of all insured depository institution subsidiaries of such company was the greatest on the date on which the company became a savings and loan holding company.
(f)
Declaration of dividend

Every subsidiary savings association of a savings and loan holding company shall give the Board not less than 30 days’ advance notice of the proposed declaration by its directors of any dividend on its guaranty, permanent, or other nonwithdrawable stock. Such notice period shall commence to run from the date of receipt of such notice by the Board. Any such dividend declared within such period, or without the giving of such notice to the Board, shall be invalid and shall confer no rights or benefits upon the holder of any such stock.

(g)
Administration and enforcement
(1)
In general

The Board is authorized to issue such regulations and orders, including regulations and orders relating to capital requirements for savings and loan holding companies, as the Board deems necessary or appropriate to enable the Board to administer and carry out the purposes of this section, and to require compliance therewith and prevent evasions thereof. In establishing capital regulations pursuant to this subsection, the appropriate Federal banking agency shall seek to make such requirements countercyclical so that the amount of capital required to be maintained by a company increases in times of economic expansion and decreases in times of economic contraction, consistent with the safety and soundness of the company.

(2)
Investigations

The Board may make such investigations as the Board deems necessary or appropriate to determine whether the provisions of this section, and regulations and orders thereunder, are being and have been complied with by savings and loan holding companies and subsidiaries and affiliates thereof. For the purpose of any investigation under this section, the Board may administer oaths and affirmations, issue subpenas, take evidence, and require the production of any books, papers, correspondence, memorandums, or other records which may be relevant or material to the inquiry. The attendance of witnesses and the production of any such records may be required from any place in any State. The Board may apply to the United States district court for the judicial district (or the United States court in any territory) in which any witness or company subpenaed resides or carries on business, for enforcement of any subpena issued pursuant to this paragraph, and such courts shall have jurisdiction and power to order and require compliance.

(3)
Proceedings
(A) In any proceeding under subsection (a)(2)(D) or under paragraph (5) of this subsection, the Board may administer oaths and affirmations, take or cause to be taken depositions, and issue subpenas. The Board may make regulations with respect to any such proceedings. The attendance of witnesses and the production of documents provided for in this paragraph may be required from any place in any State or in any territory at any designated place where such proceeding is being conducted. Any party to such proceedings may apply to the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, or the United States district court for the judicial district or the United States court in any territory in which such proceeding is being conducted, or where the witness resides or carries on business, for enforcement of any subpena issued pursuant to this paragraph, and such courts shall have jurisdiction and power to order and require compliance therewith. Witnesses subpenaed under this section shall be paid the same fees and mileage that are paid witnesses in the district courts of the United States.
(B) Any hearing provided for in subsection (a)(2)(D) or under paragraph (5) of this section 5
5 So in original. Probably should be “subsection”.
shall be held in the Federal judicial district or in the territory in which the principal office of the association or other company is located unless the party afforded the hearing consents to another place, and shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of chapter 5 of title 5.
(4)
Injunctions

Whenever it appears to the Board that any person is engaged or has engaged or is about to engage in any acts or practices which constitute or will constitute a violation of the provisions of this section or of any regulation or order thereunder, the Board may bring an action in the proper United States district court, or the United States court of any territory or other place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, to enjoin such acts or practices, to enforce compliance with this section or any regulation or order, or to require the divestiture of any acquisition in violation of this section, or for any combination of the foregoing, and such courts shall have jurisdiction of such actions. Upon a proper showing an injunction, decree, restraining order, order of divestiture, or other appropriate order shall be granted without bond.

(5)
Cease and desist orders
(A) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the Board may, whenever the Board has reasonable cause to believe that the continuation by a savings and loan holding company of any activity or of ownership or control of any of its noninsured subsidiaries constitutes a serious risk to the financial safety, soundness, or stability of a savings and loan holding company’s subsidiary savings association and is inconsistent with the sound operation of a savings association or with the purposes of this section or section 1818 of this title, order the savings and loan holding company or any of its subsidiaries, after due notice and opportunity for hearing, to terminate such activities or to terminate (within 120 days or such longer period as the Board directs in unusual circumstances) its ownership or control of any such noninsured subsidiary either by sale or by distribution of the shares of the subsidiary to the shareholders of the savings and loan holding company. Such distribution shall be pro rata with respect to all of the shareholders of the distributing savings and loan holding company, and the holding company shall not make any charge to its shareholders arising out of such a distribution.
(B) The Board may in the discretion of the Board apply to the United States district court within the jurisdiction of which the principal office of the company is located, for the enforcement of any effective and outstanding order issued under this section, and such court shall have jurisdiction and power to order and require compliance therewith. Except as provided in subsection (j), no court shall have jurisdiction to affect by injunction or otherwise the issuance or enforcement of any notice or order under this section, or to review, modify, suspend, terminate, or set aside any such notice or order.
(h)
Prohibited acts
It shall be unlawful for—
(1) any savings and loan holding company or subsidiary thereof, or any director, officer, employee, or person owning, controlling, or holding with power to vote, or holding proxies representing, more than 25 percent of the voting shares, of such holding company or subsidiary, to hold, solicit, or exercise any proxies in respect of any voting rights in a savings association which is a mutual association;
(2) any director or officer of a savings and loan holding company, or any individual who owns, controls, or holds with power to vote (or holds proxies representing) more than 25 percent of the voting shares of such holding company, to acquire control of any savings association not a subsidiary of such savings and loan holding company, unless such acquisition is approved by the Board pursuant to subsection (e)(4); or
(3) any individual, except with the prior approval of the Board, to serve or act as a director, officer, or trustee of, or become a partner in, any savings and loan holding company after having been convicted of any criminal offense involving dishonesty or breach of trust.
(i)
Penalties
(1)
Criminal penalty
(A) Whoever knowingly violates any provision of this section or being a company, violates any regulation or order issued by the Board under this section, shall be imprisoned not more than 1 year, fined not more than $100,000 per day for each day during which the violation continues, or both.
(B) Whoever, with the intent to deceive, defraud, or profit significantly, knowingly violates any provision of this section shall be fined not more than $1,000,000 per day for each day during which the violation continues, imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both.
(2)
6
6 See Codification note below.
Civil money penalty
(A)
Penalty

Any company which violates, and any person who participates in a violation of, any provision of this section, or any regulation or order issued pursuant thereto, shall forfeit and pay a civil penalty of not more than $25,000 for each day during which such violation continues.

(B)
Assessment

Any penalty imposed under subparagraph (A) may be assessed and collected by the Board in the manner provided in subparagraphs (E), (F), (G), and (I) of section 1818(i)(2) of this title for penalties imposed (under such section) and any such assessment shall be subject to the provisions of such section.

(C)
Hearing

The company or other person against whom any civil penalty is assessed under this paragraph shall be afforded a hearing if such company or person submits a request for such hearing within 20 days after the issuance of the notice of assessment. Section 1818(h) of this title shall apply to any proceeding under this paragraph.

(D)
Disbursement

All penalties collected under authority of this paragraph shall be deposited into the Treasury.

(E)
“Violate” defined

For purposes of this section, the term “violate” includes any action (alone or with another or others) for or toward causing, bringing about, participating in, counseling, or aiding or abetting a violation.

(F)
Regulations

The Board shall prescribe regulations establishing such procedures as may be necessary to carry out this paragraph.

(3)
6 Civil money penalty
(A)
Penalty

Any company which violates, and any person who participates in a violation of, any provision of this section, or any regulation or order issued pursuant thereto, shall forfeit and pay a civil penalty of not more than $25,000 for each day during which such violation continues.

(B)
Assessment; etc.

Any penalty imposed under subparagraph (A) may be assessed and collected by the Board in the manner provided in subparagraphs (E), (F), (G), and (I) of section 1818(i)(2) of this title for penalties imposed (under such section) and any such assessment shall be subject to the provisions of such section.

(C)
Hearing

The company or other person against whom any penalty is assessed under this paragraph shall be afforded an agency hearing if such company or person submits a request for such hearing within 20 days after the issuance of the notice of assessment. Section 1818(h) of this title shall apply to any proceeding under this paragraph.

(D)
Disbursement

All penalties collected under authority of this paragraph shall be deposited into the Treasury.

(E)
“Violate” defined

For purposes of this section, the term “violate” includes any action (alone or with another or others) for or toward causing, bringing about, participating in, counseling, or aiding or abetting a violation.

(F)
Regulations

The Board shall prescribe regulations establishing such procedures as may be necessary to carry out this paragraph.

(4)
Notice under this section after separation from service

The resignation, termination of employment or participation, or separation of an institution-affiliated party (within the meaning of section 1813(u) of this title

(j)
Judicial review

Any party aggrieved by an order of the Board under this section may obtain a review of such order by filing in the court of appeals of the United States for the circuit in which the principal office of such party is located, or in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, within 30 days after the date of service of such order, a written petition praying that the order of the Board be modified, terminated, or set aside. A copy of the petition shall be forthwith transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Board, and thereupon the Board shall file in the court the record in the proceeding, as provided in section 2112 of title 28. Upon the filing of such petition, such court shall have jurisdiction, which upon the filing of the record shall be exclusive, to affirm, modify, terminate, or set aside, in whole or in part, the order of the Board. Review of such proceedings shall be had as provided in chapter 7 of title 5. The judgment and decree of the court shall be final, except that the same shall be subject to review by the Supreme Court upon certiorari as provided in section 1254 of title 28.

(k)
Savings clause

Nothing contained in this section, other than any transaction approved under subsection (e)(2) of this section or section 1823 of this title, shall be interpreted or construed as approving any act, action, or conduct which is or has been or may be in violation of existing law, nor shall anything herein contained constitute a defense to any action, suit, or proceeding pending or hereafter instituted on account of any act, action, or conduct in violation of the antitrust laws.

(l)
Treatment of FDIC insured State savings banks and cooperative banks as savings associations
(1)
In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a savings bank (as defined in section 1813(g) of this title) and a cooperative bank that is an insured bank (as defined in section 1813(h) of this title) upon application shall be deemed to be a savings association for the purpose of this section, if the appropriate Federal banking agency determines that such bank is a qualified thrift lender (as determined under subsection (m)).

(2)
Failure to maintain qualified thrift lender status

If any savings bank which is deemed to be a savings association under paragraph (1) subsequently fails to maintain its status as a qualified thrift lender, as determined by the appropriate Federal banking agency, such bank may not thereafter be a qualified thrift lender for a period of 5 years.

(m)
Qualified thrift lender test
(1)
In general
Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (7), any savings association is a qualified thrift lender if—
(A) the savings association qualifies as a domestic building and loan association, as such term is defined in section 7701(a)(19) of title 26; or
(B)
(i) the savings association’s qualified thrift investments equal or exceed 65 percent of the savings association’s portfolio assets; and
(ii) the savings association’s qualified thrift investments continue to equal or exceed 65 percent of the savings association’s portfolio assets on a monthly average basis in 9 out of every 12 months.
(2)
Exceptions granted by appropriate Federal banking agency
Notwithstanding paragraph (1), the appropriate Federal banking agency may grant such temporary and limited exceptions from the minimum actual thrift investment percentage requirement contained in such paragraph as the appropriate Federal banking agency deems necessary if—
(A) the appropriate Federal banking agency determines that extraordinary circumstances exist, such as when the effects of high interest rates reduce mortgage demand to such a degree that an insufficient opportunity exists for a savings association to meet such investment requirements; or
(B)
the appropriate Federal banking agency determines that—
(i) the grant of any such exception will significantly facilitate an acquisition under section 1823(c) or 1823(k) of this title;
(ii) the acquired association will comply with the transition requirements of paragraph (7)(B), as if the date of the exemption were the starting date for the transition period described in that paragraph; and
(iii) the appropriate Federal banking agency determines that 7
7 So in original. The words “the appropriate Federal banking agency determines that” probably should not appear.
the exemption will not have an undue adverse effect on competing savings associations in the relevant market and will further the purposes of this subsection.
(3)
Failure to become and remain a qualified thrift lender
(A)
In general

A savings association that fails to become or remain a qualified thrift lender shall immediately be subject to the restrictions under subparagraph (B).

(B)
Restrictions applicable to savings associations that are not qualified thrift lenders
(i)
Restrictions effective immediately
The following restrictions shall apply to a savings association beginning on the date on which the savings association should have become or ceases to be a qualified thrift lender:
(I)
Activities

The savings association shall not make any new investment (including an investment in a subsidiary) or engage, directly or indirectly, in any other new activity unless that investment or activity would be permissible for the savings association if it were a national bank, and is also permissible for the savings association as a savings association.

(II)
Branching

The savings association shall not establish any new branch office at any location at which a national bank located in the savings association’s home State may not establish a branch office. For purposes of this subclause, a savings association’s home State is the State in which the savings association’s total deposits were largest on the date on which the savings association should have become or ceased to be a qualified thrift lender.

(III)
Dividends
The savings association may not pay dividends, except for dividends that—
(aa) would be permissible for a national bank;(bb) are necessary to meet obligations of a company that controls such savings association; and(cc) are specifically approved by the Comptroller of the Currency and the Board after a written request submitted to the Comptroller of the Currency and the Board by the savings association not later than 30 days before the date of the proposed payment.(IV)
Regulatory authority

A savings association that fails to become or remain a qualified thrift lender shall be deemed to have violated section 1464 of this title and subject to actions authorized by section 1464(d) of this title.

(ii)
Additional restrictions effective after 3 years
Beginning 3 years after the date on which a savings association should have become a qualified thrift lender, or the date on which the savings association ceases to be a qualified thrift lender, as applicable, the savings association shall not retain any investment (including an investment in any subsidiary) or engage, directly or indirectly, in any activity, unless that investment or activity—
(I) would be permissible for the savings association if it were a national bank; and(II) is permissible for the savings association as a savings association.
(C)
Holding company regulation

Any company that controls a savings association that is subject to any provision of subparagraph (B) shall, within one year after the date on which the savings association should have become or ceases to be a qualified thrift lender, register as and be deemed to be a bank holding company subject to all of the provisions of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 [12 U.S.C. 1841 et seq.], section 1818 of this title, and other statutes applicable to bank holding companies, in the same manner and to the same extent as if the company were a bank holding company and the savings association were a bank, as those terms are defined in the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956.

(D)
Requalification

A savings association that should have become or ceases to be a qualified thrift lender shall not be subject to subparagraph (B) or (C) if the savings association becomes a qualified thrift lender by meeting the qualified thrift lender requirement in paragraph (1) on a monthly average basis in 9 out of the preceding 12 months and remains a qualified thrift lender. If the savings association (or any savings association that acquired all or substantially all of its assets from that savings association) at any time thereafter ceases to be a qualified thrift lender, it shall immediately be subject to all provisions of subparagraphs (B) and (C) as if all the periods described in subparagraphs (B)(ii) and (C) had expired.

(E)
Exemption for specialized savings associations serving certain military personnel

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to a savings association subsidiary of a savings and loan holding company if at least 90 percent of the customers of the savings and loan holding company and its subsidiaries and affiliates are active or former members in the United States military services or the widows, widowers, divorced spouses, or current or former dependents of such members.

(F)
Exemption for certain Federal savings associations
This paragraph shall not apply to any Federal savings association in existence as a Federal savings association on August 9, 1989
(i) that was chartered before October 15, 1982, as a savings bank or a cooperative bank under State law; or
(ii) that acquired its principal assets from an association that was chartered before October 15, 1982, as a savings bank or a cooperative bank under State law.
(G)
No circumvention of exit moratorium

Subparagraph (A) of this paragraph shall not be construed as permitting any insured depository institution to engage in any conversion transaction prohibited under section 1815(d) 3 of this title.

(4)
Definitions
For purposes of this subsection, the following definitions shall apply:
(A)
Actual thrift investment percentage
The term “actual thrift investment percentage” means the percentage determined by dividing—
(i) the amount of a savings association’s qualified thrift investments, by
(ii) the amount of the savings association’s portfolio assets.
(B)
Portfolio assets
The term “portfolio assets” means, with respect to any savings association, the total assets of the savings association, minus the sum of—
(i) goodwill and other intangible assets;
(ii) the value of property used by the savings association to conduct its business; and
(iii) liquid assets of the type required to be maintained under section 1465 of this title, as in effect on the day before December 27, 2000, in an amount not exceeding the amount equal to 20 percent of the savings association’s total assets.
(C)
Qualified thrift investments
(i)
In general

The term “qualified thrift investments” means, with respect to any savings association, the assets of the savings association that are described in clauses (ii) and (iii).

(ii)
Assets includible without limit
The following assets are described in this clause for purposes of clause (i):
(I) The aggregate amount of loans held by the savings association that were made to purchase, refinance, construct, improve, or repair domestic residential housing or manufactured housing.(II) Home-equity loans.(III) Securities backed by or representing an interest in mortgages on domestic residential housing or manufactured housing.(IV)
Existing obligations of deposit insurance agencies.—
Direct or indirect obligations of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation issued in accordance with the terms of agreements entered into prior to July 1, 1989, for the 10-year period beginning on the date of issuance of such obligations.(V)
New obligations of deposit insurance agencies.—
Obligations of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation, the FSLIC Resolution Fund, and the Resolution Trust Corporation issued in accordance with the terms of agreements entered into on or after July 1, 1989, for the 5-year period beginning on the date of issuance of such obligations.(VI) Shares of stock issued by any Federal home loan bank.(VII) Loans for educational purposes, loans to small businesses, and loans made through credit cards or credit card accounts.
(iii)
Assets includible subject to percentage restriction
The following assets are described in this clause for purposes of clause (i):
(I) 50 percent of the dollar amount of the residential mortgage loans originated by such savings association and sold within 90 days of origination.(II) Investments in the capital stock or obligations of, and any other security issued by, any service corporation if such service corporation derives at least 80 percent of its annual gross revenues from activities directly related to purchasing, refinancing, constructing, improving, or repairing domestic residential real estate or manufactured housing.(III) 200 percent of the dollar amount of loans and investments made to acquire, develop, and construct 1- to 4-family residences the purchase price of which is or is guaranteed to be not greater than 60 percent of the median value of comparable newly constructed 1- to 4-family residences within the local community in which such real estate is located, except that not more than 25 percent of the amount included under this subclause may consist of commercial properties related to the development if those properties are directly related to providing services to residents of the development.(IV) 200 percent of the dollar amount of loans for the acquisition or improvement of residential real property, churches, schools, and nursing homes located within, and loans for any other purpose to any small businesses located within any area which has been identified by the appropriate Federal banking agency, in connection with any review or examination of community reinvestment practices, as a geographic area or neighborhood in which the credit needs of the low- and moderate-income residents of such area or neighborhood are not being adequately met.(V) Loans for the purchase or construction of churches, schools, nursing homes, and hospitals, other than those qualifying under clause (IV), and loans for the improvement and upkeep of such properties.(VI) Loans for personal, family, or household purposes (other than loans for personal, family, or household purposes described in clause (ii)(VII)).(VII) Shares of stock issued by the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation or the Federal National Mortgage Association.
(iv)
Percentage restriction applicable to certain assets

The aggregate amount of the assets described in clause (iii) which may be taken into account in determining the amount of the qualified thrift investments of any savings association shall not exceed the amount which is equal to 20 percent of a savings association’s portfolio assets.

(v)
Qualified thrift investments
The term “qualified thrift investments” excludes—
(I) except for home equity loans, that portion of any loan or investment that is used for any purpose other than those expressly qualifying under any subparagraph of clause (ii) or (iii); or(II) goodwill or any other intangible asset.
(D)
Credit card

The appropriate Federal banking agency shall issue such regulations as may be necessary to define the term “credit card”.

(E)
Small business

(5)
Consistent accounting required
(A)
In determining the amount of a savings association’s portfolio assets, the assets of any subsidiary of the savings association shall be consolidated with the assets of the savings association if—
(i) Assets of the subsidiary are consolidated with the assets of the savings association in determining the savings association’s qualified thrift investments; or
(ii) Residential mortgage loans originated by the subsidiary are included pursuant to paragraph (4)(C)(iii)(I) in determining the savings association’s qualified thrift investments.
(B) In determining the amount of a savings association’s portfolio assets and qualified thrift investments, consistent accounting principles shall be applied.
(6)
Special rules for Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands savings associations
(A)
Puerto Rico savings associations
With respect to any savings association headquartered and operating primarily in Puerto Rico—
(i)
the term “qualified thrift investments” includes, in addition to the items specified in paragraph (4)—
(I) the aggregate amount of loans for personal, family, educational, or household purposes made to persons residing or domiciled in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico; and(II) the aggregate amount of loans for the acquisition or improvement of churches, schools, or nursing homes, and of loans to small businesses, located within the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico; and
(ii)
the aggregate amount of loans related to the purchase, acquisition, development and construction of 1- to 4-family residential real estate—
(I) which is located within the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico; and(II) the value of which (at the time of acquisition or upon completion of the development and construction) is below the median value of newly constructed 1- to 4-family residences in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, which may be taken into account in determining the amount of the qualified thrift investments and of such savings association shall be doubled.
(B)
Virgin Islands savings associations
With respect to any savings association headquartered and operating primarily in the Virgin Islands—
(i)
the term “qualified thrift investments” includes, in addition to the items specified in paragraph (4)—
(I) the aggregate amount of loans for personal, family, educational, or household purposes made to persons residing or domiciled in the Virgin Islands; and(II) the aggregate amount of loans for the acquisition or improvement of churches, schools, or nursing homes, and of loans to small businesses, located within the Virgin Islands; and
(ii)
the aggregate amount of loans related to the purchase, acquisition, development and construction of 1- to 4-family residential real estate—
(I) which is located within the Virgin Islands; and(II) the value of which (at the time of acquisition or upon completion of the development and construction) is below the median value of newly constructed 1- to 4-family residences in the Virgin Islands, which may be taken into account in determining the amount of the qualified thrift investments and of such savings association shall be doubled.
(7)
Transitional rule for certain savings associations
(A)
In general
If any Federal savings association in existence as a Federal savings association on August 9, 1989
(i) that was chartered as a savings bank or a cooperative bank under State law before October 15, 1982; or
(ii) that acquired its principal assets from an association that was chartered before October 15, 1982, as a savings bank or a cooperative bank under State law,
meets the requirements of subparagraph (B), such savings association shall be treated as a qualified thrift lender during the period ending on September 30, 1995.
(B)
Subparagraph (B) requirements
A savings association meets the requirements of this subparagraph if, in the determination of the appropriate Federal banking agency—
(i) the actual thrift investment percentage of such association does not, after August 9, 1989, decrease below the actual thrift investment percentage of such association on July 15, 1989; and
(ii)
the amount by which—
(I) the actual thrift investment percentage of such association at the end of each period described in the following table, exceeds(II) the actual thrift investment percentage of such association on July 15, 1989,
 is equal to or greater than the applicable percentage (as determined under the following table) of the amount by which 70 percent exceeds the actual thrift investment percentage of such association on August 9, 1989:

 For the following period:

The applicable percentage is:

July 1, 1991September 30, 1992

25 percent

October 1, 1992March 31, 1994

50 percent

April 1, 1994September 30, 1995

75 percent

Thereafter

100 percent

(C)
Actual thrift investment percentage

For purposes of this paragraph, the actual thrift investment percentage of an association on July 15, 1989, shall be determined by applying the definition of “actual thrift investment percentage” that takes effect on July 1, 1991.

(n)
Tying restrictions

A savings and loan holding company and any of its affiliates shall be subject to section 1464(q) of this title and regulations prescribed under such section, in connection with transactions involving the products or services of such company or affiliate and those of an affiliated savings association as if such company or affiliate were a savings association.

(o)
Mutual holding companies
(1)
In general
A savings association operating in mutual form may reorganize so as to become a holding company by—
(A) chartering an interim savings association, the stock of which is to be wholly owned, except as otherwise provided in this section, by the mutual association; and
(B) transferring the substantial part of its assets and liabilities, including all of its insured liabilities, to the interim savings association.
(2)
Directors and certain account holders’ approval of plan required
A reorganization is not authorized under this subsection unless—
(A) a plan providing for such reorganization has been approved by a majority of the board of directors of the mutual savings association; and
(B) in the case of an association in which holders of accounts and obligors exercise voting rights, such plan has been submitted to and approved by a majority of such individuals at a meeting held at the call of the directors in accordance with the procedures prescribed by the association’s charter and bylaws.
(3)
Notice to the Board; disapproval period
(A)
Notice required

At least 60 days prior to taking any action described in paragraph (1), a savings association seeking to establish a mutual holding company shall provide written notice to the Board. The notice shall contain such relevant information as the Board shall require by regulation or by specific request in connection with any particular notice.

(B)
Transaction allowed if not disapproved

Unless the Board within such 60-day notice period disapproves the proposed holding company formation, or extends for another 30 days the period during which such disapproval may be issued, the savings association providing such notice may proceed with the transaction, if the requirements of paragraph (2) have been met.

(C)
Grounds for disapproval
The Board may disapprove any proposed holding company formation only if—
(i) such disapproval is necessary to prevent unsafe or unsound practices;
(ii) the financial or management resources of the savings association involved warrant disapproval;
(iii) the savings association fails to furnish the information required under subparagraph (A); or
(iv) the savings association fails to comply with the requirement of paragraph (2).
(D)
Retention of capital assets

In connection with the transaction described in paragraph (1), a savings association may, subject to the approval of the Board, retain capital assets at the holding company level to the extent that such capital exceeds the association’s capital requirement established by the Board pursuant to subsections (s) and (t) of section 1464 of this title.

(4)
Ownership
(A)
In general

Persons having ownership rights in the mutual association pursuant to section 1464(b)(1)(B) of this title or State law shall have the same ownership rights with respect to the mutual holding company.

(B)
Holders of certain accounts
Holders of savings, demand or other accounts of—
(i) a savings association chartered as part of a transaction described in paragraph (1); or
(ii) a mutual savings association acquired pursuant to paragraph (5)(B),
shall have the same ownership rights with respect to the mutual holding company as persons described in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph.
(5)
Permitted activities
A mutual holding company may engage only in the following activities:
(A) Investing in the stock of a savings association.
(B) Acquiring a mutual association through the merger of such association into a savings association subsidiary of such holding company or an interim savings association subsidiary of such holding company.
(C) Subject to paragraph (6), merging with or acquiring another holding company, one of whose subsidiaries is a savings association.
(D) Investing in a corporation the capital stock of which is available for purchase by a savings association under Federal law or under the law of any State where the subsidiary savings association or associations have their home offices.
(E) Engaging in the activities described in subsection (c)(2) or (c)(9)(A)(ii).
(6)
Limitations on certain activities of acquired holding companies
(A)
New activities

If a mutual holding company acquires or merges with another holding company under paragraph (5)(C), the holding company acquired or the holding company resulting from such merger or acquisition may only invest in assets and engage in activities which are authorized under paragraph (5).

(B)
Grace period for divesting prohibited assets or discontinuing prohibited activities
Not later than 2 years following a merger or acquisition described in paragraph (5)(C), the acquired holding company or the holding company resulting from such merger or acquisition shall—
(i) dispose of any asset which is an asset in which a mutual holding company may not invest under paragraph (5); and
(ii) cease any activity which is an activity in which a mutual holding company may not engage under paragraph (5).
(7)
Regulation

A mutual holding company shall be chartered by the Board and shall be subject to such regulations as the Board may prescribe. Unless the context otherwise requires, a mutual holding company shall be subject to the other requirements of this section regarding regulation of holding companies.

(8)
Capital improvement
(A)
Pledge of stock of savings association subsidiary

This section shall not prohibit a mutual holding company from pledging all or a portion of the stock of a savings association chartered as part of a transaction described in paragraph (1) to raise capital for such savings association.

(B)
Issuance of nonvoting shares

This section shall not prohibit a savings association chartered as part of a transaction described in paragraph (1) from issuing any nonvoting shares or less than 50 percent of the voting shares of such association to any person other than the mutual holding company.

(9)
Insolvency and liquidation
(A)
In general
Notwithstanding any provision of law, upon—
(i)
the default of any savings association—
(I) the stock of which is owned by any mutual holding company; and(II) which was chartered in a transaction described in paragraph (1);
(ii) the default of a mutual holding company; or
(iii) a foreclosure on a pledge by a mutual holding company described in paragraph (8)(A),
a trustee shall be appointed receiver of such mutual holding company and such trustee shall have the authority to liquidate the assets of, and satisfy the liabilities of, such mutual holding company pursuant to title 11.
(B)
Distribution of net proceeds

Except as provided in subparagraph (C), the net proceeds of any liquidation of any mutual holding company pursuant to subparagraph (A) shall be transferred to persons who hold ownership interests in such mutual holding company.

(C)
Recovery by Corporation

If the Corporation incurs a loss as a result of the default of any savings association subsidiary of a mutual holding company which is liquidated pursuant to subparagraph (A), the Corporation shall succeed to the ownership interests of the depositors of such savings association in the mutual holding company, to the extent of the Corporation’s loss.

(10)
Definitions
For purposes of this subsection—
(A)
Mutual holding company

The term “mutual holding company” means a corporation organized as a holding company under this subsection.

(B)
Mutual association

The term “mutual association” means a savings association which is operating in mutual form.

(C)
Default

The term “default” means an adjudication or other official determination of a court of competent jurisdiction or other public authority pursuant to which a conservator, receiver, or other legal custodian is appointed.

(11)
Dividends
(A)
Declaration of dividends
(i)
Advance notice required

Each subsidiary of a mutual holding company that is a savings association shall give the appropriate Federal banking agency and the Board notice not later than 30 days before the date of a proposed declaration by the board of directors of the savings association of any dividend on the guaranty, permanent, or other nonwithdrawable stock of the savings association.

(ii)
Invalid dividends

Any dividend described in clause (i) that is declared without giving notice to the appropriate Federal banking agency and the Board under clause (i), or that is declared during the 30-day period preceding the date of a proposed declaration for which notice is given to the appropriate Federal banking agency and the Board under clause (i), shall be invalid and shall confer no rights or benefits upon the holder of any such stock.

(B)
Waiver of dividends
A mutual holding company may waive the right to receive any dividend declared by a subsidiary of the mutual holding company, if—
(i) no insider of the mutual holding company, associate of an insider, or tax-qualified or non-tax-qualified employee stock benefit plan of the mutual holding company holds any share of the stock in the class of stock to which the waiver would apply; or
(ii) the mutual holding company gives written notice to the Board of the intent of the mutual holding company to waive the right to receive dividends, not later than 30 days before the date of the proposed date of payment of the dividend, and the Board does not object to the waiver.
(C)
Resolution included in waiver notice

A notice of a waiver under subparagraph (B) shall include a copy of the resolution of the board of directors of the mutual holding company, in such form and substance as the Board may determine, together with any supporting materials relied upon by the board of directors of the mutual holding company, concluding that the proposed dividend waiver is consistent with the fiduciary duties of the board of directors to the mutual members of the mutual holding company.

(D)
Standards for waiver of dividend
The Board may not object to a waiver of dividends under subparagraph (B) if—
(i) the waiver would not be detrimental to the safe and sound operation of the savings association;
(ii) the board of directors of the mutual holding company expressly determines that a waiver of the dividend by the mutual holding company is consistent with the fiduciary duties of the board of directors to the mutual members of the mutual holding company; and
(iii)
the mutual holding company has, prior to December 1, 2009
(I) reorganized into a mutual holding company under this subsection;(II) issued minority stock either from its mid-tier stock holding company or its subsidiary stock savings association; and(III) waived dividends it had a right to receive from the subsidiary stock savings association.
(E)
Valuation
(i)
In general

The appropriate Federal banking agency shall consider waived dividends in determining an appropriate exchange ratio in the event of a full conversion to stock form.

(ii)
Exception

In the case of a savings association that has reorganized into a mutual holding company, has issued minority stock from a mid-tier stock holding company or a subsidiary stock savings association of the mutual holding company, and has waived dividends it had a right to receive from a subsidiary savings association before December 1, 2009, the appropriate Federal banking agency shall not consider waived dividends in determining an appropriate exchange ratio in the event of a full conversion to stock form.

(p)
Holding company activities constituting serious risk to subsidiary savings association
(1)
Determination and imposition of restrictions
If the Board or the appropriate Federal banking agency for the savings association determines that there is reasonable cause to believe that the continuation by a savings and loan holding company of any activity constitutes a serious risk to the financial safety, soundness, or stability of a savings and loan holding company’s subsidiary savings association, the Board may impose such restrictions as the Board, in consultation with the appropriate Federal banking agency for the savings association determines to be necessary to address such risk. Such restrictions shall be issued in the form of a directive to the holding company and any of its subsidiaries, limiting—
(A) the payment of dividends by the savings association;
(B) transactions between the savings association, the holding company, and the subsidiaries or affiliates of either; and
(C) any activities of the savings association that might create a serious risk that the liabilities of the holding company and its other affiliates may be imposed on the savings association.
Such directive shall be effective as a cease and desist order that has become final.
(2)
Review of directive
(A)
Administrative review

After a directive referred to in paragraph (1) is issued, the savings and loan holding company, or any subsidiary of such holding company subject to the directive, may object and present in writing its reasons why the directive should be modified or rescinded. Unless within 10 days after receipt of such response the Board affirms, modifies, or rescinds the directive, such directive shall automatically lapse.

(B)
Judicial review

If the Board affirms or modifies a directive pursuant to subparagraph (A), any affected party may immediately thereafter petition the United States district court for the district in which the savings and loan holding company has its main office or in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia to stay, modify, terminate or set aside the directive. Upon a showing of extraordinary cause, the savings and loan holding company, or any subsidiary of such holding company subject to a directive, may petition a United States district court for relief without first pursuing or exhausting the administrative remedies set forth in this paragraph.

(q)
Qualified stock issuance by undercapitalized savings associations or holding companies
(1)
In general
For purposes of this section, any issue of shares of stock shall be treated as a qualified stock issuance if the following conditions are met:
(A)
The shares of stock are issued by—
(i) an undercapitalized savings association; or
(ii) a savings and loan holding company which is not a bank holding company but which controls an undercapitalized savings association if, at the time of issuance, the savings and loan holding company is legally obligated to contribute the net proceeds from the issuance of such stock to the capital of an undercapitalized savings association subsidiary of such holding company.
(B) All shares of stock issued consist of previously unissued stock or treasury shares.
(C) All shares of stock issued are purchased by a savings and loan holding company that is registered, as of the date of purchase, with the Board in accordance with the provisions of subsection (b)(1) of this section.
(D) Subject to paragraph (2), the Board approved the purchase of the shares of stock by the acquiring savings and loan holding company.
(E) The entire consideration for the stock issued is paid in cash by the acquiring savings and loan holding company.
(F) At the time of the stock issuance, each savings association subsidiary of the acquiring savings and loan holding company (other than an association acquired in a transaction pursuant to subsection (c) or (k) of section 1823 of this title or section 408(m) 3 of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1730a(m)]) has capital (after deducting any subordinated debt, intangible assets, and deferred, unamortized gains or losses) of not less than 6½ percent of the total assets of such savings association.
(G) Immediately after the stock issuance, the acquiring savings and loan holding company holds not more than 15 percent of the outstanding voting stock of the issuing undercapitalized savings association or savings and loan holding company.
(H) Not more than one of the directors of the issuing association or company is an officer, director, employee, or other representative of the acquiring company or any of its affiliates.
(I) Transactions between the savings association or savings and loan holding company that issues the shares pursuant to this section and the acquiring company and any of its affiliates shall be subject to the provisions of section 1468 of this title.
(2)
Approval of acquisitions
(A)
Additional capital commitments not required

The Board shall not disapprove any application for the purchase of stock in connection with a qualified stock issuance on the grounds that the acquiring savings and loan holding company has failed to undertake to make subsequent additional capital contributions to maintain the capital of the undercapitalized savings association at or above the minimum level required by the Board or any other Federal agency having jurisdiction.

(B)
Other conditions
Notwithstanding subsection (a)(4), the Board may impose such conditions on any approval of an application for the purchase of stock in connection with a qualified stock issuance as the Board determines to be appropriate, including—
(i) a requirement that any savings association subsidiary of the acquiring savings and loan holding company limit dividends paid to such holding company for such period of time as the Board may require; and
(ii) such other conditions as the Board deems necessary or appropriate to prevent evasions of this section.
(C)
Application deemed approved if not disapproved within 90 days

An application for approval of a purchase of stock in connection with a qualified stock issuance shall be deemed to have been approved by the Board if such application has not been disapproved by the Board before the end of the 90-day period beginning on the date such application has been deemed sufficient under regulations issued by the Board.

(3)
No limitation on class of stock issued

The shares of stock issued in connection with a qualified stock issuance may be shares of any class.

(4)
“Undercapitalized savings association” defined
For purposes of this subsection, the term “undercapitalized savings association” means any savings association—
(A) the assets of which exceed the liabilities of such association; and
(B) which does not comply with one or more of the capital standards in effect under section 1464(t) of this title.
(r)
Penalty for failure to provide timely and accurate reports
(1)
First tier
Any savings and loan holding company, and any subsidiary of such holding company, which—
(A)
maintains procedures reasonably adapted to avoid any inadvertent and unintentional error and, as a result of such an error—
(i) fails to submit or publish any report or information required under this section or regulations prescribed by the Board or appropriate Federal banking agency, within the period of time specified by the Board or appropriate Federal banking agency; or
(ii) submits or publishes any false or misleading report or information; or
(B) inadvertently transmits or publishes any report which is minimally late,
shall be subject to a penalty of not more than $2,000 for each day during which such failure continues or such false or misleading information is not corrected. Such holding company or subsidiary shall have the burden of proving by a preponderence 8
8 So in original. Probably should be “preponderance”.
of the evidence that an error was inadvertent and unintentional and that a report was inadvertently transmitted or published late.
(2)
Second tier
Any savings and loan holding company, and any subsidiary of such holding company, which—
(A) fails to submit or publish any report or information required under this section or under regulations prescribed by the Board or appropriate Federal banking agency, within the period of time specified by the Board or appropriate Federal banking agency; or
(B) submits or publishes any false or misleading report or information,
in a manner not described in paragraph (1) shall be subject to a penalty of not more than $20,000 for each day during which such failure continues or such false or misleading information is not corrected.
(3)
Third tier

If any savings and loan holding company or any subsidiary of such a holding company knowingly or with reckless disregard for the accuracy of any information or report described in paragraph (2) submits or publishes any false or misleading report or information, the Board or appropriate Federal banking agency may assess a penalty of not more than $1,000,000 or 1 percent of total assets of such company or subsidiary, whichever is less, per day for each day during which such failure continues or such false or misleading information is not corrected.

(4)
Assessment

Any penalty imposed under paragraph (1), (2), or (3) shall be assessed and collected by the Board or appropriate Federal banking agency in the manner provided in subparagraphs (E), (F), (G), and (I) of section 1818(i)(2) of this title (for penalties imposed under such section) and any such assessment (including the determination of the amount of the penalty) shall be subject to the provisions of such subsection.

(5)
Hearing

Any savings and loan holding company or any subsidiary of such a holding company against which any penalty is assessed under this subsection shall be afforded a hearing if such savings and loan holding company or such subsidiary, as the case may be, submits a request for such hearing within 20 days after the issuance of the notice of assessment. Section 1818(h) of this title shall apply to any proceeding under this subsection.

(s)
Mergers, consolidations, and other acquisitions authorized
(1)
In general

Subject to sections 1815(d)(3) 3 and 1828(c) of this title and all other applicable laws, any Federal savings association may acquire or be acquired by any insured depository institution.

(2)
Expedited approval of acquisitions
(A)
In general

Any application by a savings association to acquire or be acquired by another insured depository institution which is required to be filed with the appropriate Federal banking agency for the savings association under any applicable law or regulation shall be approved or disapproved in writing by the appropriate Federal banking agency for the savings association before the end of the 60-day period beginning on the date such application is filed with the agency.

(B)
Extension of period
The period for approval or disapproval referred to in subparagraph (A) may be extended for an additional 30-day period if the appropriate Federal banking agency for the savings association determines that—
(i) an applicant has not furnished all of the information required to be submitted; or
(ii) in the judgment of the appropriate Federal banking agency for the savings association, any material information submitted is substantially inaccurate or incomplete.
(3)
“Acquire” defined

(4)
Regulations
(A)
Required

The Comptroller shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out paragraph (1).

(B)
Effective date
The regulations required under subparagraph (A) shall—
(i) be prescribed in final form before the end of the 90-day period beginning on December 19, 1991; and
(ii) take effect before the end of the 120-day period beginning on December 19, 1991.
(5)
Limitation

No provision of this section shall be construed to authorize a national bank or any subsidiary thereof to engage in any activity not otherwise authorized under the National Bank Act [12 U.S.C. 21 et seq.] or any other law governing the powers of a national bank.

(t)
Exemption for bank holding companies

This section shall not apply to a bank holding company that is subject to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 [12 U.S.C. 1841 et seq.], or any company controlled by such bank holding company.

(June 13, 1933, ch. 64, § 10, as added Pub. L. 100–86, title IV, § 404(a), Aug. 10, 1987, 101 Stat. 609; amended Pub. L. 101–73, title III, §§ 301, 303(a), title IX, §§ 905(j), 907(k), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 318, 343, 462, 475; Pub. L. 102–242, title II, § 211, title IV, §§ 437–440, title V, § 502(a), Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2298, 2381, 2392; Pub. L. 102–550, title XVI, §§ 1606(f)(4), 1607(b), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4088, 4089; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title X, § 1077, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2664; Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title II, §§ 2201(b)(2), 2203(a)–(c), 2303(e), (g), 2704(d)(12)(B), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–403, 3009–404, 3009–424, 3009–425, 3009–490; Pub. L. 106–102, title IV, § 401(a), (b), title VI, § 604(d), Nov. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1434, 1436, 1452; Pub. L. 106–569, title XII, §§ 1201(b)(2), 1202, Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 3032; Pub. L. 109–171, title II, § 2102(b), Feb. 8, 2006, 120 Stat. 9; Pub. L. 109–173, § 9(e)(2), Feb. 15, 2006, 119 Stat. 3617; Pub. L. 111–203, title III, § 369(8), title VI, §§ 604(g), (h)(2), (i), 606(b), 616(b), 623(c)–625(a), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1564, 1602–1604, 1607, 1615, 1635, 1636.)
§ 1467b.
Intermediate holding companies
(a)
Definition
For purposes of this section:
(1)
Financial activities

The term “financial activities” means activities described in clauses (i) and (ii) of section 1467a(c)(9)(A) of this title.

(2)
Grandfathered unitary savings and loan holding company

The term “grandfathered unitary savings and loan holding company” means a company described in section 1467a(c)(9)(C) of this title.

(3)
Internal financial activities
The term “internal financial activities” includes—
(A) internal financial activities conducted by a grandfathered savings and loan holding company or any affiliate; and
(B) internal treasury, investment, and employee benefit functions.
(b)
Requirement
(1)
In general
(A)
Activities other than financial activities

If a grandfathered unitary savings and loan holding company conducts activities other than financial activities, the Board may require such company to establish and conduct all or a portion of such financial activities in or through an intermediate holding company, which shall be a savings and loan holding company, established pursuant to regulations of the Board, not later than 90 days (or such longer period as the Board may deem appropriate) after the transfer date.1

1 See References in Text note below.

(B)
Other activities
Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), the Board shall require a grandfathered unitary savings and loan holding company to establish an intermediate holding company if the Board makes a determination that the establishment of such intermediate holding company is necessary—
(i) to appropriately supervise activities that are determined to be financial activities; or
(ii) to ensure that supervision by the Board does not extend to the activities of such company that are not financial activities.
(2)
Internal financial activities
(A)
Treatment of internal financial activities

For purposes of this subsection, the internal financial activities of a grandfathered unitary savings and loan holding company shall not be required to be placed in an intermediate holding company.

(B)
Grandfathered activities
A grandfathered unitary savings and loan holding company may continue to engage in an internal financial activity, subject to review by the Board to determine whether engaging in such activity presents undue risk to the grandfathered unitary savings and loan holding company or to the financial stability of the United States, if—
(i) the grandfathered unitary savings and loan holding company engaged in the activity during the year before July 21, 2010; and
(ii) at least ⅔ of the assets or ⅔ of the revenues generated from the activity are from or attributable to the grandfathered unitary savings and loan holding company.
(3)
Source of strength

A grandfathered unitary savings and loan holding company that directly or indirectly controls an intermediate holding company established under this section shall serve as a source of strength to its subsidiary intermediate holding company.

(4)
Parent company reports

The Board, may from time to time, examine and require reports under oath from a grandfathered unitary savings and loan holding company that controls an intermediate holding company, and from the appropriate officers or directors of such company, solely for purposes of ensuring compliance with the provisions of this section, including assessing the ability of the company to serve as a source of strength to its subsidiary intermediate holding company as required under paragraph (3) and enforcing compliance with such requirement.

(5)
Limited parent company enforcement
(A)
In general

In addition to any other authority of the Board, the Board may enforce compliance with the provisions of this subsection that are applicable to any company described in paragraph (1)(A) that controls an intermediate holding company under section 8 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1818], and a company described in paragraph (1)(A) shall be subject to such section (solely for purposes of this subparagraph) in the same manner and to the same extent as if the company described in paragraph (1)(A) were a savings and loan holding company.

(B)
Application of other Act

Any violation of this subsection by a grandfathered unitary savings and loan holding company that controls an intermediate holding company may also be treated as a violation of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1811 et seq.] for purposes of subparagraph (A).

(C)
No effect on other authority

No provision of this paragraph shall be construed as limiting any authority of the Board or any other Federal agency under any other provision of law.

(c)
Regulations
The Board—
(1) shall promulgate regulations to establish the criteria for determining whether to require a grandfathered unitary savings and loan holding company to establish an intermediate holding company under subsection (b); and
(2) may promulgate regulations to establish any restrictions or limitations on transactions between an intermediate holding company or a parent of such company and its affiliates, as necessary to prevent unsafe and unsound practices in connection with transactions between the intermediate holding company, or any subsidiary thereof, and its parent company or affiliates that are not subsidiaries of the intermediate holding company, except that such regulations shall not restrict or limit any transaction in connection with the bona fide acquisition or lease by an unaffiliated person of assets, goods, or services.
(d)
Rules of construction
(1)
Activities

Nothing in this section shall be construed to require a grandfathered unitary savings and loan holding company to conform its activities to permissible activities.

(2)
Permissible corporate reorganization

The formation of an intermediate holding company as required in subsection (b) shall be presumed to be a permissible corporate reorganization as described in section 1467a(c)(9)(D) of this title.

(June 13, 1933, ch. 64, § 10A, as added Pub. L. 111–203, title VI, § 626, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1638.)
§ 1468.
Transactions with affiliates; extensions of credit to executive officers, directors, and principal shareholders
(a)
Affiliate transactions
(1)
In general
Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act [12 U.S.C. 371c and 371c–1] shall apply to every savings association in the same manner and to the same extent as if the savings association were a member bank (as defined in such Act [12 U.S.C. 221 et seq.]), except that—
(A) no loan or other extension of credit may be made to any affiliate unless that affiliate is engaged only in activities described in section 1467a(c)(2)(F)(i) of this title; and
(B) no savings association may enter into any transaction described in section 23A(b)(7)(B) of the Federal Reserve Act with any affiliate other than with respect to shares of a subsidiary.
(2)
Sister bank exemption made available to savings associations
(A)
Savings associations controlled by bank holding companies

Every savings association more than 80 percent of the voting stock of which is owned by a company described in section 1467a(c)(8) of this title shall be treated as a bank for purposes of section 23A(d)(1) and section 23B of the Federal Reserve Act, if every savings association and bank controlled by such company complies with all applicable capital requirements on a fully phased-in basis and without reliance on goodwill.

(B)
Savings associations generally

Effective on and after January 1, 1995, every savings association shall be treated as a bank for purposes of section 23A(d)(1) and section 23B of the Federal Reserve Act.

(3)
Affiliates described

Any company that would be an affiliate (as defined in sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act) of any savings association if such savings association were a member bank (as such term is defined in such Act) shall be deemed to be an affiliate of such savings association for purposes of paragraph (1).

(4)
Additional restrictions authorized

The appropriate Federal banking agency may impose such additional restrictions on any transaction between any savings association and any affiliate of such savings association as the appropriate Federal banking agency determines to be necessary to protect the safety and soundness of the savings association.

(b)
Extensions of credit to executive officers, directors, and principal shareholders
(1)
In general

Subsections (g) and (h) of section 22 of the Federal Reserve Act [12 U.S.C. 375a, 375b] shall apply to every savings association in the same manner and to the same extent as if the savings association were a member bank (as defined in such Act).

(2)
Additional restrictions authorized

The appropriate Federal banking agency may impose such additional restrictions on loans or extensions of credit to any appropriate Federal banking agency or executive officer of any savings association, or any person who directly or indirectly owns, controls, or has the power to vote more than 10 percent of any class of voting securities of a savings association, as the appropriate Federal banking agency determines to be necessary to protect the safety and soundness of the savings association.

(c)
Administrative enforcement

The appropriate Federal banking agency may take enforcement action with respect to violations of this section pursuant to section 8 or 18(j) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1818 or 1828(j)], as appropriate.

(d)
Exemptions
(1)
Federal savings associations
The Comptroller of the Currency may, by order, exempt a transaction of a Federal savings association from the requirements of this section if—
(A) the Board and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency jointly find the exemption to be in the public interest and consistent with the purposes of this section and notify the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation of such finding; and
(B) before the end of the 60-day period beginning on the date on which the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation receives notice of the finding under subparagraph (A), the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation does not object, in writing, to the finding, based on a determination that the exemption presents an unacceptable risk to the Deposit Insurance Fund.
(2)
State savings association
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation may, by order, exempt a transaction of a State savings association from the requirements of this section if the Board and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation jointly find that—
(A) the exemption is in the public interest and consistent with the purposes of this section; and
(B) the exemption does not present an unacceptable risk to the Deposit Insurance Fund.
(June 13, 1933, ch. 64, § 11, formerly § 9, 48 Stat. 135; Apr. 27, 1934, ch. 168, § 15, 48 Stat. 647; renumbered § 11, Pub. L. 100–86, title IV, § 402(a), Aug. 10, 1987, 101 Stat. 605; Pub. L. 101–73, title III, § 301, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 342; Pub. L. 102–242, title III, § 306(i), Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2359; Pub. L. 103–325, title III, § 316, Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2223; Pub. L. 111–203, title III, § 369(9), title VI, § 608(c), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1565, 1610.)
§ 1468a.
Advertising

No savings association shall carry on any sale, plan, or practices, or any advertising, in violation of regulations promulgated by a Federal banking agency.

(June 13, 1933, ch. 64, § 12, as added Pub. L. 101–73, title III, § 301, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 343; amended Pub. L. 111–203, title III, § 369(10), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1565.)
§ 1468b.
Powers of examiners
For the purposes of this chapter, examiners appointed by the a 1
1 So in original.
Federal banking agency shall—
(1) be subject to the same requirements, responsibilities, and penalties as are applicable to examiners under the Federal Reserve Act [12 U.S.C. 221 et seq.] and title LXII of the Revised Statutes; and
(2) have, in the exercise of functions under this chapter, the same powers and privileges as are vested in such examiners by law.
(June 13, 1933, ch. 64, § 13, as added Pub. L. 101–73, title III, § 301, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 343; amended Pub. L. 111–203, title III, § 369(11), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1565.)
§ 1468c.
Separability

If any provision of this chapter, or the application thereof to any person or circumstances, is held invalid, the remainder of the chapter, and the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances, shall not be affected thereby.

(June 13, 1933, ch. 64, § 14, as added Pub. L. 101–73, title III, § 301, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 343.)
§ 1469.
Authority to invest in State housing corporations

The Congress finds that Federal savings and loan associations and national banks should have the authority to assist in financing the organization and operation of any State housing corporation established under the laws of the State in which the corporation will carry on its operation. It is the purpose of this section to provide a means whereby private financial institutions can assist in providing housing, particularly for families of low- or moderate-income, by purchasing stock of and investing in loans to any such State housing corporation situated in the particular State in which the Federal savings and loan association or national bank involved is located.

(Pub. L. 93–100, § 5(a), Aug. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 343.)
§ 1470.
Federal supervision of insured institutions, State member and nonmember banks; access to information; definitions
(a)
(1) The appropriate Federal banking agency, with respect to the institutions subject to the jurisdiction of each such agency, shall by appropriate rule, regulation, order, or otherwise regulate investment in State housing corporations.
(2) A State housing corporation in which financial institutions invest under the authority of this section shall make available to the appropriate Federal banking agency referred to in paragraph (1) such information as may be necessary to insure that investments are properly made in accordance with this section.
(b)
For the purposes of this section and any Act amended by this section—
(1) The term “insured institution” has the same meaning as in section 401(a) of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1724(a)].1
1 See References in Text note below.
(2) The terms “State member insured banks” and “State nonmember insured banks” have the same meaning as when used in the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1811 et seq.].
(3) The term “State housing corporation” means a corporation established by a State for the limited purpose of providing housing and incidental services, particularly for families of low or moderate income.
(4) The term “State” means any State, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.
(Pub. L. 93–100, § 5(d), (e), Aug. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 344; Pub. L. 111–203, title III, § 375, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1566.)