Collapse to view only § 11001. Establishment of State commissions, planning districts, and local committees

§ 11001. Establishment of State commissions, planning districts, and local committees
(a) Establishment of State emergency response commissions

Not later than six months after October 17, 1986, the Governor of each State shall appoint a State emergency response commission. The Governor may designate as the State emergency response commission one or more existing emergency response organizations that are State-sponsored or appointed. The Governor shall, to the extent practicable, appoint persons to the State emergency response commission who have technical expertise in the emergency response field. The State emergency response commission shall appoint local emergency planning committees under subsection (c) and shall supervise and coordinate the activities of such committees. The State emergency response commission shall establish procedures for receiving and processing requests from the public for information under section 11044 of this title, including tier II information under section 11022 of this title. Such procedures shall include the designation of an official to serve as coordinator for information. If the Governor of any State does not designate a State emergency response commission within such period, the Governor shall operate as the State emergency response commission until the Governor makes such designation.

(b) Establishment of emergency planning districts

Not later than nine months after October 17, 1986, the State emergency response commission shall designate emergency planning districts in order to facilitate preparation and implementation of emergency plans. Where appropriate, the State emergency response commission may designate existing political subdivisions or multijurisdictional planning organizations as such districts. In emergency planning areas that involve more than one State, the State emergency response commissions of all potentially affected States may designate emergency planning districts and local emergency planning committees by agreement. In making such designation, the State emergency response commission shall indicate which facilities subject to the requirements of this subchapter are within such emergency planning district.

(c) Establishment of local emergency planning committees

Not later than 30 days after designation of emergency planning districts or 10 months after October 17, 1986, whichever is earlier, the State emergency response commission shall appoint members of a local emergency planning committee for each emergency planning district. Each committee shall include, at a minimum, representatives from each of the following groups or organizations: elected State and local officials; law enforcement, civil defense, firefighting, first aid, health, local environmental, hospital, and transportation personnel; broadcast and print media; community groups; and owners and operators of facilities subject to the requirements of this subchapter. Such committee shall appoint a chairperson and shall establish rules by which the committee shall function. Such rules shall include provisions for public notification of committee activities, public meetings to discuss the emergency plan, public comments, response to such comments by the committee, and distribution of the emergency plan. The local emergency planning committee shall establish procedures for receiving and processing requests from the public for information under section 11044 of this title, including tier II information under section 11022 of this title. Such procedures shall include the designation of an official to serve as coordinator for information.

(d) Revisions

A State emergency response commission may revise its designations and appointments under subsections (b) and (c) as it deems appropriate. Interested persons may petition the State emergency response commission to modify the membership of a local emergency planning committee.

(Pub. L. 99–499, title III, § 301, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1729.)
§ 11002. Substances and facilities covered and notification
(a) Substances covered
(1) In general

A substance is subject to the requirements of this subchapter if the substance is on the list published under paragraph (2).

(2) List of extremely hazardous substances

Within 30 days after October 17, 1986, the Administrator shall publish a list of extremely hazardous substances. The list shall be the same as the list of substances published in November 1985 by the Administrator in Appendix A of the “Chemical Emergency Preparedness Program Interim Guidance”.

(3) Thresholds
(A) At the time the list referred to in paragraph (2) is published the Administrator shall—
(i) publish an interim final regulation establishing a threshold planning quantity for each substance on the list, taking into account the criteria described in paragraph (4), and
(ii) initiate a rulemaking in order to publish final regulations establishing a threshold planning quantity for each substance on the list.
(B) The threshold planning quantities may, at the Administrator’s discretion, be based on classes of chemicals or categories of facilities.
(C) If the Administrator fails to publish an interim final regulation establishing a threshold planning quantity for a substance within 30 days after October 17, 1986, the threshold planning quantity for the substance shall be 2 pounds until such time as the Administrator publishes regulations establishing a threshold for the substance.
(4) Revisions

The Administrator may revise the list and thresholds under paragraphs (2) and (3) from time to time. Any revisions to the list shall take into account the toxicity, reactivity, volatility, dispersability, combustability, or flammability of a substance. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term “toxicity” shall include any short- or long-term health effect which may result from a short-term exposure to the substance.

(b) Facilities covered
(1) Except as provided in section 11004 of this title, a facility is subject to the requirements of this subchapter if a substance on the list referred to in subsection (a) is present at the facility in an amount in excess of the threshold planning quantity established for such substance.
(2) For purposes of emergency planning, a Governor or a State emergency response commission may designate additional facilities which shall be subject to the requirements of this subchapter, if such designation is made after public notice and opportunity for comment. The Governor or State emergency response commission shall notify the facility concerned of any facility designation under this paragraph.
(c) Emergency planning notification

Not later than seven months after October 17, 1986, the owner or operator of each facility subject to the requirements of this subchapter by reason of subsection (b)(1) shall notify the State emergency response commission for the State in which such facility is located that such facility is subject to the requirements of this subchapter. Thereafter, if a substance on the list of extremely hazardous substances referred to in subsection (a) first becomes present at such facility in excess of the threshold planning quantity established for such substance, or if there is a revision of such list and the facility has present a substance on the revised list in excess of the threshold planning quantity established for such substance, the owner or operator of the facility shall notify the State emergency response commission and the local emergency planning committee within 60 days after such acquisition or revision that such facility is subject to the requirements of this subchapter.

(d) Notification of AdministratorThe State emergency response commission shall notify the Administrator of facilities subject to the requirements of this subchapter by notifying the Administrator of—
(1) each notification received from a facility under subsection (c), and
(2) each facility designated by the Governor or State emergency response commission under subsection (b)(2).
(Pub. L. 99–499, title III, § 302, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1730.)
§ 11003. Comprehensive emergency response plans
(a) Plan required

Each local emergency planning committee shall complete preparation of an emergency plan in accordance with this section not later than two years after October 17, 1986. The committee shall review such plan once a year, or more frequently as changed circumstances in the community or at any facility may require.

(b) Resources

Each local emergency planning committee shall evaluate the need for resources necessary to develop, implement, and exercise the emergency plan, and shall make recommendations with respect to additional resources that may be required and the means for providing such additional resources.

(c) Plan provisions
Each emergency plan shall include (but is not limited to) each of the following:
(1) Identification of facilities subject to the requirements of this subchapter that are within the emergency planning district, identification of routes likely to be used for the transportation of substances on the list of extremely hazardous substances referred to in section 11002(a) of this title, and identification of additional facilities contributing or subjected to additional risk due to their proximity to facilities subject to the requirements of this subchapter, such as hospitals or natural gas facilities.
(2) Methods and procedures to be followed by facility owners and operators and local emergency and medical personnel to respond to any release of such substances.
(3) Designation of a community emergency coordinator and facility emergency coordinators, who shall make determinations necessary to implement the plan.
(4) Procedures providing reliable, effective, and timely notification by the facility emergency coordinators and the community emergency coordinator to persons designated in the emergency plan, and to the public, that a release has occurred (consistent with the emergency notification requirements of section 11004 of this title).
(5) Methods for determining the occurrence of a release, and the area or population likely to be affected by such release.
(6) A description of emergency equipment and facilities in the community and at each facility in the community subject to the requirements of this subchapter, and an identification of the persons responsible for such equipment and facilities.
(7) Evacuation plans, including provisions for a precautionary evacuation and alternative traffic routes.
(8) Training programs, including schedules for training of local emergency response and medical personnel.
(9) Methods and schedules for exercising the emergency plan.
(d) Providing of information
For each facility subject to the requirements of this subchapter:
(1) Within 30 days after establishment of a local emergency planning committee for the emergency planning district in which such facility is located, or within 11 months after October 17, 1986, whichever is earlier, the owner or operator of the facility shall notify the emergency planning committee (or the Governor if there is no committee) of a facility representative who will participate in the emergency planning process as a facility emergency coordinator.
(2) The owner or operator of the facility shall promptly inform the emergency planning committee of any relevant changes occurring at such facility as such changes occur or are expected to occur.
(3) Upon request from the emergency planning committee, the owner or operator of the facility shall promptly provide information to such committee necessary for developing and implementing the emergency plan.
(e) Review by State emergency response commission

After completion of an emergency plan under subsection (a) for an emergency planning district, the local emergency planning committee shall submit a copy of the plan to the State emergency response commission of each State in which such district is located. The commission shall review the plan and make recommendations to the committee on revisions of the plan that may be necessary to ensure coordination of such plan with emergency response plans of other emergency planning districts. To the maximum extent practicable, such review shall not delay implementation of such plan.

(f) Guidance documents

The national response team, as established pursuant to the National Contingency Plan as established under section 9605 of this title, shall publish guidance documents for preparation and implementation of emergency plans. Such documents shall be published not later than five months after October 17, 1986.

(g) Review of plans by regional response teams

The regional response teams, as established pursuant to the National Contingency Plan as established under section 9605 of this title, may review and comment upon an emergency plan or other issues related to preparation, implementation, or exercise of such a plan upon request of a local emergency planning committee. Such review shall not delay implementation of the plan.

(Pub. L. 99–499, title III, § 303, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1731.)
§ 11004. Emergency notification
(a) Types of releases
(1) 11002(a) substance which requires CERCLA notice

If a release of an extremely hazardous substance referred to in section 11002(a) of this title occurs from a facility at which a hazardous chemical is produced, used, or stored, and such release requires a notification under section 103(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 [42 U.S.C. 9603(a)] (hereafter in this section referred to as “CERCLA”) (42 U.S.C. 9601 et seq.), the owner or operator of the facility shall immediately provide notice as described in subsection (b).

(2) Other 11002(a) substanceIf a release of an extremely hazardous substance referred to in section 11002(a) of this title occurs from a facility at which a hazardous chemical is produced, used, or stored, and such release is not subject to the notification requirements under section 103(a) of CERCLA [42 U.S.C. 9603(a)], the owner or operator of the facility shall immediately provide notice as described in subsection (b), but only if the release—
(A) is not a federally permitted release as defined in section 101(10) of CERCLA [42 U.S.C. 9601(10)],
(B) is in an amount in excess of a quantity which the Administrator has determined (by regulation) requires notice, and
(C) occurs in a manner which would require notification under section 103(a) of CERCLA [42 U.S.C. 9603(a)].
Unless and until superseded by regulations establishing a quantity for an extremely hazardous substance described in this paragraph, a quantity of 1 pound shall be deemed that quantity the release of which requires notice as described in subsection (b).
(3) Non-11002(a) substance which requires CERCLA noticeIf a release of a substance which is not on the list referred to in section 11002(a) of this title occurs at a facility at which a hazardous chemical is produced, used, or stored, and such release requires notification under section 103(a) of CERCLA [42 U.S.C. 9603(a)], the owner or operator shall provide notice as follows:
(A) If the substance is one for which a reportable quantity has been established under section 102(a) of CERCLA [42 U.S.C. 9602(a)], the owner or operator shall provide notice as described in subsection (b).
(B) If the substance is one for which a reportable quantity has not been established under section 102(a) of CERCLA [42 U.S.C. 9602(a)]—
(i) Until April 30, 1988, the owner or operator shall provide, for releases of one pound or more of the substance, the same notice to the community emergency coordinator for the local emergency planning committee, at the same time and in the same form, as notice is provided to the National Response Center under section 103(a) of CERCLA [42 U.S.C. 9603(a)].
(ii) On and after April 30, 1988, the owner or operator shall provide, for releases of one pound or more of the substance, the notice as described in subsection (b).
(4) Exempted releases

This section does not apply to any release which results in exposure to persons solely within the site or sites on which a facility is located.

(b) Notification
(1) Recipients of notice

Notice required under subsection (a) shall be given immediately after the release by the owner or operator of a facility (by such means as telephone, radio, or in person) to the community emergency coordinator for the local emergency planning committees, if established pursuant to section 11001(c) of this title, for any area likely to be affected by the release and to the State emergency response commission of any State likely to be affected by the release. With respect to transportation of a substance subject to the requirements of this section, or storage incident to such transportation, the notice requirements of this section with respect to a release shall be satisfied by dialing 911 or, in the absence of a 911 emergency telephone number, calling the operator.

(2) ContentsNotice required under subsection (a) shall include each of the following (to the extent known at the time of the notice and so long as no delay in responding to the emergency results):
(A) The chemical name or identity of any substance involved in the release.
(B) An indication of whether the substance is on the list referred to in section 11002(a) of this title.
(C) An estimate of the quantity of any such substance that was released into the environment.
(D) The time and duration of the release.
(E) The medium or media into which the release occurred.
(F) Any known or anticipated acute or chronic health risks associated with the emergency and, where appropriate, advice regarding medical attention necessary for exposed individuals.
(G) Proper precautions to take as a result of the release, including evacuation (unless such information is readily available to the community emergency coordinator pursuant to the emergency plan).
(H) The name and telephone number of the person or persons to be contacted for further information.
(c) Followup emergency noticeAs soon as practicable after a release which requires notice under subsection (a), such owner or operator shall provide a written followup emergency notice (or notices, as more information becomes available) setting forth and updating the information required under subsection (b), and including additional information with respect to—
(1) actions taken to respond to and contain the release,
(2) any known or anticipated acute or chronic health risks associated with the release, and
(3) where appropriate, advice regarding medical attention necessary for exposed individuals.
(d) Transportation exemption not applicable

The exemption provided in section 11047 of this title (relating to transportation) does not apply to this section.

(e)
(1) Applicable State agency notificationA State emergency response commission shall—
(A) promptly notify the applicable State agency of any release that requires notice under subsection (a);
(B) provide to the applicable State agency the information identified in subsection (b)(2); and
(C) provide to the applicable State agency a written followup emergency notice in accordance with subsection (c).
(2) Community water system notification
(A) In generalAn applicable State agency receiving notice of a release under paragraph (1) shall—
(i) promptly forward such notice to any community water system the source waters of which are affected by the release;
(ii) forward to the community water system the information provided under paragraph (1)(B); and
(iii) forward to the community water system the written followup emergency notice provided under paragraph (1)(C).
(B) Direct notification

In the case of a State that does not have an applicable State agency, the State emergency response commission shall provide the notices and information described in paragraph (1) directly to any community water system the source waters of which are affected by a release that requires notice under subsection (a).

(3) DefinitionsIn this subsection:
(A) Community water system

The term “community water system” has the meaning given such term in section 1401(15) of the Safe Drinking Water Act [42 U.S.C. 300f(15)].

(B) Applicable State agency

The term “applicable State agency” means the State agency that has primary responsibility to enforce the requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act in the State.

(Pub. L. 99–499, title III, § 304, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1733; Pub. L. 115–270, title II, § 2018(a), Oct. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 3857.)
§ 11005. Emergency training and review of emergency systems
(a) Emergency training
(1) Programs

Officials of the United States Government carrying out existing Federal programs for emergency training are authorized to specifically provide training and education programs for Federal, State, and local personnel in hazard mitigation, emergency preparedness, fire prevention and control, disaster response, long-term disaster recovery, national security, technological and natural hazards, and emergency processes. Such programs shall provide special emphasis for such training and education with respect to hazardous chemicals.

(2) State and local program support

There is authorized to be appropriated to the Federal Emergency Management Agency for each of the fiscal years 1987, 1988, 1989, and 1990, $5,000,000 for making grants to support programs of State and local governments, and to support university-sponsored programs, which are designed to improve emergency planning, preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery capabilities. Such programs shall provide special emphasis with respect to emergencies associated with hazardous chemicals. Such grants may not exceed 80 percent of the cost of any such program. The remaining 20 percent of such costs shall be funded from non-Federal sources.

(3) Other programs

Nothing in this section shall affect the availability of appropriations to the Federal Emergency Management Agency for any programs carried out by such agency other than the programs referred to in paragraph (2).

(b) Review of emergency systems
(1) Review

The Administrator shall initiate, not later than 30 days after October 17, 1986, a review of emergency systems for monitoring, detecting, and preventing releases of extremely hazardous substances at representative domestic facilities that produce, use, or store extremely hazardous substances. The Administrator may select representative extremely hazardous substances from the substances on the list referred to in section 11002(a) of this title for the purposes of this review. The Administrator shall report interim findings to the Congress not later than seven months after October 17, 1986, and issue a final report of findings and recommendations to the Congress not later than 18 months after October 17, 1986. Such report shall be prepared in consultation with the States and appropriate Federal agencies.

(2) Report
The report required by this subsection shall include the Administrator’s findings regarding each of the following:
(A) The status of current technological capabilities to (i) monitor, detect, and prevent, in a timely manner, significant releases of extremely hazardous substances, (ii) determine the magnitude and direction of the hazard posed by each release, (iii) identify specific substances, (iv) provide data on the specific chemical composition of such releases, and (v) determine the relative concentrations of the constituent substances.
(B) The status of public emergency alert devices or systems for providing timely and effective public warning of an accidental release of extremely hazardous substances into the environment, including releases into the atmosphere, surface water, or groundwater from facilities that produce, store, or use significant quantities of such extremely hazardous substances.
(C) The technical and economic feasibility of establishing, maintaining, and operating perimeter alert systems for detecting releases of such extremely hazardous substances into the atmosphere, surface water, or groundwater, at facilities that manufacture, use, or store significant quantities of such substances.
(3) Recommendations
The report required by this subsection shall also include the Administrator’s recommendations for—
(A) initiatives to support the development of new or improved technologies or systems that would facilitate the timely monitoring, detection, and prevention of releases of extremely hazardous substances, and
(B) improving devices or systems for effectively alerting the public in a timely manner, in the event of an accidental release of such extremely hazardous substances.
(Pub. L. 99–499, title III, § 305, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1735.)