Collapse to view only § 331. Prohibited acts

§ 331.
Prohibited acts
The following acts and the causing thereof are prohibited:
(a) The introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of any food, drug, device, tobacco product, or cosmetic that is adulterated or misbranded.
(b) The adulteration or misbranding of any food, drug, device, tobacco product, or cosmetic in interstate commerce.
(c) The receipt in interstate commerce of any food, drug, device, tobacco product, or cosmetic that is adulterated or misbranded, and the delivery or proffered delivery thereof for pay or otherwise.
(d) The introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of any article in violation of section 344, 350d, 355, or 360bbb–3 of this title.
(e) The refusal to permit access to or copying of any record as required by section 350a, 350c, 350f(j), 350e, 354, 360bbb–3, 373, 374(a), 379aa, or 379aa–1 of this title; or the failure to establish or maintain any record, or make any report, required under section 350a, 350c(b), 350f, 350e, 354, 355(i) or (k), 360b(a)(4)(C), 360b(j), (l) or (m), 360ccc–1(i), 360e(f), 360i, 360bbb–3, 379aa, 379aa–1, 387i, or 387t of this title or the refusal to permit access to or verification or copying of any such required record; or the violation of any recordkeeping requirement under section 2223 1
1 See References in Text note below.
of this title (except when such violation is committed by a farm).
(f) The refusal to permit entry or inspection as authorized by section 374 of this title.
(g) The manufacture within any Territory of any food, drug, device, tobacco product, or cosmetic that is adulterated or misbranded.
(h) The giving of a guaranty or undertaking referred to in section 333(c)(2) of this title, which guaranty or undertaking is false, except by a person who relied upon a guaranty or undertaking to the same effect signed by, and containing the name and address of, the person residing in the United States from whom he received in good faith the food, drug, device, tobacco product, or cosmetic; or the giving of a guaranty or undertaking referred to in section 333(c)(3) of this title, which guaranty or undertaking is false.
(i)
(1) Forging, counterfeiting, simulating, or falsely representing, or without proper authority using any mark, stamp, tag, label, or other identification device authorized or required by regulations promulgated under the provisions of section 344 or 379e of this title.
(2) Making, selling, disposing of, or keeping in possession, control, or custody, or concealing any punch, die, plate, stone, or other thing designed to print, imprint, or reproduce the trademark, trade name, or other identifying mark, imprint, or device of another or any likeness of any of the foregoing upon any drug or container or labeling thereof so as to render such drug a counterfeit drug.
(3) The doing of any act which causes a drug to be a counterfeit drug, or the sale or dispensing, or the holding for sale or dispensing, of a counterfeit drug.
(j) The using by any person to his own advantage, or revealing, other than to the Secretary or officers or employees of the Department, or to the courts when relevant in any judicial proceeding under this chapter, any information acquired under authority of section 344, 348, 350a, 350c, 355, 360, 360b, 360c, 360d, 360e, 360f, 360h, 360i, 360j, 360ccc, 360ccc–1, 360ccc–2, 374, 379, 379e, 387d, 387e, 387f, 387g, 387h, 387i, or 387t(b) of this title concerning any method or process which as a trade secret is entitled to protection; or the violating of section 346a(i)(2) of this title or any regulation issued under that section..2
2 So in original.
This paragraph does not authorize the withholding of information from either House of Congress or from, to the extent of matter within its jurisdiction, any committee or subcommittee of such committee or any joint committee of Congress or any subcommittee of such joint committee.
(k) The alteration, mutilation, destruction, obliteration, or removal of the whole or any part of the labeling of, or the doing of any other act with respect to, a food, drug, device, tobacco product, or cosmetic, if such act is done while such article is held for sale (whether or not the first sale) after shipment in interstate commerce and results in such article being adulterated or misbranded.
(l) Repealed. Pub. L. 105–115, title IV, § 421, Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2380.
(m) The sale or offering for sale of colored oleomargarine or colored margarine, or the possession or serving of colored oleomargarine or colored margarine in violation of subsections (b) or (c) of section 347 of this title.
(n) The using, in labeling, advertising or other sales promotion of any reference to any report or analysis furnished in compliance with section 374 of this title.
(o) In the case of a prescription drug distributed or offered for sale in interstate commerce, the failure of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor thereof to maintain for transmittal, or to transmit, to any practitioner licensed by applicable State law to administer such drug who makes written request for information as to such drug, true and correct copies of all printed matter which is required to be included in any package in which that drug is distributed or sold, or such other printed matter as is approved by the Secretary. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to exempt any person from any labeling requirement imposed by or under other provisions of this chapter.
(p) The failure to register in accordance with section 360 or 387e of this title, the failure to provide any information required by section 360(j), 360(k), 387e(i), or 387e(j) of this title, or the failure to provide a notice required by section 360(j)(2) or 387e(i)(3) of this title.
(q)
(1)
The failure or refusal—
(A) to comply with any requirement prescribed under section 360h, 360j(g), 387c(b), 387g, 387h, or 387o of this title;
(B) to furnish any notification or other material or information required by or under section 360i, 360j(g), 387d, 387i, or 387t of this title; or
(C) to comply with a requirement under section 360l or 387m of this title.
(2) With respect to any device or tobacco product, the submission of any report that is required by or under this chapter that is false or misleading in any material respect.
(r) The movement of a device, drug, or tobacco product in violation of an order under section 334(g) of this title or the removal or alteration of any mark or label required by the order to identify the device, drug, or tobacco product as detained.
(s) The failure to provide the notice required by section 350a(c) or 350a(e) of this title, the failure to make the reports required by section 350a(f)(1)(B) of this title, the failure to retain the records required by section 350a(b)(4) of this title, or the failure to meet the requirements prescribed under section 350a(f)(3) of this title.
(t) The importation of a drug in violation of section 381(d)(1) of this title, the sale, purchase, or trade of a drug or drug sample or the offer to sell, purchase, or trade a drug or drug sample in violation of section 353(c) of this title, the sale, purchase, or trade of a coupon, the offer to sell, purchase, or trade such a coupon, or the counterfeiting of such a coupon in violation of section 353(c)(2) of this title, the distribution of a drug sample in violation of section 353(d) of this title or the failure to otherwise comply with the requirements of section 353(d) of this title, the distribution of drugs in violation of section 353(e) of this title, failure to comply with the requirements under section 360eee–1 of this title, the failure to comply with the requirements under section 360eee–3 of this title, as applicable, or the failure to otherwise comply with the requirements of section 353(e) of this title.
(u) The failure to comply with any requirements of the provisions of, or any regulations or orders of the Secretary, under section 360b(a)(4)(A), 360b(a)(4)(D), or 360b(a)(5) of this title.
(v) The introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of a dietary supplement that is unsafe under section 350b of this title.
(w) The making of a knowingly false statement in any statement, certificate of analysis, record, or report required or requested under section 381(d)(3) of this title; the failure to submit a certificate of analysis as required under such section; the failure to maintain records or to submit records or reports as required by such section; the release into interstate commerce of any article or portion thereof imported into the United States under such section or any finished product made from such article or portion, except for export in accordance with section 381(e) or 382 of this title, or with section 262(h) of title 42; or the failure to so export or to destroy such an article or portions thereof, or such a finished product.
(x) The falsification of a declaration of conformity submitted under section 360d(c) of this title or the failure or refusal to provide data or information requested by the Secretary under paragraph (3) of such section.
(y)
In the case of a drug, device, or food—
(1) the submission of a report or recommendation by a person accredited under section 360m of this title that is false or misleading in any material respect;
(2) the disclosure by a person accredited under section 360m of this title of confidential commercial information or any trade secret without the express written consent of the person who submitted such information or secret to such person; or
(3) the receipt by a person accredited under section 360m of this title of a bribe in any form or the doing of any corrupt act by such person associated with a responsibility delegated to such person under this chapter.
(z) Omitted.
(aa) The importation of a prescription drug in violation of section 384 of this title, the falsification of any record required to be maintained or provided to the Secretary under such section, or any other violation of regulations under such section.
(bb) The transfer of an article of food in violation of an order under section 334(h) of this title, or the removal or alteration of any mark or label required by the order to identify the article as detained.
(cc) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food or a drug by, with the assistance of, or at the direction of, a person debarred from such activity under section 335a(b)(3) of this title.
(dd) The failure to register in accordance with section 350d of this title.
(ee) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of the requirements under section 381(m) of this title.
(ff) The importing or offering for import into the United States of a drug or device with respect to which there is a failure to comply with a request of the Secretary to submit to the Secretary a statement under section 381(o) of this title.
(gg) The knowing failure to comply with paragraph (7)(E) of section 374(g) of this title; the knowing inclusion by a person accredited under paragraph (2) of such section of false information in an inspection report under paragraph (7)(A) of such section; or the knowing failure of such a person to include material facts in such a report.
(hh) The failure by a shipper, carrier by motor vehicle or rail vehicle, receiver, or any other person engaged in the transportation of food to comply with the sanitary transportation practices prescribed by the Secretary under section 350e of this title.
(ii) The falsification of a report of a serious adverse event submitted to a responsible person (as defined under section 379aa or 379aa–1 of this title) or the falsification of a serious adverse event report (as defined under section 379aa or 379aa–1 of this title) submitted to the Secretary.
(jj)
(1) The failure to submit the certification required by section 282(j)(5)(B) of title 42, or knowingly submitting a false certification under such section.
(2) The failure to submit clinical trial information required under subsection (j) of section 282 of title 42.
(3) The submission of clinical trial information under subsection (j) of section 282 of title 42 that is false or misleading in any particular under paragraph (5)(D) of such subsection (j).
(kk) The dissemination of a television advertisement without complying with section 353c 1 of this title.
(ll)
The introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of any food to which has been added a drug approved under section 355 of this title, a biological product licensed under section 262 of title 42, or a drug or a biological product for which substantial clinical investigations have been instituted and for which the existence of such investigations has been made public, unless—
(1) such drug or such biological product was marketed in food before any approval of the drug under section 355 of this title, before licensure of the biological product under such section 262 of title 42, and before any substantial clinical investigations involving the drug or the biological product have been instituted;
(2) the Secretary, in the Secretary’s discretion, has issued a regulation, after notice and comment, approving the use of such drug or such biological product in the food;
(3)
the use of the drug or the biological product in the food is to enhance the safety of the food to which the drug or the biological product is added or applied and not to have independent biological or therapeutic effects on humans, and the use is in conformity with—
(A) a regulation issued under section 348 of this title prescribing conditions of safe use in food;
(B) a regulation listing or affirming conditions under which the use of the drug or the biological product in food is generally recognized as safe;
(C) the conditions of use identified in a notification to the Secretary of a claim of exemption from the premarket approval requirements for food additives based on the notifier’s determination that the use of the drug or the biological product in food is generally recognized as safe, provided that the Secretary has not questioned the general recognition of safety determination in a letter to the notifier;
(D) a food contact substance notification that is effective under section 348(h) of this title; or
(E) such drug or biological product had been marketed for smoking cessation prior to September 27, 2007; or
(4) the drug is a new animal drug whose use is not unsafe under section 360b of this title.
(mm) The failure to submit a report or provide a notification required under section 350f(d) of this title.
(nn) The falsification of a report or notification required under section 350f(d) of this title.
(oo) The sale of tobacco products in violation of a no-tobacco-sale order issued under section 333(f) of this title.
(pp) The introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of a tobacco product in violation of section 387k of this title.
(qq)
(1) Forging, counterfeiting, simulating, or falsely representing, or without proper authority using any mark, stamp (including tax stamp), tag, label, or other identification device upon any tobacco product or container or labeling thereof so as to render such tobacco product a counterfeit tobacco product.
(2) Making, selling, disposing of, or keeping in possession, control, or custody, or concealing any punch, die, plate, stone, or other item that is designed to print, imprint, or reproduce the trademark, trade name, or other identifying mark, imprint, or device of another or any likeness of any of the foregoing upon any tobacco product or container or labeling thereof so as to render such tobacco product a counterfeit tobacco product.
(3) The doing of any act that causes a tobacco product to be a counterfeit tobacco product, or the sale or dispensing, or the holding for sale or dispensing, of a counterfeit tobacco product.
(rr) The charitable distribution of tobacco products.
(ss) The failure of a manufacturer or distributor to notify the Attorney General and the Secretary of the Treasury of their knowledge of tobacco products used in illicit trade.
(tt)
Making any express or implied statement or representation directed to consumers with respect to a tobacco product, in a label or labeling or through the media or advertising, that either conveys, or misleads or would mislead consumers into believing, that—
(1) the product is approved by the Food and Drug Administration;
(2) the Food and Drug Administration deems the product to be safe for use by consumers;
(3) the product is endorsed by the Food and Drug Administration for use by consumers; or
(4)
the product is safe or less harmful by virtue of—
(A) its regulation or inspection by the Food and Drug Administration; or
(B) its compliance with regulatory requirements set by the Food and Drug Administration;
including any such statement or representation rendering the product misbranded under section 387c of this title.
(uu) The operation of a facility that manufactures, processes, packs, or holds food for sale in the United States if the owner, operator, or agent in charge of such facility is not in compliance with section 350g of this title.
(vv) The failure to comply with the requirements under section 350h of this title.
(ww) The failure to comply with section 350i of this title.
(xx) The refusal or failure to follow an order under section 350l of this title.
(yy) The knowing and willful failure to comply with the notification requirement under section 350f(h) of this title.
(zz) The importation or offering for importation of a food if the importer (as defined in section 384a of this title) does not have in place a foreign supplier verification program in compliance with such section 384a of this title.
(aaa) The failure to register in accordance with section 381(s) of this title.
(bbb) The failure to notify the Secretary in violation of section 360bbb–7 of this title.
(ccc)
(1) The resale of a compounded drug that is labeled “not for resale” in accordance with section 353b of this title.
(2) With respect to a drug to be compounded pursuant to section 353a or 353b of this title, the intentional falsification of a prescription, as applicable.
(3) The failure to report drugs or adverse events by an entity that is registered in accordance with subsection (b) of section 353b of this title.
(ddd)
(1) The manufacture or the introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of a rinse-off cosmetic that contains intentionally-added plastic microbeads.
(2)
In this paragraph—
(A) the term “plastic microbead” means any solid plastic particle that is less than five millimeters in size and is intended to be used to exfoliate or cleanse the human body or any part thereof; and
(B) the term “rinse-off cosmetic” includes toothpaste.
(eee) The failure to comply with any order issued under section 360bbb–8d of this title.
(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, § 301, 52 Stat. 1042; Dec. 22, 1941, ch. 613, § 1, 55 Stat. 851; July 6, 1945, ch. 281, § 1, 59 Stat. 463; Mar. 10, 1947, ch. 16, § 1, 61 Stat. 11; June 24, 1948, ch. 613, § 1, 62 Stat. 582; Mar. 16, 1950, ch. 61, § 3(b), 64 Stat. 20; Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 350, § 2, 67 Stat. 477; Pub. L. 85–929, § 5, Sept. 6, 1958, 72 Stat. 1788; Pub. L. 86–618, title I, §§ 104, 105(a), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 403; Pub. L. 87–781, title I, §§ 103(c), 104(e)(1), 106(c), 114(a), title III, § 304, Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 784, 785, 788, 791, 795; Pub. L. 89–74, §§ 5, 9(c), July 15, 1965, 79 Stat. 232, 235; Pub. L. 90–399, § 103, July 13, 1968, 82 Stat. 352; Pub. L. 90–639, § 2(b), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1361; Pub. L. 91–513, title II, § 701(a), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1281; Pub. L. 92–387, § 4(e), Aug. 16, 1972, 86 Stat. 562; Pub. L. 94–295, §§ 3(b), 4(b)(1), 7(b), May 28, 1976, 90 Stat. 576, 580, 582; Pub. L. 96–359, § 5, Sept. 26, 1980, 94 Stat. 1193; Pub. L. 99–570, title IV, § 4014(b)(2), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–120; Pub. L. 100–293, § 7(a), Apr. 22, 1988, 102 Stat. 99; Pub. L. 101–502, § 5(j), Nov. 3, 1990, 104 Stat. 1289; Pub. L. 101–508, title IV, § 4755(c)(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–210; Pub. L. 102–300, § 3(a)(1), June 16, 1992, 106 Stat. 238; Pub. L. 102–571, title I, § 107(2), (3), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4499; Pub. L. 103–80, § 3(c), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 103–396, § 2(b)(1), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4154; Pub. L. 103–417, § 10(b), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4332; Pub. L. 104–134, title II, § 2103, Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–319; Pub. L. 104–170, title IV, § 403, Aug. 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 1514; Pub. L. 104–250, § 5(d), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3156; Pub. L. 105–115, title I, § 125(a)(2)(A), (C), (b)(2)(B), title II, §§ 204(b), 210(c), title IV, §§ 401(b), 421, Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2325, 2336, 2345, 2364, 2380; Pub. L. 106–387, § 1(a) [title VII, § 745(d)(1)], Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1549, 1549A–39; Pub. L. 107–188, title III, §§ 303(b), 304(d), 305(b), 306(c), 307(b), 321(b)(2), 322(b), June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 664, 666, 668, 670, 672, 676, 677; Pub. L. 107–250, title II, § 201(d), Oct. 26, 2002, 116 Stat. 1609; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title XVI, § 1603(c), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1690; Pub. L. 108–173, title XI, § 1121(b)(1), Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2469; Pub. L. 108–214, § 2(b)(2)(A), Apr. 1, 2004, 118 Stat. 575; Pub. L. 108–282, title I, § 102(b)(5)(C), (D), Aug. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 902; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, § 7202(d), (e), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1913; Pub. L. 109–462, §§ 2(c), 3(b), 4(a), Dec. 22, 2006, 120 Stat. 3472, 3475; Pub. L. 110–85, title VIII, § 801(b)(1), title IX, §§ 901(d)(1), 912(a), title X, § 1005(d), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 920, 939, 951, 968; Pub. L. 111–31, div. A, title I, § 103(b), June 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1833; Pub. L. 111–353, title I, §§ 102(d)(1), 103(e), 105(c), 106(d), title II, §§ 204(j)(1), 206(d), 211(b), (c), title III, § 301(b), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3889, 3898, 3904, 3906, 3937, 3943, 3953, 3954; Pub. L. 112–144, title VII, §§ 714(a), 715(a), July 9, 2012, 126 Stat. 1073, 1075; Pub. L. 113–54, title I, § 103(a), title II, § 206(a), Nov. 27, 2013, 127 Stat. 597, 639; Pub. L. 114–114, § 2(a), Dec. 28, 2015, 129 Stat. 3129; Pub. L. 114–255, div. A, title III, § 3101(a)(2)(A), Dec. 13, 2016, 130 Stat. 1152; Pub. L. 115–271, title III, §§ 3012(a), 3022(b)(1), Oct. 24, 2018, 132 Stat. 3935, 3938.)
§ 332.
Injunction proceedings
(a)
Jurisdiction of courts

The district courts of the United States and the United States courts of the Territories shall have jurisdiction, for cause shown 1

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.
to restrain violations of section 331 of this title, except paragraphs (h), (i), and (j).

(b)
Violation of injunction

In case of violation of an injunction or restraining order issued under this section, which also constitutes a violation of this chapter, trial shall be by the court, or, upon demand of the accused, by a jury.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, § 302, 52 Stat. 1043; Pub. L. 87–781, title I, § 103(d), title II, § 201(c), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 784, 793; Pub. L. 103–80, § 3(d), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 775.)
§ 333.
Penalties
(a)
Violation of section 331 of this title; second violation; intent to defraud or mislead
(1) Any person who violates a provision of section 331 of this title shall be imprisoned for not more than one year or fined not more than $1,000, or both.
(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this section,1
1 So in original. Words “of this section” probably should not appear.
if any person commits such a violation after a conviction of him under this section has become final, or commits such a violation with the intent to defraud or mislead, such person shall be imprisoned for not more than three years or fined not more than $10,000, or both.
(b)
Prescription drug marketing violations
(1)
Notwithstanding subsection (a), any person who violates section 331(t) of this title by—
(A) knowingly importing a drug in violation of section 381(d)(1) of this title,
(B) knowingly selling, purchasing, or trading a drug or drug sample or knowingly offering to sell, purchase, or trade a drug or drug sample, in violation of section 353(c)(1) of this title,
(C) knowingly selling, purchasing, or trading a coupon, knowingly offering to sell, purchase, or trade such a coupon, or knowingly counterfeiting such a coupon, in violation of section 353(c)(2) of this title, or
(D) knowingly distributing drugs in violation of section 353(e)(1) of this title,
shall be imprisoned for not more than 10 years or fined not more than $250,000, or both.
(2)
Any manufacturer or distributor who distributes drug samples by means other than the mail or common carrier whose representative, during the course of the representative’s employment or association with that manufacturer or distributor, violated section 331(t) of this title because of a violation of section 353(c)(1) of this title or violated any State law prohibiting the sale, purchase, or trade of a drug sample subject to section 353(b) of this title or the offer to sell, purchase, or trade such a drug sample shall, upon conviction of the representative for such violation, be subject to the following civil penalties:
(A) A civil penalty of not more than $50,000 for each of the first two such violations resulting in a conviction of any representative of the manufacturer or distributor in any 10-year period.
(B) A civil penalty of not more than $1,000,000 for each violation resulting in a conviction of any representative after the second conviction in any 10-year period.
For the purposes of this paragraph, multiple convictions of one or more persons arising out of the same event or transaction, or a related series of events or transactions, shall be considered as one violation.
(3) Any manufacturer or distributor who violates section 331(t) of this title because of a failure to make a report required by section 353(d)(3)(E) of this title shall be subject to a civil penalty of not more than $100,000.
(4)
(A) If a manufacturer or distributor or any representative of such manufacturer or distributor provides information leading to the institution of a criminal proceeding against, and conviction of, any representative of that manufacturer or distributor for a violation of section 331(t) of this title because of a sale, purchase, or trade or offer to purchase, sell, or trade a drug sample in violation of section 353(c)(1) of this title or for a violation of State law prohibiting the sale, purchase, or trade or offer to sell, purchase, or trade a drug sample, the conviction of such representative shall not be considered as a violation for purposes of paragraph (2).
(B)
If, in an action brought under paragraph (2) against a manufacturer or distributor relating to the conviction of a representative of such manufacturer or distributor for the sale, purchase, or trade of a drug or the offer to sell, purchase, or trade a drug, it is shown, by clear and convincing evidence—
(i)
(ii) that, except in the case of the conviction of a representative employed in a supervisory function, despite diligent implementation by the manufacturer or distributor of an independent audit and security system designed to detect such a violation, the manufacturer or distributor could not reasonably have been expected to have detected such violation,
the conviction of such representative shall not be considered as a conviction for purposes of paragraph (2).
(5) If a person provides information leading to the institution of a criminal proceeding against, and conviction of, a person for a violation of section 331(t) of this title because of the sale, purchase, or trade of a drug sample or the offer to sell, purchase, or trade a drug sample in violation of section 353(c)(1) of this title, such person shall be entitled to one-half of the criminal fine imposed and collected for such violation but not more than $125,000.
(6) Notwithstanding subsection (a), any person who is a manufacturer or importer of a prescription drug under section 384(b) of this title and knowingly fails to comply with a requirement of section 384(e) of this title that is applicable to such manufacturer or importer, respectively, shall be imprisoned for not more than 10 years or fined not more than $250,000, or both.
(7) Notwithstanding subsection (a)(2), any person that knowingly and intentionally adulterates a drug such that the drug is adulterated under subsection (a)(1), (b), (c), or (d) of section 351 of this title and has a reasonable probability of causing serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals shall be imprisoned for not more than 20 years or fined not more than $1,000,000, or both.
(8) Notwithstanding subsection (a), any person who violates section 331(i)(3) of this title by knowingly making, selling or dispensing, or holding for sale or dispensing, a counterfeit drug shall be imprisoned for not more than 10 years or fined in accordance with title 18, or both.
(c)
Exceptions in certain cases of good faith, etc.

No person shall be subject to the penalties of subsection (a)(1) of this section, (1) for having received in interstate commerce any article and delivered it or proffered delivery of it, if such delivery or proffer was made in good faith, unless he refuses to furnish on request of an officer or employee duly designated by the Secretary the name and address of the person from whom he purchased or received such article and copies of all documents, if any there be, pertaining to the delivery of the article to him; or (2) for having violated section 331(a) or (d) of this title, if he establishes a guaranty or undertaking signed by, and containing the name and address of, the person residing in the United States from whom he received in good faith the article, to the effect, in case of an alleged violation of section 331(a) of this title, that such article is not adulterated or misbranded, within the meaning of this chapter designating this chapter or to the effect, in case of an alleged violation of section 331(d) of this title, that such article is not an article which may not, under the provisions of section 344 or 355 of this title, be introduced into interstate commerce; or (3) for having violated section 331(a) of this title, where the violation exists because the article is adulterated by reason of containing a color additive not from a batch certified in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Secretary under this chapter, if such person establishes a guaranty or undertaking signed by, and containing the name and address of, the manufacturer of the color additive, to the effect that such color additive was from a batch certified in accordance with the applicable regulations promulgated by the Secretary under this chapter; or (4) for having violated section 331(b), (c) or (k) of this title by failure to comply with section 352(f) of this title in respect to an article received in interstate commerce to which neither section 353(a) nor 353(b)(1) of this title is applicable, if the delivery or proffered delivery was made in good faith and the labeling at the time thereof contained the same directions for use and warning statements as were contained in the labeling at the time of such receipt of such article; or (5) for having violated section 331(i)(2) of this title if such person acted in good faith and had no reason to believe that use of the punch, die, plate, stone, or other thing involved would result in a drug being a counterfeit drug, or for having violated section 331(i)(3) of this title if the person doing the act or causing it to be done acted in good faith and had no reason to believe that the drug was a counterfeit drug.

(d)
Exceptions involving misbranded food

No person shall be subject to the penalties of subsection (a)(1) of this section for a violation of section 331 of this title involving misbranded food if the violation exists solely because the food is misbranded under section 343(a)(2) of this title because of its advertising.

(e)
Prohibited distribution of human growth hormone
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), whoever knowingly distributes, or possesses with intent to distribute, human growth hormone for any use in humans other than the treatment of a disease or other recognized medical condition, where such use has been authorized by the Secretary of Health and Human Services under section 355 of this title and pursuant to the order of a physician, is guilty of an offense punishable by not more than 5 years in prison, such fines as are authorized by title 18, or both.
(2) Whoever commits any offense set forth in paragraph (1) and such offense involves an individual under 18 years of age is punishable by not more than 10 years imprisonment, such fines as are authorized by title 18, or both.
(3) Any conviction for a violation of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection shall be considered a felony violation of the Controlled Substances Act [21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.] for the purposes of forfeiture under section 413 of such Act [21 U.S.C. 853].
(4) As used in this subsection the term “human growth hormone” means somatrem, somatropin, or an analogue of either of them.
(5) The Drug Enforcement Administration is authorized to investigate offenses punishable by this subsection.
(f)
Violations related to devices
(1)
(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), any person who violates a requirement of this chapter which relates to devices shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $15,000 for each such violation, and not to exceed $1,000,000 for all such violations adjudicated in a single proceeding. For purposes of the preceding sentence, a person accredited under paragraph (2) of section 374(g) of this title who is substantially not in compliance with the standards of accreditation under such section, or who poses a threat to public health or fails to act in a manner that is consistent with the purposes of such section, shall be considered to have violated a requirement of this chapter that relates to devices.
(B)
Subparagraph (A) shall not apply—
(i) to any person who violates the requirements of section 360i(a) or 360j(f) of this title unless such violation constitutes (I) a significant or knowing departure from such requirements, or (II) a risk to public health,
(ii) to any person who commits minor violations of section 360i(e) or 360i(g) of this title (only with respect to correction reports) if such person demonstrates substantial compliance with such section, or
(iii) to violations of section 351(a)(2)(A) of this title which involve one or more devices which are not defective.
(2)
(A) Any person who introduces into interstate commerce or delivers for introduction into interstate commerce an article of food that is adulterated within the meaning of section 342(a)(2)(B) of this title or any person who does not comply with a recall order under section 350l of this title shall be subject to a civil money penalty of not more than $50,000 in the case of an individual and $250,000 in the case of any other person for such introduction or delivery, not to exceed $500,000 for all such violations adjudicated in a single proceeding.
(B) This paragraph shall not apply to any person who grew the article of food that is adulterated. If the Secretary assesses a civil penalty against any person under this paragraph, the Secretary may not use the criminal authorities under this section to sanction such person for the introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of the article of food that is adulterated. If the Secretary assesses a civil penalty against any person under this paragraph, the Secretary may not use the seizure authorities of section 334 of this title or the injunction authorities of section 332 of this title with respect to the article of food that is adulterated.
(C) In a hearing to assess a civil penalty under this paragraph, the presiding officer shall have the same authority with regard to compelling testimony or production of documents as a presiding officer has under section 346a(g)(2)(B) of this title. The third sentence of paragraph (5)(A) shall not apply to any investigation under this paragraph.
(3)
(A) Any person who violates section 331(jj) of this title shall be subject to a civil monetary penalty of not more than $10,000 for all violations adjudicated in a single proceeding.
(B) If a violation of section 331(jj) of this title is not corrected within the 30-day period following notification under section 282(j)(5)(C)(ii) 2
2 See References in Text note below.
of title 42, the person shall, in addition to any penalty under subparagraph (A), be subject to a civil monetary penalty of not more than $10,000 for each day of the violation after such period until the violation is corrected.
(4)
(A)
Any responsible person (as such term is used in section 355–1 of this title) that violates a requirement of section 355(o), 355(p), or 355–1 of this title shall be subject to a civil monetary penalty of—
(i) not more than $250,000 per violation, and not to exceed $1,000,000 for all such violations adjudicated in a single proceeding; or
(ii) in the case of a violation that continues after the Secretary provides written notice to the responsible person, the responsible person shall be subject to a civil monetary penalty of $250,000 for the first 30-day period (or any portion thereof) that the responsible person continues to be in violation, and such amount shall double for every 30-day period thereafter that the violation continues, not to exceed $1,000,000 for any 30-day period, and not to exceed $10,000,000 for all such violations adjudicated in a single proceeding.
(B) In determining the amount of a civil penalty under subparagraph (A)(ii), the Secretary shall take into consideration whether the responsible person is making efforts toward correcting the violation of the requirement of section 355(o), 355(p), or 355–1 of this title for which the responsible person is subject to such civil penalty.
(5)
(A) A civil penalty under paragraph (1), (2), (3), (4), or (9) shall be assessed, or a no-tobacco-sale order may be imposed, by the Secretary by an order made on the record after opportunity for a hearing provided in accordance with this subparagraph and section 554 of title 5. Before issuing such an order, the Secretary shall give written notice to the person to be assessed a civil penalty, or upon whom a no-tobacco-sale order is to be imposed, under such order of the Secretary’s proposal to issue such order and provide such person an opportunity for a hearing on the order. In the course of any investigation, the Secretary may issue subpoenas requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of evidence that relates to the matter under investigation.
(B) In determining the amount of a civil penalty, or the period to be covered by a no-tobacco-sale order, the Secretary shall take into account the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the violation or violations and, with respect to the violator, ability to pay, effect on ability to continue to do business, any history of prior such violations, the degree of culpability, and such other matters as justice may require. A no-tobacco-sale order permanently prohibiting an individual retail outlet from selling tobacco products shall include provisions that allow the outlet, after a specified period of time, to request that the Secretary compromise, modify, or terminate the order.
(C) The Secretary may compromise, modify, or remit, with or without conditions, any civil penalty which may be assessed under paragraph (1), (2), (3), (4), or (9). The amount of such penalty, when finally determined, or the amount agreed upon in compromise, may be deducted from any sums owing by the United States to the person charged.
(D) The Secretary may compromise, modify, or terminate, with or without conditions, any no-tobacco-sale order.
(6) Any person who requested, in accordance with paragraph (5)(A), a hearing respecting the assessment of a civil penalty or the imposition of a no-tobacco-sale order and who is aggrieved by an order assessing a civil penalty or the imposition of a no-tobacco-sale order may file a petition for judicial review of such order with the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit or for any other circuit in which such person resides or transacts business. Such a petition may only be filed within the 60-day period beginning on the date the order making such assessment was issued, or on which the no-tobacco-sale order was imposed, as the case may be.
(7)
If any person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty—
(A) after the order making the assessment becomes final, and if such person does not file a petition for judicial review of the order in accordance with paragraph (6), or
(B) after a court in an action brought under paragraph (6) has entered a final judgment in favor of the Secretary,
the Attorney General shall recover the amount assessed (plus interest at currently prevailing rates from the date of the expiration of the 60-day period referred to in paragraph (6) or the date of such final judgment, as the case may be) in an action brought in any appropriate district court of the United States. In such an action, the validity, amount, and appropriateness of such penalty shall not be subject to review.
(8) If the Secretary finds that a person has committed repeated violations of section 387f(d)(5) of this title or of restrictions promulgated under section 387f(d) of this title at a particular retail outlet then the Secretary may impose a no-tobacco-sale order on that person prohibiting the sale of tobacco products in that outlet. A no-tobacco-sale order may be imposed with a civil penalty under paragraph (1). Prior to the entry of a no-sale order under this paragraph, a person shall be entitled to a hearing pursuant to the procedures established through regulations of the Food and Drug Administration for assessing civil money penalties, including at a retailer’s request a hearing by telephone, or at the nearest regional or field office of the Food and Drug Administration, or at a Federal, State, or county facility within 100 miles from the location of the retail outlet, if such a facility is available.
(9)
Civil Monetary Penalties for Violation of Tobacco Product Requirements.—
(A)
In general.—
Subject to subparagraph (B), any person who violates a requirement of this chapter which relates to tobacco products shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $15,000 for each such violation, and not to exceed $1,000,000 for all such violations adjudicated in a single proceeding.
(B)
Enhanced penalties.—
(i)
Any person who intentionally violates a requirement of section 387b(5), 387b(6), 387d, 387h(c), or 387k(a) of this title, shall be subject to a civil monetary penalty of—
(I) not to exceed $250,000 per violation, and not to exceed $1,000,000 for all such violations adjudicated in a single proceeding; or(II) in the case of a violation that continues after the Secretary provides written notice to such person, $250,000 for the first 30-day period (or any portion thereof) that the person continues to be in violation, and such amount shall double for every 30-day period thereafter that the violation continues, not to exceed $1,000,000 for any 30-day period, and not to exceed $10,000,000 for all such violations adjudicated in a single proceeding.
(ii)
Any person who violates a requirement of section 387k(g)(2)(C)(ii) or 387k(i)(1) of this title, shall be subject to a civil monetary penalty of—
(I) not to exceed $250,000 per violation, and not to exceed $1,000,000 for all such violations adjudicated in a single proceeding; or(II) in the case of a violation that continues after the Secretary provides written notice to such person, $250,000 for the first 30-day period (or any portion thereof) that the person continues to be in violation, and such amount shall double for every 30-day period thereafter that the violation continues, not to exceed $1,000,000 for any 30-day period, and not to exceed $10,000,000 for all such violations adjudicated in a single proceeding.
(iii) In determining the amount of a civil penalty under clause (i)(II) or (ii)(II), the Secretary shall take into consideration whether the person is making efforts toward correcting the violation of the requirements of the section for which such person is subject to such civil penalty.
(g)
Violations regarding direct-to-consumer advertising
(1) With respect to a person who is a holder of an approved application under section 355 of this title for a drug subject to section 353(b) of this title or under section 262 of title 42, any such person who disseminates or causes another party to disseminate a direct-to-consumer advertisement that is false or misleading shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $250,000 for the first such violation in any 3-year period, and not to exceed $500,000 for each subsequent violation in any 3-year period. No other civil monetary penalties in this chapter (including the civil penalty in subsection (f)(4)) shall apply to a violation regarding direct-to-consumer advertising. For purposes of this paragraph: (A) Repeated dissemination of the same or similar advertisement prior to the receipt of the written notice referred to in paragraph (2) for such advertisements shall be considered one violation. (B) On and after the date of the receipt of such a notice, all violations under this paragraph occurring in a single day shall be considered one violation. With respect to advertisements that appear in magazines or other publications that are published less frequently than daily, each issue date (whether weekly or monthly) shall be treated as a single day for the purpose of calculating the number of violations under this paragraph.
(2) A civil penalty under paragraph (1) shall be assessed by the Secretary by an order made on the record after providing written notice to the person to be assessed a civil penalty and an opportunity for a hearing in accordance with this paragraph and section 554 of title 5. If upon receipt of the written notice, the person to be assessed a civil penalty objects and requests a hearing, then in the course of any investigation related to such hearing, the Secretary may issue subpoenas requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of evidence that relates to the matter under investigation, including information pertaining to the factors described in paragraph (3).
(3)
The Secretary, in determining the amount of the civil penalty under paragraph (1), shall take into account the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the violation or violations, including the following factors:
(A)
(B) Whether the person submitted the advertisement for review if required under section 353c 2 of this title.
(C) Whether, after submission of the advertisement as described in subparagraph (A) or (B), the person disseminated or caused another party to disseminate the advertisement before the end of the 45-day comment period.
(D) Whether the person incorporated any comments made by the Secretary with regard to the advertisement into the advertisement prior to its dissemination.
(E) Whether the person ceased distribution of the advertisement upon receipt of the written notice referred to in paragraph (2) for such advertisement.
(F) Whether the person had the advertisement reviewed by qualified medical, regulatory, and legal reviewers prior to its dissemination.
(G) Whether the violations were material.
(H) Whether the person who created the advertisement or caused the advertisement to be created acted in good faith.
(I) Whether the person who created the advertisement or caused the advertisement to be created has been assessed a civil penalty under this provision within the previous 1-year period.
(J) The scope and extent of any voluntary, subsequent remedial action by the person.
(K) Such other matters, as justice may require.
(4)
(A) Subject to subparagraph (B), no person shall be required to pay a civil penalty under paragraph (1) if the person submitted the advertisement to the Secretary and disseminated or caused another party to disseminate such advertisement after incorporating each comment received from the Secretary.
(B) The Secretary may retract or modify any prior comments the Secretary has provided to an advertisement submitted to the Secretary based on new information or changed circumstances, so long as the Secretary provides written notice to the person of the new views of the Secretary on the advertisement and provides a reasonable time for modification or correction of the advertisement prior to seeking any civil penalty under paragraph (1).
(5) The Secretary may compromise, modify, or remit, with or without conditions, any civil penalty which may be assessed under paragraph (1). The amount of such penalty, when finally determined, or the amount charged upon in compromise, may be deducted from any sums owed by the United States to the person charged.
(6) Any person who requested, in accordance with paragraph (2), a hearing with respect to the assessment of a civil penalty and who is aggrieved by an order assessing a civil penalty, may file a petition for de novo judicial review of such order with the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit or for any other circuit in which such person resides or transacts business. Such a petition may only be filed within the 60-day period beginning on the date the order making such assessments was issued.
(7)
If any person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty under paragraph (1)—
(A) after the order making the assessment becomes final, and if such person does not file a petition for judicial review of the order in accordance with paragraph (6), or
(B) after a court in an action brought under paragraph (6) has entered a final judgment in favor of the Secretary,
the Attorney General of the United States shall recover the amount assessed (plus interest at currently prevailing rates from the date of the expiration of the 60-day period referred to in paragraph (6) or the date of such final judgment, as the case may be) in an action brought in any appropriate district court of the United States. In such an action, the validity, amount, and appropriateness of such penalty shall not be subject to review.
(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, § 303, 52 Stat. 1043; Oct. 26, 1951, ch. 578, § 2, 65 Stat. 649; Pub. L. 86–618, title I, § 105(b), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 403; Pub. L. 89–74, §§ 7, 9(d), July 15, 1965, 79 Stat. 233, 235; Pub. L. 90–639, § 3, Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1361; Pub. L. 91–513, title II, § 701(b), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1281; Pub. L. 94–278, title V, § 502(a)(2)(B), Apr. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 411; Pub. L. 100–293, § 7(b), Apr. 22, 1988, 102 Stat. 99; Pub. L. 100–690, title II, § 2403, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4230; Pub. L. 101–629, § 17(a), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4526; Pub. L. 101–647, title XIX, § 1904, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4853; Pub. L. 102–353, § 3, Aug. 26, 1992, 106 Stat. 941; Pub. L. 103–80, § 3(e), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, § 330015, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2146; Pub. L. 104–170, title IV, § 407, Aug. 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 1535; Pub. L. 106–387, § 1(a) [title VII, § 745(d)(2)], Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1549, 1549A–40; Pub. L. 107–250, title II, § 201(c), Oct. 26, 2002, 116 Stat. 1609; Pub. L. 108–173, title XI, § 1121(b)(2), Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2469; Pub. L. 110–85, title II, § 226(b), title VIII, § 801(b)(2), title IX, §§ 901(d)(4), 902(b), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 854, 920, 940, 943; Pub. L. 111–31, div. A, title I, § 103(c), June 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1835; Pub. L. 111–353, title II, § 206(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3943; Pub. L. 112–144, title VII, § 716, July 9, 2012, 126 Stat. 1075; Pub. L. 113–54, title II, § 207(a), Nov. 27, 2013, 127 Stat. 640; Pub. L. 115–52, title VI, § 604(b), Aug. 18, 2017, 131 Stat. 1048; Pub. L. 116–94, div. N, title I, § 603(d)(2), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 3124.)
§ 333a.
Repealed. Pub. L. 101–647, title XIX, § 1905, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4853
§ 334.
Seizure
(a)
Grounds and jurisdiction
(1) Any article of food, drug, or cosmetic that is adulterated or misbranded when introduced into or while in interstate commerce or while held for sale (whether or not the first sale) after shipment in interstate commerce, or which may not, under the provisions of section 331(ll), 344, or 355 of this title, be introduced into interstate commerce, shall be liable to be proceeded against while in interstate commerce, or at any time thereafter, on libel of information and condemned in any district court of the United States or United States court of a Territory within the jurisdiction of which the article is found. No libel for condemnation shall be instituted under this chapter, for any alleged misbranding if there is pending in any court a libel for condemnation proceeding under this chapter based upon the same alleged misbranding, and not more than one such proceeding shall be instituted if no such proceeding is so pending, except that such limitations shall not apply (A) when such misbranding has been the basis of a prior judgment in favor of the United States, in a criminal, injunction, or libel for condemnation proceeding under this chapter, or (B) when the Secretary has probable cause to believe from facts found, without hearing, by him or any officer or employee of the Department that the misbranded article is dangerous to health, or that the labeling of the misbranded article is fraudulent, or would be in a material respect misleading to the injury or damage of the purchaser or consumer. In any case where the number of libel for condemnation proceedings is limited as above provided the proceeding pending or instituted shall, on application of the claimant, seasonably made, be removed for trial to any district agreed upon by stipulation between the parties, or, in case of failure to so stipulate within a reasonable time, the claimant may apply to the court of the district in which the seizure has been made, and such court (after giving the United States attorney for such district reasonable notice and opportunity to be heard) shall by order, unless good cause to the contrary is shown, specify a district of reasonable proximity to the claimant’s principal place of business, to which the case shall be removed for trial.
(2) The following shall be liable to be proceeded against at any time on libel of information and condemned in any district court of the United States or United States court of a Territory within the jurisdiction of which they are found: (A) Any drug that is a counterfeit drug, (B) Any container of a counterfeit drug, (C) Any punch, die, plate, stone, labeling, container, or other thing used or designed for use in making a counterfeit drug or drugs, (D) Any adulterated or misbranded device, and (E) Any adulterated or misbranded tobacco product.
(3)
(A)
Except as provided in subparagraph (B), no libel for condemnation may be instituted under paragraph (1) or (2) against any food which—
(i) is misbranded under section 343(a)(2) of this title because of its advertising, and
(ii) is being held for sale to the ultimate consumer in an establishment other than an establishment owned or operated by a manufacturer, packer, or distributor of the food.
(B)
A libel for condemnation may be instituted under paragraph (1) or (2) against a food described in subparagraph (A) if—
(i)(I) the food’s advertising which resulted in the food being misbranded under section 343(a)(2) of this title was disseminated in the establishment in which the food is being held for sale to the ultimate consumer,(II) such advertising was disseminated by, or under the direction of, the owner or operator of such establishment, or(III) all or part of the cost of such advertising was paid by such owner or operator; and
(ii) the owner or operator of such establishment used such advertising in the establishment to promote the sale of the food.
(b)
Procedure; multiplicity of pending proceedings

The article, equipment, or other thing proceeded against shall be liable to seizure by process pursuant to the libel, and the procedure in cases under this section shall conform, as nearly as may be, to the procedure in admiralty; except that on demand of either party any issue of fact joined in any such case shall be tried by jury. When libel for condemnation proceedings under this section, involving the same claimant and the same issues of adulteration or misbranding, are pending in two or more jurisdictions, such pending proceedings, upon application of the claimant seasonably made to the court of one such jurisdiction, shall be consolidated for trial by order of such court, and tried in (1) any district selected by the claimant where one of such proceedings is pending; or (2) a district agreed upon by stipulation between the parties. If no order for consolidation is so made within a reasonable time, the claimant may apply to the court of one such jurisdiction and such court (after giving the United States attorney for such district reasonable notice and opportunity to be heard) shall by order, unless good cause to the contrary is shown, specify a district of reasonable proximity to the claimant’s principal place of business, in which all such pending proceedings shall be consolidated for trial and tried. Such order of consolidation shall not apply so as to require the removal of any case the date for trial of which has been fixed. The court granting such order shall give prompt notification thereof to the other courts having jurisdiction of the cases covered thereby.

(c)
Availability of samples of seized goods prior to trial

The court at any time after seizure up to a reasonable time before trial shall by order allow any party to a condemnation proceeding, his attorney or agent, to obtain a representative sample of the article seized and a true copy of the analysis, if any, on which the proceeding is based and the identifying marks or numbers, if any, of the packages from which the samples analyzed were obtained.

(d)
Disposition of goods after decree of condemnation; claims for remission or mitigation of forfeitures
(1) Any food, drug, device, tobacco product, or cosmetic condemned under this section shall, after entry of the decree, be disposed of by destruction or sale as the court may, in accordance with the provisions of this section, direct and the proceeds thereof, if sold, less the legal costs and charges, shall be paid into the Treasury of the United States; but such article shall not be sold under such decree contrary to the provisions of this chapter or the laws of the jurisdiction in which sold. After entry of the decree and upon the payment of the costs of such proceedings and the execution of a good and sufficient bond conditioned that such article shall not be sold or disposed of contrary to the provisions of this chapter or the laws of any State or Territory in which sold, the court may by order direct that such article be delivered to the owner thereof to be destroyed or brought into compliance with the provisions of this chapter, under the supervision of an officer or employee duly designated by the Secretary, and the expenses of such supervision shall be paid by the person obtaining release of the article under bond. If the article was imported into the United States and the person seeking its release establishes (A) that the adulteration, misbranding, or violation did not occur after the article was imported, and (B) that he had no cause for believing that it was adulterated, misbranded, or in violation before it was released from customs custody, the court may permit the article to be delivered to the owner for exportation in lieu of destruction upon a showing by the owner that all of the conditions of section 381(e) of this title can and will be met. The provisions of this sentence shall not apply where condemnation is based upon violation of section 342(a)(1), (2), or (6), section 351(a)(3), section 352(j), or section 361(a) or (d) of this title. Where such exportation is made to the original foreign supplier, then subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 381(e)(1) of this title
(2) The provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection shall, to the extent deemed appropriate by the court, apply to any equipment or other thing which is not otherwise within the scope of such paragraph and which is referred to in paragraph (2) of subsection (a).
(3) Whenever in any proceeding under this section, involving paragraph (2) of subsection (a), the condemnation of any equipment or thing (other than a drug) is decreed, the court shall allow the claim of any claimant, to the extent of such claimant’s interest, for remission or mitigation of such forfeiture if such claimant proves to the satisfaction of the court (i) that he has not committed or caused to be committed any prohibited act referred to in such paragraph (2) and has no interest in any drug referred to therein, (ii) that he has an interest in such equipment or other thing as owner or lienor or otherwise, acquired by him in good faith, and (iii) that he at no time had any knowledge or reason to believe that such equipment or other thing was being or would be used in, or to facilitate, the violation of laws of the United States relating to counterfeit drugs.
(e)
Costs

When a decree of condemnation is entered against the article, court costs and fees, and storage and other proper expenses, shall be awarded against the person, if any, intervening as claimant of the article.

(f)
Removal of case for trial
In the case of removal for trial of any case as provided by subsection (a) or (b)—
(1) The clerk of the court from which removal is made shall promptly transmit to the court in which the case is to be tried all records in the case necessary in order that such court may exercise jurisdiction.
(2) The court to which such case was removed shall have the powers and be subject to the duties, for purposes of such case, which the court from which removal was made would have had, or to which such court would have been subject, if such case had not been removed.
(g)
Administrative restraint; detention orders
(1) If during an inspection conducted under section 374 of this title of a facility or a vehicle, a device, drug, or tobacco product which the officer or employee making the inspection has reason to believe is adulterated or misbranded is found in such facility or vehicle, such officer or employee may order the device, drug, or tobacco product detained (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary) for a reasonable period which may not exceed twenty days unless the Secretary determines that a period of detention greater than twenty days is required to institute an action under subsection (a) or section 332 of this title, in which case he may authorize a detention period of not to exceed thirty days. Regulations of the Secretary prescribed under this paragraph shall require that before a device, drug, or tobacco product may be ordered detained under this paragraph the Secretary or an officer or employee designated by the Secretary approve such order. A detention order under this paragraph may require the labeling or marking of a device, drug, or tobacco product during the period of its detention for the purpose of identifying the device, drug, or tobacco product as detained. Any person who would be entitled to claim a device, drug, or tobacco product if it were seized under subsection (a) may appeal to the Secretary a detention of such device, drug, or tobacco product under this paragraph. Within five days of the date an appeal of a detention is filed with the Secretary, the Secretary shall after affording opportunity for an informal hearing by order confirm the detention or revoke it.
(2)
(A)
Except as authorized by subparagraph (B), a device, drug, or tobacco product subject to a detention order issued under paragraph (1) shall not be moved by any person from the place at which it is ordered detained until—
(i) released by the Secretary, or
(ii) the expiration of the detention period applicable to such order,
whichever occurs first.
(B)
A device or drug subject to a detention order under paragraph (1) may be moved—
(i) in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary, and
(ii) if not in final form for shipment, at the discretion of the manufacturer of the device or drug for the purpose of completing the work required to put it in such form.
(h)
Administrative detention of foods
(1)
Detention authority
(A)
In general

An officer or qualified employee of the Food and Drug Administration may order the detention, in accordance with this subsection, of any article of food that is found during an inspection, examination, or investigation under this chapter conducted by such officer or qualified employee, if the officer or qualified employee has reason to believe that such article is adulterated or misbranded.

(B)
Secretary’s approval

An article of food may be ordered detained under subparagraph (A) only if the Secretary or an official designated by the Secretary approves the order. An official may not be so designated unless the official is the director of the district under this chapter in which the article involved is located, or is an official senior to such director.

(2)
Period of detention

An article of food may be detained under paragraph (1) for a reasonable period, not to exceed 20 days, unless a greater period, not to exceed 30 days, is necessary, to enable the Secretary to institute an action under subsection (a) or section 332 of this title. The Secretary shall by regulation provide for procedures for instituting such action on an expedited basis with respect to perishable foods.

(3)
Security of detained article

An order under paragraph (1) with respect to an article of food may require that such article be labeled or marked as detained, and shall require that the article be removed to a secure facility, as appropriate. An article subject to such an order shall not be transferred by any person from the place at which the article is ordered detained, or from the place to which the article is so removed, as the case may be, until released by the Secretary or until the expiration of the detention period applicable under such order, whichever occurs first. This subsection may not be construed as authorizing the delivery of the article pursuant to the execution of a bond while the article is subject to the order, and section 381(b) of this title does not authorize the delivery of the article pursuant to the execution of a bond while the article is subject to the order.

(4)
Appeal of detention order
(A)
In general

With respect to an article of food ordered detained under paragraph (1), any person who would be entitled to be a claimant for such article if the article were seized under subsection (a) may appeal the order to the Secretary. Within five days after such an appeal is filed, the Secretary, after providing opportunity for an informal hearing, shall confirm or terminate the order involved, and such confirmation by the Secretary shall be considered a final agency action for purposes of section 702 of title 5. If during such five-day period the Secretary fails to provide such an opportunity, or to confirm or terminate such order, the order is deemed to be terminated.

(B)
Effect of instituting court action

The process under subparagraph (A) for the appeal of an order under paragraph (1) terminates if the Secretary institutes an action under subsection (a) or section 332 of this title regarding the article of food involved.

(i)
Procedures for promulgating regulations
(1)
In general
In promulgating a regulation implementing this section, the Secretary shall—
(A) issue a notice of proposed rulemaking that includes the proposed regulation;
(B) provide a period of not less than 60 days for comments on the proposed regulation; and
(C) publish the final regulation not less than 30 days before the regulation’s effective date.
(2)
Restrictions

Notwithstanding any other provision of Federal law, in implementing this section, the Secretary shall only promulgate regulations as described in paragraph (1).

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, § 304, 52 Stat. 1044; June 24, 1948, ch. 613, § 2, 62 Stat. 582; Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 350, § 3, 67 Stat. 477; Pub. L. 85–250, Aug. 31, 1957, 71 Stat. 567; Pub. L. 89–74, § 6, July 15, 1965, 79 Stat. 232; Pub. L. 90–639, § 4(b), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1362; Pub. L. 91–513, title II, § 701(c), (d), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1281, 1282; Pub. L. 94–278, title V, § 502(a)(2)(C), Apr. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 411; Pub. L. 94–295, §§ 3(c), 7(a), May 28, 1976, 90 Stat. 576, 582; Pub. L. 102–300, § 6(c), June 16, 1992, 106 Stat. 240; Pub. L. 103–80, § 3(f), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 105–115, title IV, § 418, Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2379; Pub. L. 107–188, title III, § 303(a), June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 663; Pub. L. 110–85, title IX, § 912(b)(1), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 952; Pub. L. 111–31, div. A, title I, § 103(d), June 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1836; Pub. L. 111–353, title II, § 207(a), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3944; Pub. L. 112–144, title VII, § 709(a), (b)(2), July 9, 2012, 126 Stat. 1069.)
§ 335.
Hearing before report of criminal violation

Before any violation of this chapter is reported by the Secretary to any United States attorney for institution of a criminal proceeding, the person against whom such proceeding is contemplated shall be given appropriate notice and an opportunity to present his views, either orally or in writing, with regard to such contemplated proceeding.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, § 305, 52 Stat. 1045.)
§ 335a.
Debarment, temporary denial of approval, and suspension
(a)
Mandatory debarment; certain drug applications
(1)
Corporations, partnerships, and associations

If the Secretary finds that a person other than an individual has been convicted, after May 13, 1992, of a felony under Federal law for conduct relating to the development or approval, including the process for development or approval, of any abbreviated drug application, the Secretary shall debar such person from submitting, or assisting in the submission of, any such application.

(2)
Individuals
If the Secretary finds that an individual has been convicted of a felony under Federal law for conduct—
(A) relating to the development or approval, including the process for development or approval, of any drug product, or
(B) otherwise relating to the regulation of any drug product under this chapter,
the Secretary shall debar such individual from providing services in any capacity to a person that has an approved or pending drug product application.
(b)
Permissive debarment; certain drug applications; food imports
(1)
In general
The Secretary, on the Secretary’s own initiative or in response to a petition, may, in accordance with paragraph (2) or (3), debar—
(A) a person other than an individual from submitting or assisting in the submission of any abbreviated drug application;
(B) an individual from providing services in any capacity to a person that has an approved or pending drug product application;
(C) a person from importing an article of food or offering such an article for import into the United States; or
(D) a person from importing or offering for import into the United States a drug.
(2)
Persons subject to permissive debarment; certain drug applications
The following persons are subject to debarment under subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1):
(A)
Corporations, partnerships, and associations
Any person other than an individual that the Secretary finds has been convicted—
(i)
for conduct that—
(I) relates to the development or approval, including the process for the development or approval, of any abbreviated drug application; and(II) is a felony under Federal law (if the person was convicted before May 13, 1992), a misdemeanor under Federal law, or a felony under State law, or
(ii) of a conspiracy to commit, or aiding or abetting, a criminal offense described in clause (i) or a felony described in subsection (a)(1),
if the Secretary finds that the type of conduct which served as the basis for such conviction undermines the process for the regulation of drugs.
(B)
Individuals
(i)
Any individual whom the Secretary finds has been convicted of—
(I) a misdemeanor under Federal law or a felony under State law for conduct relating to the development or approval, including the process for development or approval, of any drug product or otherwise relating to the regulation of drug products under this chapter, or(II) a conspiracy to commit, or aiding or abetting, such criminal offense or a felony described in subsection (a)(2),
if the Secretary finds that the type of conduct which served as the basis for such conviction undermines the process for the regulation of drugs.
(ii)
Any individual whom the Secretary finds has been convicted of—
(I) a felony which is not described in subsection (a)(2) or clause (i) of this subparagraph and which involves bribery, payment of illegal gratuities, fraud, perjury, false statement, racketeering, blackmail, extortion, falsification or destruction of records, or interference with, obstruction of an investigation into, or prosecution of, any criminal offense, or(II) a conspiracy to commit, or aiding or abetting, such felony,
if the Secretary finds, on the basis of the conviction of such individual and other information, that such individual has demonstrated a pattern of conduct sufficient to find that there is reason to believe that such individual may violate requirements under this chapter relating to drug products.
(iii) Any individual whom the Secretary finds materially participated in acts that were the basis for a conviction for an offense described in subsection (a) or in clause (i) or (ii) for which a conviction was obtained, if the Secretary finds, on the basis of such participation and other information, that such individual has demonstrated a pattern of conduct sufficient to find that there is reason to believe that such individual may violate requirements under this chapter relating to drug products.
(iv)
Any high managerial agent whom the Secretary finds—
(I) worked for, or worked as a consultant for, the same person as another individual during the period in which such other individual took actions for which a felony conviction was obtained and which resulted in the debarment under subsection (a)(2), or clause (i), of such other individual,(II) had actual knowledge of the actions described in subclause (I) of such other individual, or took action to avoid such actual knowledge, or failed to take action for the purpose of avoiding such actual knowledge,(III) knew that the actions described in subclause (I) were violative of law, and(IV) did not report such actions, or did not cause such actions to be reported, to an officer, employee, or agent of the Department or to an appropriate law enforcement officer, or failed to take other appropriate action that would have ensured that the process for the regulation of drugs was not undermined, within a reasonable time after such agent first knew of such actions,
if the Secretary finds that the type of conduct which served as the basis for such other individual’s conviction undermines the process for the regulation of drugs.
(3)
Persons subject to permissive debarment; food or drug importation
A person is subject to debarment under paragraph (1)(C) if—
(A) the person has been convicted of a felony for conduct relating to the importation into the United States of any food;
(B) the person has engaged in a pattern of importing or offering for import adulterated food that presents a threat of serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals;
(C) the person has been convicted of a felony for conduct relating to the importation into the United States of any drug or controlled substance (as defined in section 802 of this title);
(D)
the person has engaged in a pattern of importing or offering for import—
(i) controlled substances that are prohibited from importation under section 1401(m) of title 19; or
(ii)
adulterated or misbranded drugs that are—
(I) not designated in an authorized electronic data interchange system as a product that is regulated by the Secretary; or(II) knowingly or intentionally falsely designated in an authorized electronic data interchange system as a product that is regulated by the Secretary.
(4)
Stay of certain orders

An order of the Secretary under clause (iii) or (iv) of paragraph (2)(B) shall not take effect until 30 days after the order has been issued.

(5)
Definition

For purposes of paragraph (3)(D), the term “pattern of importing or offering for import” means importing or offering for import a drug described in clause (i) or (ii) of paragraph (3)(D) in an amount, frequency, or dosage that is inconsistent with personal or household use by the importer.

(c)
Debarment period and considerations
(1)
Effect of debarment
The Secretary—
(A) shall not accept or review (other than in connection with an audit under this section) any abbreviated drug application submitted by or with the assistance of a person debarred under subsection (a)(1) or (b)(2)(A) during the period such person is debarred,
(B) shall, during the period of a debarment under subsection (a)(2) or (b)(2)(B), debar an individual from providing services in any capacity to a person that has an approved or pending drug product application and shall not accept or review (other than in connection with an audit under this section) an abbreviated drug application from such individual, and
(C) shall, if the Secretary makes the finding described in paragraph (6) or (7) of section 335b(a) of this title, assess a civil penalty in accordance with section 335b of this title.
(2)
Debarment periods
(A)
In general
The Secretary shall debar a person under subsection (a) or (b) for the following periods:
(i) The period of debarment of a person (other than an individual) under subsection (a)(1) shall not be less than 1 year or more than 10 years, but if an act leading to a subsequent debarment under subsection (a) occurs within 10 years after such person has been debarred under subsection (a)(1), the period of debarment shall be permanent.
(ii) The debarment of an individual under subsection (a)(2) shall be permanent.
(iii) The period of debarment of any person under paragraph (2) or (3) of subsection (b) shall not be more than 5 years.
The Secretary may determine whether debarment periods shall run concurrently or consecutively in the case of a person debarred for multiple offenses.
(B)
Notification

Upon a conviction for an offense described in subsection (a) or (b) or upon execution of an agreement with the United States to plead guilty to such an offense, the person involved may notify the Secretary that the person acquiesces to debarment and such person’s debarment shall commence upon such notification.

(3)
Considerations
In determining the appropriateness and the period of a debarment of a person under subsection (b) and any period of debarment beyond the minimum specified in subparagraph (A)(i) of paragraph (2), the Secretary shall consider where applicable—
(A) the nature and seriousness of any offense involved,
(B) the nature and extent of management participation in any offense involved, whether corporate policies and practices encouraged the offense, including whether inadequate institutional controls contributed to the offense,
(C) the nature and extent of voluntary steps to mitigate the impact on the public of any offense involved, including the recall or the discontinuation of the distribution of suspect drugs, full cooperation with any investigations (including the extent of disclosure to appropriate authorities of all wrongdoing), the relinquishing of profits on drug approvals fraudulently obtained, and any other actions taken to substantially limit potential or actual adverse effects on the public health,
(D) whether the extent to which changes in ownership, management, or operations have corrected the causes of any offense involved and provide reasonable assurances that the offense will not occur in the future,
(E) whether the person to be debarred is able to present adequate evidence that current production of drugs subject to abbreviated drug applications and all pending abbreviated drug applications are free of fraud or material false statements, and
(F) prior convictions under this chapter or under other Acts involving matters within the jurisdiction of the Food and Drug Administration.
(d)
Termination of debarment
(1)
Application

Any person that is debarred under subsection (a) (other than a person permanently debarred) or any person that is debarred under subsection (b) may apply to the Secretary for termination of the debarment under this subsection. Any information submitted to the Secretary under this paragraph does not constitute an amendment or supplement to pending or approved abbreviated drug applications.

(2)
Deadline

The Secretary shall grant or deny any application respecting a debarment which is submitted under paragraph (1) within 180 days of the date the application is submitted.

(3)
Action by the Secretary
(A)
Corporations
(i)
Conviction reversal

If the conviction which served as the basis for the debarment of a person under subsection (a)(1) or paragraph (2)(A) or (3) of subsection (b) is reversed, the Secretary shall withdraw the order of debarment.

(ii)
Application
Upon application submitted under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall terminate the debarment of a person if the Secretary finds that—
(I) changes in ownership, management, or operations have fully corrected the causes of the offense involved and provide reasonable assurances that the offense will not occur in the future, and(II) in applicable cases, sufficient audits, conducted by the Food and Drug Administration or by independent experts acceptable to the Food and Drug Administration, demonstrate that pending applications and the development of drugs being tested before the submission of an application are free of fraud or material false statements.
 In the case of persons debarred under subsection (a)(1), such termination shall take effect no earlier than the expiration of one year from the date of the debarment.
(B)
Individuals
(i)
Conviction reversal

If the conviction which served as the basis for the debarment of an individual under subsection (a)(2) or clause (i), (ii), (iii), or (iv) of subsection (b)(2)(B) or subsection (b)(3) is reversed, the Secretary shall withdraw the order of debarment.

(ii)
Application

Upon application submitted under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall terminate the debarment of an individual who has been debarred under subsection (b)(2)(B) or subsection (b)(3) if such termination serves the interests of justice and adequately protects the integrity of the drug approval process or the food importation process, as the case may be.

(4)
(A)
Application

Any person that is debarred under subsection (a)(1) (other than a person permanently debarred under subsection (c)(2)(A)(i)) or any individual who is debarred under subsection (a)(2) may apply to the Secretary for special termination of debarment under this subsection. Any information submitted to the Secretary under this subparagraph does not constitute an amendment or supplement to pending or approved abbreviated drug applications.

(B)
Corporations
Upon an application submitted under subparagraph (A), the Secretary may take the action described in subparagraph (D) if the Secretary, after an informal hearing, finds that—
(i) the person making the application under subparagraph (A) has demonstrated that the felony conviction which was the basis for such person’s debarment involved the commission of an offense which was not authorized, requested, commanded, performed, or recklessly tolerated by the board of directors or by a high managerial agent acting on behalf of the person within the scope of the board’s or agent’s office or employment,
(ii) all individuals who were involved in the commission of the offense or who knew or should have known of the offense have been removed from employment involving the development or approval of any drug subject to sections 1
1 So in original. Probably should be “section”.
355 of this title,
(iii) the person fully cooperated with all investigations and promptly disclosed all wrongdoing to the appropriate authorities, and
(iv) the person acted to mitigate any impact on the public of any offense involved, including the recall, or the discontinuation of the distribution, of any drug with respect to which the Secretary requested a recall or discontinuation of distribution due to concerns about the safety or efficacy of the drug.
(C)
Individuals

Upon an application submitted under subparagraph (A), the Secretary may take the action described in subparagraph (D) if the Secretary, after an informal hearing, finds that such individual has provided substantial assistance in the investigations or prosecutions of offenses which are described in subsection (a) or (b) or which relate to any matter under the jurisdiction of the Food and Drug Administration.

(D)
Secretarial action
The action referred to in subparagraphs (B) and (C) is—
(i)
in the case of a person other than an individual—
(I) terminating the debarment immediately, or(II) limiting the period of debarment to less than one year, and
(ii) in the case of an individual, limiting the period of debarment to less than permanent but to no less than 1 year,
whichever best serves the interest of justice and protects the integrity of the drug approval process.
(e)
Publication and list of debarred persons

The Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register the name of any person debarred under subsection (a) or (b), the effective date of the debarment, and the period of the debarment. The Secretary shall also maintain and make available to the public a list, updated no less often than quarterly, of such persons, of the effective dates and minimum periods of such debarments, and of the termination of debarments.

(f)
Temporary denial of approval
(1)
In general
The Secretary, on the Secretary’s own initiative or in response to a petition, may, in accordance with paragraph (3), refuse by order, for the period prescribed by paragraph (2), to approve any abbreviated drug application submitted by any person—
(A) if such person is under an active Federal criminal investigation in connection with an action described in subparagraph (B),
(B)
if the Secretary finds that such person—
(i) has bribed or attempted to bribe, has paid or attempted to pay an illegal gratuity, or has induced or attempted to induce another person to bribe or pay an illegal gratuity to any officer, employee, or agent of the Department of Health and Human Services or to any other Federal, State, or local official in connection with any abbreviated drug application, or has conspired to commit, or aided or abetted, such actions, or
(ii) has knowingly made or caused to be made a pattern or practice of false statements or misrepresentations with respect to material facts relating to any abbreviated drug application, or the production of any drug subject to an abbreviated drug application, to any officer, employee, or agent of the Department of Health and Human Services, or has conspired to commit, or aided or abetted, such actions, and
(C)
if a significant question has been raised regarding—
(i) the integrity of the approval process with respect to such abbreviated drug application, or
(ii) the reliability of data in or concerning such person’s abbreviated drug application.
Such an order may be modified or terminated at any time.
(2)
Applicable period
(A)
In general
Except as provided in subparagraph (B), a denial of approval of an application of a person under paragraph (1) shall be in effect for a period determined by the Secretary but not to exceed 18 months beginning on the date the Secretary finds that the conditions described in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of paragraph (1) exist. The Secretary shall terminate such denial—
(i) if the investigation with respect to which the finding was made does not result in a criminal charge against such person, if criminal charges have been brought and the charges have been dismissed, or if a judgment of acquittal has been entered, or
(ii) if the Secretary determines that such finding was in error.
(B)
Extension

If, at the end of the period described in subparagraph (A), the Secretary determines that a person has been criminally charged for an action described in subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1), the Secretary may extend the period of denial of approval of an application for a period not to exceed 18 months. The Secretary shall terminate such extension if the charges have been dismissed, if a judgment of acquittal has been entered, or if the Secretary determines that the finding described in subparagraph (A) was in error.

(3)
Informal hearing

Within 10 days of the date an order is issued under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall provide such person with an opportunity for an informal hearing, to be held within such 10 days, on the decision of the Secretary to refuse approval of an abbreviated drug application. Within 60 days of the date on which such hearing is held, the Secretary shall notify the person given such hearing whether the Secretary’s refusal of approval will be continued, terminated, or otherwise modified. Such notification shall be final agency action.

(g)
Suspension authority
(1)
In general
If—
(A)
the Secretary finds—
(i) that a person has engaged in conduct described in subparagraph (B) of subsection (f)(1) in connection with 2 or more drugs under abbreviated drug applications, or
(ii)
that a person has engaged in flagrant and repeated, material violations of good manufacturing practice or good laboratory practice in connection with the development, manufacturing, or distribution of one or more drugs approved under an abbreviated drug application during a 2-year period, and—
(I) such violations may undermine the safety and efficacy of such drugs, and(II) the causes of such violations have not been corrected within a reasonable period of time following notice of such violations by the Secretary, and
(B) such person is under an active investigation by a Federal authority in connection with a civil or criminal action involving conduct described in subparagraph (A),
the Secretary shall issue an order suspending the distribution of all drugs the development or approval of which was related to such conduct described in subparagraph (A) or suspending the distribution of all drugs approved under abbreviated drug applications of such person if the Secretary finds that such conduct may have affected the development or approval of a significant number of drugs which the Secretary is unable to identify. The Secretary shall exclude a drug from such order if the Secretary determines that such conduct was not likely to have influenced the safety or efficacy of such drug.
(2)
Public health waiver

The Secretary shall, on the Secretary’s own initiative or in response to a petition, waive the suspension under paragraph (1) (involving an action described in paragraph (1)(A)(i)) with respect to any drug if the Secretary finds that such waiver is necessary to protect the public health because sufficient quantities of the drug would not otherwise be available. The Secretary shall act on any petition seeking action under this paragraph within 180 days of the date the petition is submitted to the Secretary.

(h)
Termination of suspension
The Secretary shall withdraw an order of suspension of the distribution of a drug under subsection (g) if the person with respect to whom the order was issued demonstrates in a petition to the Secretary—
(1)
(A) on the basis of an audit by the Food and Drug Administration or by experts acceptable to the Food and Drug Administration, or on the basis of other information, that the development, approval, manufacturing, and distribution of such drug is in substantial compliance with the applicable requirements of this chapter, and
(B)
changes in ownership, management, or operations—
(i) fully remedy the patterns or practices with respect to which the order was issued, and
(ii) provide reasonable assurances that such actions will not occur in the future, or
(2) the initial determination was in error.
The Secretary shall act on a submission of a petition under this subsection within 180 days of the date of its submission and the Secretary may consider the petition concurrently with the suspension proceeding. Any information submitted to the Secretary under this subsection does not constitute an amendment or supplement to a pending or approved abbreviated drug application.
(i)
Procedure

The Secretary may not take any action under subsection (a), (b), (c), (d)(3), (g), or (h) with respect to any person unless the Secretary has issued an order for such action made on the record after opportunity for an agency hearing on disputed issues of material fact. In the course of any investigation or hearing under this subsection, the Secretary may administer oaths and affirmations, examine witnesses, receive evidence, and issue subpoenas requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of evidence that relates to the matter under investigation.

(j)
Judicial review
(1)
In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), any person that is the subject of an adverse decision under subsection (a), (b), (c), (d), (f), (g), or (h) may obtain a review of such decision by the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia or for the circuit in which the person resides, by filing in such court (within 60 days following the date the person is notified of the Secretary’s decision) a petition requesting that the decision be modified or set aside.

(2)
Exception

Any person that is the subject of an adverse decision under clause (iii) or (iv) of subsection (b)(2)(B) may obtain a review of such decision by the United States District Court for the District of Columbia or a district court of the United States for the district in which the person resides, by filing in such court (within 30 days following the date the person is notified of the Secretary’s decision) a complaint requesting that the decision be modified or set aside. In such an action, the court shall determine the matter de novo.

(k)
Certification
Any application for approval of a drug product shall include—
(1) a certification that the applicant did not and will not use in any capacity the services of any person debarred under subsection (a) or (b), in connection with such application, and
(2) if such application is an abbreviated drug application, a list of all convictions, described in subsections (a) and (b) which occurred within the previous 5 years, of the applicant and affiliated persons responsible for the development or submission of such application.
(l)
Applicability
(1)
Conviction
For purposes of this section, a person is considered to have been convicted of a criminal offense—
(A) when a judgment of conviction has been entered against the person by a Federal or State court, regardless of whether there is an appeal pending,
(B) when a plea of guilty or nolo contendere by the person has been accepted by a Federal or State court, or
(C) when the person has entered into participation in a first offender, deferred adjudication, or other similar arrangement or program where judgment of conviction has been withheld.
(2)
Effective dates

Subsection (a), subparagraph (A) of subsection (b)(2), clauses (i) and (ii) of subsection (b)(2)(B), and subsection (b)(3)(A) shall not apply to a conviction which occurred more than 5 years before the initiation of an agency action proposed to be taken under subsection (a) or (b). Clauses (iii) and (iv) of subsection (b)(2)(B), subsection (b)(3)(B), and subsections (f) and (g) shall not apply to an act or action which occurred more than 5 years before the initiation of an agency action proposed to be taken under subsection (b), (f), or (g). Clause (iv) of subsection (b)(2)(B) shall not apply to an action which occurred before June 1, 1992. Subsection (k) shall not apply to applications submitted to the Secretary before June 1, 1992.

(m)
Devices; mandatory debarment regarding third-party inspections and reviews
(1)
In general

If the Secretary finds that a person has been convicted of a felony under section 331(gg) of this title, the Secretary shall debar such person from being accredited under section 360m(b) or 374(g)(2) of this title and from carrying out activities under an agreement described in section 383(b) of this title.

(2)
Debarment period
The Secretary shall debar a person under paragraph (1) for the following periods:
(A) The period of debarment of a person (other than an individual) shall not be less than 1 year or more than 10 years, but if an act leading to a subsequent debarment under such paragraph occurs within 10 years after such person has been debarred under such paragraph, the period of debarment shall be permanent.
(B) The debarment of an individual shall be permanent.
(3)
Termination of debarment; judicial review; other matters

Subsections (c)(3), (d), (e), (i), (j), and (l)(1) apply with respect to a person (other than an individual) or an individual who is debarred under paragraph (1) to the same extent and in the same manner as such subsections apply with respect to a person who is debarred under subsection (a)(1), or an individual who is debarred under subsection (a)(2), respectively.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, § 306, as added Pub. L. 102–282, § 2, May 13, 1992, 106 Stat. 150; amended Pub. L. 105–115, title I, § 125(b)(2)(C), Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2325; Pub. L. 107–188, title III, § 304(a)–(c), June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 665, 666; Pub. L. 107–250, title II, § 203, Oct. 26, 2002, 116 Stat. 1610; Pub. L. 115–271, title III, § 3022(b)(2), Oct. 24, 2018, 132 Stat. 3938.)
§ 335b.
Civil penalties
(a)
In general
Any person that the Secretary finds—
(1) knowingly made or caused to be made, to any officer, employee, or agent of the Department of Health and Human Services, a false statement or misrepresentation of a material fact in connection with an abbreviated drug application,
(2) bribed or attempted to bribe or paid or attempted to pay an illegal gratuity to any officer, employee, or agent of the Department of Health and Human Services in connection with an abbreviated drug application,
(3) destroyed, altered, removed, or secreted, or procured the destruction, alteration, removal, or secretion of, any material document or other material evidence which was the property of or in the possession of the Department of Health and Human Services for the purpose of interfering with that Department’s discharge of its responsibilities in connection with an abbreviated drug application,
(4) knowingly failed to disclose, to an officer or employee of the Department of Health and Human Services, a material fact which such person had an obligation to disclose relating to any drug subject to an abbreviated drug application,
(5) knowingly obstructed an investigation of the Department of Health and Human Services into any drug subject to an abbreviated drug application,
(6)
is a person that has an approved or pending drug product application and has knowingly—
(A) employed or retained as a consultant or contractor, or
(B) otherwise used in any capacity the services of,
a person who was debarred under section 335a of this title, or
(7) is an individual debarred under section 335a of this title and, during the period of debarment, provided services in any capacity to a person that had an approved or pending drug product application,
shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty for each such violation in an amount not to exceed $250,000 in the case of an individual and $1,000,000 in the case of any other person.
(b)
Procedure
(1)
In general
(A)
Action by the Secretary

A civil penalty under subsection (a) shall be assessed by the Secretary on a person by an order made on the record after an opportunity for an agency hearing on disputed issues of material fact and the amount of the penalty. In the course of any investigation or hearing under this subparagraph, the Secretary may administer oaths and affirmations, examine witnesses, receive evidence, and issue subpoenas requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of evidence that relates to the matter under investigation.

(B)
Action by the Attorney General

In lieu of a proceeding under subparagraph (A), the Attorney General may, upon request of the Secretary, institute a civil action to recover a civil money penalty in the amount and for any of the acts set forth in subsection (a). Such an action may be instituted separately from or in connection with any other claim, civil or criminal, initiated by the Attorney General under this chapter.

(2)
Amount

In determining the amount of a civil penalty under paragraph (1), the Secretary or the court shall take into account the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the act subject to penalty, the person’s ability to pay, the effect on the person’s ability to continue to do business, any history of prior, similar acts, and such other matters as justice may require.

(3)
Limitation on actions
No action may be initiated under this section—
(A) with respect to any act described in subsection (a) that occurred before May 13, 1992, or
(B) more than 6 years after the date when facts material to the act are known or reasonably should have been known by the Secretary but in no event more than 10 years after the date the act took place.
(c)
Judicial review

Any person that is the subject of an adverse decision under subsection (b)(1)(A) may obtain a review of such decision by the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia or for the circuit in which the person resides, by filing in such court (within 60 days following the date the person is notified of the Secretary’s decision) a petition requesting that the decision be modified or set aside.

(d)
Recovery of penalties

The Attorney General may recover any civil penalty (plus interest at the currently prevailing rates from the date the penalty became final) assessed under subsection (b)(1)(A) in an action brought in the name of the United States. The amount of such penalty may be deducted, when the penalty has become final, from any sums then or later owing by the United States to the person against whom the penalty has been assessed. In an action brought under this subsection, the validity, amount, and appropriateness of the penalty shall not be subject to judicial review.

(e)
Informants
The Secretary may award to any individual (other than an officer or employee of the Federal Government or a person who materially participated in any conduct described in subsection (a)) who provides information leading to the imposition of a civil penalty under this section an amount not to exceed—
(1) $250,000, or
(2) one-half of the penalty so imposed and collected,
whichever is less. The decision of the Secretary on such award shall not be reviewable.
(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, § 307, as added Pub. L. 102–282, § 3, May 13, 1992, 106 Stat. 159; amended Pub. L. 103–80, § 3(g), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 776.)
§ 335c.
Authority to withdraw approval of abbreviated drug applications
(a)
In general
The Secretary—
(1) shall withdraw approval of an abbreviated drug application if the Secretary finds that the approval was obtained, expedited, or otherwise facilitated through bribery, payment of an illegal gratuity, or fraud or material false statement, and
(2) may withdraw approval of an abbreviated drug application if the Secretary finds that the applicant has repeatedly demonstrated a lack of ability to produce the drug for which the application was submitted in accordance with the formulations or manufacturing practice set forth in the abbreviated drug application and has introduced, or attempted to introduce, such adulterated or misbranded drug into commerce.
(b)
Procedure

The Secretary may not take any action under subsection (a) with respect to any person unless the Secretary has issued an order for such action made on the record after opportunity for an agency hearing on disputed issues of material fact. In the course of any investigation or hearing under this subsection, the Secretary may administer oaths and affirmations, examine witnesses, receive evidence, and issue subpoenas requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of evidence that relates to the matter under investigation.

(c)
Applicability

Subsection (a) shall apply with respect to offenses or acts regardless of when such offenses or acts occurred.

(d)
Judicial review

Any person that is the subject of an adverse decision under subsection (a) may obtain a review of such decision by the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia or for the circuit in which the person resides, by filing in such court (within 60 days following the date the person is notified of the Secretary’s decision) a petition requesting that the decision be modified or set aside.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, § 308, as added Pub. L. 102–282, § 4, May 13, 1992, 106 Stat. 160.)
§ 336.
Report of minor violations

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed as requiring the Secretary to report for prosecution, or for the institution of libel or injunction proceedings, minor violations of this chapter whenever he believes that the public interest will be adequately served by a suitable written notice or warning.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, § 309, formerly § 306, 52 Stat. 1045; renumbered § 309, Pub. L. 102–282, § 2, May 13, 1992, 106 Stat. 150.)
§ 337.
Proceedings in name of United States; provision as to subpoenas
(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), all such proceedings for the enforcement, or to restrain violations, of this chapter shall be by and in the name of the United States. Subpoenas for witnesses who are required to attend a court of the United States, in any district, may run into any other district in any proceeding under this section.
(b)
(1) A State may bring in its own name and within its jurisdiction proceedings for the civil enforcement, or to restrain violations, of section 341, 343(b), 343(c), 343(d), 343(e), 343(f), 343(g), 343(h), 343(i), 343(k), 343(q), or 343(r) of this title if the food that is the subject of the proceedings is located in the State.
(2)
No proceeding may be commenced by a State under paragraph (1)—
(A) before 30 days after the State has given notice to the Secretary that the State intends to bring such proceeding,
(B) before 90 days after the State has given notice to the Secretary of such intent if the Secretary has, within such 30 days, commenced an informal or formal enforcement action pertaining to the food which would be the subject of such proceeding, or
(C) if the Secretary is diligently prosecuting a proceeding in court pertaining to such food, has settled such proceeding, or has settled the informal or formal enforcement action pertaining to such food.
In any court proceeding described in subparagraph (C), a State may intervene as a matter of right.
(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, § 310, formerly § 307, 52 Stat. 1046; Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263, § 37, 68 Stat. 1239; Pub. L. 101–535, § 4, Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2362; renumbered § 310, Pub. L. 102–282, § 2, May 13, 1992, 106 Stat. 150.)
§ 337a.
Extraterritorial jurisdiction

There is extraterritorial jurisdiction over any violation of this chapter relating to any article regulated under this chapter if such article was intended for import into the United States or if any act in furtherance of the violation was committed in the United States.

(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, § 311, as added Pub. L. 112–144, title VII, § 718, July 9, 2012, 126 Stat. 1077.)