- § 400. Continuing authority programs
- § 401. Construction of bridges, causeways, dams or dikes generally; exemptions
- § 402. Construction of bridges, etc., over Illinois and Mississippi Canal
- § 403. Obstruction of navigable waters generally; wharves; piers, etc.; excavations and filling in
- § 403a. Creation or continuance of obstruction of navigable waters
- § 403b. Lighting at docks and boat launching facilities
- § 404. Establishment of harbor lines; conditions to grants for extension of piers, etc.
- § 405. Establishment and modification of harbor lines on Potomac and Anacostia Rivers
- § 406. Penalty for wrongful construction of bridges, piers, etc.; removal of structures
- § 407. Deposit of refuse in navigable waters generally
- § 407a. Deposit of debris of mines and stamp works
- § 408. Taking possession of, use of, or injury to harbor or river improvements
- § 408a. Expediting approval of modifications and alterations of projects by non-Federal interests
- § 409. Obstruction of navigable waters by vessels; floating timber; marking and removal of sunken vessels
- § 410. Exception as to floating loose timber, sack rafts, etc.; violation of regulations; penalty
- § 411. Penalty for wrongful deposit of refuse; use of or injury to harbor improvements, and obstruction of navigable waters generally
- § 412. Liability of masters, pilots, etc., and of vessels engaged in violations
- § 413. Duty of United States attorneys and other Federal officers in enforcement of provisions; arrest of offenders
- § 414. Removal by Secretary of the Army of sunken water craft generally; liability of owner, lessee, or operator
- § 415. Summary removal of water craft obstructing navigation; liability of owner, lessee, or operator
- § 416. Appropriations for removal of sunken water craft
- § 417. Expenses of investigations by Department of the Army
- § 418. Provisions for protection of New York Harbor unaffected
- § 419. Regulation by Secretary governing transportation and dumping of dredgings, refuse, etc., into navigable waters; oyster lands; appropriations
- § 419a. Management practices to extend capacity and useful life of dredged material disposal areas
- § 420. Piers and cribs on Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers
- § 421. Deposit of refuse, etc., in Lake Michigan near Chicago
- § 422. Modification and extension of harbor lines at Chicago
- § 423. Establishment of pierhead and bulkhead lines in Wilmington Harbor, California
- § 424. Establishment of pierhead or bulkhead lines in Newport Harbor, California
- § 424a. Modification of harbor lines in Newport Harbor, California
- § 425. Omitted
- § 426. Investigations concerning erosion of shores of coastal and lake waters
- § 426-1. Coastal Engineering Research Center; establishment; powers and functions
- § 426-2. Board on Coastal Engineering Research
- § 426-3. Transfer of functions of Beach Erosion Board
- § 426a. Additional investigations concerning erosion of shores of coastal and lake waters; payment of costs; “shores” defined
- § 426b. Applicability of existing laws; projects referred to Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors
- § 426c. Report by Coastal Engineering Research Center
- § 426d. Payment of expenses
- § 426e. Federal aid in protection of shores
- § 426e-1. Shore protection projects
- § 426e-2. Clarification of munition disposal authorities
- § 426e-3. Coastal storm damage reduction contracts
- § 426f. Reimbursements
- § 426g. Storm and hurricane restoration and impact minimization program
- § 426g-1. State and regional plans
- § 426h. Repealed.
- § 426h-1. Definitions
- § 426i. Shore damage prevention or mitigation
- § 426i-1. Repealed.
- § 426i-2. National coastal data bank
- § 426j. Repealed.
- § 426k. Five year demonstration program to temporarily increase diversion of water from Lake Michigan at Chicago, Illinois
- § 426l. Protection of Lake Ontario
- § 426m. Collection and removal of drift and debris from publicly maintained commercial boat harbors and adjacent land and water areas
- § 426n. Technical assistance to States and local governments; cost sharing
- § 426o. Great Lakes material disposal
- § 426o-1. Great Lakes dredging levels adjustment
- § 426o-2. Great Lakes navigation and protection
- § 426p. Corps of Engineers
- §§ 427 to 430. Repealed.
Not later than 1 year after June 10, 2014, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register and on a publicly available website, the criteria the Secretary uses for prioritizing annual funding for continuing authority program projects.
On publication in the Federal Register under paragraphs (2) and (3), the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a copy of all information published under those paragraphs.
It shall not be lawful to construct or commence the construction of any bridge, causeway, dam, or dike over or in any port, roadstead, haven, harbor, canal, navigable river, or other navigable water of the United States until the consent of Congress to the building of such structures shall have been obtained and until the plans for (1) the bridge or causeway shall have been submitted to and approved by the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, or (2) the dam or dike shall have been submitted to and approved by the Chief of Engineers and Secretary of the Army. However, such structures may be built under authority of the legislature of a State across rivers and other waterways the navigable portions of which lie wholly within the limits of a single State, provided the location and plans thereof are submitted to and approved by the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating or by the Chief of Engineers and Secretary of the Army before construction is commenced. When plans for any bridge or other structure have been approved by the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating or by the Chief of Engineers and Secretary of the Army, it shall not be lawful to deviate from such plans either before or after completion of the structure unless modification of said plans has previously been submitted to and received the approval of the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating or the Chief of Engineers and the Secretary of the Army. The approval required by this section of the location and plans or any modification of plans of any bridge or causeway does not apply to any bridge or causeway over waters that are not subject to the ebb and flow of the tide and that are not used and are not susceptible to use in their natural condition or by reasonable improvement as a means to transport interstate or foreign commerce.
The provisions of section 401 of this title are made applicable alike to the completed and uncompleted portions of the Illinois and Mississippi Canal. Whenever the Secretary of the Army shall approve plans for a bridge to be built across said canal he may, in his discretion, and subject to such terms and conditions as in his judgment are equitable, expedient, and just to the public, grant to the person or corporation building and owning such bridge a right of way across the lands of the United States on either side of and adjacent to the said canal; also the privilege of occupying so much of said lands as may be necessary for the piers, abutments, and other portions of the bridge structure and approaches.
The creation of any obstruction not affirmatively authorized by Congress, to the navigable capacity of any of the waters of the United States is prohibited; and it shall not be lawful to build or commence the building of any wharf, pier, dolphin, boom, weir, breakwater, bulkhead, jetty, or other structures in any port, roadstead, haven, harbor, canal, navigable river, or other water of the United States, outside established harbor lines, or where no harbor lines have been established, except on plans recommended by the Chief of Engineers and authorized by the Secretary of the Army; and it shall not be lawful to excavate or fill, or in any manner to alter or modify the course, location, condition, or capacity of, any port, roadstead, haven, harbor, canal, lake, harbor or refuge, or inclosure within the limits of any breakwater, or of the channel of any navigable water of the United States, unless the work has been recommended by the Chief of Engineers and authorized by the Secretary of the Army prior to beginning the same.
The creation of any obstruction, not affirmatively authorized by law, to the navigable capacity of any waters, in respect of which the United States has jurisdiction, is hereby prohibited. The continuance of any such obstruction, except bridges, piers, docks, and wharves, and similar structures erected for business purposes, whether heretofore or hereafter created, shall constitute an offense and each week’s continuance of any such obstruction shall be deemed a separate offense. Every person and every corporation which shall be guilty of creating or continuing any such unlawful obstruction in this act mentioned, or who shall violate the provisions of the last four preceding sections of this act, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars, or by imprisonment (in the case of a natural person) not exceeding one year, or by both such punishments, in the discretion of the court, the creating or continuing of any unlawful obstruction in this act mentioned may be prevented and such obstruction may be caused to be removed by the injunction of any district court exercising jurisdiction in any district in which such obstruction may be threatened or may exist; and proper proceedings in equity to this end may be instituted under the direction of the Attorney-General of the United States.
Whenever the Secretary considers a permit application for a dock or a boat launching facility under section 403 of this title, the Secretary shall consider the needs of such facility for lighting from sunset to sunrise to make such facility’s presence known within a reasonable distance.
Where it is made manifest to the Secretary of the Army that the establishment of harbor lines is essential to the preservation and protection of harbors he may, and is, authorized to cause such lines to be established, beyond which no piers, wharves, bulkheads, or other works shall be extended or deposits made, except under such regulations as may be prescribed from time to time by him: Provided, That, whenever the Secretary of the Army grants to any person or persons permission to extend piers, wharves, bulkheads, or other works, or to make deposits in any tidal harbor or river of the United States beyond any harbor lines established under authority of the United States, he shall cause to be ascertained the amount of tidewater displaced by any such structure or by any such deposits, and he shall, if he deem it necessary, require the parties to whom the permission is given to make compensation for such displacement either by excavating in some part of the harbor, including tidewater channels between high and low water mark, to such an extent as to create a basin for as much tidewater as may be displaced by such structure or by such deposits, or in any other mode that may be satisfactory to him.
The provisions of section 404 of this title are made applicable to the Potomac and Anacostia Rivers, and after July 25, 1912, harbor lines in the District of Columbia, or elsewhere on said rivers, shall be established or modified as therein provided.
Every person and every corporation that shall violate any of the provisions of sections 401, 403, and 404 of this title or any rule or regulation made by the Secretary of the Army in pursuance of the provisions of section 404 of this title shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine not exceeding $2,500 nor less than $500, or by imprisonment (in the case of a natural person) not exceeding one year, or by both such punishments, in the discretion of the court. And further, the removal of any structures or parts of structures erected in violation of the provisions of the said sections may be enforced by the injunction of any district court exercising jurisdiction in any district in which such structures may exist, and proper proceedings to this end may be instituted under the direction of the Attorney General of the United States.
It shall not be lawful to throw, discharge, or deposit, or cause, suffer, or procure to be thrown, discharged, or deposited either from or out of any ship, barge, or other floating craft of any kind, or from the shore, wharf, manufacturing establishment, or mill of any kind, any refuse matter of any kind or description whatever other than that flowing from streets and sewers and passing therefrom in a liquid state, into any navigable water of the United States, or into any tributary of any navigable water from which the same shall float or be washed into such navigable water; and it shall not be lawful to deposit, or cause, suffer, or procure to be deposited material of any kind in any place on the bank of any navigable water, or on the bank of any tributary of any navigable water, where the same shall be liable to be washed into such navigable water, either by ordinary or high tides, or by storms or floods, or otherwise, whereby navigation shall or may be impeded or obstructed: Provided, That nothing herein contained shall extend to, apply to, or prohibit the operations in connection with the improvement of navigable waters or construction of public works, considered necessary and proper by the United States officers supervising such improvement or public work: And provided further, That the Secretary of the Army, whenever in the judgment of the Chief of Engineers anchorage and navigation will not be injured thereby, may permit the deposit of any material above mentioned in navigable waters, within limits to be defined and under conditions to be prescribed by him, provided application is made to him prior to depositing such material; and whenever any permit is so granted the conditions thereof shall be strictly complied with, and any violation thereof shall be unlawful.
In places where harbor-lines have not been established, and where deposits of debris of mines or stamp works can be made without injury to navigation, within lines to be established by the Secretary of the Army, said officer may, and is authorized to, cause such lines to be established; and within such lines such deposits may be made, under regulations to be from time to time prescribed by him.
It shall not be lawful for any person or persons to take possession of or make use of for any purpose, or build upon, alter, deface, destroy, move, injure, obstruct by fastening vessels thereto or otherwise, or in any manner whatever impair the usefulness of any sea wall, bulkhead, jetty, dike, levee, wharf, pier, or other work built by the United States, or any piece of plant, floating or otherwise, used in the construction of such work under the control of the United States, in whole or in part, for the preservation and improvement of any of its navigable waters or to prevent floods, or as boundary marks, tide gauges, surveying stations, buoys, or other established marks, nor remove for ballast or other purposes any stone or other material composing such works: Provided, That the Secretary of the Army may, on the recommendation of the Chief of Engineers, grant permission for the temporary occupation or use of any of the aforementioned public works when in his judgment such occupation or use will not be injurious to the public interest: Provided further, That the Secretary may, on the recommendation of the Chief of Engineers, grant permission for the alteration or permanent occupation or use of any of the aforementioned public works when in the judgment of the Secretary such occupation or use will not be injurious to the public interest and will not impair the usefulness of such work.
In any case in which an activity subject to this section requires a review under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), review and approval of the activity under this section shall, to the maximum extent practicable, occur concurrently with any review and decisions made under that Act.
The Secretary may accept and expend funds received from non-Federal public or private entities to evaluate under this section an alteration or permanent occupation or use of a work built by the United States.
On or before the date that is 30 days after the date on which the Secretary receives an application for permission to take action affecting public projects pursuant to subsection (a), the Secretary shall inform the applicant whether the application is complete and, if it is not, what items are needed for the application to be complete.
In any case in which a schedule provided under paragraph (2)(B) extends beyond 120 days from the date of receipt of a complete application, the Secretary shall provide to the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives an explanation justifying the extended timeframe for review.
For the purposes of this section, the term “work” shall not include unimproved real estate owned or operated by the Secretary as part of a water resources development project if the Secretary determines that modification of such real estate would not affect the function and usefulness of the project.
In this section, the term “section 14 application” means an application submitted by an applicant to the Secretary requesting permission for the temporary occupation or use of a public work, or the alteration or permanent occupation or use of a public work, under section 14 of the Act of March 3, 1899 (commonly known as the “Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1899”) (33 U.S.C. 408).
Not later than 1 year after June 10, 2014, the Secretary, after providing notice and an opportunity for comment, shall establish a process for the review of section 14 applications in a timely and consistent manner.
The Secretary shall provide a copy of any written notice provided under subsection (d) to the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives.
Not later than 120 days after December 16, 2016, the Secretary shall issue guidance on the implementation of this section.
In issuing guidance under paragraph (1), or any other regulation, guidance, or engineering circular related to activities covered under section 408 of this title, the Secretary shall incorporate the requirements under this section.
The Secretary shall prioritize and complete the activities required of the Secretary under this section.
It shall not be lawful to tie up or anchor vessels or other craft in navigable channels in such a manner as to prevent or obstruct the passage of other vessels or craft; or to sink, or permit or cause to be sunk, vessels or other craft in navigable channels; or to float loose timber and logs, or to float what is known as “sack rafts of timber and logs” in
The prohibition contained in section 409 of this title against floating loose timber and logs, or sack rafts, so called, of timber and logs in streams or channels actually navigated by steamboats, shall not apply to any navigable river or waterway of the United States or any part thereof whereon the floating of loose timber and logs and sack rafts of timber and logs is the principal method of navigation. But such method of navigation on such river or waterway or part thereof shall be subject to the rules and regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army as provided in this section.
The Secretary of the Army shall have power, and he is authorized and directed to prescribe rules and regulations, which he may at any time modify, to govern and regulate the floating of loose timber and logs, and sack rafts, (so called) of timber and logs and other methods of navigation on the streams and waterways, or any thereof, of the character, as to navigation, heretofore in this section described. The said rules and regulations shall be so framed as to equitably adjust conflicting interests between the different methods or forms of navigation; and the said rules and regulations shall be published at least once in such newspaper or newspapers of general circulation as in the opinion of the Secretary of the Army shall be best adapted to give notice of said rules and regulations to persons affected thereby and locally interested therein. And all modifications of said rules and regulations shall be similarly published. And such rules and regulations when so prescribed and published as to any such stream or waterway shall have the force of law, and any violation thereof shall be a misdemeanor, and every person convicted of such violation shall be punished by a fine of not exceeding $2,500 nor less than $500, or by imprisonment (in case of a natural person) for not less than thirty days nor more than one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court: Provided, That the proper action to enforce the provisions of this section may be commenced before any magistrate judge, judge, or court of the United States, and such magistrate judge, judge, or court shall proceed in respect thereto as authorized by law in the case of crimes or misdemeanors committed against the United States.
The right to alter, amend, or repeal this section at any time is reserved.
Every person and every corporation that shall violate, or that shall knowingly aid, abet, authorize, or instigate a violation of the provisions of sections 407, 408, 409, 414, and 415 of this title shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of up to $25,000 per day, or by imprisonment (in the case of a natural person) for not less than thirty days nor more than one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court, one-half of said fine to be paid to the person or persons giving information which shall lead to conviction.
Any and every master, pilot, and engineer, or person or persons acting in such capacity, respectively, on board of any boat or vessel who shall knowingly engage in towing any scow, boat, or vessel loaded with any material specified in section 407 of this title to any point or place of deposit or discharge in any harbor or navigable water, elsewhere than within the limits defined and permitted by the Secretary of the Army, or who shall willfully injure or destroy any work of the United States contemplated in section 408 of this title, or who shall willfully obstruct the channel of any waterway in the manner contemplated in section 409 of this title, shall be deemed guilty of a violation of this Act, and shall upon conviction be punished as provided in section 411 of this title, and shall also have his license revoked or suspended for a term to be fixed by the judge before whom tried and convicted. And any boat, vessel, scow, raft, or other craft used or employed in violating any of the provisions of sections 407, 408, 409, 414, and 415 of this title shall be liable for the pecuniary penalties specified in section 411 of this title, and in addition thereto for the amount of the damages done by said boat, vessel, scow, raft, or other craft, which latter sum shall be placed to the credit of the appropriation for the improvement of the harbor or waterway in which the damage occurred, and said boat, vessel, scow, raft, or other craft may be proceeded against summarily by way of libel in any district court of the United States having jurisdiction thereof.
The Department of Justice shall conduct the legal proceedings necessary to enforce the provisions of sections 401, 403, 404, 406, 407, 408, 409, 411, and 412 of this title; and it shall be the duty of United States attorneys to vigorously prosecute all offenders against the same whenever requested to do so by the Secretary of the Army or by any of the officials hereinafter designated, and it shall furthermore be the duty of said United States attorneys to report to the Attorney General of the United States the action taken by him against offenders so reported, and a transcript of such reports shall be transmitted to the Secretary of the Army by the Attorney General; and for the better enforcement of the said provisions and to facilitate the detection and bringing to punishment of such offenders, the officers and agents of the United States in charge of river and harbor improvements, and the assistant engineers and inspectors employed under them by authority of the Secretary of the Army, and the United States collectors of customs and other revenue officers shall have power and authority to swear out process, and to arrest and take into custody, with or without process, any person or persons who may commit any of the acts or offenses prohibited by the said sections, or who may violate any of the provisions of the same: Provided, That no person shall be arrested without process for any offense not committed in the presence of some one of the aforesaid officials: And provided further, That whenever any arrest is made under such sections, the person so arrested shall be brought forthwith before a magistrate judge, judge, or court of the United States for examination of the offenses alleged against him; and such magistrate judge, judge, or court shall proceed in respect thereto as authorized by law in case of crimes against the United States.
Under emergency, in the case of any vessel, boat, water craft, or raft, or other similar obstruction, sinking of grounding, or being unnecessarily delayed in any Government canal or lock, or in any navigable waters mentioned in section 414 of this title, in such manner as to stop, seriously interfere with, or specially endanger navigation, in the opinion of the Secretary of the Army, or any agent of the United States to whom the Secretary may delegate proper authority, the Secretary of the Army or any such agent shall have the right to take immediate possession of such boat, vessel, or other water craft, or raft, so far as to remove or to destroy it and to clear immediately the canal, lock, or navigable waters aforesaid of the obstruction thereby caused, using his best judgment to prevent any unnecessary injury; and no one shall interfere with or prevent such removal or destruction: Provided, That the officer or agent charged with the removal or destruction of an obstruction under this section may in his discretion give notice in writing to the owners of any such obstruction requiring them to remove it: And provided further, That the actual expense, including administrative expenses, of removing any such obstruction as aforesaid shall be a charge against such craft and cargo; and if the owners thereof fail or refuse to reimburse the United States for such expense within thirty days after notification, then the officer or agent aforesaid may sell the craft or cargo, or any part thereof that may not have been destroyed in removal, and the proceeds of such sale shall be covered into the Treasury of the United States.
Not later than 24 hours after the Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating issues an order to stop or delay navigation in any navigable waters of the United States because of conditions related to the sinking or grounding of a vessel, the owner or operator of the vessel, with the approval of the Secretary of the Army, shall begin removal of the vessel using the most expeditious removal method available or, if appropriate, secure the vessel pending removal to allow navigation to resume. If the owner or operator fails to begin removal or to secure the vessel pending removal or fails to complete removal on an expedited basis, the Secretary of the Army shall remove or destroy the vessel using the summary removal procedures under subsection (a).
The owner, lessee, or operator of such vessel, boat, watercraft, raft, or other obstruction as described in this section shall be liable to the United States for the actual cost, including administrative costs, of removal or destruction and disposal as described which exceeds the costs recovered under subsection (a). Any amount recovered from the owner, lessee, or operator of such vessel pursuant to this subsection to recover costs in excess of the proceeds from the sale or disposition of such vessel shall be deposited in the general fund of the Treasury of the United States.
Such sum of money as may be necessary to execute sections 414 and 415 of this title is hereby appropriated out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, to be paid out on the requisition of the Secretary of the Army.
Expenses incurred by the Engineer Department of the Department of the Army in all investigations, inspections, hearings, reports, service of notice, or other action incidental to examination of plans or sites of bridges or other structures built or proposed to be built in or over navigable waters, or to examinations into alleged violations of laws for the protection and preservation of navigable waters, or to the establishment or marking of harbor lines, shall be payable from any funds which may be available for the improvement, maintenance, operation, or care of the waterways or harbors affected, or if such funds are not available in sums judged by the Chief of Engineers to be adequate, then from any funds available for examinations, surveys, and contingencies of rivers and harbors.
Nothing contained in sections 401, 403, 404, 406, 407, 408, 409, 411 to 416, and 502 of this title shall be construed as repealing, modifying, or in any manner affecting the provisions of subchapter III of this chapter.
The Secretary of the Army is authorized and empowered to prescribe regulations to govern the transportation and dumping into any navigable water, or waters adjacent thereto, of dredgings, earth, garbage, and other refuse materials of every kind or description, whenever in his judgment such regulations are required in the interest of navigation. Such regulations shall be posted in conspicuous and appropriate places for the information of the public; and every person or corporation which shall violate the said regulations, or any of them, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be subject to the penalties prescribed in sections 411 and 412 of this title, for violation of the provisions of section 407 of this title: Provided, That any regulations made in pursuance hereof may be enforced as provided in section 413 of this title, the provisions whereof are made applicable to the said regulations: Provided further, That this section shall not apply to any waters within the jurisdictional boundaries of any State which are now or may hereafter be used for the cultivation of oysters under the laws of such State, except navigable channels which have been or may hereafter be improved by the United States, or to be designated as navigable channels by competent authority, and in making such improvements of channels, the material dredged shall not be deposited upon any ground in use in accordance with the laws of such State for the cultivation of oysters, except in compliance with said laws: And provided further, That any expense necessary in executing this section may be paid from funds available for the improvement of the harbor or waterway, for which regulations may be prescribed, and in case no such funds are available the said expense may be paid from appropriations made by Congress for examinations, surveys, and contingencies of rivers and harbors.
The Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers, shall utilize and encourage the utilization of such management practices as he determines appropriate to extend the capacity and useful life of dredged material disposal areas such that the need for new dredged material disposal areas is kept to a minimum. Management practices authorized by this section shall include, but not be limited to, the construction of dikes, consolidation and dewatering of dredged material, and construction of drainage and outflow facilities.
The owners of sawmills on the Mississippi River and the Saint Croix River in the States of Wisconsin and Minnesota are authorized and empowered under the direction of the Secretary of the Army, to construct piers or cribs in front of their mill property on the banks of the river, for the protection of their mills and rafts against damage by floods and ice: Provided, however, That the piers or cribs so constructed shall not interfere with or obstruct the navigation of the river. And in case any pier or crib constructed under authority of this section shall at any time, and for any cause, be found to obstruct the navigation of the river, the Government expressly reserves the right to remove or direct the removal of it, at the cost and expense of the owners thereof.
It shall not be lawful to throw, discharge, dump, or deposit, or cause, suffer, or procure, to be thrown, discharged, dumped, or deposited, any refuse matter of any kind or description whatever other than that flowing from streets and sewers and passing therefrom in a liquid state into Lake Michigan, at any point opposite or in front of the county of Cook, in the State of Illinois, or the county of Lake in the State of Indiana, within eight miles from the shore of said lake, unless said material shall be placed inside of a breakwater so arranged as not to permit the escape of such refuse material into the body of the lake and cause contamination thereof; and no officer of the Government shall dump or cause or authorize to be dumped any material contrary to the provisions of this section: Provided, however, That the provisions of this section shall not apply to work in connection with the construction, repair, and protection of breakwaters and other structures built in aid of navigation, or for the purpose of obtaining water supply. Any person violating any provision of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction thereof shall be fined for each offense not exceeding $1,000.
The Secretary of the Army is authorized, in his discretion, to modify and extend harbor lines in front of the city of Chicago in such manner as to permit park extension work which may be desired by the municipal authorities, including the changing and widening of the southern entrance to the Chicago Harbor.
The Secretary of the Army is authorized to fix and establish pierhead and bulkhead lines, either or both, in the inner harbor of San Pedro, otherwise known as Wilmington Harbor, California, beyond which no piers, wharves, bulkheads, or other works shall be extended or deposits made except under such regulations as shall be prescribed from time to time by the Secretary of the Army.
The Secretary of the Army is authorized and directed to fix and establish pierhead and bulkhead lines, either or both, at Newport Harbor, California, in accordance with plan dated United States Engineer Office, Los Angeles, California, March 25, 1913, and entitled “Newport Bay, California”, showing harbor lines, beyond which no piers, wharfs, bulkheads, or other works shall be extended or deposit made, except under such regulations as shall be prescribed from time to time by the Secretary of the Army.
The Secretary of the Army is authorized to modify from time to time, the harbor lines at Newport Harbor, California, established in pursuance of section 424 of this title: Provided, That in his opinion such modification will not injuriously affect the interests of navigation.
The Chief of Engineers of the United States Army, under the direction of the Secretary of the Army, is authorized and directed to cause investigations and studies to be made in cooperation with the appropriate agencies of the various States on the Atlantic, Pacific, and gulf coasts and on the Great Lakes, and of the States of Alaska and Hawaii, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the possessions of the United States, with a view to devising effective means of preventing erosion of the shores of coastal and lake waters by waves and currents; and any expenses incident and necessary thereto may be paid from funds appropriated for General Investigations, Civil Functions, Department of the Army: Provided, That the Department of the Army may release to the appropriate cooperating agencies information obtained by these investigations and studies prior to the formal transmission of reports to Congress: Provided further, That no money shall be expended under authority of this section in any State which does not provide for cooperation with the agents of the United States and contribute to the project such funds or services as the Secretary of the Army may deem appropriate and require; that there shall be organized under the Chief of Engineers, United States Army, a Board of seven members, of whom four shall be officers of the Corps of Engineers and three shall be civilian engineers selected by the Chief of Engineers with regard to their special fitness in the field of beach erosion and shore protection. The Board will furnish such technical assistance as may be directed by the Chief of Engineers in the conduct of such studies as may be undertaken and will review the reports of the investigations made. In the consideration of such studies as may be referred to the Board by the Chief of Engineers, the Board shall, when it considers it necessary and with the sanction of the Chief of Engineers, make, as a board or through its members, personal examination of localities under investigation: Provided further, That the civilian members of the Board may be paid at rates not to exceed $100 a day for each day of attendance at Board meetings, not to exceed thirty days per annum, in addition to the traveling and other necessary expenses connected with their duties on the Board in accordance with the provisions of section 5703 of title 5.
There shall be established under the Chief of Engineers, United States Army, a Coastal Engineering Research Center which, except as hereinafter provided in section 426–3 of this title, shall be vested with all the functions of the Beach Erosion Board, including the authority to make general investigations as provided in section 426a of this title, and such additional functions as the Chief of Engineers may assign.
The functions of the Coastal Engineering Research Center established by section 426–1 of this title
All functions of the Beach Erosion Board pertaining to review of reports of investigations made concerning erosion of the shores of coastal and lake waters, and the protection of such shores, are hereby transferred to the Board established by section 541 of this title, referred to as the Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors.
In addition to participating in cooperative investigations and studies with agencies of the various States as authorized in section 426 of this title, it shall be the duty of the Chief of Engineers, through the Coastal Engineering Research Center, to make general investigations with a view to preventing erosion of the shores of the United States by waves and currents and determining the most suitable methods for the protection, restoration, and development of beaches; and to publish from time to time such useful data and information concerning the erosion and protection of beaches and shore lines as the Center may deem to be of value to the people of the United States. The cost of the general investigations authorized by sections 426a to 426d of this title shall be borne wholly by the United States. As used in said sections, the word “shores” includes the shore lines of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, the Gulf of Mexico, the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and estuaries and bays directly connected therewith.
All provisions of existing law relating to examinations and surveys and to works of improvement of rivers and harbors shall apply, insofar as practicable, to examinations and surveys and to works of improvement relating to shore protection; except that all projects having to do with shore protection shall be referred for consideration and recommendation to the Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors.
The Coastal Engineering Research Center, in making its report on any cooperative investigation and studies under the provisions of section 426 of this title, relating to shore protection work shall, in addition to any other matters upon which it may be required to report, state its opinion as to (a) the advisability of adopting the project; (b) what public interest, if any, is involved in the proposed improvement; and (c) what share of the expense, if any, should be borne by the United States.
Any expenses incident and necessary in the undertaking of the general investigations authorized by sections 426a to 426d of this title may be paid from funds appropriated prior to or after July 31, 1945, for examinations, surveys, and contingencies for rivers and harbors.
With the purpose of preventing damage to the shores and beaches of the United States, its Territories and possessions and promoting and encouraging the healthful recreation of the people, it is declared to be the policy of the United States, subject to sections 426e to 426h–1 of this title, to promote shore protection projects and related research that encourage the protection, restoration, and enhancement of sandy beaches, including beach restoration and periodic beach nourishment, on a comprehensive and coordinated basis by the Federal Government, States, localities, and private enterprises. In carrying out this policy, preference shall be given to areas in which there has been a Federal investment of funds and areas with respect to which the need for prevention or mitigation of damage to shores and beaches is attributable to Federal navigation projects or other Federal activities.
The Federal contribution in the case of any project referred to in subsection (a) shall not exceed one-half of the cost of the project, and the remainder shall be paid by the State, municipality, or other political subdivision in which the project is located, except that (1) the costs allocated to the restoration and protection of Federal property shall be borne fully by the Federal Government, (2) Federal participation in the cost of a project for restoration and protection of State, county, and other publicly owned shore parks and conservation areas may be, in the discretion of the Chief of Engineers, not more than 70 per centum of the total cost exclusive of land costs, when such areas: Include a zone which excludes permanent human habitation; include but are not limited to recreational beaches; satisfy adequate criteria for conservation and development of the natural resources of the environment; extend landward a sufficient distance to include, where appropriate, protective dunes, bluffs, or other natural features which serve to protect the uplands from damage; and provide essentially full park facilities for appropriate public use, all of which shall meet with the approval of the Chief of Engineers, and (3) Federal participation in the cost of a project providing hurricane protection may be, in the discretion of the Secretary 1
When in the opinion of the Chief of Engineers the most suitable and economical remedial measures would be provided by periodic beach nourishment, the term “construction” may be construed for the purposes of sections 426e to 426h–1 of this title to include the deposit of sand fill at suitable intervals of time to furnish sand supply to project shores for a length of time specified by the Chief of Engineers.
Shores other than public will be eligible for Federal assistance if there is benefit such as that arising from public use or from the protection of nearby public property or if the benefits to those shores are incidental to the project, and the Federal contribution to the project shall be adjusted in accordance with the degree of such benefits.
No Federal contributions shall be made with respect to a project under sections 426e to 426h–1 of this title unless the plan therefor shall have been specifically adopted and authorized by Congress after investigation and study by the Coastal Engineering Research Center under the provisions of section 426 of this title as amended and supplemented, or, in the case of a small project under section 426g or 426h 2
The Secretary shall recommend to Congress the authorization or reauthorization of shore protection projects based on the studies conducted under subparagraph (A).
In making recommendations, the Secretary shall consider the economic and ecological benefits of the shore protection project.
The Secretary shall construct, or cause to be constructed, any shore protection project authorized by Congress, or separable element of such a project, for which funds have been appropriated by Congress.
After authorization by Congress, and before commencement of construction, of a shore protection project or separable element, the Secretary shall enter into a written agreement with a non-Federal interest with respect to the project or separable element.
In constructing a shore protection project or separable element under this paragraph, the Secretary shall, to the extent practicable, coordinate the project or element with any complementary project identified under paragraph (2)(C).
In accordance with the Act of July 3, 1930 (33 U.S.C. 426) of this title, and notwithstanding administrative actions, it is the policy of the United States to promote beach nourishment for the purposes of flood damage reduction and hurricane and storm damage reduction and related research that encourage the protection, restoration, and enhancement of sandy beaches, including beach restoration and periodic beach renourishment for a period of 50 years, on a comprehensive and coordinated basis by the Federal Government, States, localities, and private enterprises.
The Secretary shall apply the policy under subsection (a) to each shore protection and beach renourishment project (including shore protection and beach renourishment projects constructed before November 8, 2007).
A response action described in subsection (a) shall be reimbursed from amounts made available to the agency within the Department of Defense responsible for the original release of the munitions.
For any project for coastal storm damage reduction, the Secretary may seek input from a non-Federal interest for a project that may be affected by the timing of the coastal storm damage reduction activities under the project, in order to minimize, to the maximum extent practicable, any negative effects resulting from the timing of those activities.
The Secretary is authorized to reimburse non-Federal interests for work done by them, after initiation of the survey studies which form the basis for the project or separable element of the project, on authorized projects or separable elements which individually do not exceed $1,000,000 in total cost: Provided, That the work which may have been done on the projects or separable elements is approved by the Chief of Engineers as being in accordance with the authorized projects or separable elements: Provided further, That such reimbursement shall be subject to appropriations applicable thereto or funds available therefor and shall not take precedence over other pending projects or separable elements of higher priority for improvements.
After authorization of reimbursement by the Secretary under this section, and before commencement of construction, of a shore protection project, the Secretary shall enter into a written agreement with the non-Federal interest with respect to the project or separable element.
The Secretary may carry out a program for the construction of small shore and beach restoration and protection projects not specifically authorized by Congress that otherwise comply with section 426e of this title if the Secretary determines that such construction is advisable.
The local cooperation requirement of section 426e of this title shall apply to a project under this section.
The Secretary shall conduct under the program authorized by subsection (a) a national shoreline erosion control development and demonstration program (referred to in this section as the “demonstration program”).
A project under the demonstration program shall not be carried out until the Secretary determines that the project is feasible.
Subject to paragraph (2), the Secretary may expend, from any appropriations made available to the Secretary for the purpose of carrying out civil works, not more than $37,500,000 during any fiscal year to pay the Federal share of the costs of construction of small shore and beach restoration and protection projects or small projects under this section.
The term “erosion control program” means the national shoreline erosion control development and demonstration program established under this section.
The term “Secretary” means the Secretary of the Army.
The term “separable element” has the meaning provided by section 2213(f) of this title.
The term “shore” includes each shoreline of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, the Gulf of Mexico, the Great Lakes, and lakes, estuaries, and bays directly connected therewith.
The term “shore protection project” includes a project for beach nourishment, including the replacement of sand.
The Secretary of the Army is authorized to investigate, study, plan, and implement structural and nonstructural measures for the prevention or mitigation of shore damages attributable to Federal navigation works and shore damage attributable to the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, if a non-Federal public body agrees to operate and maintain such measures, and, in the case of interests in real property acquired in conjunction with nonstructural measures, to operate and maintain the property for public purposes in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary.
The costs of implementing measures, including a study, shall be cost-shared in the same proportion as the cost-sharing provisions applicable to construction of the project causing the shore damage.
No such project shall be initiated without specific authorization by Congress if the Federal first cost exceeds $12,500,000.
Beginning on December 16, 2016, in any case in which the Secretary implements a project under this section, the Secretary shall reimburse or credit the non-Federal interest for any amounts contributed for the study evaluating the damage in excess of the non-Federal share of the costs, as determined under subsection (b).
Not later than 2 years after August 17, 1999, the Secretary shall establish a national coastal data bank containing data on the geophysical and climatological characteristics of the shores of the United States.
To the extent practicable, the national coastal data bank shall include data regarding current and predicted shore positions, information on federally authorized shore protection projects, and data on the movement of sand along the shores of the United States, including impediments to such movement caused by natural and manmade features.
The national coastal data bank shall be made readily accessible to the public.
In order to alleviate water damage on the shoreline of Lake Michigan and others of the Great Lakes during periods of abnormally high water levels in the Great Lakes, and to improve the water quality of the Illinois Waterway, the Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers, is authorized to carry out a five-year demonstration program to temporarily increase the diversion of water from Lake Michigan at Chicago, Illinois, for the purpose of testing the practicability of increasing the average annual diversion from the present limit of three thousand two hundred cubic feet per second to ten thousand cubic feet per second. The demonstration program will increase the controllable diversion by various amounts calculated to raise the average annual diversion above three thousand two hundred cubic feet per second up to ten thousand cubic feet per second. The increase in diversion rate will be accomplished incrementally and will take into consideration the effects of such increase on the Illinois Waterway. The program will be developed by the Chief of Engineers in cooperation with the State of Illinois and the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago. The program will be implemented by the State of Illinois and the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago under the supervision of the Chief of Engineers.
During the demonstration program a controllable diversion rate will be established for each month calculated to establish an annual average diversion from three thousand two hundred cubic feet per second to not more than ten thousand cubic feet per second. When the level of Lake Michigan is below its average level, the total diversion for the succeeding accounting year shall not exceed three thousand two hundred cubic feet per second on an annual basis. The average level of Lake Michigan will be based upon the average monthly level for the period from 1900 to 1975.
When river stages approach or are predicted to approach bankfull conditions at the established flood warning stations on the Illinois Waterway or the Mississippi River, or when further increased diversion of water from Lake Michigan would adversely affect water levels necessary for navigational requirements of the Saint Lawrence Seaway in its entirety throughout the Saint Lawrence River and Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Seaway, water shall not be diverted directly from Lake Michigan at the Wilmette, O’Brien, or Chicago River control structures other than as necessary for navigational requirements.
The Chief of Engineers shall conduct a study and a demonstration program to determine the effects of the increased diversion on the levels of the Great Lakes, on the water quality of the Illinois Waterway, and on the susceptibility of the Illinois Waterway to additional flooding. The study and demonstration program will also investigate any adverse or beneficial impacts which result from this section. The Chief of Engineers, at the end of five years after October 22, 1976, will submit to the Congress the results of this study and demonstration program including recommendations whether to continue this authority or to change the criteria stated in subsection (b) of this section.
For purposes of this section, controllable diversion is defined as that diversion at Wilmette, O’Brien, and Chicago River control structures which is not attributable to leakage or which is not necessary for navigational requirements.
The Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers, is directed to develop a plan for shoreline protection and beach erosion control along Lake Ontario, and report on such plan to the Congress as soon as practicable. Such report shall include recommendations on measures of protection and proposals for equitable cost sharing, together with recommendations for regulating the level of Lake Ontario to assure maximum protection of the natural environment and to hold shoreline damage to a minimum.
Until the Congress receives and acts upon the report required under subsection (a) of this section, all Federal agencies having responsibilities affecting the level of Lake Ontario shall, consistent with existing authority, make every effort to discharge such responsibilities in a manner so as to minimize damage and erosion to the shoreline of Lake Ontario.
There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $2,000,000.
This section may be cited as the “Lake Ontario Protection Act of 1976.”
The Congress finds that drift and debris on or in publicly maintained commercial boat harbors and the land and water areas immediately adjacent thereto threaten navigational safety, public health, recreation, and the harborfront environment.
The Federal share of the cost of any project developed pursuant to subsection (b) of this section shall be two-thirds of the cost of the project. The remainder of such costs shall be paid by the State, municipality, or other political subdivision in which the project is to be located, except that any costs associated with the collections and removal of drift and debris from federally owned lands shall be borne by the Federal Government. Non-Federal interests in future project development under subsection (b) of this section shall be required to recover the full cost of drift or debris removal from any identified owner of piers or other potential sources of drift or debris, or to repair such sources so that they no longer create a potential source of drift or debris.
Any State, municipality, or other political subdivision where any project developed pursuant to subsection (b) of this section is located shall provide all lands, easements, and right-of-way necessary for the project, including suitable access and disposal areas, and shall agree to maintain such projects and hold and save the United States free from any damages which may result from the non-Federal sponsor’s performance of, or failure to perform, any of its required responsibilities of cooperation for the project. Non-Fededal 1
There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years beginning after September 30, 1986.
In planning and implementing any navigation project (including maintenance thereof) on the Great Lakes and adjacent waters, the Secretary shall consult and cooperate with concerned States in selecting disposal areas for dredged material which is suitable for beach nourishment.
In this section, the term “Great Lake” means Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron (including Lake St. Clair), Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario (including the St. Lawrence River to the 45th parallel of latitude).
In operating and maintaining Federal channels and harbors of, and the connecting channels between, the Great Lakes, the Secretary shall conduct such dredging as is necessary to ensure minimal operation depths consistent with the original authorized depths of the channels and harbors when water levels in the Great Lakes are, or are forecast to be, below the International Great Lakes Datum of 1985.
Using available funds, the Secretary shall expedite the operation and maintenance, including dredging, of the navigation features of the Great Lakes and Connecting Channels for the purpose of supporting commercial navigation to authorized project depths.
Using available funds, the Director of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, in coordination with the Secretary, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Commandant of the Coast Guard, and the Director of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, shall carry out a pilot project, on an emergency basis, to control and prevent further spreading of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in the Great Lakes and Connecting Channels.
In this section, the term “Great Lakes and Connecting Channels” includes Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie, and Ontario, all connecting waters between and among such lakes used for commercial navigation, any navigation features in such lakes or waters that are a Federal operation or maintenance responsibility, and areas of the Saint Lawrence River that are operated or maintained by the Federal Government for commercial navigation.
In issuing permits under sections 403 and 1344 of this title for a project involving dredging of any portion of the Great Lakes, the Secretary of the Army shall, if feasible, encourage for bank stabilization purposes the disposal of nonhazardous compatible sand from such project on shorelines affected by erosion.
In carrying out subparagraph (A), the Secretary of the Army shall consult affected State and local governments.