Collapse to view only § 1951. Congressional findings and declaration of purpose

§ 1951.
Congressional findings and declaration of purpose
(a) The Congress finds that certain records maintained by businesses engaged in the functions described in section 1953(b) of this title have a high degree of usefulness in criminal, tax, and regulatory investigations and proceedings. The Congress further finds that the power to require reports of changes in the ownership, control, and managements of types of financial institutions referred to in section 1952 of this title may be necessary for the same purpose.
(b) It is the purpose of this chapter to require the maintenance of appropriate types of rec­ords and the making of appropriate reports by such businesses in the United States where such records or reports have a high degree of usefulness in criminal, tax, or regulatory investigations or proceedings.
(Pub. L. 91–508, title I, § 121, Oct. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 1116.)
§ 1952.
Reports on ownership and control

Where the Secretary determines that the making of appropriate reports by uninsured banks or uninsured institutions of any type with respect to their ownership, control, and managements and any changes therein has a high degree of usefulness in criminal, tax, or regulatory investigations or proceedings, he may by regulation require such banks or institutions to make such reports as he determines in respect of such ownership, control, and managements and changes therein.

(Pub. L. 91–508, title I, § 122, Oct. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 1116.)
§ 1953.
Recordkeeping and procedures
(a)
Regulations
If the Secretary determines that the maintenance of appropriate records and procedures by any uninsured bank or uninsured institution, or any person engaging in the business of carrying on in the United States any of the functions referred to in subsection (b), has a high degree of usefulness in criminal, tax, or regulatory investigations or proceedings, and that, given the threat posed to the security of the Nation on and after the terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001, such records may also have a high degree of usefulness in the conduct of intelligence or counterintelligence activities, including analysis, to protect against international terrorism, he may by regulation require such bank, institution, or person—
(1) to require, retain, or maintain, with respect to its functions as an uninsured bank or uninsured institution or its functions referred to in subsection (b), any records or evidence of any type which the Secretary is authorized under section 1829b of this title to require insured banks to require, retain, or maintain; and
(2) to maintain procedures to assure compliance with requirements imposed under this chapter. For the purposes of any civil or criminal penalty, a separate violation of any requirement under this paragraph occurs with respect to each day and each separate office, branch, or place of business in which the violation occurs or continues.
(b)
Institutions subject to recordkeeping requirements

The authority of the Secretary of the Treasury under subsection (a) extends to any financial institution (as defined in section 5312(a)(2) of title 31), other than any insured bank (as defined in section 1813(h) of this title) and any insured institution (as defined in section 1724(a) 1

1 See References in Text note below.
of this title), and any partner, officer, director, or employee of any such financial institution.

(c)
Acceptance of automated records

The Secretary shall permit an uninsured bank or financial institution to retain or maintain records referred to in subsection (a) in electronic or automated form, subject to terms and conditions established by the Secretary.

(Pub. L. 91–508, title I, § 123, Oct. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 1116; Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, § 6185(d)(3)(A), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4357; Pub. L. 103–325, title III, § 310, Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2221; Pub. L. 107–56, title III, § 358(e), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 327; Pub. L. 108–458, title VI, § 6202(k), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3746.)
§ 1954.
Injunctions

Whenever it appears to the Secretary that any person has engaged, is engaged, or is about to engage in any acts or practices constituting a violation of any regulation under this chapter, he may in his discretion bring an action, in the proper district court of the United States or the proper United States court of any territory or other place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, to enjoin such acts or practices, and upon a proper showing a permanent or temporary injunction or restraining order shall be granted without bond. Upon application of the Secretary, any such court may also issue mandatory injunctions commanding any person to comply with any regulation of the Secretary under this chapter.

(Pub. L. 91–508, title I, § 124, Oct. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 1117.)
§ 1955.
Civil penalties
(a) For each willful or grossly negligent violation of any regulation under this chapter, the Secretary may assess upon any person to which the regulation applies, or any person willfully causing a violation of the regulation, and, if such person is a partnership, corporation, or other entity, upon any partner, director, officer, or employee thereof who willfully or through gross negligence participates in the violation, a civil penalty not exceeding $10,000.
(b) In the event of the failure of any person to pay any penalty assessed under this section, a civil action for the recovery thereof may, in the discretion of the Secretary, be brought in the name of the United States.
(Pub. L. 91–508, title I, § 125, Oct. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 1117; Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, § 6185(d)(3)(B), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4357; Pub. L. 102–550, title XV, § 1535(c)(1), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4067.)
§ 1956.
Criminal penalty

Whoever willfully violates any regulation under this chapter shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

(Pub. L. 91–508, title I, § 126, Oct. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 1118.)
§ 1957.
Additional criminal penalty in certain cases

Whoever willfully violates, or willfully causes a violation of any regulation under this chapter, section 1829b of this title, or section 1730d 1

1 See References in Text note below.
of this title, where the violation is committed in furtherance of the commission of any violation of Federal law punishable by imprisonment for more than one year, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

(Pub. L. 91–508, title I, § 127, Oct. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 1118; Pub. L. 102–550, title XV, § 1535(c)(2), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4067.)
§ 1958.
Compliance

The Secretary shall have the responsibility to assure compliance with the requirements of this chapter and section 1829b of this title and may delegate such responsibility to the appropriate bank supervisory agency, or other supervisory agency. The Secretary may rely on examinations conducted by a State supervisory agency of a category of financial institution, if the Secretary determines that the category of financial institution is required to comply with this chapter and section 1829b of this title (and regulations prescribed under this chapter and section 1829b of this title), or the State supervisory agency examines the category of financial institution for compliance with this chapter and section 1829b of this title (and regulations prescribed under this chapter and section 1829b of this title).

(Pub. L. 91–508, title I, § 128, Oct. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 1118; Pub. L. 113–156, § 2(b), Aug. 8, 2014, 128 Stat. 1829.)
§ 1959.
Administrative procedure

The administrative procedure and judicial review provisions of subchapter II of chapter 5 and chapter 7 of title 5 shall apply to all proceedings under this chapter, section 1829b of this title, and section 1730d 1

1 See References in Text note below.
of this title.

(Pub. L. 91–508, title I, § 129, Oct. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 1118.)
§ 1960.
Safe harbor with respect to keep open directives
(a)
Definition

In this section, the term “financial institution” means an entity to which section 1953(b) of this title applies.

(b)
Safe harbor
With respect to a customer account or customer transaction of a financial institution, if a Federal law enforcement agency, after notifying FinCEN of the intent to submit a written request to the financial institution that the financial institution keep that account or transaction open (referred to in this section as a “keep open request”), or if a State, Tribal, or local law enforcement agency with the concurrence of FinCEN submits a keep open request—
(1) the financial institution shall not be liable under this chapter for maintaining that account or transaction consistent with the parameters and timing of the request; and
(2) no Federal or State department or agency may take any adverse supervisory action under this chapter with respect to the financial institution solely for maintaining that account or transaction consistent with the parameters of the request.
(c)
Rule of construction
Nothing in this section may be construed—
(1) to prevent a Federal or State department or agency from verifying the validity of a keep open request submitted under subsection (b) with the law enforcement agency submitting that request;
(2) to relieve a financial institution from complying with any reporting requirements, including the reporting of suspicious transactions under section 5318(g) of title 31; or
(3)
to extend the safe harbor described in subsection (b) to any actions taken by the financial institution—
(A) before the date of the keep open request to maintain a customer account; or
(B) after the termination date stated in the keep open request.
(d)
Letter termination date

For the purposes of this section, any keep open request submitted under subsection (b) shall include a termination date after which that request shall no longer apply.

(e)
Record keeping
Any Federal, State, Tribal, or local law enforcement agency that submits to a financial institution a keep open request shall, not later than 2 business days after the date on which the request is submitted to the financial institution—
(1) submit to FinCEN a copy of the request; and
(2) alert FinCEN as to whether the financial institution has implemented the request.
(Pub. L. 91–508, title I, § 130, as added Pub. L. 116–283, div. F, title LXIII, § 6306(a)(2), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 4588.)