- § 1451. Congressional findings
- § 1452. Congressional declaration of policy
- § 1453. Definitions
- § 1454. Submittal of State program for approval
- § 1455. Administrative grants
- § 1455a. Coastal resource improvement program
- § 1455b. Protecting coastal waters
- § 1456. Coordination and cooperation
- § 1456-1. Authorization of the Coastal and Estuarine Land Conservation Program
- § 1456a. Coastal Zone Management Fund
- § 1456b. Coastal zone enhancement grants
- § 1456c. Technical assistance
- § 1456d. Coastal and Estuarine Land Conservation Program
- § 1457. Public hearings
- § 1458. Review of performance
- § 1459. Records and audit
- § 1460. Walter B. Jones excellence in coastal zone management awards
- § 1461. National Estuarine Research Reserve System
- § 1462. Coastal zone management reports
- § 1463. Rules and regulations
- § 1463a. Omitted
- § 1463b. National Coastal Resources Research and Development Institute
- § 1464. Authorization of appropriations
- § 1465. Appeals to the Secretary
- § 1466. Appeals relating to offshore mineral development
- § 1467. Establishment of the Digital Coast
Any coastal state which has completed the development of its management program shall submit such program to the Secretary for review and approval pursuant to section 1455 of this title.
The Secretary may make a grant to a coastal state under subsection (a) only if the Secretary finds that the management program of the coastal state meets all applicable requirements of this chapter and has been approved in accordance with subsection (d).
Grants under this section shall be allocated to coastal states with approved programs based on rules and regulations promulgated by the Secretary which shall take into account the extent and nature of the shoreline and area covered by the program, population of the area, and other relevant factors. The Secretary shall establish, after consulting with the coastal states, maximum and minimum grants for any fiscal year to promote equity between coastal states and effective coastal management.
With the approval of the Secretary, an eligible coastal state may allocate to a local government, an areawide agency designated under section 3334 of title 42, a regional agency, or an interstate agency, a portion of any grant made under this section for the purpose of carrying out this section; except that such an allocation shall not relieve that state of the responsibility for ensuring that any funds so allocated are applied in furtherance of the state’s approved management program.
In addition to providing grants under this section, the Secretary shall assist eligible coastal states and their local governments in identifying and obtaining other sources of available Federal technical and financial assistance regarding the objectives of this section.
Not later than 30 months after the date of the publication of final guidance under subsection (g), each State for which a management program has been approved pursuant to section 306 of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 [16 U.S.C. 1455] shall prepare and submit to the Secretary and the Administrator a Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Program for approval pursuant to this section. The purpose of the program shall be to develop and implement management measures for nonpoint source pollution to restore and protect coastal waters, working in close conjunction with other State and local authorities.
A State program under this section shall be coordinated closely with State and local water quality plans and programs developed pursuant to sections 1288, 1313, 1329, and 1330 of title 33 and with State plans developed pursuant to the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, as amended by this Act [16 U.S.C. 1451 et seq.]. The program shall serve as an update and expansion of the State nonpoint source management program developed under section 1329 of title 33, as the program under that section relates to land and water uses affecting coastal waters.
The identification of, and a continuing process for identifying, critical coastal areas adjacent to coastal waters referred to in paragraph (1)(A) and (B), within which any new land uses or substantial expansion of existing land uses shall be subject to management measures in addition to those provided for in subsection (g).
The implementation and continuing revision from time to time of additional management measures applicable to the land uses and areas identified pursuant to paragraphs (1) and (2) that are necessary to achieve and maintain applicable water quality standards under section 1313 of title 33 and protect designated uses.
The provision of technical and other assistance to local governments and the public for implementing the measures referred to in paragraph (3), which may include assistance in developing ordinances and regulations, technical guidance, and modeling to predict and assess the effectiveness of such measures, training, financial incentives, demonstration projects, and other innovations to protect coastal water quality and designated uses.
Opportunities for public participation in all aspects of the program, including the use of public notices and opportunities for comment, nomination procedures, public hearings, technical and financial assistance, public education, and other means.
The establishment of mechanisms to improve coordination among State agencies and between State and local officials responsible for land use programs and permitting, water quality permitting and enforcement, habitat protection, and public health and safety, through the use of joint project review, memoranda of agreement, or other mechanisms.
A proposal to modify the boundaries of the State coastal zone as the coastal management agency of the State determines is necessary to implement the recommendations made pursuant to subsection (e). If the coastal management agency does not have the authority to modify such boundaries, the program shall include recommendations for such modifications to the appropriate State authority.
The Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, shall, within 18 months after November 5, 1990, review the inland coastal zone boundary of each coastal State program which has been approved or is proposed for approval under section 306 of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 [16 U.S.C. 1455], and evaluate whether the State’s coastal zone boundary extends inland to the extent necessary to control the land and water uses that have a significant impact on coastal waters of the State.
If the Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator, finds that modifications to the inland boundaries of a State’s coastal zone are necessary for that State to more effectively manage land and water uses to protect coastal waters, the Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator, shall recommend appropriate modifications in writing to the affected State.
Upon request of a State having a program approved under section 306 of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 [16 U.S.C. 1455], the Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator, may provide grants to the State for use for developing a State program under this section.
The total amount of grants to a State under this subsection shall not exceed 50 percent of the total cost to the State of developing a program under this section.
The State share of the cost of an activity carried out with a grant under this subsection shall be paid from amounts from non-Federal sources.
Amounts available for grants under this subsection shall be allocated among States in accordance with regulations issued pursuant to section 306(c) of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 [16 U.S.C. 1455(c)], except that the Secretary may use not more than 25 percent of amounts available for such grants to assist States which the Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator, determines are making exemplary progress in preparing a State program under this section or have extreme needs with respect to coastal water quality.
The Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary and the Director of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service and other Federal agencies, shall publish (and periodically revise thereafter) guidance for specifying management measures for sources of nonpoint pollution in coastal waters.
The Administrator shall provide to coastal States and other interested persons an opportunity to provide written comments on proposed guidance under this subsection.
For purposes of this subsection, the term “management measures” means economically achievable measures for the control of the addition of pollutants from existing and new categories and classes of nonpoint sources of pollution, which reflect the greatest degree of pollutant reduction achievable through the application of the best available nonpoint pollution control practices, technologies, processes, siting criteria, operating methods, or other alternatives.
There is authorized to be appropriated to the Administrator for use for carrying out this section not more than $1,000,000 for each of fiscal years 1992, 1993, and 1994.
In carrying out his functions and responsibilities under this chapter, the Secretary shall consult with, cooperate with, and, to the maximum extent practicable, coordinate his activities with other interested Federal agencies.
The Secretary shall not approve the management program submitted by a state pursuant to section 1455 of this title unless the views of Federal agencies principally affected by such program have been adequately considered.
State and local governments submitting applications for Federal assistance under other Federal programs, in or outside of the coastal zone, affecting any land or water use of natural resource of the coastal zone shall indicate the views of the appropriate state or local agency as to the relationship of such activities to the approved management program for the coastal zone. Such applications shall be submitted and coordinated in accordance with the provisions of section 6506 of title 31. Federal agencies shall not approve proposed projects that are inconsistent with the enforceable policies of a coastal state’s management program, except upon a finding by the Secretary that such project is consistent with the purposes of this chapter or necessary in the interest of national security.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, nothing in this chapter shall in any way affect any requirement (1) established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended [33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.], or the Clean Air Act, as amended [42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.], or (2) established by the Federal Government or by any state or local government pursuant to such Acts. Such requirements shall be incorporated in any program developed pursuant to this chapter and shall be the water pollution control and air pollution control requirements applicable to such program.
When any state’s coastal zone management program, submitted for approval or proposed for modification pursuant to section 1455 of this title, includes requirements as to shorelands which also would be subject to any Federally supported national land use program which may be hereafter enacted, the Secretary, prior to approving such program, shall obtain the concurrence of the Secretary of the Interior, or such other Federal official as may be designated to administer the national land use program, with respect to that portion of the coastal zone management program affecting such inland areas.
The Secretary may conduct a Coastal and Estuarine Land Conservation Program, in cooperation with appropriate State, regional, and other units of government, for the purposes of protecting important coastal and estuarine areas that have significant conservation, recreation, ecological, historical, or aesthetic values, or that are threatened by conversion from their natural, undeveloped, or recreational state to other uses or could be managed or restored to effectively conserve, enhance, or restore ecological function. The program shall be administered by the National Ocean Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration through the Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management.
Nothing in this chapter modifies the authority of Federal, State, or local governments to regulate land use.
The Secretary may not make a grant under the program unless the Federal funds are matched by non-Federal funds in accordance with this subsection.
Grant funds under the program shall require a 100 percent match from other non-Federal sources.
The Secretary may grant a waiver of subparagraph (A) for underserved communities, communities that have an inability to draw on other sources of funding because of the small population or low income of the community, or for other reasons the Secretary deems appropriate and consistent with the purposes of the program.
Where financial assistance awarded under this section represents only a portion of the total cost of a project, funding from other Federal sources may be applied to the cost of the project. Each portion shall be subject to match requirements under the applicable provision of law.
No less than 15 percent of funds made available under this section shall be available for acquisitions benefitting National Estuarine Research Reserves.
No more than 5 percent of the funds made available to the Secretary under this section shall be used by the Secretary for planning or administration of the program. The Secretary shall provide a report to Congress with an account of all expenditures under this section for fiscal year 2009 and triennially thereafter.
If the grant recipient elects to use any land or interest in land held by a non-governmental organization as a non-Federal match under subsection (g), the grant recipient must to the Secretary’s satisfaction demonstrate in the grant application that such land or interest will satisfy the same requirements as the lands or interests in lands acquired under the program.
The term “conservation easement” includes an easement or restriction, recorded deed, or a reserve interest deed where the grantee acquires all rights, title, and interest in a property, that do not conflict with the goals of this section except those rights, title, and interests that may run with the land that are expressly reserved by a grantor and are agreed to at the time of purchase.
The term “interest in property” includes a conservation easement.
There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out this section $60,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2009 through 2013.
The Secretary shall evaluate and rank State proposals for funding under this section, and make funding awards based on those proposals, taking into account the criteria established by the Secretary under subsection (d). The Secretary shall ensure that funding decisions under this section take into consideration the fiscal and technical needs of proposing States and the overall merit of each proposal in terms of benefits to the public.
A State shall not be required to contribute any portion of the cost of any proposal for which funding is awarded under this section.
Beginning in fiscal year 1991, not less than 10 percent and not more than 20 percent of the amounts appropriated to implement sections 1455 and 1455a of this title shall be retained by the Secretary for use in implementing this section, up to a maximum of $10,000,000 annually.
If the Secretary finds that the State is not undertaking the actions committed to under the terms of the grant, the Secretary shall suspend the State’s eligibility for further funding under this section for at least one year.
The Secretary shall establish a Coastal and Estuarine Land Conservation Program, for the purpose of protecting important coastal and estuarine areas that have significant conservation, recreation, ecological, historical, or aesthetic values, or that are threatened by conversion from their natural or recreational state to other uses: Provided further, That by September 30, 2002, the Secretary shall issue guidelines for this program delineating the criteria for grant awards: Provided further, That the Secretary shall distribute these funds in consultation with the States’ Coastal Zone Managers’ or Governors’ designated representatives based on demonstrated need and ability to successfully leverage funds, and shall give priority to lands which can be effectively managed and protected and which have significant ecological value: Provided further, That grants funded under this program shall require a 100 percent match from other sources.
All public hearings required under this chapter must be announced at least thirty days prior to the hearing date. At the time of the announcement, all agency materials pertinent to the hearings, including documents, studies, and other data, must be made available to the public for review and study. As similar materials are subsequently developed, they shall be made available to the public as they become available to the agency.
The Secretary shall conduct a continuing review of the performance of coastal states with respect to coastal management. Each review shall include a written evaluation with an assessment and detailed findings concerning the extent to which the state has implemented and enforced the program approved by the Secretary, addressed the coastal management needs identified in section 1452(2)(A) through (K) of this title, and adhered to the terms of any grant, loan, or cooperative agreement funded under this chapter.
In evaluating a coastal state’s performance, the Secretary shall conduct the evaluation in an open and public manner, and provide full opportunity for public participation, including holding public meetings in the State being evaluated and providing opportunities for the submission of written and oral comments by the public. The Secretary shall provide the public with at least 45 days’ notice of such public meetings by placing a notice in the Federal Register, by publication of timely notices in newspapers of general circulation within the State being evaluated, and by communications with persons and organizations known to be interested in the evaluation. Each evaluation shall be prepared in report form and shall include written responses to the written comments received during the evaluation process. The final report of the evaluation shall be completed within 120 days after the last public meeting held in the State being evaluated. Copies of the evaluation shall be immediately provided to all persons and organizations participating in the evaluation process.
The Secretary shall withdraw approval of the management program of any coastal state and shall withdraw financial assistance available to that State under this chapter as well as any unexpended portion of such assistance, if the Secretary determines that the coastal state has failed to take the actions referred to in subsection (c)(2)(A).
Management program approval and financial assistance may not be withdrawn under subsection (d), unless the Secretary gives the coastal state notice of the proposed withdrawal and an opportunity for a public hearing on the proposed action. Upon the withdrawal of management program approval under this subsection (d), the Secretary shall provide the coastal state with written specifications of the actions that should be taken, or not engaged in, by the state in order that such withdrawal may be canceled by the Secretary.
Each recipient of a grant under this chapter or of financial assistance under section 1456a of this title, as in effect before November 5, 1990, shall keep such records as the Secretary shall prescribe, including records which fully disclose the amount and disposition of the funds received under the grant and of the proceeds of such assistance, the total cost of the project or undertaking supplied by other sources, and such other records as will facilitate an effective audit.
The Secretary shall, using sums in the Coastal Zone Management Fund established under section 1456a of this title and other amounts available to carry out this chapter (other than amounts appropriated to carry out sections 1454, 1455, 1455a, 1456b, 1456c, and 1461 of this title), implement a program to promote excellence in coastal zone management by identifying and acknowledging outstanding accomplishments in the field.
In making selections under subsection (b)(2) the Secretary shall solicit nominations from the coastal states, and shall consult with experts in local government planning and land use.
In making selections under subsection (b)(3) the Secretary shall solicit nominations from coastal states and the National Sea Grant College Program.
The Secretary shall consult with the Congress on a regular basis concerning the administration of this chapter and shall prepare and submit to the President for transmittal to the Congress a report summarizing the administration of this chapter during each period of two consecutive fiscal years. Each report, which shall be transmitted to the Congress not later than April 1 of the year following the close of the biennial period to which it pertains, shall include, but not be restricted to (1) an identification of the state programs approved pursuant to this chapter during the preceding Federal fiscal year and a description of those programs; (2) a listing of the states participating in the provisions of this chapter and a description of the status of each state’s programs and its accomplishments during the preceding Federal fiscal year; (3) an itemization of the allocation of funds to the various coastal states and a breakdown of the major projects and areas on which these funds were expended; (4) an identification of any state programs which have been reviewed and disapproved, and a statement of the reasons for such actions; (5) a summary of evaluation findings prepared in accordance with subsection (a) of section 1458 of this title, and a description of any sanctions imposed under subsections (c) and (d) of section 1458 of this title; (6) a listing of all activities and projects which, pursuant to the provisions of subsection (c) or subsection (d) of section 1456 of this title, are not consistent with an applicable approved state management program; (7) a summary of the regulations issued by the Secretary or in effect during the preceding Federal fiscal year; (8) a summary of a coordinated national strategy and program for the Nation’s coastal zone including identification and discussion of Federal, regional, state, and local responsibilities and functions therein; (9) a summary of outstanding problems arising in the administration of this chapter in order of priority; (10) a description of the economic, environmental, and social consequences of energy activity affecting the coastal zone and an evaluation of the effectiveness of financial assistance under section 1456a of this title in dealing with such consequences; (11) a description and evaluation of applicable interstate and regional planning and coordination mechanisms developed by the coastal states; (12) a summary and evaluation of the research, studies, and training conducted in support of coastal zone management; and (13) such other information as may be appropriate.
The report required by subsection (a) shall contain such recommendations for additional legislation as the Secretary deems necessary to achieve the objectives of this chapter and enhance its effective operation.
The Secretary shall develop and promulgate, pursuant to section 553 of title 5, after notice and opportunity for full participation by relevant Federal agencies, state agencies, local governments, regional organizations, port authorities, and other interested parties, both public and private, such rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter.
The Secretary of Commerce shall provide for the establishment of a National Coastal Resources Research and Development Institute (hereinafter in this section referred to as the “Institute”) to be administered by the Oregon State Marine Science Center.
The Institute shall conduct research and carry out educational and demonstration projects designed to promote the efficient and responsible development of ocean and coastal resources, including arctic resources. Such projects shall be based on biological, geological, genetic, economic and other scientific research applicable to the purposes of this section and shall include studies on the economic diversification and environmental protection of the Nation’s coastal areas.
The Institute shall be administered by a Director who shall be appointed by the Chancellor of the Oregon Board of Higher Education in consultation with the Board of Governors.
The Secretary of Commerce shall conduct an ongoing evaluation of the activities of the Institute to ensure that funds received by the Institute under this section are used in a manner consistent with the provisions of this section.
The Institute shall report to the Secretary of Commerce on its activities within 2 years after July 17, 1984.
The Comptroller General of the United States, and any of his duly authorized representatives, shall have access, for the purpose of audit and examination, to any books, documents, papers and records of the Institute that are pertinent to the funds received under this section.
Employees of the Institute shall not, by reason of such employment, be considered to be employees of the Federal Government for any purpose.
For the purposes of this section, there are authorized to be appropriated in each fiscal year $5,000,000, commencing with fiscal year 1985.
Federal funds received from other sources shall not be used to pay a coastal state’s share of costs under section 1455 or 1456b of this title.
The amount of any grant, or portion of a grant, made to a State under any section of this chapter which is not obligated by such State during the fiscal year, or during the second fiscal year after the fiscal year, for which it was first authorized to be obligated by such State shall revert to the Secretary. The Secretary shall add such reverted amount to those funds available for grants under the section for such reverted amount was originally made available.
Not later than 30 days after the date of the filing of an appeal to the Secretary of a consistency determination under section 1456 of this title, the Secretary shall publish an initial notice in the Federal Register.
Not later than the end of the 160-day period beginning on the date of publication of an initial notice under subsection (a), except as provided in paragraph (3), the Secretary shall immediately close the decision record and receive no more filings on the appeal.
After closing the administrative record, the Secretary shall immediately publish a notice in the Federal Register that the administrative record has been closed.
Not later than 60 days after the date of publication of a Federal Register notice stating when the decision record for an appeal has been closed, the Secretary shall issue a decision or publish a notice in the Federal Register explaining why a decision cannot be issued at that time.
Not later than 15 days after the date of publication of a Federal Register notice explaining why a decision cannot be issued within the 60-day period, the Secretary shall issue a decision.
For any Federal administrative agency proceeding that is an appeal or review under section 319 of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (16 U.S.C. 1465) related to any Federal authorization for the permitting, approval, or other authorization of an energy project, the lead Federal permitting agency for the project shall, with the cooperation of Federal and State administrative agencies, maintain a consolidated record of all decisions made or actions taken by the lead agency or by another Federal or State administrative agency or officer. Such record shall be the initial record for appeals or reviews under that Act, provided that the record may be supplemented as expressly provided pursuant to section 319 of that Act.
The Secretary shall establish a program for the provision of an enabling platform that integrates geospatial data, decision-support tools, training, and best practices to address coastal management issues and needs. Under the program, the Secretary shall strive to enhance resilient communities, ecosystem values, and coastal economic growth and development by helping communities address their issues, needs, and challenges through cost-effective and participatory solutions.
The program established under paragraph (1) shall be known as the “Digital Coast” (in this section referred to as the “program”).
The Secretary may, to the extent provided in advance in appropriations Acts, assess and collect fees for the conduct of any training, workshop, or conference that advances the purposes of the program.
The amount of a fee under this paragraph may not exceed the sum of costs incurred, or expected to be incurred, by the Secretary as a direct result of the conduct of the training, workshop, or conference, including for subsistence expenses incidental to the training, workshop, or conference, as applicable.
Contracts entered into under paragraph (1)(B) shall be considered “surveying and mapping” services as such term is used in and as such contracts are awarded by the Secretary in accordance with the selection procedures in chapter 11 of title 40.
The Secretary may establish publically available tools that track ocean and Great Lakes economy data for each coastal State.
There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary $4,000,000 for each fiscal year 2021 through 2025 to carry out the program.