Collapse to view only § 1683. Judicial review

§ 1681. Sex
(a) Prohibition against discrimination; exceptionsNo person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance, except that:
(1) Classes of educational institutions subject to prohibition

in regard to admissions to educational institutions, this section shall apply only to institutions of vocational education, professional education, and graduate higher education, and to public institutions of undergraduate higher education;

(2) Educational institutions commencing planned change in admissions

in regard to admissions to educational institutions, this section shall not apply (A) for one year from June 23, 1972, nor for six years after June 23, 1972, in the case of an educational institution which has begun the process of changing from being an institution which admits only students of one sex to being an institution which admits students of both sexes, but only if it is carrying out a plan for such a change which is approved by the Secretary of Education or (B) for seven years from the date an educational institution begins the process of changing from being an institution which admits only students of only one sex to being an institution which admits students of both sexes, but only if it is carrying out a plan for such a change which is approved by the Secretary of Education, whichever is the later;

(3) Educational institutions of religious organizations with contrary religious tenets

this section shall not apply to an educational institution which is controlled by a religious organization if the application of this subsection would not be consistent with the religious tenets of such organization;

(4) Educational institutions training individuals for military services or merchant marine

this section shall not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is the training of individuals for the military services of the United States, or the merchant marine;

(5) Public educational institutions with traditional and continuing admissions policy

in regard to admissions this section shall not apply to any public institution of undergraduate higher education which is an institution that traditionally and continually from its establishment has had a policy of admitting only students of one sex;

(6) Social fraternities or sororities; voluntary youth service organizationsthis section shall not apply to membership practices—
(A) of a social fraternity or social sorority which is exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of title 26, the active membership of which consists primarily of students in attendance at an institution of higher education, or
(B) of the Young Men’s Christian Association, Young Women’s Christian Association, Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts, Camp Fire Girls, and voluntary youth service organizations which are so exempt, the membership of which has traditionally been limited to persons of one sex and principally to persons of less than nineteen years of age;
(7) Boy or Girl conferencesthis section shall not apply to—
(A) any program or activity of the American Legion undertaken in connection with the organization or operation of any Boys State conference, Boys Nation conference, Girls State conference, or Girls Nation conference; or
(B) any program or activity of any secondary school or educational institution specifically for—
(i) the promotion of any Boys State conference, Boys Nation conference, Girls State conference, or Girls Nation conference; or
(ii) the selection of students to attend any such conference;
(8) Father-son or mother-daughter activities at educational institutions

this section shall not preclude father-son or mother-daughter activities at an educational institution, but if such activities are provided for students of one sex, opportunities for reasonably comparable activities shall be provided for students of the other sex; and

(9) Institution of higher education scholarship awards in “beauty” pageants

this section shall not apply with respect to any scholarship or other financial assistance awarded by an institution of higher education to any individual because such individual has received such award in any pageant in which the attainment of such award is based upon a combination of factors related to the personal appearance, poise, and talent of such individual and in which participation is limited to individuals of one sex only, so long as such pageant is in compliance with other nondiscrimination provisions of Federal law.

(b) Preferential or disparate treatment because of imbalance in participation or receipt of Federal benefits; statistical evidence of imbalance

Nothing contained in subsection (a) of this section shall be interpreted to require any educational institution to grant preferential or disparate treatment to the members of one sex on account of an imbalance which may exist with respect to the total number or percentage of persons of that sex participating in or receiving the benefits of any federally supported program or activity, in comparison with the total number or percentage of persons of that sex in any community, State, section, or other area: Provided, That this subsection shall not be construed to prevent the consideration in any hearing or proceeding under this chapter of statistical evidence tending to show that such an imbalance exists with respect to the participation in, or receipt of the benefits of, any such program or activity by the members of one sex.

(c) “Educational institution” defined

For purposes of this chapter an educational institution means any public or private preschool, elementary, or secondary school, or any institution of vocational, professional, or higher education, except that in the case of an educational institution composed of more than one school, college, or department which are administratively separate units, such term means each such school, college, or department.

(Pub. L. 92–318, title IX, § 901, June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 373; Pub. L. 93–568, § 3(a), Dec. 31, 1974, 88 Stat. 1862; Pub. L. 94–482, title IV, § 412(a), Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2234; Pub. L. 96–88, title III, § 301(a)(1), title V, § 507, Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 677, 692; Pub. L. 99–514, § 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095.)
§ 1682. Federal administrative enforcement; report to Congressional committees

Each Federal department and agency which is empowered to extend Federal financial assistance to any education program or activity, by way of grant, loan, or contract other than a contract of insurance or guaranty, is authorized and directed to effectuate the provisions of section 1681 of this title with respect to such program or activity by issuing rules, regulations, or orders of general applicability which shall be consistent with achievement of the objectives of the statute authorizing the financial assistance in connection with which the action is taken. No such rule, regulation, or order shall become effective unless and until approved by the President. Compliance with any requirement adopted pursuant to this section may be effected (1) by the termination of or refusal to grant or to continue assistance under such program or activity to any recipient as to whom there has been an express finding on the record, after opportunity for hearing, of a failure to comply with such requirement, but such termination or refusal shall be limited to the particular political entity, or part thereof, or other recipient as to whom such a finding has been made, and shall be limited in its effect to the particular program, or part thereof, in which such noncompliance has been so found, or (2) by any other means authorized by law: Provided, however, That no such action shall be taken until the department or agency concerned has advised the appropriate person or persons of the failure to comply with the requirement and has determined that compliance cannot be secured by voluntary means. In the case of any action terminating, or refusing to grant or continue, assistance because of failure to comply with a requirement imposed pursuant to this section, the head of the Federal department or agency shall file with the committees of the House and Senate having legislative jurisdiction over the program or activity involved a full written report of the circumstances and the grounds for such action. No such action shall become effective until thirty days have elapsed after the filing of such report.

(Pub. L. 92–318, title IX, § 902, June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 374.)
§ 1683. Judicial review

Any department or agency action taken pursuant to section 1682 of this title shall be subject to such judicial review as may otherwise be provided by law for similar action taken by such department or agency on other grounds. In the case of action, not otherwise subject to judicial review, terminating or refusing to grant or to continue financial assistance upon a finding of failure to comply with any requirement imposed pursuant to section 1682 of this title, any person aggrieved (including any State or political subdivision thereof and any agency of either) may obtain judicial review of such action in accordance with chapter 7 of title 5, and such action shall not be deemed committed to unreviewable agency discretion within the meaning of section 701 of that title.

(Pub. L. 92–318, title IX, § 903, June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 374.)
§ 1684. Blindness or visual impairment; prohibition against discrimination

No person in the United States shall, on the ground of blindness or severely impaired vision, be denied admission in any course of study by a recipient of Federal financial assistance for any education program or activity, but nothing herein shall be construed to require any such institution to provide any special services to such person because of his blindness or visual impairment.

(Pub. L. 92–318, title IX, § 904, June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 375.)
§ 1685. Authority under other laws unaffected

Nothing in this chapter shall add to or detract from any existing authority with respect to any program or activity under which Federal financial assistance is extended by way of a contract of insurance or guaranty.

(Pub. L. 92–318, title IX, § 905, June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 375.)
§ 1686. Interpretation with respect to living facilities

Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this chapter, nothing contained herein shall be construed to prohibit any educational institution receiving funds under this Act, from maintaining separate living facilities for the different sexes.

(Pub. L. 92–318, title IX, § 907, June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 375.)
§ 1687. Interpretation of “program or activity”For the purposes of this chapter, the term “program or activity” and “program” mean all of the operations of—
(1)
(A) a department, agency, special purpose district, or other instrumentality of a State or of a local government; or
(B) the entity of such State or local government that distributes such assistance and each such department or agency (and each other State or local government entity) to which the assistance is extended, in the case of assistance to a State or local government;
(2)
(A) a college, university, or other postsecondary institution, or a public system of higher education; or
(B) a local educational agency (as defined in section section 1
1 So in original.
7801 of this title), system of vocational education, or other school system;
(3)
(A) an entire corporation, partnership, or other private organization, or an entire sole proprietorship—
(i) if assistance is extended to such corporation, partnership, private organization, or sole proprietorship as a whole; or
(ii) which is principally engaged in the business of providing education, health care, housing, social services, or parks and recreation; or
(B) the entire plant or other comparable, geographically separate facility to which Federal financial assistance is extended, in the case of any other corporation, partnership, private organization, or sole proprietorship; or
(4) any other entity which is established by two or more of the entities described in paragraph (1), (2), or (3);
any part of which is extended Federal financial assistance, except that such term does not include any operation of an entity which is controlled by a religious organization if the application of section 1681 of this title to such operation would not be consistent with the religious tenets of such organization.
(Pub. L. 92–318, title IX, § 908, as added Pub. L. 100–259, § 3(a), Mar. 22, 1988, 102 Stat. 28; amended Pub. L. 103–382, title III, § 391(g), Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 4023; Pub. L. 107–110, title X, § 1076(j), Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 2091; Pub. L. 114–95, title IX, § 9215(bb), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2173.)
§ 1688. Neutrality with respect to abortion

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to require or prohibit any person, or public or private entity, to provide or pay for any benefit or service, including the use of facilities, related to an abortion. Nothing in this section shall be construed to permit a penalty to be imposed on any person or individual because such person or individual is seeking or has received any benefit or service related to a legal abortion.

(Pub. L. 92–318, title IX, § 909, as added Pub. L. 100–259, § 3(b), Mar. 22, 1988, 102 Stat. 29.)
§ 1689. Task Force on Sexual Violence in Education
(a) Task Force on Sexual Violence in Education
Not later than September 1, 2022, the Secretary of Education, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, and the Attorney General shall establish a joint interagency task force to be known as the “Task Force on Sexual Violence in Education” that shall—
(1) provide pertinent information to the Secretary of Education, the Attorney General, Congress, and the public with respect to campus sexual violence prevention, investigations, and responses, including the creation of consistent, public complaint processes for violations of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (20 U.S.C. 1681 et seq.) and section 1092(f) of this title;
(2) provide recommendations to educational institutions for establishing sexual assault prevention and response teams;
(3) develop recommendations for educational institutions on providing survivor resources, including health care, sexual assault kits, sexual assault nurse examiners, culturally responsive and inclusive standards of care, trauma-informed services, and access to confidential advocacy and support services;
(4) develop recommendations in conjunction with student groups for best practices for responses to and prevention of sexual violence and dating violence for educational institutions, taking into consideration an institution’s size and resources;
(5) develop recommendations for educational institutions on sex education, as appropriate, training for school staff, and various equitable discipline models;
(6) develop recommendations on culturally responsive and inclusive approaches to supporting survivors, which include consideration of race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, immigrant status, lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (commonly referred to as “LGBT”) status, ability, disability, socio-economic status, exposure to trauma, and other compounding factors;
(7) solicit periodic input from a diverse group of survivors, trauma specialists, advocates from national, State, and local anti-sexual violence advocacy organizations, institutions of higher education, and other public stakeholders;
(8) assess the Department of Education’s ability under section 902 of the Education Amendments of 1972 (20 U.S.C. 1682) to levy intermediate fines for noncompliance with title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (20 U.S.C. 1681 et seq.) and the advisability of additional remedies for such noncompliance, in addition to the remedies already available under Federal law; and
(9) create a plan described in subsection (c).
(b) Personnel details
(1) Authority to detail

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the head of a component of any Federal agency for which appropriations are authorized under the Violence Against Women Act of 1994 (34 U.S.C. 13925 et seq.), or any amendments made by that Act, may detail an officer or employee of such component to the Task Force on Sexual Violence in Education or to the Secretary of Education to assist the Task Force with the duties described in subsection (a), as jointly agreed to by the head of such component and the Task Force.

(2) Terms of detail
A personnel detail made under paragraph (1) may be made—
(A) for a period of not more than 3 years; and
(B) on a reimbursable or nonreimbursable basis.
(c) Additional plan
Not later than 90 days after the date on which the Task Force on Sexual Violence in Education is established under subsection (a), the Task Force shall submit to Congress recommendations for recruiting, retaining, and training a highly-qualified workforce employed by the Department of Education to carry out investigation of complaints alleging a violation of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (20 U.S.C. 1681 et seq.) or section 1092(f) of this title, and enforcement of such title IX (20 U.S.C. 1681 et seq.) or such section 1092(f) of this title, with respect to sexual violence in education, which shall include—
(1) an assessment to identify gaps or challenges in carrying out such investigation and enforcement, which may include surveying the current investigative workforce to solicit feedback on areas in need of improvement;
(2) an examination of issues of recruiting, retention, and the professional development of the current investigative workforce, including the possibility of providing retention bonuses or other forms of compensation for the purpose of ensuring the Department of Education has the capacity, in both personnel and skills, needed to properly perform its mission and provide adequate oversight of educational institutions;
(3) an assessment of the benefits of outreach and training with both law enforcement agencies and educational institutions with respect to such workforce;
(4) an examination of best practices for making educational institutions aware of the most effective campus sexual violence prevention, investigation, and response practices and identifying areas where more research should be conducted; and
(5) strategies for addressing such other matters as the Secretary of Education considers necessary to sexual violence prevention, investigation, and responses.
(d) Annual reporting
The Task Force on Sexual Violence in Education shall submit to Congress, and make publicly available, an annual report of its activities and any update of the plan required under subsection (c), including—
(1) the number of complaints received regarding sexual violence at educational institutions;
(2) the number of open investigations of sexual violence at educational institutions;
(3) the number of such complaints that continued to resolution;
(4) the number of such complaints resolved using informal resolution;
(5) the average time to complete such an investigation;
(6) the number of such investigations initiated based on complaints; and
(7) the number of such investigations initiated by the Department of Education.
(e) Definitions
In this section:
(1) Educational institution

The term “educational institution” includes an institution of higher education, an elementary school, or a secondary school.

(2) Elementary school; secondary school

The terms “elementary school” and “secondary school” have the meanings given the terms in section 7801 of this title.

(3) Institution of higher education

The term “institution of higher education” has the meaning given the term in section 1002 of this title.

(Pub. L. 117–103, div. W, title XIII, § 1314, Mar. 15, 2022, 136 Stat. 936.)