- § 5101. Allotment of land on Indian reservations
- § 5102. Existing periods of trust and restrictions on alienation extended
- § 5103. Restoration of lands to tribal ownership
- § 5104. Exchanges of land
- § 5105. Title to lands
- § 5106. Use of funds appropriated under section 5108
- § 5107. Transfer and exchange of restricted Indian lands and shares of Indian tribes and corporations
- § 5108. Acquisition of lands, water rights or surface rights; appropriation; title to lands; tax exemption
- § 5109. Indian forestry units; rules and regulations
- § 5110. New Indian reservations
- § 5111. Allotments or holdings outside of reservations
- § 5112. Indian corporations; appropriation for organizing
- § 5113. Revolving fund; appropriation for loans
- § 5114. Interest charges covered into revolving fund
- § 5115. Vocational and trade schools; appropriation for tuition
- § 5116. Standards for Indians appointed to Indian Office
- § 5117. Indian preference laws applicable to Bureau of Indian Affairs and Indian Health Service positions
- § 5118. Application generally
- § 5119. Application to Alaska
- § 5120. Continuation of allowances
- § 5121. Claims or suits of Indian tribes against United States; rights unimpaired
- § 5122. Offsets of gratuities
- § 5123. Organization of Indian tribes; constitution and bylaws and amendment thereof; special election
- § 5124. Incorporation of Indian tribes; charter; ratification by election
- § 5125. Acceptance optional
- § 5126. Mandatory application of sections 5102 and 5124
- § 5127. Procedure
- § 5128. Application of laws and treaties
- § 5129. Definitions
- § 5130. Definitions
- § 5131. Publication of list of recognized tribes
- § 5132. Indians eligible for loans
- § 5133. Revolving fund; loans; regulations
- § 5134. Sale of land by individual Indian owners
- § 5135. Mortgages and deeds of trust by individual Indian owners; removal from trust or restricted status; application to Secretary
- § 5136. Loans to purchasers of highly fractioned land
- § 5137. Removal of duplicative appraisals
- § 5138. Title in trust to United States
- § 5139. Tribal rights and privileges in connection with loans
- § 5140. Mortgaged property governed by State law
- § 5141. Interest rates and taxes
- § 5142. Reduction of unpaid principal
- § 5143. Authorization of appropriations
- § 5144. Certification of rental proceeds
On and after June 18, 1934, no land of any Indian reservation, created or set apart by treaty or agreement with the Indians, Act of Congress, Executive order, purchase, or otherwise, shall be allotted in severalty to any Indian.
The existing periods of trust placed upon any Indian lands and any restriction on alienation thereof are extended and continued until otherwise directed by Congress.
The Secretary of the Interior, if he shall find it to be in the public interest, is authorized to restore to tribal ownership the remaining surplus lands of any Indian reservation heretofore opened, or authorized to be opened, to sale, or any other form of disposal by Presidential proclamation, or by any of the public-land laws of the United States: Provided, however, That valid rights or claims of any persons to any lands so withdrawn existing on the date of the withdrawal shall not be affected by this Act: Provided further, That this section shall not apply to lands within any reclamation project heretofore authorized in any Indian reservation.
For the purpose of effecting land consolidations between Indians and non-Indians within the reservation, the Secretary of the Interior is authorized, under such rules and regulations as he may prescribe, to acquire through purchase, exchange, or relinquishment, any interest in lands, water rights, or surface rights to lands within said reservation. Exchanges of lands hereunder shall be made on the basis of equal value and the value of improvements on lands to be relinquished to the Indians or by Indians to non-Indians shall be given due consideration and allowance made therefor in the valuation of lieu lands. This section shall apply to tribal, trust, or otherwise restricted Indian allotments whether the allottee be living or deceased.
Title to lands or any interest therein acquired pursuant to this Act for Indian use shall be taken in the name of the United States of America in trust for the tribe or individual Indian for which acquired.
For the purpose of carrying into effect the land-purchase provision of this Act, the Secretary of the Interior is authorized to use so much as may be necessary of any funds heretofore or hereafter appropriated pursuant to section 5108 of this title.
Except as provided in this Act, no sale, devise, gift, exchange, or other transfer of restricted Indian lands or of shares in the assets of any Indian tribe or corporation organized under this Act shall be made or approved: Provided, That such lands or interests may, with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior, be sold, devised, or otherwise transferred to the Indian tribe in which the lands or shares are located or from which the shares were derived, or to a successor corporation: Provided further, That, subject to section 8(b) of the American Indian Probate Reform Act of 2004 (Public Law 108–374; 25 U.S.C. 2201 note), lands and shares described in the preceding proviso shall descend or be devised to any member of an Indian tribe or corporation described in that proviso or to an heir or lineal descendant of such a member in accordance with the Indian Land Consolidation Act (25 U.S.C. 2201 et seq.), including a tribal probate code approved, or regulations promulgated under, that Act: Provided further, That the Secretary of the Interior may authorize any voluntary exchanges of lands of equal value and the voluntary exchange of shares of equal value whenever such exchange, in the judgment of the Secretary, is expedient and beneficial for or compatible with the proper consolidation of Indian lands and for the benefit of cooperative organizations.
The Secretary of the Interior is authorized, in his discretion, to acquire, through purchase, relinquishment, gift, exchange, or assignment, any interest in lands, water rights, or surface rights to lands, within or without existing reservations, including trust or otherwise restricted allotments, whether the allottee be living or deceased, for the purpose of providing land for Indians.
For the acquisition of such lands, interests in lands, water rights, and surface rights, and for expenses incident to such acquisition, there is authorized to be appropriated, out of any funds in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, a sum not to exceed $2,000,000 in any one fiscal year: Provided, That no part of such funds shall be used to acquire additional land outside of the exterior boundaries of Navajo Indian Reservation for the Navajo Indians in Arizona, nor in New Mexico, in the event that legislation to define the exterior boundaries of the Navajo Indian Reservation in New Mexico, and for other purposes, or similar legislation, becomes law.
The unexpended balances of any appropriations made pursuant to this section shall remain available until expended.
Title to any lands or rights acquired pursuant to this Act or the Act of July 28, 1955 (69 Stat. 392), as amended (25 U.S.C. 608 et seq.) 1
The Secretary of the Interior is directed to make rules and regulations for the operation and management of Indian forestry units on the principle of sustained-yield management, to restrict the number of livestock grazed on Indian range units to the estimated carrying capacity of such ranges, and to promulgate such other rules and regulations as may be necessary to protect the range from deterioration, to prevent soil erosion, to assure full utilization of the range, and like purposes.
The Secretary of the Interior is hereby authorized to proclaim new Indian reservations on lands acquired pursuant to any authority conferred by this Act, or to add such lands to existing reservations: Provided, That lands added to existing reservations shall be designated for the exclusive use of Indians entitled by enrollment or by tribal membership to residence at such reservations.
Nothing contained in this Act shall be construed to relate to Indian holdings of allotments or homesteads upon the public domain outside of the geographic boundaries of any Indian reservation now existing or established hereafter.
There is authorized to be appropriated, out of any funds in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, such sums as may be necessary, but not to exceed $250,000 in any fiscal year, to be expended at the order of the Secretary of the Interior, in defraying the expenses of organizing Indian chartered corporations or other organizations created under this Act.
There is authorized to be appropriated, out of any funds in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, the sum of $20,000,000 to be established as a revolving fund from which the Secretary of the Interior, under such rules and regulations as he may prescribe, may make loans to Indian chartered corporations for the purpose of promoting the economic development of such tribes and of their members, and may defray the expenses of administering such loans. Repayment of amounts loaned under this authorization shall be credited to the revolving fund and shall be available for the purposes for which the fund is established.
Interest or other charges heretofore or hereafter collected on loans shall be credited to the revolving fund created by section 5113 of this title and shall be available for the establishment of a revolving fund for the purpose of making and administering loans to Indian-chartered corporations in accordance with the Act of June 18, 1934 (48 Stat. 986) [25 U.S.C. 5101 et seq.], and of making and administering loans to individual Indians and to associations or corporate groups of Indians of Oklahoma in accordance with the Act of June 26, 1936 (49 Stat. 1967).
There is authorized to be appropriated, out of any funds in the United States Treasury not otherwise appropriated, a sum not to exceed $250,000 annually, together with any unexpended balances of previous appropriations made pursuant to this section, for loans to Indians for the payment of tuition and other expenses in recognized vocational and trade schools: Provided, That not more than $50,000 of such sum shall be available for loans to Indian students in high schools and colleges. Such loans shall be reimbursable under rules established by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
The Secretary of the Interior is directed to establish standards of health, age, character, experience, knowledge, and ability for Indians who may be appointed, without regard to civil-service laws, to the various positions maintained, now or hereafter, by the Indian Office, in the administration of functions or services affecting any Indian tribe. Such qualified Indians shall hereafter have the preference to appointment to vacancies in any such positions.
For purposes of applying reduction-in-force procedures under subsection (a) of section 3502 of title 5 with respect to positions within the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Indian Health Service, the competitive and excepted service retention registers shall be combined, and any employee entitled to Indian preference who is within a retention category established under regulations prescribed under such subsection to provide due effect to military preference shall be entitled to be retained in preference to other employees not entitled to Indian preference who are within such retention category.
The Office of Personnel Management shall provide all appropriate assistance to the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Indian Health Service in placing non-Indian employees of such agencies in other Federal positions. All other Federal agencies shall cooperate to the fullest extent possible in such placement efforts.
The provisions of this Act shall not apply to any of the Territories, colonies, or insular possessions of the United States, except that sections 9, 10, 11, 12, and 16 [25 U.S.C. 5112, 5113, 5115, 5116, 5123] shall apply to the Territory of Alaska: Provided, That sections 4, 7, 16, 17, and 18 of this Act [25 U.S.C. 5107, 5110, 5123, 5124, 5125] shall not apply to the following-named Indian tribes, the members of such Indian tribes, together with members of other tribes affiliated with such named tribes located in the State of Oklahoma, as follows: Cheyenne, Arapaho, Apache, Comanche, Kiowa, Caddo, Delaware, Wichita, Osage, Kaw, Otoe, Tonkawa, Pawnee, Ponca, Shawnee, Ottawa, Quapaw, Seneca, Wyandotte, Iowa, Sac and Fox, Kickapoo, Pottawatomi, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole. Section 4 of this Act [25 U.S.C. 5107] shall not apply to the Indians of the Klamath Reservation in Oregon.
Sections 5101, 5108, 5110, 5111, 5121, 5124, and 5129 of this title shall after May 1, 1936, apply to the Territory of Alaska: Provided, That groups of Indians in Alaska not recognized prior to May 1, 1936, as bands or tribes, but having a common bond of occupation, or association, or residence within a well-defined neighborhood, community, or rural district, may organize to adopt constitutions and bylaws and to receive charters of incorporation and Federal loans under sections 5113, 5123, and 5124 of this title.
The Secretary of the Interior is directed to continue the allowance of the articles enumerated in section 17 of the Act of March 2, 1889 (23 Stat. L. 894), or their commuted cash value under the Act of June 10, 1896 (29 Stat. L. 334), to all Sioux Indians who would be eligible, but for the provisions of this Act, to receive allotments of lands in severalty under section 19 of the Act of May 29, 1908 (25 Stat. L. 451), or under any prior Act, and who have the prescribed status of the head of a family or single person over the age of eighteen years, and his approval shall be final and conclusive, claims therefor to be paid as formerly from the permanent appropriation made by said section 17 and carried on the books of the Treasury for this purpose. No person shall receive in his own right more than one allowance of the benefits, and application must be made and approved during the lifetime of the allottee or the right shall lapse. Such benefits shall continue to be paid upon such reservation until such time as the lands available therein for allotment on June 18, 1934, would have been exhausted by the award to each person receiving such benefits of an allotment of eighty acres of such land.
Nothing in this Act shall be construed to impair or prejudice any claim or suit of any Indian tribe against the United States. It is declared to be the intent of Congress that no expenditures for the benefit of Indians made out of appropriations authorized by said sections shall be considered as offsets in any suit brought to recover upon any claim of such Indians against the United States.
In all suits now pending in the United States Court of Federal Claims by an Indian tribe or band which have not been tried or submitted, and in any suit hereafter filed in the United States Court of Federal Claims by any such tribe or band, the United States Court of Federal Claims is directed to consider and to offset against any amount found due the said tribe or band all sums expended gratuitously by the United States for the benefit of the said tribe or band; and in all cases now pending or hereafter filed in the United States Court of Federal Claims in which an Indian tribe or band is party plaintiff, wherein the duty of the court is merely to report its findings of fact and conclusions to Congress, the said United States Court of Federal Claims is directed to include in its report a statement of the amount of money which has been expended by the United States gratuitously for the benefit of the said tribe or band: Provided, That expenditures made prior to the date of the law, treaty, agreement, or Executive order under which the claims arise shall not be offset against the claims or claim asserted; and expenditures under the Act of June 18, 1934 (48 Stat. L. 984) [25 U.S.C. 5101 et seq.], except expenditures under appropriations made pursuant to section 5 of such Act [25 U.S.C. 5108], shall not be charged as offsets against any claim on behalf of an Indian tribe or tribes now pending in the United States Court of Federal Claims or hereafter filed: Provided further, That funds appropriated and expended from tribal funds shall not be construed as gratuities; and this section shall not be deemed to amend or affect the various Acts granting jurisdiction to the United States Court of Federal Claims to hear and determine the claims listed on page 678 of the hearings before the subcommittee of the House Committee on Appropriations on the second deficiency appropriation bill for the fiscal year 1935: And provided further, That no expenditure under any emergency appropriation or allotment made subsequently to March 4, 1933, and generally applicable throughout the United States for relief in stricken agricultural areas, relief from distress caused by unemployment and conditions resulting therefrom, the prosecution of public works and public projects for the relief of unemployment or to increase employment, and for work relief (including the civil-works program) shall be considered in connection with the operation of this section.
Any constitution or bylaws ratified and approved by the Secretary shall be revocable by an election open to the same voters and conducted in the same manner as provided in subsection (a) of this section for the adoption of a constitution or bylaws.
In addition to all powers vested in any Indian tribe or tribal council by existing law, the constitution adopted by said tribe shall also vest in such tribe or its tribal council the following rights and powers: To employ legal counsel; to prevent the sale, disposition, lease, or encumbrance of tribal lands, interests in lands, or other tribal assets without the consent of the tribe; and to negotiate with the Federal, State, and local governments. The Secretary shall advise such tribe or its tribal council of all appropriation estimates or Federal projects for the benefit of the tribe prior to the submission of such estimates to the Office of Management and Budget and the Congress.
Departments or agencies of the United States shall not promulgate any regulation or make any decision or determination pursuant to the Act of June 18, 1934 (25 U.S.C. 461 et seq., 48 Stat. 984) 1
Any regulation or administrative decision or determination of a department or agency of the United States that is in existence or effect on May 31, 1994, and that classifies, enhances, or diminishes the privileges and immunities available to a federally recognized Indian tribe relative to the privileges and immunities available to other federally recognized tribes by virtue of their status as Indian tribes shall have no force or effect.
The Secretary of the Interior may, upon petition by any tribe, issue a charter of incorporation to such tribe: Provided, That such charter shall not become operative until ratified by the governing body of such tribe. Such charter may convey to the incorporated tribe the power to purchase, take by gift, or bequest, or otherwise, own, hold, manage, operate, and dispose of property of every description, real and personal, including the power to purchase restricted Indian lands and to issue in exchange therefor interests in corporate property, and such further powers as may be incidental to the conduct of corporate business, not inconsistent with law; but no authority shall be granted to sell, mortgage, or lease for a period exceeding twenty-five years any trust or restricted lands included in the limits of the reservation. Any charter so issued shall not be revoked or surrendered except by Act of Congress.
This Act shall not apply to any reservation wherein a majority of the adult Indians, voting at a special election duly called by the Secretary of the Interior, shall vote against its application. It shall be the duty of the Secretary of the Interior, within one year after June 18, 1934, to call such an election, which election shall be held by secret ballot upon thirty days’ notice.
In any election heretofore or hereafter held under the Act of June 18, 1934 (48 Stat. 984) [25 U.S.C. 5101 et seq.], on the question of excluding a reservation from the application of the said Act or on the question of adopting a constitution and bylaws or amendments thereto or on the question of ratifying a charter, the vote of a majority of those actually voting shall be necessary and sufficient to effectuate such exclusion, adoption, or ratification, as the case may be: Provided, however, That in each instance the total vote cast shall not be less than 30 per centum of those entitled to vote.
All laws, general and special, and all treaty provisions affecting any Indian reservation which has voted or may vote to exclude itself from the application of the Act of June 18, 1934 (48 Stat. 984) [25 U.S.C. 5101 et seq.], shall be deemed to have been continuously effective as to such reservation, notwithstanding the passage of said Act of June 18, 1934. Nothing in the Act of June 18, 1934, shall be construed to abrogate or impair any rights guaranteed under any existing treaty with any Indian tribe, where such tribe voted not to exclude itself from the application of said Act.
The term “Indian” as used in this Act shall include all persons of Indian descent who are members of any recognized Indian tribe now under Federal jurisdiction, and all persons who are descendants of such members who were, on June 1, 1934, residing within the present boundaries of any Indian reservation, and shall further include all other persons of one-half or more Indian blood. For the purposes of this Act, Eskimos and other aboriginal peoples of Alaska shall be considered Indians. The term “tribe” wherever used in this Act shall be construed to refer to any Indian tribe, organized band, pueblo, or the Indians residing on one reservation. The words “adult Indians” wherever used in this Act shall be construed to refer to Indians who have attained the age of twenty-one years.
The Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a list of all Indian tribes which the Secretary recognizes to be eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians.
The list shall be published within 60 days of November 2, 1994, and annually on or before every January 30 thereafter.
On and after May 10, 1939, no individual of less than one-quarter degree of Indian blood shall be eligible for a loan from funds made available in accordance with the provisions of the Act of June 18, 1934 (48 Stat. 986) [25 U.S.C. 5101 et seq.], and the Act of June 26, 1936 (49 Stat. 1967).
The Secretary of the Interior, or his designated representative, is authorized, under such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe, to make loans from the revolving fund established pursuant to the Acts of June 18, 1934 (48 Stat. 984) [25 U.S.C. 5101 et seq.], and June 26, 1936 (49 Stat. 1967), to tribes, bands, groups, and individual Indians, not otherwise eligible for loans under said Acts: Provided, That no portion of these funds shall be loaned to Indians of less than one-quarter Indian blood.
The Secretary of the Interior, or his duly authorized representative, is authorized in his discretion, and upon application of the Indian owners, to issue patents in fee, to remove restrictions against alienation, and to approve conveyances, with respect to lands or interests in lands held by individual Indians under the provisions of the Act of June 18, 1934 (48 Stat. 984) [25 U.S.C. 5101 et seq.], or the Act of June 26, 1936 (49 Stat. 1967).
The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to make direct loans in a manner consistent with direct loans pursuant to subtitle D of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (7 U.S.C. 1981 et seq.), to any Indian tribe recognized by the Secretary of the Interior or tribal corporation established pursuant to the Indian Reorganization Act (25 U.S.C. 477),1
Subject to paragraph (2), the Secretary of Agriculture may make and insure loans in accordance with section 1929 of title 7 to eligible purchasers of highly fractionated land or to intermediaries in order to establish revolving loan funds for the purchase of highly fractionated land under that section.
Section 5140 of this title shall not apply to trust land, restricted tribal land, or tribal corporation land that is mortgaged in accordance with paragraph (1).
Notwithstanding any other law (including regulations), in making loans under section 5136 of this title, borrowers who are Indian tribes, members of Indian tribes, or tribal corporations shall only be required to obtain 1 appraisal under an appraisal standard recognized as of February 7, 2014, by the Secretary or the Secretary of the Interior.
Title to land acquired by a tribe or tribal corporation with a loan made or insured pursuant to sections 5136 to 5143 of this title may, with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior, be taken by the United States in trust for the tribe or tribal corporation.
A tribe or tribal corporation to which a loan is made or insured pursuant to sections 5136 to 5143 of this title (1) may waive in writing any immunity from suit or liability which it may possess, (2) may mortgage or otherwise hypothecate trust or restricted property if (a) authorized by its constitution or charter or by a tribal referendum, and (b) approved by the Secretary of the Interior, and (3) shall comply with rules and regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Agriculture in connection with such loans.
Trust or restricted tribal or tribal corporation property mortgaged pursuant to sections 5136 to 5143 of this title shall be subject to foreclosure and sale or conveyance in lieu of foreclosure, free of such trust or restrictions, in accordance with the laws of the State in which the property is located.
Loans made or insured pursuant to sections 5136 to 5143 of this title will be subject to the interest rate provisions of section 307(a)(3)(B) of the Consolidated Farmers Home Administration Act of 1961, as amended [7 U.S.C. 1927(a)(3)(B)], and to the provisions of subtitle D of that Act [7 U.S.C. 1981 et seq.] except sections 340 [7 U.S.C. 1990], 341, 342 [7 U.S.C. 1013a], and 343 [7 U.S.C. 1991] thereof: Provided, That section 334 [7 U.S.C. 1984] thereof shall not be construed to subject to taxation any lands or interests therein while they are held by an Indian tribe or tribal corporation or by the United States in trust for such tribe or tribal corporation pursuant to sections 5136 to 5143 of this title.
Current fair market value under subsection (a) of this section shall be determined through an appraisal by an independent qualified fee appraiser, selected by mutual agreement between the borrower and the Secretary of Agriculture.
The cost of appraisals undertaken under paragraph (1) shall be paid by the borrower.
Decisions of the Secretary of Agriculture under this section shall be appealable in accordance with the provisions of section 333B 1
A borrower that had a loan or loans reduced under this section shall not submit an application for another reduction on such loan or loans for a period of 5 years after the initial reduction.
There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out sections 5136 to 5143 of this title $8,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1991 through 1995.