- § 451. Congressional statement of findings
- § 452. Congressional declaration of policy
- § 453. Definitions
- § 454. Federal and State cooperation in development and administration of State poultry product inspection programs
- § 455. Inspection in official establishments
- § 456. Operation of premises, facilities and equipment
- § 457. Labeling and container standards
- § 458. Prohibited acts
- § 459. Compliance by all establishments
- § 460. Miscellaneous activities subject to regulation
- § 461. Offenses and punishment
- § 462. Reporting of violations; notice; opportunity to present views
- § 463. Rules and regulations
- § 464. Exemptions
- § 465. Limitations upon entry of poultry products and other materials into official establishments
- § 466. Imports
- § 467. Inspection services
- § 467a. Administrative detention; duration; pending judicial proceedings; notification of government authorities; release; removal of official marks
- § 467b. Seizure and condemnation
- § 467c. Federal court jurisdiction of enforcement and injunction proceedings and other kinds of cases; limitations; United States as plaintiff; subpenas
- § 467d. Administration and enforcement; applicability of penalty provisions; conduct of inquiries; power and jurisdiction of courts
- § 467e. Non-Federal jurisdiction of federally regulated matters; prohibition of additional or different requirements for establishments with inspection services and as to marking, labeling, packaging, and ingredients; recordkeeping and related requirements; concurrent jurisdiction over distribution for human food purposes of adulterated or misbranded and imported articles; other matters
- § 467f. Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act applications
- § 468. Cost of inspection; overtime
- § 469. Authorization of appropriations
- § 470. Omitted
- § 471. Safe Meat and Poultry Inspection Panel
- § 472. Interstate shipment of poultry inspected by Federal and State agencies for certain small establishments
- § 473. Grants for improvements to meat and poultry facilities to allow for interstate shipment
Poultry and poultry products are an important source of the Nation’s total supply of food. They are consumed throughout the Nation and the major portion thereof moves in interstate or foreign commerce. It is essential in the public interest that the health and welfare of consumers be protected by assuring that poultry products distributed to them are wholesome, not adulterated, and properly marked, labeled, and packaged. Unwholesome, adulterated, or misbranded poultry products impair the effective regulation of poultry products in interstate or foreign commerce, are injurious to the public welfare, destroy markets for wholesome, not adulterated, and properly labeled and packaged poultry products, and result in sundry losses to poultry producers and processors of poultry and poultry products, as well as injury to consumers. It is hereby found that all articles and poultry which are regulated under this chapter are either in interstate or foreign commerce or substantially affect such commerce, and that regulation by the Secretary of Agriculture and cooperation by the States and other jurisdictions as contemplated by this chapter are appropriate to prevent and eliminate burdens upon such commerce, to effectively regulate such commerce, and to protect the health and welfare of consumers.
It is hereby declared to be the policy of the Congress to provide for the inspection of poultry and poultry products and otherwise regulate the processing and distribution of such articles as hereinafter prescribed to prevent the movement or sale in interstate or foreign commerce of, or the burdening of such commerce by, poultry products which are adulterated or misbranded. It is the intent of Congress that when poultry and poultry products are condemned because of disease, the reason for condemnation in such instances shall be supported by scientific fact, information, or criteria, and such condemnation under this chapter shall be achieved through uniform inspection standards and uniform applications thereof.
The appropriate State agency with which the Secretary may cooperate under this chapter shall be a single agency in the State which is primarily responsible for the coordination of the State programs having objectives similar to those under this chapter. When the State program includes performance of certain functions by a municipality or other subordinate governmental unit, such unit shall be deemed to be a part of the State agency for purposes of this section.
As used in this section, the term “State” means any State (including the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico) or organized territory.
For the purpose of preventing the entry into or flow or movement in commerce of, or the burdening of commerce by, any poultry product which is capable of use as human food and is adulterated, the Secretary shall, where and to the extent considered by him necessary, cause to be made by inspectors ante mortem inspection of poultry in each official establishment processing poultry or poultry products for commerce or otherwise subject to inspection under this chapter.
The Secretary, whenever processing operations are being conducted, shall cause to be made by inspectors post mortem inspection of the carcass of each bird processed, and at any time such quarantine, segregation, and reinspection as he deems necessary of poultry and poultry products capable of use as human food in each official establishment processing such poultry or poultry products for commerce or otherwise subject to inspection under this chapter.
All poultry carcasses and parts thereof and other poultry products found to be adulterated shall be condemned and shall, if no appeal be taken from such determination of condemnation, be destroyed for human food purposes under the supervision of an inspector: Provided, That carcasses, parts, and products, which may by reprocessing be made not adulterated, need not be so condemned and destroyed if so reprocessed under the supervision of an inspector and thereafter found to be not adulterated. If an appeal be taken from such determination, the carcasses, parts, or products shall be appropriately marked and segregated pending completion of an appeal inspection, which appeal shall be at the cost of the appellant if the Secretary determines that the appeal is frivolous. If the determination of condemnation is sustained the carcasses, parts, and products shall be destroyed for human food purposes under the supervision of an inspector.
Each official establishment slaughtering poultry or processing poultry products for commerce or otherwise subject to inspection under this chapter shall have such premises, facilities, and equipment, and be operated in accordance with such sanitary practices, as are required by regulations promulgated by the Secretary for the purpose of preventing the entry into or flow or movement in commerce or burdensome effect upon commerce, of poultry products which are adulterated.
The Secretary shall refuse to render inspection to any establishment whose premises, facilities, or equipment, or the operation thereof, fail to meet the requirements of this section.
All poultry products inspected at any official establishment under the authority of this chapter and found to be not adulterated, shall at the time they leave the establishment bear, in distinctly legible form, on their shipping containers and immediate containers as the Secretary may require, the information required under paragraph (h) of section 453 of this title. In addition, the Secretary whenever he determines such action is practicable and necessary for the protection of the public, may require nonconsumer packaged carcasses at the time they leave the establishment to bear directly thereon in distinctly legible form any information required under such paragraph (h).
The Secretary, whenever he determines such action is necessary for the protection of the public, may prescribe: (1) the styles and sizes of type to be used with respect to material required to be incorporated in labeling to avoid false or misleading labeling in marking and labeling any articles or poultry subject to this chapter; (2) definitions and standards of identity or composition or articles subject to this chapter and standards of fill of container for such articles not inconsistent with any such standards established under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.], and there shall be consultation between the Secretary and the Secretary of Health and Human Services prior to the issuance of such standards under either Act relating to articles subject to this chapter to avoid inconsistency in such standards and possible impairment of the coordinated effective administration of this chapter and the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. There shall also be consultation between the Secretary and an appropriate advisory committee provided for in section 454 of this title, prior to the issuance of such standards under this chapter, to avoid, insofar as feasible, inconsistency between Federal and State standards.
No article subject to this chapter shall be sold or offered for sale by any person in commerce, under any name or other marking or labeling which is false or misleading, or in any container of a misleading form or size, but established trade names and other marking and labeling and containers which are not false or misleading and which are approved by the Secretary are permitted.
If the Secretary has reason to believe that any marking or labeling or the size or form of any container in use or proposed for use with respect to any article subject to this chapter is false or misleading in any particular, he may direct that such use be withheld unless the marking, labeling, or container is modified in such manner as he may prescribe so that it will not be false or misleading. If the person using or proposing to use the marking, labeling, or container does not accept the determination of the Secretary, such person may request a hearing, but the use of the marking, labeling, or container shall, if the Secretary so directs, be withheld pending hearing and final determination by the Secretary. Any such determination by the Secretary shall be conclusive unless, within thirty days after receipt of notice of such final determination, the person adversely affected thereby appeals to the United States Court of Appeals for the circuit in which such person has its principal place of business or to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. The provisions of section 194 of title 7 shall be applicable to appeals taken under this section.
No establishment processing poultry or poultry products for commerce otherwise subject to this chapter shall process any poultry or poultry product except in compliance with the requirements of this chapter.
Any establishment subject to inspection under this chapter that believes, or has reason to believe, that an adulterated or misbranded poultry or poultry product received by or originating from the establishment has entered into commerce shall promptly notify the Secretary with regard to the type, amount, origin, and destination of the poultry or poultry product.
Inspection shall not be provided under this chapter at any establishment for the slaughter of poultry or the processing of any carcasses or parts or products of poultry, which are not intended for use as human food, but such articles shall, prior to their offer for sale or transportation in commerce, unless naturally inedible by humans, be denatured or otherwise identified as prescribed by regulations of the Secretary to deter their use for human food. No person shall buy, sell, transport, or offer for sale or transportation, or receive for transportation, in commerce, or import, any poultry carcasses or parts or products thereof which are not intended for use as human food unless they are denatured or otherwise identified as required by the regulations of the Secretary or are naturally inedible by humans.
No person shall engage in business, in or for commerce, as a poultry products broker, renderer, or animal food manufacturer, or engage in business in commerce as a wholesaler of any carcasses, or parts or products of the carcasses, of any poultry, whether intended for human food or other purposes, or engage in business as a public warehouseman storing any such articles in or for commerce, or engage in the business of buying, selling, or transporting in commerce, or importing, any dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry, or parts of the carcasses of any poultry that died otherwise than by slaughter, unless when required by regulations of the Secretary, he has registered with the Secretary his name, and the address of each place of business at which, and all trade names under which, he conducts such business.
No person engaged in the business of buying, selling, or transporting in commerce, or importing, dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry, or any parts of the carcasses of any poultry that died otherwise than by slaughter, shall buy, sell, transport, offer for sale or transportation, or receive for transportation, in commerce, or import, any dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry or parts of the carcasses of any poultry that died otherwise than by slaughter, unless such transaction, transportation or importation is made in accordance with such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe to assure that such poultry, or the unwholesome parts or products thereof, will be prevented from being used for human food.
The authority conferred on the Secretary by paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section with respect to persons engaged in the specified kinds of business in or for commerce may be exercised with respect to persons engaged, in any State or organized territory, in such kinds of business but not in or for commerce, whenever the Secretary determines, after consultation with an appropriate advisory committee provided for in section 454 of this title, that the State or territory does not have at least equal authority under its laws or such authority is not exercised in a manner to effectuate the purposes of this chapter, including the State or territory providing for the Secretary or his representative being afforded access to such places of business and the facilities, inventories, and records thereof, and the taking of reasonable samples, where he determines necessary in carrying out his responsibilities under this chapter; and in such case the provisions of paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section, respectively, shall apply to such persons to the same extent and in the same manner as if they were engaged in such business in or for commerce and the transactions involved were in commerce.
Any person who violates the provisions of section 458, 459, 460, 463, or 466 of this title shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both; but if such violation involves intent to defraud, or any distribution or attempted distribution of an article that is adulterated (except as defined in section 453(g)(8) of this title), such person shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than three years, or both. When construing or enforcing the provisions of said sections the act, omission, or failure of any person acting for or employed by any individual, partnership, corporation, or association within the scope of his employment or office shall in every case be deemed the act, omission, or failure of such individual, partnership, corporation, or association, as well as of such person.
No carrier shall be subject to the penalties of this chapter, other than the penalties for violation of section 460 of this title, by reason of his receipt, carriage, holding, or delivery, in the usual course of business, as a carrier, of poultry or poultry products, owned by another person unless the carrier has knowledge, or is in possession of facts which would cause a reasonable person to believe that such poultry or poultry products were not inspected or marked in accordance with the provisions of this chapter or were otherwise not eligible for transportation under this chapter or unless the carrier refuses to furnish on request of a representative of the Secretary the name and address of the person from whom he received such poultry or poultry products, and copies of all documents, if any there be, pertaining to the delivery of the poultry or poultry products to such carrier.
Any person who forcibly assaults, resists, opposes, impedes, intimidates, or interferes with any person while engaged in or on account of the performance of his official duties under this chapter shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than three years, or both. Whoever, in the commission of any such acts, uses a deadly or dangerous weapon, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both. Whoever kills any person while engaged in or on account of the performance of his official duties under this chapter shall be punished as provided under sections 1111 and 1114 of title 18.
Before any violation of this chapter is reported by the Secretary to any United States attorney for institution of a criminal proceeding, the person against whom such proceeding is contemplated shall be given reasonable notice of the alleged violation and opportunity to present his views orally or in writing with regard to such contemplated proceeding. Nothing in this chapter shall be construed as requiring the Secretary to report for criminal prosecution violations of this chapter whenever he believes that the public interest will be adequately served and compliance with the chapter obtained by a suitable written notice or warning.
The Secretary may by regulations prescribe conditions under which poultry products capable of use as human food, shall be stored or otherwise handled by any person engaged in the business of buying, selling, freezing, storing, or transporting, in or for commerce, or importing, such articles, whenever the Secretary deems such action necessary to assure that such articles will not be adulterated or misbranded when delivered to the consumer. Violation of any such regulation is prohibited.
The Secretary shall promulgate such other rules and regulations as are necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter.
In applying the provisions of section 553(c) of title 5 to proposed rule making under this chapter, an opportunity for the oral presentation of views shall be accorded all interested persons.
The Secretary may, under such sanitary conditions as he may by regulations prescribe, exempt from the inspection requirements of this chapter the slaughter of poultry, and the processing of poultry products, by any person in any Territory not organized with a legislative body, solely for distribution within such Territory, when the Secretary determines that it is impracticable to provide such inspection within the limits of funds appropriated for administration of this chapter and that such exemption will aid in the effective administration of this chapter.
The adulteration and misbranding provisions of this chapter, other than the requirement of the inspection legend, shall apply to articles which are exempted from inspection under this section, except as otherwise specified under paragraphs (a) and (d).
The Secretary may by order suspend or terminate any exemption under this section with respect to any person whenever he finds that such action will aid in effectuating the purposes of this chapter.
The Secretary may limit the entry of poultry products and other materials into any official establishment, under such conditions as he may prescribe to assure that allowing the entry of such articles into such inspected establishments will be consistent with the purposes of this chapter.
No slaughtered poultry, or parts or products thereof, of any kind shall be imported into the United States unless they are healthful, wholesome, fit for human food, not adulterated, and contain no dye, chemical, preservative, or ingredient which renders them unhealthful, unwholesome, adulterated, or unfit for human food and unless they also comply with the rules and regulations made by the Secretary of Agriculture to assure that imported poultry or poultry products comply with the standards provided for in this chapter. All imported, slaughtered poultry, or parts or products thereof, shall after entry into the United States in compliance with such rules and regulations be deemed and treated as domestic slaughtered poultry, or parts or products thereof, within the meaning and subject to the provisions of this chapter and the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.], and Acts amendatory of, supplemental to, or in substitution for such chapter and Act.
The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to make rules and regulations to carry out the purposes of this section and in such rules and regulations the Secretary of Agriculture may prescribe the terms and conditions for the destruction of all slaughtered poultry, or parts or products thereof, offered for entry and refused admission into the United States unless such slaughtered poultry, or parts or products thereof, be exported by the consignee within the time fixed therefor in such rules and regulations.
All charges for storage, cartage, and labor with respect to any product which is refused admission pursuant to this section shall be paid by the owner or consignee, and in default of such payment shall constitute a lien against any other products imported thereafter by or for such owner or consignee.
The Secretary may (for such period, or indefinitely, as he deems necessary to effectuate the purposes of this chapter) refuse to provide, or withdraw, inspection service under this chapter with respect to any establishment if he determines, after opportunity for a hearing is accorded to the applicant for, or recipient of, such service, that such applicant or recipient is unfit to engage in any business requiring inspection upon this chapter because the applicant or recipient or anyone responsibly connected with the applicant or recipient, has been convicted, in any Federal or State court, within the previous ten years of (1) any felony or more than one misdemeanor under any law based upon the acquiring, handling, or distributing of adulterated, mislabeled, or deceptively packaged food or fraud in connection with transactions in food; or (2) any felony, involving fraud, bribery, extortion, or any other act or circumstances indicating a lack of the integrity needed for the conduct of operations affecting the public health. For the purpose of this paragraph a person shall be deemed to be responsibly connected with the business if he was a partner, officer, director, holder, or owner of 10 per centum or more of its voting stock or employee in a managerial or executive capacity.
Upon the withdrawal of inspection service from any official establishment for failure to destroy condemned poultry products as required under section 455 of this title, or other failure of an official establishment to comply with the requirements as to premises, facilities, or equipment, or the operation thereof, as provided in section 456 of this title, or the refusal of inspection service to any applicant therefor because of failure to comply with any requirements under section 456 of this title, the applicant for, or recipient of, the service shall, upon request, be afforded opportunity for a hearing with respect to the merits or validity of such action; but such withdrawal or refusal shall continue in effect unless otherwise ordered by the Secretary.
The determination and order of the Secretary when made after opportunity for hearing, with respect to withdrawal or refusal of inspection service under this chapter shall be final and conclusive unless the affected applicant for, or recipient of, inspection service files application for judicial review within thirty days after the effective date of such order in the United States Court of Appeals as provided in section 457 of this title. Judicial review of any such order shall be upon the record upon which the determination and order are based. The provisions of section 194 of title 7 shall be applicable to appeals taken under this section.
The provisions of this section shall in no way derogate from authority for condemnation or seizure conferred by other provisions of this chapter, or other laws.
The United States district courts, the District Court of Guam, the District Court of the Virgin Islands, the highest court of American Samoa, and the United States courts of the other territories, are vested with jurisdiction specifically to enforce, and to prevent and restrain violations of, this chapter, and shall have jurisdiction in all other kinds of cases arising under this chapter, except as provided in section 457(d) or 467 of this title. All proceedings for the enforcement or to restrain violations of this chapter shall be by and in the name of the United States. Subpenas for witnesses who are required to attend a court of the United States, in any district, may run into any other district in any such proceeding.
For the efficient administration and enforcement of this chapter, the provision (including penalties) of sections 46, 48, 49 and 50 of title 15 (except paragraphs (c) through (h) of section 46 and the last paragraph of section 49 1
Requirements within the scope of this chapter with respect to premises, facilities and operations of any official establishment which are in addition to, or different than those made under this chapter may not be imposed by any State or Territory or the District of Columbia, except that any such jurisdiction may impose recordkeeping and other requirements within the scope of paragraph (b) of section 460 of this title, if consistent therewith, with respect to any such establishment. Marking, labeling, packaging, or ingredient requirements (or storage or handling requirements found by the Secretary to unduly interfere with the free flow of poultry products in commerce) in addition to, or different than, those made under this chapter may not be imposed by any State or Territory or the District of Columbia with respect to articles prepared at any official establishment in accordance with the requirements under this chapter, but any State or Territory or the District of Columbia may, consistent with the requirements under this chapter exercise concurrent jurisdiction with the Secretary over articles required to be inspected under this chapter for the purpose of preventing the distribution for human food purposes of any such articles which are adulterated or misbranded and are outside of such an establishment, or, in the case of imported articles which are not at such an establishment, after their entry into the United States. This chapter shall not preclude any State or Territory or the District of Columbia from making requirement or taking other action, consistent with this chapter, with respect to any other matters regulated under this chapter.
Poultry and poultry products shall be exempt from the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.] to the extent of the application or extension thereto of the provisions of this chapter, except that the provisions of this chapter shall not derogate from any authority conferred by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act prior to August 18, 1968.
The detainer authority conferred by section 467a of this title shall apply to any authorized representative of the Secretary of Health and Human Services for purposes of the enforcement of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.] with respect to any poultry carcass, or part or product thereof, that is outside any official establishment, and for such purposes the first reference to the Secretary in section 467a of this title shall be deemed to refer to the Secretary of Health and Human Services.
The cost of inspection rendered under the requirements of this chapter, shall be borne by the United States, except the cost of overtime and holiday pay paid pursuant to the 1
There is authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter.
The Safe Meat and Poultry Inspection Panel shall submit to the Secretary a report on the results of each review and evaluation carried out under paragraph (1), including such recommendations as the panel considers appropriate.
In the case of a report concerning a formal change in poultry inspection regulations, the report shall be made within the time limits prescribed for formal comments on such changes.
The term “appropriate State agency” means a State agency described in section 454(a)(1) of this title.
The term “designated personnel” means inspection personnel of a State agency that have undergone all necessary inspection training and certification to assist the Secretary in the administration and enforcement of this chapter, including rules and regulations issued under this chapter.
The term “selected establishment” means an eligible establishment that is selected by the Secretary, in coordination with the appropriate State agency of the State in which the eligible establishment is located, under subsection (b) to ship poultry items in interstate commerce.
The Secretary may develop a procedure to transition to a Federal establishment any establishment under this section that, on average, consistently employs more than 25 employees.
A State establishment that employs more than 25 employees but less than 35 employees as of the date of the enactment of this section may be selected as a selected establishment under this subsection.
A State establishment shall be subject to the procedures established under subparagraph (A) beginning on the date that is 3 years after the effective date described in subsection (i).
The Secretary shall reimburse a State for costs related to the inspection of selected establishments in the State in accordance with Federal requirements in an amount of not less than 60 percent of eligible State costs.
A State coordinator shall be under the direct supervision of the Secretary.
A State coordinator shall visit selected establishments with a frequency that is appropriate to ensure that selected establishments are operating in a manner that is consistent with this chapter (including regulations and policies under this chapter).
A State coordinator shall, on a quarterly basis, submit to the Secretary a report that describes the status of each selected establishment that is under the jurisdiction of the State coordinator with respect to the level of compliance of each selected establishment with the requirements of this chapter.
Performance evaluations of State coordinators designated under this subsection shall be conducted by the Secretary as part of the Federal agency management control system.
Not later than 2 years after the effective date described in subsection (i), and not less often than every 3 years thereafter, the Inspector General of the Department of Agriculture shall conduct an audit of each activity taken by the Secretary under this section for the period covered by the audit to determine compliance with this section.
The Secretary may provide grants to appropriate State agencies to assist the appropriate State agencies in helping establishments covered by this chapter to transition to selected establishments.
Any selected establishment that the Secretary determines to be in violation of any requirement of this chapter shall be transitioned to a Federal establishment in accordance with a procedure developed by the Secretary under subsection (b)(3)(A).
Nothing in this section limits the jurisdiction of the Secretary with respect to the regulation of poultry and poultry products under this chapter.
This section takes effect on the date on which the Secretary, after providing a period of public comment (including through the conduct of public meetings or hearings), promulgates final regulations to carry out this section.
Not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of this section, the Secretary shall promulgate final regulations in accordance with paragraph (1).
The amount of a grant under this section shall not exceed $200,000.
The Secretary shall require a recipient of a grant under this section to provide matching non-Federal funds in an amount equal to the amount of the grant.
Beginning not later than 1 year after December 27, 2020, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Agriculture and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate a report describing any recommendations, developed in consultation with all States, for possible improvements to the cooperative interstate shipment programs under section 501 of the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 683) and section 31 of the Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 472).
Of the funds of the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, there is appropriated to carry out this section $60,000,000 for the period of fiscal years 2021 through 2023, to remain available until expended.