- § 3851. Criminal enforcement
- § 3852. Civil enforcement
- § 3853. Liability in rem
- § 3854. Vessel clearance or permits; refusal or revocation; bond or other surety
- § 3855. Warnings, detentions, dismissals, exclusion
- § 3856. Referrals for appropriate action by foreign country
- § 3857. Remedies not affected
Any person who knowingly violates paragraph (2), (3), (4), or (5) of section 3841(a) of this title or section 3841(b) of this title shall be fined under title 18 or imprisoned not more than 6 years, or both.
This subsection shall not limit or affect the authority of the Government under section 1001 of title 18.
The amount of the civil penalty shall be assessed by the Secretary or Administrator, as appropriate, by written notice.
A civil penalty imposed under subsection (a) against the owner or operator of a recreational vessel, as that term is defined in section 2101 of title 46, for a violation of the Convention, this chapter, or any regulation prescribed under this chapter involving that recreational vessel, may not exceed $5,000 for each violation.
For purposes of penalties under this section, each day of a continuing violation constitutes a separate violation. In determining the amount of the penalty, the Secretary or Administrator shall take into account the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the prohibited acts committed and, with respect to the violator, the degree of culpability, any history of prior offenses, the economic impact of the penalty on the violator, the economic benefit to the violator and other matters as justice may require.
An amount equal to not more than one-half of any civil penalty assessed by the Secretary or Administrator under this section may, subject to the availability of appropriations, be paid by the Secretary or Administrator, respectively, to any person who provided information that led to the assessment or imposition of the penalty.
If any person fails to pay a civil penalty assessed under this section after it has become final, or comply with an order issued under this chapter, the Secretary or Administrator, as appropriate, may refer the matter to the Attorney General of the United States for collection in any appropriate district court of the United States.
Before referring any civil penalty that is subject to assessment or has been assessed under this section to the Attorney General, the Secretary, or Administrator, as appropriate, may compromise, modify, or remit, with or without conditions, the civil penalty.
Any person who fails to pay on a timely basis a civil penalty assessed under this section shall also be liable to the United States for interest on the penalty at an annual rate equal to 11 percent compounded quarterly, attorney fees and costs for collection proceedings, and a quarterly nonpayment penalty for each quarter during which such failure to pay persists. That nonpayment penalty shall be in an amount equal to 20 percent of the aggregate amount of that person’s penalties and nonpayment penalties that are unpaid as of the beginning of that quarter.
A vessel operated in violation of the Convention, this chapter, or any regulation prescribed under this chapter, is liable in rem for any fine imposed under title 18 or civil penalty assessed pursuant to section 3852 of this title, and may be proceeded against in the United States district court of any district in which the vessel may be found.
If any vessel that is subject to the Convention or this chapter, or its owner, operator, or person in charge, is liable for a fine or civil penalty under section 3852 or 3853 of this title, or if reasonable cause exists to believe that the vessel, its owner, operator, or person in charge may be subject to a fine or civil penalty under section 3852 or 3853 of this title, the Secretary may refuse or revoke the clearance required by section 60105 of title 46. Clearance may be granted upon the filing of a bond or other surety satisfaction to the Secretary.
If a vessel is detected to be in violation of the Convention, this chapter, or any regulation prescribed under this chapter, the Secretary may warn, detain, dismiss, or exclude the vessel from any port or offshore terminal under the jurisdiction of the United States.
If action is taken under subsection (a), the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of State, shall make the notifications required by the Convention.
Notwithstanding sections 3851, 3852, 3853, and 3855 of this title, if a violation of the Convention is committed by a vessel registered in or of the nationality of a country that is a party to the Convention, or by a vessel operated under the authority of a country that is a party to the Convention, the Secretary, acting in coordination with the Secretary of State, may refer the matter to the government of the country of the vessel’s registry or nationality, or under whose authority the vessel is operating, for appropriate action, rather than taking the actions otherwise required or authorized by this subchapter.
Nothing in this chapter limits, denies, amends, modifies, or repeals any other remedy available to the United States.
Nothing in this chapter limits, denies, amends, modifies, or repeals any rights under existing law, of any State, territory, or possession of the United States, or any political subdivision thereof, to regulate any antifouling system. Compliance with the requirements of a State, territory, or possession of the United States, or political subdivision thereof related to antifouling paint or any other antifouling system does not relieve any person of the obligation to comply with this chapter.