- § 2381. Exercise of functions
- § 2381a. Strengthened management practices
- § 2382. Coordination with foreign policy
- § 2383. Responsibilities of the Secretary of Defense; priorities in procurement, delivery, and allocation of military equipment
- § 2384. Statutory officers
- § 2385. Employment of personnel
- § 2385a. Unified personnel system
- § 2386. Experts, consultants, and retired officers
- § 2387. Detail of personnel to foreign governments
- § 2388. Detail of personnel to international organizations
- § 2389. Status and benefits of personnel assigned or detailed to foreign governments or international organizations
- § 2390. Terms of detail or assignment of personnel
- § 2391. Missions and staffs abroad
- § 2392. Government agencies
- § 2393. Waiver of certain laws
- § 2393a. Requests by Government Accountability Office and Congressional committees for documents and materials
- § 2394. Reports and information; definitions
- § 2394-1. Notification of program changes
- § 2394-1a. Classification of reports
- § 2394a. Extortion and illegal payments to officials of foreign countries receiving international security assistance
- § 2394b. HELP Commission
- § 2394c. Information on covered United States foreign assistance programs
- § 2395. General authorities
- § 2395a. International agreements concerning debt relief; transmittal to congressional committees
- § 2396. Availability of funds
- § 2396a. Property Management Fund
- § 2397. Administrative expenses
- § 2398. Assistance to countries pursuant to other statutes
- § 2399. Repealed.
- §§ 2399-1a, 2399-1b. Transferred
- § 2399a. Repealed.
- § 2399b. False claims and ineligible commodities
- § 2399c. Coordination of policies and programs
- § 2399d. Shipping differential
The President may exercise any functions conferred upon him by this chapter through such agency or officer of the United States Government as he shall direct. The head of any such agency or such officer may from time to time promulgate such rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out such functions, and may delegate authority to perform any such functions, including, if he shall so specify, the authority successively to redelegate any of such functions to any of his subordinates. In providing technical assistance under this chapter, the head of any such agency or such officer shall utilize, to the fullest extent practicable, goods and professional and other services from private enterprise on a contract basis. In such fields as education, health, housing, or agriculture, the facilities and resources of other Federal agencies shall be utilized when such facilities are particularly or uniquely suitable for technical assistance, are not competitive with private enterprise, and can be made available without interfering unduly with domestic programs.
The President shall issue and enforce regulations determining the eligibility of any person to receive funds made available under this chapter. A person may be suspended under such regulations for a temporary period pending the completion of an investigation and any resulting judicial or debarment proceedings, upon cause for belief that such person or an affiliate thereof probably has undertaken conduct which constitutes a cause for debarment; and, after an opportunity has been afforded to such person for a hearing, he may be debarred for an additional period, not to exceed three years. Among the causes for debarment shall be (1) offering or accepting a bribe or other illegal payment or credit in connection with any transaction financed with funds made available under this chapter; or (2) committing a fraud in the procurement or performance of any contract financed with funds made available under this chapter; or (3) acting in any other manner which shows a lack of integrity or honesty in connection with any transaction financed with funds made available under this chapter. Reinstatement of eligibility in each particular case shall be subject to such conditions as the President shall direct. Each person whose eligibility is denied or suspended under this subsection shall, upon request, be entitled to a review of his eligibility not less often than once every two years.
The Congress believes that United States foreign aid funds could be utilized more effectively by the application of advanced management decisionmaking, information and analysis techniques such as systems analysis, automatic data processing, benefit-cost studies, and information retrieval.
To meet this need, the President shall establish a management system that includes: the definition of objectives and programs for United States foreign assistance; the development of quantitative indicators of progress toward these objectives; the orderly consideration of alternative means for accomplishing such objectives; and the adoption of methods for comparing actual results of programs and projects with those anticipated when they were undertaken. The system should provide information to the agency and to Congress that relates agency resources, expenditures, and budget projections to such objectives and results in order to assist in the evaluation of program performance, the review of budgetary requests, and the setting of program priorities.
Nothing contained in this chapter shall be construed to infringe upon the powers or functions of the Secretary of State.
The President shall prescribe appropriate procedures to assure coordination among representatives of the United States Government in each country, under the leadership of the Chief of the United States Diplomatic Mission. The Chief of the diplomatic mission shall make sure that recommendations of such representatives pertaining to military assistance (including civic action) and military education and training programs are coordinated with political and economic considerations, and his comments shall accompany such recommendations if he so desires.
Under the direction of the President, the Secretary of State shall be responsible for the continuous supervision and general direction of economic assistance, military assistance, and military education and training programs, including but not limited to determining whether there shall be a military assistance (including civic action) or a military education and training program for a country and the value thereof, to the end that such programs are effectively integrated both at home and abroad and the foreign policy of the United States is best served thereby.
The President may appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, twelve officers in the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter, and in the selection of one of such persons due consideration shall be given to persons qualified as professional engineers.
Within the limitations established by subsection (a) of this section, the President may fix the rate of compensation, and may designate the title of, any officer appointed pursuant to the authority contained in that subsection. The President may also fix the order of succession among the officers provided for in subsection (a) of this section in the event of the absence, death, resignation, or disability of one or more of said officers.
Any person who was appointed by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to any statutory position authorized by any provision of law repealed by section 642(a) and who is serving in one of such positions at the time of transfer of functions pursuant to subsections (c) and (d) of section 2381 of this title, may be appointed by the President to a comparable position authorized by subsection (a) of this section on the date of the establishment of the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter, without further action by the Senate.
In addition to the officers otherwise provided for in this section, the President shall appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, one officer for the purpose of coordinating security assistance programs.
Any agency or officer of the United States Government carrying out functions under this chapter is authorized to employ such personnel as the President deems necessary to carry out the provisions and purposes of this chapter.
Of the personnel employed in the United States to carry out subchapter I of this chapter or coordinate subchapter I and subchapter II of this chapter, not to exceed one hundred and ten may be appointed, compensated, or removed without regard to the provisions of any law, of whom not to exceed fifty-one may be compensated at rates higher than those provided for grade 15 of the general schedule established by section 5332 of title 5, but not in excess of the highest rate of grade 18 of such general schedule: Provided, That, under such regulations as the President shall prescribe, officers and employees of the United States Government who are appointed to any of the above positions may be entitled, upon removal from such position, to reinstatement to the position occupied at the time of appointment or to a position of comparable grade and salary. Such positions shall be in addition to those authorized by law to be filled by Presidential appointment, and in addition to the number authorized by section 5108 of title 5.
Of the personnel employed in the United States to carry out subchapter II of this chapter, or any Act superseding subchapter II of this chapter in whole or in part, not to exceed eight may be compensated at rates higher than those provided for grade 15 of the general schedule established by section 5332 of title 5, but not in excess of the highest rate of grade 18 of such general schedule. Such positions shall be in addition to those authorized by law to be filled by Presidential appointment, and in addition to the number authorized by section 5108 of title 5.
For the purpose of performing functions under this chapter outside the United States, the President may employ or assign individuals, or may authorize the employment or assignment of officers or employees by agencies of the United States Government which are not authorized to utilize the Foreign Service personnel system, who shall receive compensation at any of the rates provided for under section 402 or section 403 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 [22 U.S.C. 3962, 3963], or under chapter 53 of title 5, or at any other rate authorized by law, together with allowances and benefits under the Foreign Service Act of 1980 [22 U.S.C. 3901 et seq.]. Individuals so employed or assigned shall be entitled, except to the extent that the President may specify otherwise in cases in which the period of employment or assignment exceeds thirty months, to the same benefits as are provided by section 310 of that Act [22 U.S.C. 3950] for individuals appointed to the Foreign Service.
Funds provided for in agreements with foreign countries for the furnishing of services under this chapter with respect to specific projects shall be deemed to be obligated for the services of personnel employed by agencies of the United States Government (other than the agencies primarily responsible for administering subchapter I or II of this chapter) as well as personnel not employed by the United States Government.
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, officers and employees of the United States Government performing functions under this chapter shall not accept from any foreign country any compensation or other benefits. Arrangements may be made by the President with such countries for reimbursement to the United States Government or other sharing of the cost of performing such functions.
To the maximum extent practicable officers and employees performing functions under this chapter abroad shall be assigned to countries and positions for which they have special competence, such as appropriate language and practical experience.
Not later than May 1, 1979, the President shall submit to the Congress, and publish in the Federal Register, regulations establishing a unified personnel system for all employees of the agency primarily responsible for administering part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.]. In preparing such regulations, the President shall keep the appropriate committees of the Congress fully and currently informed, and shall consult with them on a regular basis, concerning the nature of the unified personnel system to be established.
Regulations which take effect pursuant to this section shall have the force and effect of law and shall apply with respect to the personnel of the agency primarily responsible for administering part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.], notwithstanding and 1
Experts and consultants or organizations thereof may as authorized by section 3109 of title 5 be employed for the performance of functions under this chapter, and individuals so employed may be compensated at rates not in excess of the daily equivalent of the highest rate which may be paid to an employee under the General Schedule established by section 5332 of title 5, and while away from their homes or regular places of business, they may be paid actual travel expenses and per diem in lieu of subsistence at the applicable rate prescribed in the standardized Government travel regulations, as amended from time to time. Contracts for such employment with such organizations, employment of personnel as experts and consultants, not to exceed ten in number, contracts for such employment of retired military personnel with specialized research and development experience, not to exceed ten in number, and contracts for such employment of retired military personnel with specialized experience of a broad politico-military nature, not to exceed five in number, may be renewed annually.
Service of an individual as an expert or consultant under subsection (a) of this section shall not be considered as employment or holding of office or position bringing such individual within the provisions of section 3323(a) of title 5.
Persons of outstanding experience and ability may be employed without compensation by any agency of the United States Government for the performance of functions under this chapter in accordance with the provisions of section 4560(b) of title 50, and regulations issued thereunder.
Whenever the President determines it to be in furtherance of the purposes of this chapter, the head of any agency of the United States Government is authorized to detail or assign any officer or employee of his agency to any office or position with any foreign government or foreign government agency, where acceptance of such office or position does not involve the taking of an oath of allegiance to another government or the acceptance of compensation or other benefits from any foreign country by such officer or employee.
Whenever the President determines it to be consistent with and in furtherance of the purposes of this chapter, the head of any agency of the United States Government is authorized to detail, assign, or otherwise make available to any international organization any officer or employee of his agency to serve with, or as a member of, the international staff of such organization, or to render any technical, scientific, or professional advice or service to, or in cooperation with, such organization.
Any officer or employee, while assigned or detailed under section 2387 or 2388 of this title shall be considered, for the purpose of preserving his allowances, privileges, rights, seniority, and other benefits as such, an officer or employee of the United States Government and of the agency of the United States Government from which detailed or assigned, and he shall continue to receive compensation, allowances, and benefits from funds appropriated to that agency or made available to that agency under this chapter.
Any officer or employee assigned, detailed, or appointed under section 2387, 2388, 2391, or 2384(d) 1
The President may maintain special missions or staffs outside the United States in such countries and for such periods of time as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this chapter. Each such special mission or staff shall be under the direction of a chief.
The chief and his deputy of each special mission or staff carrying out the purposes of subchapter I of this chapter shall be appointed by the President, and may, notwithstanding any other law, be removed by the President at his discretion. Such chief shall be entitled to receive such compensation and allowances as are authorized by the Foreign Service Act of 1980 [22 U.S.C. 3901 et seq.], not to exceed those authorized for a chief of mission (as defined in section 102(a)(3) 1
The President may appoint any United States citizen who is not an employee of the United States Government or may assign any United States citizen who is a United States Government employee to serve as Chairman of the Development Assistance Committee or any successor committee thereto of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development upon election thereto by members of said Committee, and, in his discretion, may terminate such appointment or assignment, notwithstanding any other provision of law. Such person may receive such compensation and allowances as are authorized by the Foreign Service Act of 1980 [22 U.S.C. 3901 et seq.], not to exceed those authorized for a chief of mission (as defined in section 102(a)(3) 1 of that Act [22 U.S.C. 3902(a)(3)]), as the President shall determine to be appropriate. Such person (if not a United States Government employee who is assigned to serve as Chairman) shall be deemed to be an employee of the United States Government for purposes of chapters 81, 83, 87, and 89 of title 5. Such person may also, in the President’s discretion, receive any other benefits and perquisites available under this chapter to chiefs of special missions or staffs outside the United States established under this section.
Wherever practicable, especially in the case of the smaller programs, assistance under subchapter I of this chapter shall be administered under the direction of the Chief of the United States Diplomatic Mission by the principal economic officer of the mission.
The President may allocate or transfer to any agency of the United States Government any part of any funds available for carrying out the purposes of this chapter, including any advance to the United States Government by any country or international organization for the procurement of commodities, defense articles, military education and training, or services (including defense services). Such funds shall be available for obligation and expenditure for the purposes for which authorized, in accordance with authority granted in this chapter or under authority governing the activities of the agencies of the United States Government to which such funds are allocated or transferred.
Any officer of the United States Government carrying out functions under this chapter may utilize the services (including defense services) and facilities of, or procure commodities, defense articles, or military education and training from, any agency of the United States Government as the President shall direct, or with the consent of the head of such agency, and funds allocated pursuant to this subsection to any such agency may be established in separate appropriation accounts on the books of the Treasury.
In the case of any commodity, service, or facility procured from any agency of the United States Government to carry out subchapter I of this chapter, reimbursement or payment shall be made to such agency from funds available to carry out such subchapter. Such reimbursement or payment shall be at replacement cost, or, if required by law, at actual cost, or, in the case of services procured from the Department of Defense to carry out part VIII of subchapter I of this chapter, the amount of the additional costs incurred by the Department of Defense in providing such services, or at any other price authorized by law and agreed to by the owning or disposing agency. The amount of any such reimbursement or payment shall be credited to current applicable appropriations, funds, or accounts, from which there may be procured replacements of similar commodities, services, or facilities, except that where such appropriations, funds, or accounts are not reimbursable except by reason of this subsection, and when the owning or disposing agency determines that such replacement is not necessary, any funds received in payment therefor shall be deposited into the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.
Except as otherwise provided in section 2318 of this title, reimbursement shall be made to any United States Government agency, from funds available for use under subchapter II of this chapter, for any assistance furnished under subchapter II of this chapter, from, by, or through such agency. Such reimbursement shall be in an amount equal to the value (as defined in section 2403(m) of this title) of the defense articles or of the defense services (other than salaries of members of the Armed Forces of the United States), or other assistance furnished, plus expenses arising from or incident to operations under subchapter II of this chapter (other than salaries of the Armed Forces of the United States and unfunded estimated costs of civilian retirement and other benefits). The amount of such reimbursement shall be credited to the current applicable appropriations, funds, or accounts of such agency.
In furnishing assistance under this chapter, accounts may be established on the books of any agency of the United States Government or, on terms and conditions approved by the Secretary of the Treasury, in banking institutions in the United States, (1) against which letters of commitment may be issued which shall constitute recordable obligations of the United States Government, and moneys due or to become due under such letters of commitment shall be assignable under the Assignment of Claims Act of 1940, as amended 1
Credits made by the Export-Import Bank of the United States with funds allocated thereto under subsection (a) of this section or under section 1782(a) 1 of this title, shall not be considered in determining whether the Bank has outstanding at any one time loans and guaranties to the extent of the limitation imposed by section 635e of title 12.
Any appropriation or account available to carry out provisions of subchapter I of this chapter may initially be charged in any fiscal year, within the limit of available funds, to finance expenses for which funds are available in other appropriations or accounts under subchapter I of this chapter: Provided, That as of the end of such fiscal year such expenses shall be finally charged to applicable appropriations or accounts with proper credit to the appropriations or accounts initially utilized for financing purposes: Provided further, That such final charge to applicable appropriations or accounts shall not be required in the case of expenses (other than those provided for under section 2397(a) of this title) incurred in furnishing assistance by the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter where it is determined that the accounting costs of identifying the applicable appropriation or account to which such expenses should be charged would be disproportionate to the advantage to be gained.
Whenever the President determines it to be in furtherance of the purposes of this chapter, the functions authorized under this chapter may be performed without regard to such provisions of law (other than the Renegotiation Act of 1951, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 1211 et seq.)),1
The functions authorized under subchapter II of this chapter may be performed without regard to such provisions as the President may specify of subchapter II of chapter 9 of this title.
Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 3544(b) and 8544(b) 1
None of the funds made available pursuant to the provisions of this chapter shall be used to carry out any provision of this chapter in any country or with respect to any project or activity, after the expiration of the thirty-five-day period which begins on the date the Government Accountability Office or any committee of the Congress charged with considering legislation, appropriations or expenditures under this chapter, has delivered to the office of the head of any agency carrying out such provision, a written request that it be furnished any document, paper, communication, audit, review, finding, recommendation, report, or other material in its custody or control relating to the administration of such provision in such country or with respect to such project or activity, unless and until there has been furnished to the Government Accountability Office, or to such committee, as the case may be, (1) the document, paper, communication, audit, review, finding, recommendation, report, or other material so requested, or (2) a certification by the President that he has forbidden the furnishing thereof pursuant to request and his reason for so doing.
The President shall notify the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives concerning any reprogramming of funds in the International Affairs Budget Function, the authorizations of appropriations for which are in their respective jurisdictions, to the same degree and with the same conditions as the President notifies the Committees on Appropriations. The requirements of this subsection are in addition to, and not in lieu of, other notification requirements.
All information contained in any report transmitted under this chapter shall be public information. However, in the case of any item of information to be included in any such report that the President, on an extraordinary basis, determines is clearly detrimental to the security of the United States, he shall explain in a supplemental report why publication of each specific item would be detrimental to the security of the United States. A supplemental report shall be transmitted to the Congress at the time the report is transmitted.
Within 60 days after receiving information which substantiates that officials of a foreign country receiving international security assistance have (1) received illegal or otherwise improper payments from a United States corporation in return for a contract to purchase defense articles or services from such corporation, or (2) extorted, or attempted to extort, money or other things of value in return for actions by officials of that country that permit a United States citizen or corporation to conduct business in that country, the President shall submit to Congress a report outlining the circumstances of such payment or extortion. The report shall contain a recommendation from the President as to whether the United States should continue a security assistance program for that country.
This section may be cited as the “HELP Commission Act”.
The Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) shall not apply to the Commission.
The Commission shall terminate 30 days after the submission of its report under subsection (f).
Not later than 90 days after July 15, 2016, the Secretary of State shall update the Department of State’s website, “ForeignAssistance.gov”, to make publicly available comprehensive, timely, and comparable information on covered United States foreign assistance programs, including all information required under subsection (b) that is available to the Secretary of State.
Not later than 2 years after July 15, 2016, and quarterly thereafter, the head of each Federal department or agency that administers covered United States foreign assistance shall provide the Secretary of State with comprehensive information about the covered United States foreign assistance programs carried out by such department or agency.
Not later than 2 years after July 15, 2016, and quarterly thereafter, the Secretary of State shall publish, on the “ForeignAssistance.gov” website or through a successor online publication, the information provided under subsection (b).
Each type of information described in subparagraph (A) shall be published or updated on the appropriate website not later than 90 days after the date on which the information is issued.
Nothing in this paragraph may be construed to require a Federal department or agency that administers covered United States foreign assistance to provide any information that does not relate to, or is not otherwise required by, the covered United States foreign assistance programs carried out by such department or agency.
If the head of a Federal department or agency, in consultation with the Secretary of State, makes a determination that the inclusion of a required item of information online would jeopardize the health or security of an implementing partner or program beneficiary or would require the release of proprietary information of an implementing partner or program beneficiary, the head of the Federal department or agency shall provide such determination in writing to the appropriate congressional committees, including the basis for such determination.
If the Secretary of State makes a determination that the inclusion of a required item of information online would be detrimental to the national interests of the United States, the Secretary of State shall provide such determination, including the basis for such determination, in writing to the appropriate congressional committees.
Information provided under this paragraph may be provided in classified form, as appropriate.
It is the sense of Congress that the Secretary of State and the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development should coordinate the consolidation of processes and data collection and presentation for the Department of State’s website, “ForeignAssistance.gov”, and the United States Agency for International Development’s website, “Explorer.USAID.gov”, to the extent that is possible to maximize efficiencies, no later than the end of fiscal year 2018.
Except as otherwise specifically provided in this chapter, assistance under this chapter may be furnished on a grant basis or on such terms, including cash, credit, or other terms of repayment (including repayment in foreign currencies or by transfer to the United States Government of commodities) as may be determined to be best suited to the achievement of the purposes of this chapter, and shall emphasize loans rather than grants wherever possible.
The President may make loans, advances, and grants to, make and perform agreements and contracts with, or enter into other transactions with, any individual, corporation, or other body of persons, friendly government or government agency, whether within or without the United States, and international organizations in furtherance of the purposes and within the limitations of this chapter.
It is the sense of Congress that the President, in furthering the purposes of this chapter, shall use to the maximum extent practicable the services and facilities of voluntary, nonprofit organizations registered with, and approved by, the Agency for International Development.
The President may accept and use in furtherance of the purposes of this chapter, money, funds, property, and services of any kind made available by gift, devise, bequest, grant, or otherwise for such purpose.
Alien participants in any program of furnishing technical information and assistance under this chapter may be admitted to the United States if otherwise qualified as nonimmigrants under section 1101(a)(15) of title 8, for such time and under such conditions as may be prescribed by regulations promulgated by the Secretary of State and the Attorney General.
A contract or agreement which entails commitments for the expenditure of funds made available under part I (except development loans) and subpart II of part II of subchapter I and under subchapter II of this chapter, may, subject to any future action of the Congress, extend at any time for not more than five years.
Claims arising as a result of investment guaranty operations may be settled, and disputes arising as a result thereof may be arbitrated with the consent of the parties, on such terms and conditions as the President may direct. Payment made pursuant to any such settlement, or as a result of an arbitration award, shall be final and conclusive notwithstanding any other provision of law.
The provisions of section 955 of title 18 shall not apply to prevent any person, including any individual, partnership, corporation, or association, from acting for, or participating in, any operation or transaction arising under this chapter, or from acquiring any obligation issued in connection with any operation or transaction arising under this chapter.
Any cost-type contract or agreement (including grants) entered into with a university, college, or other educational institution for the purpose of carrying out programs authorized by subchapter I of this chapter may provide for the payment of the reimbursable indirect costs of said university, college, or other educational institution on the basis of predetermined fixed-percentage rates applied to the total, or an element thereof, of the reimbursable direct costs incurred.
The Administrator of the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter may use funds made available under that subchapter to provide program and management oversight for activities that are funded under that subchapter and that are conducted in countries in which the agency does not have a field mission or office.
Funds made available for the purposes of this chapter may be used for compensation, allowances, and travel of personnel including Foreign Service personnel whose services are utilized primarily for the purposes of this chapter, for printing and binding without regard to the provisions of any other law, and for expenditures outside the United States for the procurement of supplies and services and for other administrative and operating purposes (other than compensation of personnel) without regard to such laws and regulations governing the obligation and expenditure of funds of the United States Government as may be necessary to accomplish the purposes of this chapter.
Notwithstanding any other law, not to exceed $6,000,000 of the funds available for assistance under this chapter may be used in any fiscal year (in addition to funds available for such use under other authorities in this chapter) to construct or otherwise acquire outside the United States (1) essential living quarters, office space, and necessary supporting facilities for use of personnel carrying out activities authorized by this chapter, and (2) schools (including dormitories and boarding facilities) and hospitals for use of personnel carrying out activities authorized by this chapter, United States Government personnel, and their dependents. In addition, funds made available for assistance under this chapter may be used, notwithstanding any other law, to equip, staff, operate, and maintain such schools and hospitals.
Not to exceed $2,500,000 of the funds available for assistance under this chapter may be used in any fiscal year to provide assistance, on such terms and conditions as are deemed appropriate, to schools established, or to be established, outside the United States whenever it is determined that such action would be more economical or would best serve the interests of the United States in providing for the education of dependents of personnel carrying out activities authorized by this chapter and dependents of United States Government personnel, in lieu of acquisition or construction pursuant to subsection (c) of this section.
Funds available under this chapter may be used to pay costs of training United States citizen personnel employed or assigned pursuant to section 2385(d)(2) 1 of this title (through interchange or otherwise) at any State or local unit of government, public or private nonprofit institution, trade, labor, agricultural, or scientific association or organization, or commercial firm; and the provisions of sections 1881 to 1888 1 of title 7 may be used to carry out the foregoing authority notwithstanding that interchange of personnel may not be involved or that the training may not take place at the institutions specified in sections 1881 to 1888 1 of title 7. Such training shall not be considered employment or holding of office under section 5533 of title 5, and any payments or contributions in connection therewith may, as deemed appropriate by the head of the agency of the United States Government authorizing such training, be made by private or public sources and be accepted by any trainee, or may be accepted by and credited to the current applicable appropriation of such agency: Provided, however, That any such payments to any employee in the nature of compensation shall be in lieu, or in reduction, of compensation received from the United States Government.
Funds made available under part I of subchapter I of this chapter may be used for expenses (other than those provided for under section 2397(a) of this title) to assist in carrying out functions under part I of subchapter I of this chapter, under the Food for Peace Act, as amended [7 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.], and under the Latin American Development Act, as amended, performed by the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter or by the Corporation established under subpart IV of part II of subchapter I of this chapter with respect to loan activities which it carries out under the provisions of the Food for Peace Act, as amended.
In carrying out programs under this chapter, the President shall take all appropriate steps to assure that, to the maximum extent possible, (1) countries receiving assistance under this chapter contribute local currencies to meet the cost of contractual and other services rendered in conjunction with such programs, and (2) foreign currencies owned by the United States are utilized to meet the costs of such contractual and other services.
Notwithstanding section 2399a 1 of this title or any other provision of this chapter, none of the funds made available to carry out this chapter shall be used to finance the purchase, sale, long-term lease, exchange, or guaranty of a sale of motor vehicles unless such motor vehicles are manufactured in the United States: Provided, That where special circumstances exist the President is authorized to waive the provisions of this section in order to carry out the purposes of this chapter.
Any person who makes or causes to be made or presents or causes to be presented to any bank or other financial institution or to any officer, agent, or employee of any agency of the United States Government a claim for payment from funds made available under this chapter for the purposes of furnishing assistance and who knows the claim to be false, fraudulent, or fictitious or to cover a commodity or commodity-related service determined by the President to be ineligible for payment from funds made available under this chapter, or who uses to support his claim any certification, statement, or entry on any contract, abstract, bill of lading, Government or commercial invoice, or Government form, which he knows, or in the exercise of prudent business management should know, to contain false, fraudulent, or fictitious information, or who uses or engages in any other fraudulent trick, scheme, or device for the purpose of securing or obtaining, or aiding to secure or obtain, for any person any benefit or payment from funds so made available under this chapter in connection with the negotiation, procurement, award, or performance of a contract financed with funds so made available under this chapter, and any person who enters into an agreement, combination, or conspiracy so to do, (1) shall pay to the United States an amount equal to 25 per centum of any amount thereby sought to be wrongfully secured or obtained but not actually received, and (2) shall forfeit and refund any payment, compensation, loan, commission, or advance received as a result thereof, and (3) shall, in addition, pay to the United States for each such act (A) the sum of $2,000 and double the amount of any damage which the United States may have sustained by reason thereof, or (B) an amount equal to 50 per centum of any such payment, compensation, loan, commission, or advance so received, whichever is the greater, together with the costs of suit.
In order to secure recovery under this section, the President may, as he deems appropriate, (1) institute suit in the United States district court for any judicial district in which the person alleged to have performed or participated in an act described by this section may reside or may be found, and (2) upon posting by registered mail to such person a notice of claim describing the basis therefor and identifying the funds to be withheld, withhold from funds owed by any agency of the United States Government to such person an amount equal to the refund, damages, liquidated damages, and exemplary damages claimed by the United States under this section. Any such withholding of funds from any person shall constitute a final determination of the rights and liabilities of such person under this section with respect to the amount so withheld, unless within one year of receiving the notice of claim such person brings suit for recovery, which is hereby authorized, against the United States in any United States district court.
For purposes of this section, the term “person” includes any individual, corporation, partnership, association, or other legal entity.
The President shall establish a system for coordination of United States policies and programs which affect United States interests in the development of low-income countries. To that end, the President shall establish a Development Coordination Committee which shall advise him with respect to coordination of United States policies and programs affecting the development of the developing countries, including programs of bilateral and multilateral development assistance. The Committee shall include the head of the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter, Chairman, and representatives of the Departments of State, Treasury, Commerce, Agriculture, Energy, and Labor, the Executive Office of the President, and other executive departments and agencies, as the President shall designate. The Committee shall advise the President concerning the degree to which bilateral and multilateral development assistance should focus on critical problems in those functional sectors which affect the lives of the majority of people in the developing countries: food production; rural development and nutrition; population planning and health; and education, public administration, and human resource development.
Programs authorized by this chapter shall be undertaken with the foreign policy guidance of the Secretary of State.
The head of any of the departments or agencies referred to in subsection (a) may temporarily assign, upon the request of the Chairman, any employee from such department or agency to the staff of the Committee.
For the purpose of facilitating implementation of section 55305 of title 46, funds made available for the purposes of part I of subchapter I of this chapter or for purposes of part IV of subchapter II of this chapter may be used to make grants to recipients to pay all or any portion of such differential as is determined by the Secretary of Commerce to exist between United States and foreign-flag vessel charter or freight rates. Grants made under this section shall be paid with United States-owned foreign currencies wherever feasible.