- § 2151. Congressional findings and declaration of policy
- § 2151-1. Development assistance policy
- § 2151-2. Actions to improve the international gender policy of the United States Agency for International Development
- § 2151a. Agricultural development in rural areas
- § 2151a-1. Agricultural research
- § 2151b. Population planning and health programs
- § 2151b-1. Assistance for malaria prevention, treatment, control, and elimination
- § 2151b-2. Assistance to combat HIV/AIDS
- § 2151b-3. Assistance to combat tuberculosis
- § 2151b-4. Assistance to combat malaria
- § 2151c. Education and human resources development
- § 2151c-1. United States assistance to support educational services for displaced children
- § 2151d. Development of indigenous energy resources
- § 2151e. Appropriate technology
- § 2151f. Transferred
- § 2151g. Transfer of funds
- § 2151h. Cost-sharing
- § 2151i. Development and use of cooperatives
- § 2151j. Repealed.
- § 2151k. Integrating women into national economies; report
- §§ 2151l, 2151m. Repealed.
- § 2151n. Human rights and development assistance
- § 2151n-1. Repealed.
- § 2151n-2. Human Rights and Democracy Fund
- § 2151o. Repealed.
- § 2151p. Environmental and natural resources
- § 2151p-1. Tropical forests
- § 2151q. Endangered species
- § 2151r. Sahel development program; planning
- § 2151s. Repealed.
- § 2151t. Development assistance authority
- § 2151t-1. Establishment of program
- § 2151u. Private and voluntary organizations and cooperatives in overseas development
- § 2151v. Aid to relatively least developed countries
- § 2151w. Project and program evaluations
- § 2151x. Development and illicit narcotics production
- § 2151x-1. Assistance for agricultural and industrial alternatives to narcotics production
- § 2151x-2. Assistance in furtherance of narcotics control objectives of United States
- § 2151y. Accelerated loan repayments; annual review of countries with bilateral concessional loan balances; priority of determinations respecting negotiations with countries having balances; criteria for determinations
- § 2151z. Targeted assistance
- § 2151aa. Program to provide technical assistance to foreign governments and foreign central banks of developing or transitional countries
- § 2152. Assistance for victims of torture
- § 2152a. Repealed.
- § 2152b. Transferred
- § 2152c. Programs to encourage good governance
- § 2152d. Assistance to foreign countries to meet minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking
- § 2152e. Program to improve building construction and practices in Latin American countries
- § 2152f. Assistance for orphans and other vulnerable children
- § 2152g. Annual report
- § 2152h. Assistance to provide safe water, sanitation, and hygiene
- § 2152i. Small Grants Program
- § 2152j. Statement of policy
- § 2152j-1. United States strategy to promote the participation of women in conflict prevention and peace building
- § 2152j-2. Training requirements regarding the participation of women in conflict prevention and peace building
- § 2152j-3. Consultation and collaboration
- § 2152j-4. Definitions
- § 2152k. Assistance to improve early childhood outcomes globally
(a) United States development cooperation policy
The Congress finds that fundamental political, economic, and technological changes have resulted in the interdependence of nations. The Congress declares that the individual liberties, economic prosperity, and security of the people of the United States are best sustained and enhanced in a community of nations which respect individual civil and economic rights and freedoms and which work together to use wisely the world’s limited resources in an open and equitable international economic system. Furthermore, the Congress reaffirms the traditional humanitarian ideals of the American people and renews its commitment to assist people in developing countries to eliminate hunger, poverty, illness, and ignorance.
Therefore, the Congress declares that a principal objective of the foreign policy of the United States is the encouragement and sustained support of the people of developing countries in their efforts to acquire the knowledge and resources essential to development and to build the economic, political, and social institutions which will improve the quality of their lives.
United States development cooperation policy should emphasize five principal goals:
(1) the alleviation of the worst physical manifestations of poverty among the world’s poor majority;
(2) the promotion of conditions enabling developing countries to achieve self-sustaining economic growth with equitable distribution of benefits;
(3) the encouragement of development processes in which individual civil and economic rights are respected and enhanced;
(4) the integration of the developing countries into an open and equitable international economic system; and
(5) the promotion of good governance through combating corruption and improving transparency and accountability.
The Congress declares that pursuit of these goals requires that development concerns be fully reflected in United States foreign policy and that United States development resources be effectively and efficiently utilized.
(b) Coordination of development-related activities
Under the policy guidance of the Secretary of State, the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter should have the responsibility for coordinating all United States development-related activities.
The Congress finds that the efforts of developing countries to build and maintain the social and economic institutions necessary to achieve self-sustaining growth and to provide opportunities to improve the quality of life for their people depend primarily upon successfully marshalling their own economic and human resources. The Congress recognizes that the magnitude of these efforts exceeds the resources of developing countries and therefore accepts that there will be a long-term need for wealthy countries to contribute additional resources for development purposes. The United States should take the lead in concert with other nations to mobilize such resources from public and private sources.
Provision of development resources must be adapted to the needs and capabilities of specific developing countries. United States assistance to countries with low per capita incomes which have limited access to private external resources should primarily be provided on concessional terms. Assistance to other developing countries should generally consist of programs which facilitate their access to private capital markets, investment, and technical skills, whether directly through guarantee or reimbursable programs by the United States Government or indirectly through callable capital provided to the international financial institutions.
Bilateral assistance and United States participation in multilateral institutions shall emphasize programs in support of countries which pursue development strategies designed to meet basic human needs and achieve self-sustaining growth with equity.
The Congress declares that the principal purpose of United States bilateral development assistance is to help the poor majority of people in developing countries to participate in a process of equitable growth through productive work and to influence decisions that shape their lives, with the goal of increasing their incomes and their access to public services which will enable them to satisfy their basic needs and lead lives of decency, dignity, and hope. Activities shall be emphasized that effectively involve the poor in development by expanding their access to the economy through services and institutions at the local level, increasing their participation in the making of decisions that affect their lives, increasing labor-intensive production and the use of appropriate technology, expanding productive investment and services out from major cities to small towns and rural areas, and otherwise providing opportunities for the poor to improve their lives through their own efforts. Participation of the United States in multilateral institutions shall also place appropriate emphasis on these principles.
The Congress, recognizing the desirability of overcoming the worst aspects of absolute poverty by the end of this century by, among other measures, substantially lowering infant mortality and birth rates, and increasing life expectancy, food production, literacy, and employment, encourages the President to explore with other countries, through all appropriate channels, the feasibility of a worldwide cooperative effort to overcome the worst aspects of absolute poverty and to assure self-reliant growth in the developing countries by the year 2000.
The Congress finds that the greatest potential for significantly expanding availability of food for people in rural areas and augmenting world food production at relatively low cost lies in increasing the productivity of small farmers who constitute a majority of the agricultural producers in developing countries. Increasing the emphasis on rural development and expanded food production in the poorest nations of the developing world is a matter of social justice and a principal element contributing to broadly based economic growth, as well as an important factor in alleviating inflation in the industrialized countries. In the allocation of funds under this section, special attention shall be given to increasing agricultural production in countries which have been designated as “least developed” by the United Nations General Assembly.
Local currency proceeds from sales of commodities provided under the Food for Peace Act [7 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.] which are owned by foreign governments shall be used whenever practicable to carry out the provisions of this section.
The Congress finds that the efforts of developing countries to enhance their national food security deserves encouragement as a matter of United States development assistance policy. Measures complementary to assistance for expanding food production in developing countries are needed to help assure that food becomes increasingly available on a regular basis to the poor in such countries. Therefore, United States bilateral assistance under this chapter and the Food for Peace Act [7 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.], and United States participation in multilateral institutions, shall emphasize policies and programs which assist developing countries to increase their national food security by improving their food policies and management and by strengthening national food reserves, with particular concern for the needs of the poor, through measures encouraging domestic production, building national food reserves, expanding available storage facilities, reducing postharvest food losses, and improving food distribution.
Agricultural research carried out under this chapter shall (1) take account of the special needs of small farmers in the determination of research priorities, (2) include research on the interrelationships among technology, institutions, and economic, social, environmental, and cultural factors affecting small-farm agriculture, and (3) make extensive use of field testing to adapt basic research to local conditions. Special emphasis shall be placed on disseminating research results to the farms on which they can be put to use, and especially on institutional and other arrangements needed to assure that small farmers have effective access to both new and existing improved technology.
The Congress recognizes that poor health conditions and uncontrolled population growth can vitiate otherwise successful development efforts.
Large families in developing countries are the result of complex social and economic factors which change relatively slowly among the poor majority least affected by economic progress, as well as the result of a lack of effective birth control. Therefore, effective family planning depends upon economic and social change as well as the delivery of services and is often a matter of political and religious sensitivity. While every country has the right to determine its own policies with respect to population growth, voluntary population planning programs can make a substantial contribution to economic development, higher living standards, and improved health and nutrition.
Good health conditions are a principal element in improved quality of life and contribute to the individual’s capacity to participate in the development process, while poor health and debilitating disease can limit productivity.
In order to increase the opportunities and motivation for family planning and to reduce the rate of population growth, the President is authorized to furnish assistance, on such terms and conditions as he may determine, for voluntary population planning. In addition to the provision of family planning information and services, including also information and services which relate to and support natural family planning methods, and the conduct of directly relevant demographic research, population planning programs shall emphasize motivation for small families.
The Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, in coordination with the heads of other appropriate Federal agencies and nongovernmental organizations, shall provide assistance for the establishment and conduct of activities designed to prevent, treat, control, and eliminate malaria in countries with a high percentage of malaria cases.
In providing assistance pursuant to paragraph (1), the Administrator should consider the interaction among the epidemics of HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis.
Activities referred to in paragraph (1) shall include the dissemination of information relating to the development of vaccines and therapeutic agents for the prevention of malaria (including information relating to participation in, and the results of, clinical trials for such vaccines and agents conducted by United States Government agencies) to appropriate officials in such countries.
There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out subsection (a) $50,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2001 and 2002.
Amounts appropriated pursuant to the authorization of appropriations under paragraph (1) are authorized to remain available until expended.
Congress recognizes that the alarming spread of HIV/AIDS in countries in sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Latin America and other developing countries is a major global health, national security, development, and humanitarian crisis.
The United States and other countries with the sufficient capacity should provide assistance to countries in sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, and Latin America, and other countries and regions confronting HIV/AIDS epidemics in a coordinated global strategy to help address generalized and concentrated epidemics through HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, care, monitoring and evaluation, and related activities.
Consistent with section 2151b(c) of this title, the President is authorized to furnish assistance, on such terms and conditions as the President may determine, for HIV/AIDS, including to prevent, treat, and monitor HIV/AIDS, and carry out related activities, in countries in sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Latin America, and other countries and areas, particularly with respect to refugee populations or those in postconflict settings in such countries and areas with significant or increasing HIV incidence rates.
It is the sense of Congress that the President should provide an appropriate level of assistance under paragraph (1) through nongovernmental organizations (including faith-based and community-based organizations) in countries in sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Latin America, and other countries and areas affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, particularly with respect to refugee populations or those in post-conflict settings in such countries and areas with significant or increasing HIV incidence rates..2
The President shall coordinate the provision of assistance under paragraph (1) with the provision of related assistance by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and other appropriate international organizations (such as the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development), relevant regional multilateral development institutions, national, state, and local governments of partner countries, other international actors,,2 appropriate governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and relevant executive branch agencies within the framework of the principles of the Three Ones.
The procurement of HIV/AIDS pharmaceuticals, antiviral therapies, and other appropriate medicines, including medicines to treat opportunistic infections.
Mechanisms to ensure that such HIV/AIDS pharmaceuticals, antiretroviral therapies, and other appropriate medicines are quality-controlled and sustainably supplied.
The distribution of such HIV/AIDS pharmaceuticals, antiviral therapies, and other appropriate medicines (including medicines to treat opportunistic infections) to qualified national, regional, or local organizations for the treatment of individuals with HIV/AIDS in accordance with appropriate HIV/AIDS testing and monitoring requirements and treatment protocols and for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of the HIV infection.
Not later than February 15, 2014, and annually thereafter, the President shall submit to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives a report in an open, machine readable format, on the implementation of this section for the prior fiscal year.
The report due not later than February 15, 2014, shall include the elements required by law prior to the enactment of the PEPFAR Stewardship and Oversight Act of 2013.
Not later than February 1, 2014, the Global AIDS Coordinator shall publish on a publically available Internet website the common evaluation standards of practice referred to in paragraph (3)(R).
In this subsection, the term “partner country” means a country with a minimum United States Government investment of HIV/AIDS assistance of at least $5,000,000 in the prior fiscal year.
Of the funds made available to carry out this section in any fiscal year, not more than 7 percent may be used for the administrative expenses of the United States Agency for International Development in support of activities described in section 2151b(c) of this title, this section, section 2151b–3 of this title, and section 2151b–4 of this title. Such amount shall be in addition to other amounts otherwise available for such purposes.
The term “AIDS” means acquired immune deficiency syndrome.
The term “HIV” means the human immunodeficiency virus, the pathogen that causes AIDS.
The term “HIV/AIDS” means, with respect to an individual, an individual who is infected with HIV or living with AIDS.
The term “relevant executive branch agencies” means the Department of State, the United States Agency for International Development, the Department of Health and Human Services (including its agencies and offices), and any other department or agency of the United States that participates in international HIV/AIDS activities pursuant to the authorities of such department or agency or this chapter.
To carry out this section and consistent with section 2151b(c) of this title, the President is authorized to furnish assistance, on such terms and conditions as the President may determine, for the prevention, treatment, control, and elimination of tuberculosis.
In carrying out this section, the President shall coordinate with the World Health Organization, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, and other organizations with respect to the development and implementation of a comprehensive tuberculosis control program.
In carrying out this section, the President, acting through the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, is authorized to provide increased resources to the World Health Organization and the Stop Tuberculosis Partnership to improve the capacity of countries with high rates of tuberculosis and other affected countries to implement the Stop TB Strategy and specific strategies related to addressing multiple drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR–TB) and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR–TB).
The term “DOTS-Plus” means a comprehensive tuberculosis management strategy that is built upon and works as a supplement to the standard DOTS strategy, and which takes into account specific issues (such as use of second line anti-tuberculosis drugs) that need to be addressed in areas where there is high prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis.
The term “Global Alliance for Tuberculosis Drug Development” means the public-private partnership that brings together leaders in health, science, philanthropy, and private industry to devise new approaches to tuberculosis and to ensure that new medications are available and affordable in high tuberculosis burden countries and other affected countries.
The term “Global Tuberculosis Drug Facility (GDF)” means the new initiative of the Stop Tuberculosis Partnership to increase access to high-quality tuberculosis drugs to facilitate DOTS expansion.
The term “Stop TB Strategy” means the 6-point strategy to reduce tuberculosis developed by the World Health Organization, which is described in the Global Plan to Stop TB 2006–2015: Actions for Life, a comprehensive plan developed by the Stop TB Partnership that sets out the actions necessary to achieve the millennium development goal of cutting tuberculosis deaths and disease burden in half by 2015.
The term “Stop Tuberculosis Partnership” means the partnership of the World Health Organization, donors including the United States, high tuberculosis burden countries, multilateral agencies, and nongovernmental and technical agencies committed to short- and long-term measures required to control and eventually eliminate tuberculosis as a public health problem in the world.
Congress finds that malaria kills more people annually than any other communicable disease except tuberculosis, that more than 90 percent of all malaria cases are in sub-Saharan Africa, and that children and women are particularly at risk. Congress recognizes that there are cost-effective tools to decrease the spread of malaria and that malaria is a curable disease if promptly diagnosed and adequately treated.
It is a major objective of the foreign assistance program of the United States to provide assistance for the prevention, control, treatment, and cure of malaria.
To carry out this section and consistent with section 2151b(c) of this title, the President is authorized to furnish assistance, on such terms and conditions as the President may determine, for the prevention, treatment, control, and elimination of malaria.
In carrying out this section, the President shall coordinate with the World Health Organization, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, the Department of Health and Human Services (the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health), and other organizations with respect to the development and implementation of a comprehensive malaria control program.
In order to reduce illiteracy, to extend basic education and to increase manpower training in skills related to development, the President is authorized to furnish assistance on such terms and conditions as he may determine, for education, public administration, and human resource development. There are authorized to be appropriated to the President for the purposes of this section, in addition to funds otherwise available for such purposes, $180,000,000 for fiscal year 1986 and $180,000,000 for fiscal year 1987, which are authorized to remain available until expended.
Assistance provided under this section shall be used primarily to expand and strengthen nonformal education methods, especially those designed to improve productive skills of rural families and the urban poor and to provide them with useful information; to increase the relevance of formal education systems to the needs of the poor, especially at the primary level, through reform of curricula, teaching materials, and teaching methods, and improved teacher training; and to strengthen the management capabilities of institutions which enable the poor to participate in development. Assistance under this section shall also be provided for advanced education and training of people of developing countries in such disciplines as are required for planning and implementation of public and private development activities.
The term “communities of learning” means a holistic approach to education and community engagement in which schools act as the primary resource center for delivery of a service to the community at large, leveraging and maximizing the impact of other development efforts and reducing duplication and waste.
The term “gender parity in basic education” means that girls and boys have equal access to quality basic education.
The term “marginalized children and vulnerable groups” includes girls, children affected by or emerging from armed conflict or humanitarian crises, children with disabilities, children in remote or rural areas (including those who lack access to safe water and sanitation), religious or ethnic minorities, indigenous peoples, orphans and children affected by HIV/AIDS, child laborers, married adolescents, and victims of trafficking.
The term “national education plan” means a comprehensive national education plan developed by partner country governments in consultation with other stakeholders as a means for wide-scale improvement of the country’s education system, including explicit, credible strategies informed by effective practices and standards to achieve quality universal basic education.
The term “nonformal education” means organized educational activities outside the established formal system, whether operating separately or as an important feature of a broader activity, that are intended to provide students with measurable improvements in literacy, numeracy, and other basic skills development that prepare an individual to be an active, productive member of society and the workforce.
The term “partner country” means a developing country that participates in or benefits from basic education programs under this subsection pursuant to the prioritization criteria described in paragraph (4), including level of need, opportunity for impact, and the availability of resources.
The term “relevant Executive branch agencies and officials” means the Department of State, the United States Agency for International Development, the Department of the Treasury, the Department of Labor, the Department of Education, the Department of Agriculture, and the Department of Defense, the Chief Executive Officer of the Millennium Challenge Corporation, the National Security Advisor, and the Director of the Peace Corps.
The term “sustainability” means, with respect to any basic education program that receives funding pursuant to this section, the ability of a service delivery system, community, partner, or beneficiary to maintain, over time, such basic education program without the use of foreign assistance.
Assistance provided under this section to support programs and activities under this subsection shall be aligned with and advance United States foreign policy and economic interests.
To the greatest extent practicable, assistance provided under this section to support programs and activities under this subsection should be aligned with and support the national education plans and country development strategies of partner countries, including activities that are appropriate for and meet the needs of local and indigenous cultures.
Assistance provided under this section to support programs and activities under this subsection should be coordinated with and leverage the unique capabilities and resources of local and national governments in partner countries, other donors, multilateral institutions, the private sector, and nongovernmental and civil society organizations, including faith-based organizations and organizations that represent teachers, students, and parents.
Assistance provided under this section to support programs and activities under this subsection should be coordinated with and support proven multilateral education programs and financing mechanisms, which may include the Global Partnership for Education, that demonstrate commitment to efficiency, effectiveness, transparency, and accountability.
The President shall seek to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of assistance provided under this section to support programs and activities under this subsection by coordinating the related efforts of relevant Executive branch agencies and officials.
Programs and activities supported under this subsection shall be subject to rigorous monitoring and evaluation, which may include impact evaluations, the results of which shall be made publically available in a fully searchable, electronic format.
The Secretary and the Administrator are authorized to coordinate with the World Bank, appropriate agencies of the United Nations, and other relevant multilateral organizations to work with governments in other countries to collect relevant data, disaggregated by age and gender, on the ability of displaced people to access education and participate in economic activity, in order to improve the targeting, monitoring, and evaluation of related assistance efforts.
The Secretary and the Administrator are authorized to work with private sector and civil society organizations to promote safe primary and secondary education for displaced children.
The agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter and the Department of Energy shall coordinate with one another, to the maximum extent possible, the planning and implementation of energy programs under this part.
Whenever the President determines it to be necessary for the purposes of this part, not to exceed 15 per centum of the funds made available for any provision of this part may be transferred to, and consolidated with, the funds made available for any other provision of this part, and may be used for any of the purposes for which such funds may be used, except that the total in the provision for the benefit of which the transfer is made shall not be increased by more than 25 per centum of the amount of funds made available for such provision. The authority of sections 2360(a) and 2364(a) of this title may not be used to transfer funds made available under this part for use for purposes of any other provision of this chapter, except that the authority of such sections may be used to transfer for the purposes of section 2427 of this title not to exceed five per centum of the amount of funds made available for section 2427(a)(1) of this title.
No assistance shall be furnished by the United States Government to a country under sections 2151a through 2151d of this title until the country provides assurances to the President, and the President is satisfied, that such country will provide at least 25 per centum of the costs of the entire program, project, or activity with respect to which such assistance is to be furnished, except that such costs borne by such country may be provided on an “inkind” basis.
Technical assistance to low income farmers who form and develop member-owned cooperatives for farm supplies, marketing and value-added processing.
The promotion of national credit union systems through credit union-to-credit union technical assistance that strengthens the ability of low income people and micro-entrepreneurs to save and to have access to credit for their own economic advancement.
The support of rural electric and telecommunication cooperatives for access for rural people and villages that lack reliable electric and telecommunications services.
The promotion of community-based cooperatives which provide employment opportunities and important services such as health clinics, self-help shelter, environmental improvements, group-owned businesses, and other activities.
In recognition of the fact that women in developing countries play a significant role in economic production, family support, and the overall development process of the national economies of such countries, subchapter I of this chapter shall be administered so as to give particular attention to those programs, projects, and activities which tend to integrate women into the national economies of developing countries, thus improving their status and assisting the total development effort.
Not less than $500,000 of the funds made available under this part for the fiscal year 1982 shall be expended on international programs which support the original goals of the United Nations Decade for Women.
No assistance may be provided under subchapter I of this chapter, and no support may be provided under subchapter II of chapter 103 of this title, to the government of any country which engages in a consistent pattern of gross violations of internationally recognized human rights, including torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, prolonged detention without charges, causing the disappearance of persons by the abduction and clandestine detention of those persons, or other flagrant denial of the right to life, liberty, and the security of person, unless such assistance will directly benefit the needy people in such country.
No assistance may be provided under subchapter I of this chapter, and no support may be provided under subchapter II of chapter 103 of this title, to any government failing to take appropriate and adequate measures, within their means, to protect children from exploitation, abuse or forced conscription into military or paramilitary services.
No assistance may be provided under subchapter I of this chapter, and no support may be provided under subchapter II of chapter 103 of this title, to any government failing to take appropriate and adequate measures, within their means, to protect children from exploitation, abuse or forced conscription into military or paramilitary services.
The President is authorized and encouraged to use not less than $3,000,000 of the funds made available under this part, part X of this subchapter, and part IV of subchapter II of this chapter for each fiscal year for studies to identify, and for openly carrying out programs and activities which will encourage or promote increased adherence to civil and political rights, including the right to free religious belief and practice, as set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in countries eligible for assistance under this part or under part X of this subchapter, except that funds made available under part X of this subchapter may only be used under this subsection with respect to countries in sub-Saharan Africa. None of these funds may be used, directly or indirectly, to influence the outcome of any election in any country.
The report required under subsection (d) shall include, for each country in which child marriage is prevalent, a description of the status of the practice of child marriage in such country.
There is established a Human Rights and Democracy Fund (in this section referred to as the “Fund”) to be administered by the Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor.
Of the amounts made available to carry out chapter 4 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2346 et seq.] for fiscal year 2003, $21,500,000 is authorized to be available to the Fund for carrying out the purposes described in subsection (b). Amounts made available to the Fund under this paragraph shall also be deemed to have been made available under section 116(e) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151n(e)).
Of the amount authorized to be available to the Fund under paragraph (1) for fiscal year 2003, $1,000,000 is authorized to be available for the Documentation Center of Cambodia for the purpose of collecting, cataloguing, and disseminating information about the atrocities committed by the Khmer Rouge against the Cambodian people.
Of the amount authorized to be available to the Fund under paragraph (1) for fiscal year 2003, $500,000 is authorized to be available to advance the extraordinary work and values of Father John Kaiser with respect to solving ethnic conflict and promoting government accountability and respect for human rights. The amount made available under this paragraph may be referred to as the “Father John Kaiser Memorial Fund”.
The Congress finds that if current trends in the degradation of natural resources in developing countries continue, they will severely undermine the best efforts to meet basic human needs, to achieve sustained economic growth, and to prevent international tension and conflict. The Congress also finds that the world faces enormous, urgent, and complex problems, with respect to natural resources, which require new forms of cooperation between the United States and developing countries to prevent such problems from becoming unmanageable. It is, therefore, in the economic and security interest of the United States to provide leadership both in thoroughly reassessing policies relating to natural resources and the environment, and in cooperating extensively with developing countries in order to achieve environmentally sound development.
In order to address the serious problems described in subsection (a), the President is authorized to furnish assistance under subchapter I of this chapter for developing and strengthening the capacity of developing countries to protect and manage their environment and natural resources. Special efforts shall be made to maintain and where possible to restore the land, vegetation, water, wildlife, and other resources upon which depend economic growth and human well-being, especially of the poor.
Whenever feasible, the President shall accomplish the objectives of this section through projects managed by private and voluntary organizations or international, regional, or national nongovernmental organizations which are active in the region or country where the project is located.
Each annual report required by section 2394(a) of this title shall include a report on the implementation of this section.
The Congress finds the survival of many animal and plant species is endangered by over-hunting, by the presence of toxic chemicals in water, air and soil, and by the destruction of habitats. The Congress further finds that the extinction of animal and plant species is an irreparable loss with potentially serious environmental and economic consequences for developing and developed countries alike. Accordingly, the preservation of animal and plant species through the regulation of the hunting and trade in endangered species, through limitations on the pollution of natural ecosystems, and through the protection of wildlife habitats should be an important objective of the United States development assistance.
In order to preserve biological diversity, the President is authorized to furnish assistance under subchapter I of this chapter, notwithstanding section 2420 of this title, to assist countries in protecting and maintaining wildlife habitats and in developing sound wildlife management and plant conservation programs. Special efforts should be made to establish and maintain wildlife sanctuaries, reserves, and parks; to enact and enforce anti-poaching measures; and to identify, study, and catalog animal and plant species, especially in tropical environments.
For fiscal year 1987, not less than $2,500,000 of the funds available to carry out subchapter I of this chapter (excluding funds made available to carry out section 2151b(c)(2) of this title, relating to the Child Survival Fund) shall be allocated for assistance pursuant to subsection (b) for activities which were not funded prior to fiscal year 1987. In addition, the Agency for International Development shall, to the fullest extent possible, continue and increase assistance pursuant to subsection (b) for activities for which assistance was provided in fiscal years prior to fiscal year 1987.
To the fullest extent possible, projects supported under this section shall include close consultation with and involvement of local people at all stages of design and implementation.
Whenever feasible, the objectives of this section shall be accomplished through projects managed by appropriate private and voluntary organizations, or international, regional, or national nongovernmental organizations, which are active in the region or country where the project is located.
Each annual report required by section 2394(a) of this title shall include, in a separate volume, a report on the implementation of this section.
The Congress reaffirms its support of the initiative of the United States Government in undertaking consultations and planning with the countries concerned, with other nations providing assistance, with the United Nations, and with other concerned international and regional organizations, toward the development and support of a comprehensive long-term African Sahel development program.
The President is authorized to develop a long-term comprehensive development program for the Sahel and other drought-stricken nations in Africa.
In order to carry out the purposes of this part, the President is authorized to furnish assistance, on such terms and conditions as he may determine, to countries and areas through programs of grant and loan assistance, bilaterally or through regional, multilateral, or private entities.
The President is authorized to make loans payable as to principal and interest in United States dollars on such terms and conditions as he may determine, in order to promote the economic development of countries and areas, with emphasis upon assisting long-range plans and programs designed to develop economic resources and increase productive capacities. The President shall determine the interest payable on any loan. In making loans under this part, the President shall consider the economic circumstances of the borrower and other relevant factors, including the capacity of the recipient country to repay the loan at a reasonable rate of interest, except that loans may not be made at a rate of interest of less than 3 per centum per annum commencing not later than ten years following the date on which the funds are initially made available under the loan, during which ten-year period the rate of interest shall not be lower than 2 per centum per annum, nor higher than the applicable legal rate of interest of the country in which the loan is made.
Dollar receipts paid during any fiscal year from loans made under subchapter I of this chapter or from loans made under predecessor foreign assistance legislation shall be deposited in the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.
Not to exceed $10,000,000 of the funds made available each fiscal year for the purposes of this part may be used for assistance, on such terms and conditions as the President may determine, to research and educational institutions in the United States for the purpose of strengthening their capacity to develop and carry out programs concerned with the economic and social development of developing countries.
The President shall establish an interagency Development Loan Committee, consisting of such officers from such agencies of the United States Government as he may determine, which shall, under the direction of the President, establish standards and criteria for lending operations under this part in accordance with the foreign and financial policies of the United States. Except in the case of officers serving in positions to which they were appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, officers assigned to the Committee shall be so assigned by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The Congress finds that the participation of rural and urban poor people in their countries’ development can be assisted and accelerated in an effective manner through an increase in activities planned and carried out by private and voluntary organizations and cooperatives. Such organizations and cooperatives, embodying the American spirit of self-help and assistance to others to improve their lives and incomes, constitute an important means of mobilizing private American financial and human resources to benefit poor people in developing countries. The Congress declares that it is in the interest of the United States that such organizations and cooperatives expand their overseas development efforts without compromising their private and independent nature. The Congress further declares that the financial resources of such organizations and cooperatives should be supplemented by the contribution of public funds for the purpose of undertaking development activities in accordance with the principles set forth in section 2151–1 of this title and, if necessary and determined on a case-by-case basis, for the purpose of sharing the cost of developing programs related to such activities. The Congress urges the Administrator of the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter, in implementing programs authorized under subchapter I of this chapter, to draw on the resource of private and voluntary organizations and cooperatives to plan and carry out development activities and to establish simplified procedures for the development and approval of programs to be carried out by such private and voluntary organizations and cooperatives as have demonstrated a capacity to undertake effective development activities.
In order to further the efficient use of United States voluntary contributions for development, relief, and rehabilitation of friendly peoples, the President is authorized to use funds made available for the purposes of this part and part X of this subchapter to pay transportation charges on shipments by the American National Red Cross and by United States voluntary agencies registered with the Agency for International Development.
Reimbursement under this section may be provided for transportation charges on shipments from United States ports, or in the case of excess or surplus property supplied by the United States from foreign ports, to ports of entry abroad or to points of entry abroad in cases (1) of landlocked countries, (2) where ports cannot be used effectively because of natural or other disturbances, (3) where carriers to a specified country are unavailable, or (4) where a substantial savings in costs or time can be effected by the utilization of points of entry other than ports.
Where practicable, the President shall make arrangements with the receiving country for free entry of such shipments and for the making available by the country of local currencies for the purpose of defraying the transportation costs of such shipments from the port or point of entry of the receiving country to the designated shipping point of the consignee.
Prohibitions on assistance to countries contained in this chapter or any other Act shall not be construed to prohibit assistance by the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter in support of programs of private and voluntary organizations and cooperatives already being supported prior to the date such prohibition becomes applicable. The President shall take into consideration, in any case in which statutory prohibitions on assistance would be applicable but for this subsection, whether continuation of support for such programs is in the national interest of the United States. If the President continues such support after such date, he shall prepare and transmit, not later than one year after such date, to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and to the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate a report setting forth the reasons for such continuation.
For each of the fiscal years 1986 through 1989, funds in an amount not less than thirteen and one half percent of the aggregate amount appropriated for that fiscal year to carry out sections 2151a(a), 2151b(b), 2151b(c), 2151c, 2151d, 2151s,1
The Congress recognizes that, in addition to their role in social and economic development, cooperatives provide an opportunity for people to participate directly in democratic decisionmaking. Therefore, assistance under this part shall be provided to rural and urban cooperatives which offer large numbers of low- and middle-income people in developing countries an opportunity to participate directly in democratic decisionmaking. Such assistance shall be designed to encourage the adoption of self-help, private sector cooperative techniques and practices which have been successful in the United States.
Relatively least developed countries (as determined on the basis of criteria comparable to those used for the United Nations General Assembly list of “least developed countries”) are characterized by extreme poverty, very limited infrastructure, and limited administrative capacity to implement basic human needs growth strategies. In such countries special measures may be necessary to insure the full effectiveness of assistance furnished under subchapter I of this chapter.
For the purpose of promoting economic growth in these countries, the President is authorized and encouraged to make assistance under this part available on a grant basis to the maximum extent that is consistent with the attainment of United States development objectives.
The President may on a case-by-case basis waive the requirement of section 2151h(a) of this title for financial or “in kind” contributions in the case of programs, projects, or activities in relatively least developed countries.
Section 2151h(b) of this title shall not apply with respect to grants to relatively least developed countries.
The Congress recognizes that illicit narcotics cultivation is related to overall development problems and that the vast majority of all individuals employed in the cultivation of illicit narcotics reside in the developing countries and are among the poorest of the poor in those countries and that therefore the ultimate success of any effort to eliminate illicit narcotics production depends upon the availability of alternative economic opportunities for those individuals, upon other factors which assistance under this part could address, as well as upon direct narcotics control efforts.
In furtherance of the purposes of this section, the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter shall cooperate fully with, and share its expertise in development matters with, other agencies of the United States Government involved in narcotics control activities abroad.
For the purpose of reducing dependence upon the production of crops from which narcotic and psychotropic drugs are derived, the President may provide assistance to a foreign country under chapter 1 of part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151 and following; relating to development assistance) and chapter 4 of part II of that Act (22 U.S.C. 2346 and following; relating to the economic support fund) to promote the production, processing, or the marketing of products or commodities, notwithstanding any other provision of law that would otherwise prohibit the provision of assistance to promote the production, processing, or the marketing of such products or commodities.
Subsection (a) applies with respect to funds made available for fiscal year 1991 or any fiscal year thereafter.
For the purpose of reducing dependence upon the production of crops from which narcotic and psychotropic drugs are derived, the President may provide economic assistance for a country which, because of its coca production, is a major illicit drug producing country (as defined in section 481(i)(2) 1
The provisions of law made inapplicable by subsection (a) are any other provisions of law that would otherwise restrict the use of economic assistance funds with respect to the production, processing, or marketing of agricultural commodities (or the products thereof) or other products, including sections 521, 546, and 547 (but excluding section 510) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1990, and comparable provisions of subsequent Acts appropriating funds for foreign operations, export financing, and related programs.
As used in this section, the term “economic assistance” means assistance under chapter 1 of part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151 and following; relating to development assistance) and assistance under chapter 4 of part II of that Act (22 U.S.C. 2346 and following; relating to the economic support fund).
The Administrator of the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter shall conduct an annual review of bilateral concessional loan balances and shall determine and identify those countries whose financial resources make possible accelerated loan repayments. In particular, European countries that were recipients of concessional loans by predecessor agencies to the agency primarily responsible for administering subchapter I of this chapter shall be contacted to negotiate accelerated repayments. The criteria used by the Administrator in making these determinations shall be established in conjunction with the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate.
The President shall use poverty measurement standards, such as those developed by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and other appropriate measurements in determining target populations for United States development assistance, and shall strengthen United States efforts to assure that a substantial percentage of development assistance under this part directly improves the lives of the poor majority, with special emphasis on those individuals living in absolute poverty.
To the maximum extent possible, activities under this part that attempt to increase the institutional capabilities of private organizations or governments, or that attempt to stimulate scientific and technological research, shall be designed and monitored to ensure that the ultimate beneficiaries of these activities are the poor majority.
Not later than 150 days after October 21, 1998, the Secretary of the Treasury, after consultation with the Secretary of State and the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, is authorized to establish a program to provide technical assistance to foreign governments and foreign central banks of developing or transitional countries.
The Secretary of State shall provide foreign policy guidance to the Secretary to ensure that the program established under this subsection is effectively integrated into the foreign policy of the United States.
In carrying out the program established under subsection (a), the Secretary shall provide economic and financial technical assistance to foreign governments and foreign central banks of developing and transitional countries by providing advisers with appropriate expertise to advance the enactment of laws and establishment of administrative procedures and institutions in such countries to promote macroeconomic and fiscal stability, efficient resource allocation, transparent and market-oriented processes and sustainable private sector growth.
Such technical assistance shall include elements designed to combat anti-competitive, unethical, and corrupt activities, including protection against actions that may distort or inhibit transparency in market mechanisms and, to the extent applicable, privatization procedures.
The Secretary is authorized to issue such regulations with respect to personal service contractors as the Secretary deems necessary to carry out this section.
Nothing in this section shall be construed to infringe upon the powers or functions of the Secretary of State (including the powers or functions described in section 4802 of this title) or of any chief of mission (including the powers or functions described in section 207 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 (22 U.S.C. 3927)).
The Secretary shall conclude assistance activities for a recipient foreign government or foreign central bank under the program established under subsection (a) if the Secretary, after consultation with the appropriate officers of the United States, determines that such assistance has resulted in the enactment of laws or the establishment of institutions in that country that promote fiscal stability and administrative procedures, efficient resource allocation, transparent and market-oriented processes and private sector growth in a sustainable manner.
Not later than 3 months after October 21, 1998, and every 6 months thereafter, the Secretary shall prepare and submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report on the conduct of the program established under this section during the preceding 6-month period.
The term “developing or transitional country” means a country eligible to receive development assistance under this part.
The term “international financial institution” means the International Monetary Fund, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the International Development Association, the International Finance Corporation, the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, the Asian Development Bank, the African Development Bank, the African Development Fund, the Inter-American Development Bank, the Inter-American Investment Corporation, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and the Bank for Economic Cooperation and Development in the Middle East and North Africa.
The term “Secretary” means the Secretary of the Treasury.
The term “foreign participant” means the national of a developing or transitional country that is receiving assistance under the program established under subsection (a) who has been designated to participate in activities under such program.
There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $5,000,000 for fiscal year 1999.
Amounts authorized to be appropriated under paragraph (1) are authorized to remain available until expended.
The President is authorized to provide assistance for the rehabilitation of victims of torture.
Such assistance shall be provided in the form of grants to treatment centers and programs in foreign countries that are carrying out projects or activities specifically designed to treat victims of torture for the physical and psychological effects of the torture.
The President is authorized to establish programs that combat corruption, improve transparency and accountability, and promote other forms of good governance in countries described in paragraph (2).
A country described in this paragraph is a country that is eligible to receive assistance under subchapter I of this chapter (including part IV of subchapter II of this chapter) or the Support for East European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 [22 U.S.C. 5401 et seq.].
In carrying out paragraph (1), the President shall give priority to establishing programs in countries that received a significant amount of United States foreign assistance for the prior fiscal year, or in which the United States has a significant economic interest, and that continue to have the most persistent problems with public and private corruption. In determining which countries have the most persistent problems with public and private corruption under the preceding sentence, the President shall take into account criteria such as the Transparency International Annual Corruption Perceptions Index, standards and codes set forth by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Monetary Fund, and other relevant criteria.
Assistance provided for countries under programs established pursuant to paragraph (1) may be made available notwithstanding any other provision of law that restricts assistance to foreign countries. Assistance provided under a program established pursuant to paragraph (1) for a country that would otherwise be restricted from receiving such assistance but for the preceding sentence may not be provided directly to the government of the country.
Projects and activities under the programs established pursuant to subsection (a) may include, among other things, training and technical assistance (including drafting of anti-corruption, privatization, and competitive statutory and administrative codes), drafting of anti-corruption, privatization, and competitive statutory and administrative codes, support for independent media and publications, financing of the program and operating costs of nongovernmental organizations that carry out such projects or activities, and assistance for travel of individuals to the United States and other countries for such projects and activities.
Amounts made available to carry out the other provisions of subchapter I of this chapter (including part IV of subchapter II of this chapter) and the Support for East European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 [22 U.S.C. 5401 et seq.] shall be made available to carry out this section.
Amounts made available to carry out the other provisions of subchapter I of this chapter (including part IV of subchapter II of this chapter) and the Support for East European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 [22 U.S.C. 5401 et seq.] shall be made available to carry out this section. Assistance may be provided under this section notwithstanding section 2420 of this title.
The President, acting through the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, is authorized, under such terms and conditions as the President may determine, to carry out a program to improve building construction codes and practices in Ecuador, El Salvador, and other Latin American countries (in this section referred to as the “program”).
Training of appropriate professionals in Latin America from both the public and private sectors to enhance their understanding of building and housing codes and standards.
Translating and distributing in the region detailed construction manuals, model building codes, and publications from organizations described in paragraph (2), including materials that address zoning, egress, fire and life safety, plumbing, sewage, sanitation, electrical installation, mechanical installation, structural engineering, and seismic design.
Offering other relevant assistance as needed, such as helping government officials develop seismic micro-zonation maps or draft pertinent legislation, to implement building codes and practices that will help improve the resistance of buildings and housing in the region to seismic activity and other natural disasters.
Grants and contracts provided under this section shall be carried out through United States organizations with expertise in the areas described in paragraph (1), including the American Society of Testing Materials, the Underwriters Laboratories, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the American Society of Civil Engineers, the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers, the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials, the International Code Council, and the National Fire Protection Association.
The term “AIDS” has the meaning given the term in section 2151b–2(g)(1) 2
The term “children” means persons who have not attained 18 years of age.
The term “HIV/AIDS” has the meaning given the term in section 2151b–2(g)(3) 2 of this title.
The term “orphan” means a child deprived by death of one or both parents.
The term “psychosocial support” includes care that addresses the ongoing psychological and social problems that affect individuals, their partners, families, and caregivers in order to alleviate suffering, strengthen social ties and integration, provide emotional support, and promote coping strategies.
To maximize the sustainable development impact of assistance authorized under this section, and pursuant to the strategy required in section 4 of the Assistance for Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children in Developing Countries Act of 2005, the President shall establish a monitoring and evaluation system to measure the effectiveness of United States assistance to orphans and other vulnerable children.
The Secretary of State, in consultation with the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, shall appoint a Special Advisor for Assistance to Orphans and Vulnerable Children.
At the discretion of the Secretary of State, the authority to appoint a Special Advisor under subparagraph (A) may be delegated by the Secretary of State to the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development.
There is authorized to be appropriated to the President to carry out this section such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 2006 and 2007.
Amounts made available under paragraph (1) are authorized to remain available until expended.
Not later than one year after the date on which the President transmits to the appropriate congressional committees the strategy required by section 4(a), and annually thereafter, the President shall transmit to the appropriate congressional committees a report on the implementation of this Act and the amendments made by this Act.
To carry out the purposes of subsection (a), the President is authorized to furnish assistance for programs in developing countries to provide affordable and equitable access to safe water, sanitation, and hygiene.
The President may use payments made in local currencies under an agreement made under title I of the Food for Peace Act (7 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) to provide assistance under this section.
The Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development (referred to in this paragraph as “USAID”) or the Administrator’s designee, who shall be a current USAID employee serving in a career or non-career position in the Senior Executive Service or at the level of a Deputy Assistant Administrator or higher, shall serve concurrently as the USAID Global Water Coordinator (referred to in this subsection as the “Coordinator”).
The Secretary of State or the Secretary’s designee, who shall be a current employee of the Department of State serving in a career or non-career position in the Senior Executive Service or at the level of a Deputy Assistant Secretary or higher, shall serve concurrently as the Department of State Special Advisor for Water Resources (referred to in this paragraph as the “Special Advisor”).
The responsibilities and specific duties of the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development (or the Administrator’s designee) and the Secretary of State (or the Secretary’s designee) under paragraph (2) or (3), respectively, shall be in addition to any other responsibilities or specific duties assigned to such individuals. Such individuals shall receive no additional or supplemental compensation as a result of carrying out such responsibilities and specific duties under such paragraphs.
Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the President shall annually make new designations pursuant to the criteria set forth in paragraph (1).
Not later than 15 days before the obligation of any funds for water, sanitation, or hygiene projects or programs pursuant to this section in countries that are not ranked in the top 50 countries based upon the WASH Needs Index, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development shall notify the appropriate congressional committees of the planned obligation of such funds.
In this subsection and in subsection (j), the term “WASH Needs Index” means the needs index for water, sanitation, or hygiene projects or programs authorized under this section that has been developed using the criteria and indicators described in subparagraphs (A) through (H) of subsection (f)(1).
The Global Water Strategy shall specifically describe the target percentage of funding for each fiscal year covered by such strategy to be directed toward projects aimed at providing first-time access to safe water and sanitation.
The Global Water Strategy shall include specific and measurable goals, benchmarks, performance metrics, timetables, and monitoring and evaluation plans required to be developed by the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development pursuant to subsection (e)(1)(B)(v).
A Small Grants Program (SGP) shall be established within the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to provide small grants, cooperative agreements, and other assistance mechanisms and agreements of not more than $2,000,000 for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of chapters 1 and 10 of part I [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq., 2293 et seq.] and chapter 4 of part II [22 U.S.C. 2346 et seq.] of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961: Provided, That the SGP established pursuant to this section shall replace the function served previously by the Development Grants Program established under section 674 of division J, of Public Law 110–161, which is hereby abolished.
Awards from the SGP shall only be made to eligible entities as described in the joint explanatory statement described in section 4 (in the matter preceding division A of this consolidated Act).
Not later than 120 days after December 16, 2014, and after consultation with the appropriate congressional committees, the Administrator shall submit a report to such committees describing the guidance to implement the SGP.
The President should promote the meaningful participation of women in conflict prevention, in coordination and consultation with international partners, including, as appropriate, multilateral organizations, stakeholders, and other relevant international organizations, particularly in situations in which the direct engagement of the United States Government is not appropriate or advisable.
The Secretary of State should work with international, regional, national, and local organizations to increase the meaningful participation of women in international peacekeeping operations, and should promote training that provides international peacekeeping personnel with the substantive knowledge and skills needed to ensure effective physical security and meaningful participation of women in conflict prevention and peace building.
The term “stakeholders” means non-governmental and private sector entities engaged in or affected by conflict prevention and stabilization, peace building, protection, security, transition initiatives, humanitarian response, or related efforts.
The term “early childhood development” means the development and learning of a child younger than 8 years of age, including physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development and approaches to learning that allow a child to reach his or her full developmental potential.
The term “residential care” means care provided in any non-family-based group setting, including orphanages, transit or interim care centers, children’s homes, children’s villages or cottage complexes, group homes, and boarding schools used primarily for care purposes as an alternative to a children’s home.