Collapse to view only § 4401. Findings and purpose

§ 4401.
Findings and purpose
The Congress finds that—
(1) many financial institutions engage daily in thousands of transactions with other financial institutions directly and through clearing organizations;
(2) the efficient processing of such transactions is essential to a smoothly functioning economy;
(3) such transactions can be processed most efficiently if, consistent with applicable contractual terms, obligations among financial institutions are netted;
(4) such netting procedures would reduce the systemic risk within the banking system and financial markets; and
(5) the effectiveness of such netting procedures can be assured only if they are recognized as valid and legally binding in the event of the closing of a financial institution participating in the netting procedures.
(Pub. L. 102–242, title IV, § 401, Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2371.)
§ 4402.
Definitions
For purposes of this subchapter—
(1)
Broker or dealer
The term “broker or dealer” means—
(A) any company that is registered or licensed under Federal or State law to engage in the business of brokering, underwriting, or dealing in securities in the United States; and
(B) to the extent consistent with this title,1
1 See References in Text note below.
as determined by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, any company that is an affiliate of a company described in subparagraph (A) and that is engaged in the business of entering into netting contracts.
(2)
Clearing organization
The term “clearing organization” means a clearinghouse, clearing association, clearing corporation, or similar organization—
(A)
that provides clearing, netting, or settlement services for its members and—
(i) in which all members other than the clearing organization itself are financial institutions or other clearing organizations; or
(ii) which is registered as a clearing agency under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.], or is exempt from such registration by order of the Securities and Exchange Commission; or
(B) that is registered as a derivatives clearing organization under section 7a–1 of title 7, that has been granted an exemption under section 6(c)(1) of title 7, or that is a multilateral clearing organization (as defined in section 4421 1 of this title).
(3)
Covered clearing obligation

The term “covered clearing obligation” means an obligation of a member of a clearing organization to make payment to another member of a clearing organization, subject to a netting contract.

(4)
Covered contractual payment entitlement
The term “covered contractual payment entitlement” means—
(A) an entitlement of a financial institution to receive a payment, subject to a netting contract from another financial institution; and
(B) an entitlement of a member of a clearing organization to receive payment, subject to a netting contract, from another member of a clearing organization of a covered clearing obligation.
(5)
Covered contractual payment obligation
The term “covered contractual payment obligation” means—
(A) an obligation of a financial institution to make payment, subject to a netting contract to another financial institution; and
(B) a covered clearing obligation.
(6)
Depository institution
The term “depository institution” means—
(A) a depository institution as defined in section 19(b)(1)(A) of the Federal Reserve Act [12 U.S.C. 461(b)(1)(A)] (other than clause (vii));
(B) an uninsured national bank or an uninsured State bank that is a member of the Federal Reserve System, if the national bank or State member bank is not eligible to make application to become an insured bank under section 1815 of this title;
(C) a branch or agency of a foreign bank, a foreign bank and any branch or agency of the foreign bank, or the foreign bank that established the branch or agency, as those terms are defined in section 1(b) of the International Banking Act of 1978 [12 U.S.C. 3101];
(D) a corporation chartered under section 25(a) 1 of the Federal Reserve Act [12 U.S.C. 611 et seq.]; or
(E) a corporation having an agreement or undertaking with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System under section 25 of the Federal Reserve Act [12 U.S.C. 601 et seq.].
(7)
Failed financial institution
The term “failed financial institution” means a financial institution that—
(A) fails to satisfy a covered contractual payment obligation when due;
(B) has commenced or had commenced against it insolvency, liquidation, reorganization, receivership (including the appointment of a receiver), conservatorship, or similar proceedings; or
(C) has generally ceased to meet its obligations when due.
(8)
Failed member
The term “failed member” means any member that—
(A) fails to satisfy a covered clearing obligation when due,
(B)
(C) has generally ceased to meet its obligations when due.
(9)
Financial institution

The term “financial institution” means a broker or dealer, a depository institution, a futures commission merchant, or any other institution as determined by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

(10)
Futures commission merchant

The term “futures commission merchant” means a company that is registered or licensed under Federal law to engage in the business of selling futures and options in commodities.

(11)
Member

The term “member” means a member of or participant in a clearing organization, and includes the clearing organization and any other clearing organization with which such clearing organization has a netting contract.

(12)
Net entitlement

The term “net entitlement” means the amount by which the covered contractual payment entitlements of a financial institution or member exceed the covered contractual payment obligations of the institution or member after netting under a netting contract.

(13)
Net obligation

The term “net obligation” means the amount by which the covered contractual payment obligations of a financial institution or member exceed the covered contractual payment entitlements of the institution or member after netting under a netting contract.

(14)
Netting contract
(A)
In general
The term “netting contract”—
(i) means a contract or agreement between 2 or more financial institutions, clearing organizations, or members that provides for netting present or future payment obligations or payment entitlements (including liquidation or close out values relating to such obligations or entitlements) among the parties to the agreement; and
(ii) includes the rules of a clearing organization.
(B)
Invalid contracts not included

The term “netting contract” does not include any contract or agreement that is invalid under or precluded by Federal law.

(15)
Payment

The term “payment” means a payment of United States dollars, another currency, or a composite currency, and a noncash delivery, including a payment or delivery to liquidate an unmatured obligation.

(Pub. L. 102–242, title IV, § 402, Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2372; Pub. L. 102–550, title XVI, § 1606(a), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4087; Pub. L. 106–554, § 1(a)(5) [title I, §§ 112(a)(2), 123(b)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–391, 2763A–411; Pub. L. 109–8, title IX, § 906(a), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 167.)
§ 4403.
Bilateral netting
(a)
General rule

Notwithstanding any other provision of State or Federal law (other than section 1821(e) of this title, section 5390(c) of this title, section 4617 of this title, section 1787(c) of this title, or any order authorized under section 78eee(b)(2) of title 15), the covered contractual payment obligations and the covered contractual payment entitlements between any 2 financial institutions shall be terminated, liquidated, accelerated, and netted in accordance with, and subject to the conditions of, the terms of any applicable netting contract (except as provided in section 561(b)(2) of title 11).

(b)
Limitation on obligation to make payment

The only obligation, if any, of a financial institution to make payment with respect to covered contractual payment obligations to another financial institution shall be equal to its net obligation to such other financial institution, and no such obligation shall exist if there is no net obligation.

(c)
Limitation on right to receive payment

The only right, if any, of a financial institution to receive payments with respect to covered contractual payment entitlements from another financial institution shall be equal to its net entitlement with respect to such other financial institution, and no such right shall exist if there is no net entitlement.

(d)
Payment of net entitlement of failed financial institution

The net entitlement of any failed financial institution, if any, shall be paid to the failed financial institution in accordance with, and subject to the conditions of, the applicable netting contract.

(e)
Effectiveness notwithstanding status as financial institution

This section shall be given effect notwithstanding that a financial institution is a failed financial institution.

(f)
Enforceability of security agreements

The provisions of any security agreement or arrangement or other credit enhancement related to one or more netting contracts between any 2 financial institutions shall be enforceable in accordance with their terms (except as provided in section 561(b)(2) of title 11), and shall not be stayed, avoided, or otherwise limited by any State or Federal law (other than section 1821(e) of this title, section 1787(c) of this title, and section 78eee(b)(2) of title 15).

(Pub. L. 102–242, title IV, § 403, Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2374; Pub. L. 109–8, title IX, § 906(b), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 168; Pub. L. 109–390, § 4(a), Dec. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 2695; Pub. L. 111–203, title II, § 211(c), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1514.)
§ 4404.
Clearing organization netting
(a)
General rule

Notwithstanding any other provision of State or Federal law (other than section 1821(e) of this title, section 1787(c) of this title, and any order authorized under section 78eee(b)(2) of title 15), the covered contractual payment obligations and the covered contractual payment entitlements of a member of a clearing organization to and from all other members of a clearing organization shall be terminated, liquidated, accelerated, and netted in accordance with and subject to the conditions of any applicable netting contract (except as provided in section 561(b)(2) of title 11).

(b)
Limitation of obligation to make payment

The only obligation, if any, of a member of a clearing organization to make payment with respect to covered contractual payment obligations arising under a single netting contract to any other member of a clearing organization shall be equal to its net obligation arising under that netting contract, and no such obligation shall exist if there is no net obligation.

(c)
Limitation on right to receive payment

The only right, if any, of a member of a clearing organization to receive payment with respect to a covered contractual payment entitlement arising under a single netting contract from other members of a clearing organization shall be equal to its net entitlement arising under that netting contract, and no such right shall exist if there is no net entitlement.

(d)
Entitlement of failed members

The net entitlement, if any, of any failed member of a clearing organization shall be paid to the failed member in accordance with, and subject to the conditions of, the applicable netting contract.

(e)
Obligations of failed members

The net obligation, if any, of any failed member of a clearing organization shall be determined in accordance with, and subject to the conditions of, the applicable netting contract.

(f)
Limitation on claims for entitlement

A failed member of a clearing organization shall have no recognizable claim against any member of a clearing organization for any amount based on such covered contractual payment entitlements other than its net entitlement.

(g)
Effectiveness notwithstanding status as member

This section shall be given effect notwithstanding that a member is a failed member.

(h)
Enforceability of security agreements

The provisions of any security agreement or arrangement or other credit enhancement related to one or more netting contracts between any 2 members of a clearing organization shall be enforceable in accordance with their terms (except as provided in section 561(b)(2) of title 11), and shall not be stayed, avoided, or otherwise limited by any State or Federal law (other than section 1821(e) of this title, section 1787(c) of this title, and section 78eee(b)(2) of title 15).

(Pub. L. 102–242, title IV, § 404, Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2374; Pub. L. 109–8, title IX, § 906(c), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 168; Pub. L. 109–390, § 4(b), Dec. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 2695.)
§ 4405.
Preemption

No stay, injunction, avoidance, moratorium, or similar proceeding or order, whether issued or granted by a court, administrative agency, or otherwise, shall limit or delay application of otherwise enforceable netting contracts in accordance with sections 4403 and 4404 of this title.

(Pub. L. 102–242, title IV, § 405
§ 4406.
Relationship to other payments systems

This chapter shall have no effect by implication or otherwise on the validity or legal enforceability of a netting arrangement of any payment system which is not subject to this chapter.

(Pub. L. 102–242, title IV, § 406, Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2375.)
§ 4406a.
Treatment of contracts with uninsured national banks, uninsured Federal branches and agencies, certain uninsured State member banks, and Edge Act corporations
(a)
In general
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, paragraphs (8), (9), (10), and (11) of section 11(e) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1821(e)] shall apply to an uninsured national bank or uninsured Federal branch or Federal agency, a corporation chartered under section 25A of the Federal Reserve Act [12 U.S.C. 611 et seq.], or an uninsured State member bank which operates, or operates as, a multilateral clearing organization pursuant to section 4422 1
1 See References in Text note below.
of this title, except that for such purpose—
(1) any reference to the “Corporation as receiver” or “the receiver or the Corporation” shall refer to the receiver appointed by the Comptroller of the Currency in the case of an uninsured national bank or uninsured Federal branch or agency, or to the receiver appointed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in the case of a corporation chartered under section 25A of the Federal Reserve Act [12 U.S.C. 611 et seq.] or an uninsured State member bank;
(2) any reference to the “Corporation” (other than in section 11(e)(8)(D) of such Act [12 U.S.C. 1821(e)(8)(D)]), the “Corporation, whether acting as such or as conservator or receiver”, a “receiver”, or a “conservator” shall refer to the receiver or conservator appointed by the Comptroller of the Currency in the case of an uninsured national bank or uninsured Federal branch or agency, or to the receiver or conservator appointed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in the case of a corporation chartered under section 25A of the Federal Reserve Act [12 U.S.C. 611 et seq.] or an uninsured State member bank; and
(3) any reference to an “insured depository institution” or “depository institution” shall refer to an uninsured national bank, an uninsured Federal branch or Federal agency, a corporation chartered under section 25A of the Federal Reserve Act [12 U.S.C. 611 et seq.], or an uninsured State member bank which operates, or operates as, a multilateral clearing organization pursuant to section 4422 1 of this title.
(b)
Liability

The liability of a receiver or conservator of an uninsured national bank, uninsured Federal branch or agency, a corporation chartered under section 25A of the Federal Reserve Act [12 U.S.C. 611 et seq.], or an uninsured State member bank which operates, or operates as, a multilateral clearing organization pursuant to section 4422 1 of this title, shall be determined in the same manner and subject to the same limitations that apply to receivers and conservators of insured depository institutions under section 11(e) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1821(e)].

(c)
Regulatory authority
(1)
In general

The Comptroller of the Currency in the case of an uninsured national bank or uninsured Federal branch or agency and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in the case of a corporation chartered under section 25A of the Federal Reserve Act [12 U.S.C. 611 et seq.], or an uninsured State member bank that operates, or operates as, a multilateral clearing organization pursuant to section 4422 1 of this title, in consultation with the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, may each promulgate regulations solely to implement this section.

(2)
Specific requirement

In promulgating regulations, limited solely to implementing paragraphs (8), (9), (10), and (11) of section 11(e) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1821(e)], the Comptroller of the Currency and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System each shall ensure that the regulations generally are consistent with the regulations and policies of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation adopted pursuant to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1811 et seq.].

(d)
Definitions

For purposes of this section, the terms “Federal branch”, “Federal agency”, and “foreign bank” have the same meanings as in section 3101 of this title.

(Pub. L. 102–242, title IV, § 407, as added Pub. L. 109–8, title IX, § 906(d)(2), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 169.)
§ 4407.
National emergencies

The provisions of this chapter may not be construed to limit the authority of the President under the Trading With the Enemy Act (50 U.S.C. App. 1 et seq.) [now 50 U.S.C. 4301 et seq.] or the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.).

(Pub. L. 102–242, title IV, § 407A, formerly § 407, Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2375; renumbered § 407A, Pub. L. 109–8, title IX, § 906(d)(1), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 169.)