Collapse to view only § 2201. General duties of Commission

§ 2201.
General duties of Commission
In the performance of its functions the Commission is authorized to—
(a)
Establishment of advisory boards

establish advisory boards to advise with and make recommendations to the Commission on legislation, policies, administration, research, and other matters, provided that the Commission issues regulations setting forth the scope, procedure, and limitations of the authority of each such board;

(b)
Standards governing use and possession of material

establish by rule, regulation, or order, such standards and instructions to govern the possession and use of special nuclear material, source material, and byproduct material as the Commission may deem necessary or desirable to promote the common defense and security or to protect health or to minimize danger to life or property; in addition, the Commission shall prescribe such regulations or orders as may be necessary or desirable to promote the Nation’s common defense and security with regard to control, ownership, or possession of any equipment or device, or important component part especially designed for such equipment or device, capable of separating the isotopes of uranium or enriching uranium in the isotope 235;

(c)
Studies and investigations

make such studies and investigations, obtain such information, and hold such meetings or hearings as the Commission may deem necessary or proper to assist it in exercising any authority provided in this chapter, or in the administration or enforcement of this chapter, or any regulations or orders issued thereunder. For such purposes the Commission is authorized to administer oaths and affirmations, and by subpena to require any person to appear and testify, or to appear and produce documents, or both, at any designated place. Witnesses subpenaed under this subsection shall be paid the same fees and mileage as are paid witnesses in the district courts of the United States;

(d)
Employment of personnel

appoint and fix the compensation of such officers and employees as may be necessary to carry out the functions of the Commission. Such officers and employees shall be appointed in accordance with the civil-service laws and their compensation fixed in accordance with chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, except that, to the extent the Commission deems such action necessary to the discharge of its responsibilities, personnel may be employed and their compensation fixed without regard to such laws: Provided, however, That no officer or employee (except such officers and employees whose compensation is fixed by law, and scientific and technical personnel up to a limit of the highest rate of grade 18 of the General Schedule) whose position would be subject to chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, if such provisions were applicable to such position, shall be paid a salary at a rate in excess of the rate payable under such provisions for positions of equivalent difficulty or responsibility. Such rates of compensation may be adopted by the Commission as may be authorized by chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, as of the same date such rates are authorized for positions subject to such provisions. The Commission shall make adequate provision for administrative review of any determination to dismiss any employee;

(e)
Acquisition of material, property, etc.; negotiation of commercial leases

acquire such material, property, equipment, and facilities, establish or construct such buildings and facilities, and modify such buildings and facilities from time to time, as it may deem necessary, and construct, acquire, provide, or arrange for such facilities and services (at project sites where such facilities and services are not available) for the housing, health, safety, welfare, and recreation of personnel employed by the Commission as it may deem necessary, subject to the provisions of section 2224 of this title: Provided, however, That in the communities owned by the Commission, the Commission is authorized to grant privileges, leases and permits upon adjusted terms which (at the time of the initial grant of any privilege grant, lease, or permit, or renewal thereof, or in order to avoid inequities or undue hardship prior to the sale by the United States of property affected by such grant) are fair and reasonable to responsible persons to operate commercial businesses without advertising and without advertising 1

1 So in original.
and without securing competitive bids, but taking into consideration, in addition to the price, and among other things (1) the quality and type of services required by the residents of the community, (2) the experience of each concession applicant in the community and its surrounding area, (3) the ability of the concession applicant to meet the needs of the community, and (4) the contribution the concession applicant has made or will make to the other activities and general welfare of the community;

(f)
Utilization of other Federal agencies

with the consent of the agency concerned, utilize or employ the services or personnel of any Government agency or any State or local government, or voluntary or uncompensated personnel, to perform such functions on its behalf as may appear desirable;

(g)
Acquisition of real and personal property

acquire, purchase, lease, and hold real and personal property, including patents, as agent of and on behalf of the United States, subject to the provisions of section 2224 of this title, and to sell, lease, grant, and dispose of such real and personal property as provided in this chapter;

(h)
Consideration of license applications

consider in a single application one or more of the activities for which a license is required by this chapter, combine in a single license one or more of such activities, and permit the applicant or licensee to incorporate by reference pertinent information already filed with the Commission;

(i)
Regulations governing Restricted Data

prescribe such regulations or orders as it may deem necessary (1) to protect Restricted Data received by any person in connection with any activity authorized pursuant to this chapter, (2) to guard against the loss or diversion of any special nuclear material acquired by any person pursuant to section 2073 of this title or produced by any person in connection with any activity authorized pursuant to this chapter, to prevent any use or disposition thereof which the Commission may determine to be inimical to the common defense and security, including regulations or orders designating activities, involving quantities of special nuclear material which in the opinion of the Commission are important to the common defense and security, that may be conducted only by persons whose character, associations, and loyalty shall have been investigated under standards and specifications established by the Commission and as to whom the Commission shall have determined that permitting each such person to conduct the activity will not be inimical to the common defense and security, (3) to govern any activity authorized pursuant to this chapter, including standards and restrictions governing the design, location, and operation of facilities used in the conduct of such activity, in order to protect health and to minimize danger to life or property, and (4) to ensure that sufficient funds will be available for the decommissioning of any production or utilization facility licensed under section 2133 or 2134(b) of this title, including standards and restrictions governing the control, maintenance, use, and disbursement by any former licensee under this chapter that has control over any fund for the decommissioning of the facility;

(j)
Disposition of surplus materials

without regard to the provisions of chapters 1 to 11 (except section 559) of title 40 and division C (except sections 3302, 3307(e), 3501(b), 3509, 3906, 4710, and 4711) of subtitle I of title 41, or any other law, make such disposition as it may deem desirable of (1) radioactive materials, and (2) any other property, the special disposition of which is, in the opinion of the Commission, in the interest of the national security: Provided, however, That the property furnished to licensees in accordance with the provisions of subsection (m) shall not be deemed to be property disposed of by the Commission pursuant to this subsection;

(k)
Carrying of firearms; authority to make arrests without warrant

authorize such of its members, officers, and employees as it deems necessary in the interest of the common defense and security to carry firearms while in the discharge of their official duties. The Commission may also authorize such of those employees of its contractors and subcontractors (at any tier) engaged in the protection of property under the jurisdiction of the United States located at facilities owned by or contracted to the United States or being transported to or from such facilities as it deems necessary in the interests of the common defense and security to carry firearms while in the discharge of their official duties. A person authorized to carry firearms under this subsection may, while in the performance of, and in connection with, official duties, make arrests without warrant for any offense against the United States committed in that person’s presence or for any felony cognizable under the laws of the United States if that person has reasonable ground to believe that the individual to be arrested has committed or is committing such felony. An employee of a contractor or subcontractor authorized to carry firearms under this subsection may make such arrests only when the individual to be arrested is within, or in direct flight from, the area of such offense. A person granted authority to make arrests by this subsection may exercise that authority only in the enforcement of (1) laws regarding the property of the United States in the custody of the Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, or a contractor of the Department of Energy or Nuclear Regulatory Commission, or (2) any provision of this chapter that may subject an offender to a fine, imprisonment, or both. The arrest authority conferred by this subsection is in addition to any arrest authority under other laws. The Secretary, with the approval of the Attorney General, shall issue guidelines to implement this subsection;

(l)
Repealed. Pub. L. 87–456, title III, § 303(c), May 24, 1962, 76 Stat. 78
(m)
Agreements regarding production

enter into agreements with persons licensed under section 2133, 2134, 2073(a)(4), or 2093(a)(4) of this title for such periods of time as the Commission may deem necessary or desirable (1) to provide for the processing, fabricating, separating, or refining in facilities owned by the Commission of source, byproduct, or other material or special nuclear material owned by or made available to such licensees and which is utilized or produced in the conduct of the licensed activity, and (2) to sell, lease, or otherwise make available to such licensees such quantities of source or byproduct material, and other material not defined as special nuclear material pursuant to this chapter, as may be necessary for the conduct of the licensed activity: Provided, however, That any such agreement may be canceled by the licensee at any time upon payment of such reasonable cancellation charges as may be agreed upon by the licensee and the Commission: And provided further, That the Commission shall establish prices to be paid by licensees for material or services to be furnished by the Commission pursuant to this subsection, which prices shall be established on such a nondiscriminatory basis as, in the opinion of the Commission, will provide reasonable compensation to the Government for such material or services and will not discourage the development of sources of supply independent of the Commission;

(n)
Delegation of functions

delegate to the General Manager or other officers of the Commission any of those functions assigned to it under this chapter except those specified in sections 2071, 2077(b) (with respect to enrichment and reprocessing of special nuclear material or with respect to transfers to any covered foreign country (as defined in section 2077a(i) of this title)), 2091, 2138, 2153, 2165(b) of this title (with respect to the determination of those persons to whom the Commission may reveal Restricted Data in the national interest), 2165(f) of this title and subsection (a) of this section;

(o)
Reports

require by rule, regulation, or order, such reports, and the keeping of such records with respect to, and to provide for such inspections of, activities and studies of types specified in section 2051 of this title and of activities under licenses issued pursuant to sections 2073, 2093, 2111, 2133, and 2134 of this title, as may be necessary to effectuate the purposes of this chapter, including section 2135 of this title; and

(p)
Rules and regulations

make, promulgate, issue, rescind, and amend such rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this chapter.

(q)
Easements for rights-of-way

The Commission is authorized and empowered, under such terms and conditions as are deemed advisable by it, to grant easements for rights-of-way over, across, in, and upon acquired lands under its jurisdiction and control, and public lands permanently withdrawn or reserved for the use of the Commission, to any State, political subdivision thereof, or municipality, or to any individual, partnership, or corporation of any State, Territory, or possession of the United States, for (a) railroad tracks; (b) oil pipe lines; (c) substations for electric power transmission lines, telephone lines, and telegraph lines, and pumping stations for gas, water, sewer, and oil pipe lines; (d) canals; (e) ditches; (f) flumes; (g) tunnels; (h) dams and reservoirs in connection with fish and wildlife programs, fish hatcheries, and other fish-cultural improvements; (i) roads and streets; and (j) for any other purpose or purposes deemed advisable by the Commission: Provided, That such rights-of-way shall be granted only upon a finding by the Commission that the same will not be incompatible with the public interest: Provided further, That such rights-of-way shall not include any more land than is reasonably necessary for the purpose for which granted: And provided further, That all or any part of such rights-of-way may be annulled and forfeited by the Commission for failure to comply with the terms and conditions of any grant hereunder or for nonuse for a period of two consecutive years or abandonment of rights granted under authority hereof. Copies of all instruments granting easements over public lands pursuant to this section shall be furnished to the Secretary of the Interior.

(r)
Sale of utilities and related services
Under such regulations and for such periods and at such prices the Commission may prescribe, the Commission may sell or contract to sell to purchasers within Commission-owned communities or in the immediate vicinity of the Commission community, as the case may be, any of the following utilities and related services, if it is determined that they are not available from another local source and that the sale is in the interest of the national defense or in the public interest:
(1) Electric power.
(2) Steam.
(3) Compressed air.
(4) Water.
(5) Sewage and garbage disposal.
(6) Natural, manufactured, or mixed gas.
(7) Ice.
(8) Mechanical refrigeration.
(9) Telephone service.
Proceeds of sales under this subsection shall be credited to the appropriation currently available for the supply of that utility or service. To meet local needs the Commission may make minor expansions and extensions of any distributing system or facility within or in the immediate vicinity of a Commission-owned community through which a utility or service is furnished under this subsection.
(s)
Succession of authority

establish a plan for a succession of authority which will assure the continuity of direction of the Commission’s operations in the event of a national disaster due to enemy activity. Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, the person or persons succeeding to command in the event of disaster in accordance with the plan established pursuant to this subsection shall be vested with all of the authority of the Commission: Provided, That any such succession to authority, and vesting of authority shall be effective only in the event and as long as a quorum of three or more members of the Commission is unable to convene and exercise direction during the disaster period: Provided further, That the disaster period includes the period when attack on the United States is imminent and the post-attack period necessary to reestablish normal lines of command;

(t)
Contracts

enter into contracts for the processing, fabricating, separating, or refining in facilities owned by the Commission of source, byproduct or other material, or special nuclear material, in accordance with and within the period of an agreement for cooperation while comparable services are available to persons licensed under section 2133 or 2134 of this title: Provided, That the prices for services under such contracts shall be no less than the prices currently charged by the Commission pursuant to subsection (m);

(u)
Additional contracts; guiding principles; appropriations
(1) enter into contracts for such periods of time as the Commission may deem necessary or desirable, but not to exceed five years from the date of execution of the contract, for the purchase or acquisition of reactor services or services related to or required by the operation of reactors;
(2)
(A) enter into contracts for such periods of time as the Commission may deem necessary or desirable for the purchase or acquisition of any supplies, equipment, materials, or services required by the Commission whenever the Commission determines that: (i) it is advantageous to the Government to make such purchase or acquisition from commercial sources; (ii) the furnishing of such supplies, equipment, materials, or services will require the construction or acquisition of special facilities by the vendors or suppliers thereof; (iii) the amortization chargeable to the Commission constitutes an appreciable portion of the cost of contract performance, excluding cost of materials; and (iv) the contract for such period is more advantageous to the Government than a similar contract not executed under the authority of this subsection. Such contracts shall be entered into for periods not to exceed five years each from the date of initial delivery of such supplies, equipment, materials, or services or ten years from the date of execution of the contracts excluding periods of renewal under option.
(B) In entering into such contracts the Commission shall be guided by the following principles: (i) the percentage of the total cost of special facilities devoted to contract performance and chargeable to the Commission should not exceed the ratio between the period of contract deliveries and the anticipated useful life of such special facilities; (ii) the desirability of obtaining options to renew the contract for reasonable periods at prices not to include charges for special facilities already amortized; and (iii) the desirability of reserving in the Commission the right to take title to the special facilities under appropriate circumstances; and
(3) include in contracts made under this subsection provisions which limit the obligation of funds to estimated annual deliveries and services and the unamortized balance of such amounts due for special facilities as the parties shall agree is chargeable to the performance of the contract. Any appropriation available at the time of termination or thereafter made available to the Commission for operating expenses shall be available for payment of such costs which may arise from termination as the contract may provide. The term “special facilities” as used in this subsection means any land and any depreciable buildings, structures, utilities, machinery, equipment, and fixtures necessary for the production or furnishing of such supplies, equipment, materials, or services and not available to the vendors or suppliers for the performance of the contract.
(v)
Support of United States Enrichment Corporation

provide services in support of the United States Enrichment Corporation, except that the Secretary of Energy shall annually collect payments and other charges from the Corporation sufficient to ensure recovery of the costs (excluding depreciation and imputed interest on original plant investments in the Department’s gaseous diffusion plants and costs under section 2297c–2(d) 2

2 See References in Text note below.
of this title) incurred by the Department of Energy after October 24, 1992, in performing such services;

(w)
License fees for nuclear power reactors

prescribe and collect from any other Government agency, which applies to the Commission for, or is issued by the Commission, a license or certificate, any fee, charge, or price which it may require, in accordance with the provisions of section 9701 of title 31 or any other law.

(x)
Standards and instructions for bonding, surety, or other financial arrangements, including performance bonds
Establish by rule, regulation, or order, after public notice, and in accordance with the requirements of section 2231 of this title, such standards and instructions as the Commission may deem necessary or desirable to ensure—
(1) that an adequate bond, surety, or other financial arrangement (as determined by the Commission) will be provided, before termination of any license for byproduct material as defined in section 2014(e)(2) of this title, by a licensee to permit the completion of all requirements established by the Commission for the decontamination, decommissioning, and reclamation of sites, structures, and equipment used in conjunction with byproduct material as so defined, and
(2)
that—
(A) in the case of any such license issued or renewed after November 8, 1978, the need for long-term maintenance and monitoring of such sites, structures and equipment after termination of such license will be minimized and, to the maximum extent practicable, eliminated; and
(B) in the case of each license for such material (whether in effect on November 8, 1978, or issued or renewed thereafter), if the Commission determines that any such long-term maintenance and monitoring is necessary, the licensee, before termination of any license for byproduct material as defined in section 2014(e)(2) of this title, will make available such bonding, surety, or other financial arrangements as may be necessary to assure such long-term maintenance and monitoring.
Such standards and instructions promulgated by the Commission pursuant to this subsection shall take into account, as determined by the Commission, so as to avoid unnecessary duplication and expense, performance bonds or other financial arrangements which are required by other Federal agencies or State agencies and/or other local governing bodies for such decommissioning, decontamination, and reclamation and long-term maintenance and monitoring except that nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to require that the Commission accept such bonds or arrangements if the Commission determines that such bonds or arrangements are not adequate to carry out subparagraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection.
(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, § 161, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, § 1, 68 Stat. 948; amended July 14, 1956, ch. 608, 70 Stat. 553; Aug. 6, 1956, ch. 1015, § 4, 70 Stat. 1069; Pub. L. 85–162, title II
§ 2201a.
Use of firearms by security personnel
(a)
Definitions

In this section, the terms “handgun”, “rifle”, “shotgun”, “firearm”, “ammunition”, “machinegun”, “short-barreled shotgun”, and “short-barreled rifle” have the meanings given the terms in section 921(a) of title 18.

(b)
Authorization
Notwithstanding subsections (a)(4), (a)(5), (b)(2), (b)(4), and (o) of section 922 of title 18, section 925(d)(3) of title 18, section 5844 of title 26, and any law (including regulations) of a State or a political subdivision of a State that prohibits the transfer, receipt, possession, transportation, importation, or use of a handgun, a rifle, a shotgun, a short-barreled shotgun, a short-barreled rifle, a machinegun, a semiautomatic assault weapon, ammunition for any such gun or weapon, or a large capacity ammunition feeding device, in carrying out the duties of the Commission, the Commission may authorize the security personnel of any licensee or certificate holder of the Commission (including an employee of a contractor of such a licensee or certificate holder) to transfer, receive, possess, transport, import, and use 1 or more such guns, weapons, ammunition, or devices, if the Commission determines that—
(1) the authorization is necessary to the discharge of the official duties of the security personnel; and
(2)
the security personnel—
(A) are not otherwise prohibited from possessing or receiving a firearm under Federal or State laws relating to possession of firearms by a certain category of persons;
(B) have successfully completed any requirement under this section for training in the use of firearms and tactical maneuvers;
(C)
are engaged in the protection of—
(i) a facility owned or operated by a licensee or certificate holder of the Commission that is designated by the Commission; or
(ii) radioactive material or other property owned or possessed by a licensee or certificate holder of the Commission, or that is being transported to or from a facility owned or operated by such a licensee or certificate holder, and that has been determined by the Commission to be of significance to the common defense and security or public health and safety; and
(D) are discharging the official duties of the security personnel in transferring, receiving, possessing, transporting, or importing the weapons, ammunition, or devices.
(c)
Background checks

A person that receives, possesses, transports, imports, or uses a weapon, ammunition, or a device under subsection (b) shall be subject to a background check by the Attorney General, based on fingerprints and including a background check under section 103(b) of the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (Public Law 103–159; 18 U.S.C. 922 note) 1

1 See References in Text note below.
to determine whether the person is prohibited from possessing or receiving a firearm under Federal or State law.

(d)
Effective date

This section takes effect on the date on which guidelines are issued by the Commission, with the approval of the Attorney General, to carry out this section.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, § 161A, as added Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, § 653, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 811.)
§ 2202.
Contracts

The President may, in advance, exempt any specific action of the Commission in a particular matter from the provisions of law relating to contracts whenever he determines that such action is essential in the interest of the common defense and security.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, § 162, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, § 1, 68 Stat. 951; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, § 902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)
§ 2203.
Advisory committees

The members of the General Advisory Committee established pursuant to section 2036 1

1 See References in Text note below.
of this title and the members of advisory boards established pursuant to section 2201(a) of this title may serve as such without regard to the provisions of sections 281, 283, or 284 1 of title 18, except insofar as such sections may prohibit any such member from receiving compensation from a source other than a nonprofit educational institution in respect of any particular matter which directly involves the Commission or in which the Commission is directly interested.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, § 163, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, § 1, 68 Stat. 951; amended Pub. L. 86–300, § 2, Sept. 21, 1959, 73 Stat. 574; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, § 902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)
§ 2204.
Electric utility contracts; authority to enter into; cancellation; submission to Energy Committees

The Commission is authorized in connection with the construction or operation of the Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth installations of the Commission, without regard to sections 1341, 1342, and 1349–1351 and subchapter II of chapter 15 of title 31, to enter into new contracts or modify or confirm existing contracts to provide for electric utility services for periods not exceeding twenty-five years, and such contracts shall be subject to termination by the Commission upon payment of cancellation costs as provided in such contracts, and any appropriation presently or hereafter made available to the Commission shall be available for the payment of such cancellation costs. Any such cancellation payments shall be taken into consideration in determination of the rate to be charged in the event the Commission or any other agency of the Federal Government shall purchase electric utility services from the contractor subsequent to the cancellation and during the life of the original contract. The authority of the Commission under this section to enter into new contracts or modify or confirm existing contracts to provide for electric utility services includes, in case such electric utility services are to be furnished to the Commission by the Tennessee Valley Authority, authority to contract with any person to furnish electric utility services to the Tennessee Valley Authority in replacement thereof. Any contract hereafter entered into by the Commission pursuant to this section shall be submitted to the Energy Committees and a period of thirty days shall elapse while Congress is in session (in computing such thirty days, there shall be excluded the days on which either House is not in session because of adjournment for more than three days) before the contract of the Commission shall become effective: Provided, however, That the Energy Committees, after having received the proposed contract, may by resolution in writing, waive the conditions of or all or any portion of such thirty-day period.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, § 164, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, § 1, 68 Stat. 951; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, § 902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; amended Pub. L. 103–437, § 15(f)(7), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4593.)
§ 2204a.
Fission product contracts
(a)
Authority to enter into contracts

Without regard to sections 1341, 1342, and 1349–1351 and subchapter II of chapter 15 of title 31, the Commission is authorized to enter into contracts for such periods of time as the Commission may deem necessary or desirable, for the purpose of making available fission products from Commission reactors, with or without charge for commercial application.

(b)
Cancellation

Any contract entered into by the Commission pursuant to this section shall be subject to termination by the Commission upon payment of cancellation costs as provided in such contract, and any appropriation presently or hereafter made available to the Commission shall be available for payment of such costs which may arise from termination as the contract may provide.

(c)
Submission to Energy Committees

Before the Commission enters into any arrangement or amendment thereto under the authority of this section, the basis for the proposed arrangement or amendment thereto which the Commission proposes to execute (with necessary background and explanatory data) shall be submitted to the Energy Committees (as defined by section 2014 of this title), and a period of forty-five days shall elapse while Congress is in session in computing such forty-five days, there shall be excluded the days on which either House is not in session because of adjournment of more than three days: Provided, however, That the Energy Committees, after having received the basis for the proposed arrangement or amendment thereto, may by resolution in writing waive the conditions of, or all or any portion of, such forty-five-day period.

(Pub. L. 88–332, § 107, June 30, 1964, 78 Stat. 230; Pub. L. 103–437, § 15(h), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4593.)
§ 2205.
Contract practices
(a) In carrying out the purposes of this chapter the Commission shall not use the cost-plus-percentage-of-cost system of contracting.
(b) No contract entered into under the authority of this chapter shall provide, and no contract entered into under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, as amended, shall be modified or amended after August 30, 1954, to provide, for direct payment or direct reimbursement by the Commission of any Federal income taxes on behalf of any contractor performing such contract for profit.
(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, § 165, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, § 1, 68 Stat. 951; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, § 902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)
§ 2205a.
Repealed. Pub. L. 97–375, title I, § 115, Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1821
§ 2206.
Comptroller General audit

No moneys appropriated for the purposes of this chapter shall be available for payments under any contract with the Commission, negotiated without advertising, except contracts with any foreign government or any agency thereof and contracts with foreign producers, unless such contract includes a clause to the effect that the Comptroller General of the United States or any of his duly authorized representatives shall, until the expiration of three years after final payment, have access to and the right to examine any directly pertinent books, documents, papers, and records of the contractor or any of his subcontractors engaged in the performance of, and involving transactions related to such contracts or subcontracts: Provided, however, That no moneys so appropriated shall be available for payment under such contract which includes any provision precluding an audit by the Government Accountability Office of any transaction under such contract: And provided further, That nothing in this section shall preclude the earlier disposal of contractor and subcontractor records in accordance with records disposal schedules agreed upon between the Commission and the Government Accountability Office.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, § 166, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, § 1, 68 Stat. 951; amended Pub. L. 85–681, § 8, Aug. 19, 1958, 72 Stat. 634; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, § 902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; Pub. L. 108–271, § 8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814.)
§ 2207.
Claim settlements; reports to Congress

The Commission, acting on behalf of the United States, is authorized to consider, ascertain, adjust, determine, settle, and pay, any claim for money damage of $5,000 or less against the United States for bodily injury, death, or damage to or loss of real or personal property resulting from any detonation, explosion, or radiation produced in the conduct of any program undertaken by the Commission involving the detonation of an explosive device, where such claim is presented to the Commission in writing within one year after the accident or incident out of which the claim arises: Provided, however, That the damage to or loss of property, or bodily injury or death, shall not have been caused in whole or in part by any negligence or wrongful act on the part of the claimant, his agents, or employees. Any such settlement under the authority of this section shall be final and conclusive for all purposes, notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary. If the Commission considers that a claim in excess of $5,000 is meritorious and would otherwise be covered by this section, the Commission may report the facts and circumstances thereof to the Congress for its consideration.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, § 167, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, § 1, 68 Stat. 952; amended Pub. L. 87–206, § 14, Sept. 6, 1961, 75 Stat. 478; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, § 902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)
§ 2208.
Payments in lieu of taxes

In order to render financial assistance to those States and localities in which the activities of the Commission are carried on, and in which the Commission has acquired property previously subject to State and local taxation, the Commission is authorized to make payments to State and local governments in lieu of property taxes. Such payments may be in the amounts, at the times, and upon the terms the Commission deems appropriate, but the Commission shall be guided by the policy of not making payments in excess of the taxes which would have been payable for such property in the condition in which it was acquired, except in cases where special burdens have been cast upon the State or local government by activities of the Commission, the Manhattan Engineer District or their agents. In any such case, any benefit accruing to the State or local government by reason of such activities shall be considered in determining the amount of the payment.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, § 168, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, § 1, 68 Stat. 952; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, § 902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)
§ 2209.
Subsidies

No funds of the Commission shall be employed in the construction or operation of facilities licensed under section 2133 or 2134 of this title except under contract or other arrangement entered into pursuant to section 2051 of this title.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, § 169, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, § 1, 68 Stat. 952; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, § 902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)
§ 2210.
Indemnification and limitation of liability
(a)
Requirement of financial protection for licensees

Each license issued under section 2133 or 2134 of this title and each construction permit issued under section 2235 of this title shall, and each license issued under section 2073, 2093, or 2111 of this title may, for the public purposes cited in section 2012(i) of this title, have as a condition of the license a requirement that the licensee have and maintain financial protection of such type and in such amounts as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (in this section referred to as the “Commission”) in the exercise of its licensing and regulatory authority and responsibility shall require in accordance with subsection (b) to cover public liability claims. Whenever such financial protection is required, it may be a further condition of the license that the licensee execute and maintain an indemnification agreement in accordance with subsection (c). The Commission may require, as a further condition of issuing a license, that an applicant waive any immunity from public liability conferred by Federal or State law.

(b)
Amount and type of financial protection for licensees
(1) The amount of primary financial protection required shall be the amount of liability insurance available from private sources, except that the Commission may establish a lesser amount on the basis of criteria set forth in writing, which it may revise from time to time, taking into consideration such factors as the following: (A) the cost and terms of private insurance, (B) the type, size, and location of the licensed activity and other factors pertaining to the hazard, and (C) the nature and purpose of the licensed activity: Provided, That for facilities designed for producing substantial amounts of electricity and having a rated capacity of 100,000 electrical kilowatts or more, the amount of primary financial protection required shall be the maximum amount available at reasonable cost and on reasonable terms from private sources (excluding the amount of private liability insurance available under the industry retrospective rating plan required in this subsection). Such primary financial protection may include private insurance, private contractual indemnities, self-insurance, other proof of financial responsibility, or a combination of such measures and shall be subject to such terms and conditions as the Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, prescribe. The Commission shall require licensees that are required to have and maintain primary financial protection equal to the maximum amount of liability insurance available from private sources to maintain, in addition to such primary financial protection, private liability insurance available under an industry retrospective rating plan providing for premium charges deferred in whole or major part until public liability from a nuclear incident exceeds or appears likely to exceed the level of the primary financial protection required of the licensee involved in the nuclear incident: Provided, That such insurance is available to, and required of, all of the licensees of such facilities without regard to the manner in which they obtain other types or amounts of such primary financial protection: And provided further, That the maximum amount of the standard deferred premium that may be charged a licensee following any nuclear incident under such a plan shall not be more than $95,800,000 (subject to adjustment for inflation under subsection (t)), but not more than $15,000,000 in any 1 year (subject to adjustment for inflation under subsection (t)), for each facility for which such licensee is required to maintain the maximum amount of primary financial protection: And provided further, That the amount which may be charged a licensee following any nuclear incident shall not exceed the licensee’s pro rata share of the aggregate public liability claims and costs (excluding legal costs subject to subsection (o)(1)(D), payment of which has not been authorized under such subsection) arising out of the nuclear incident. Payment of any State premium taxes which may be applicable to any deferred premium provided for in this chapter shall be the responsibility of the licensee and shall not be included in the retrospective premium established by the Commission.
(2)
(A)
The Commission may, on a case by case basis, assess annual deferred premium amounts less than the standard annual deferred premium amount assessed under paragraph (1)—
(i) for any facility, if more than one nuclear incident occurs in any one calendar year; or
(ii) for any licensee licensed to operate more than one facility, if the Commission determines that the financial impact of assessing the standard annual deferred premium amount under paragraph (1) would result in undue financial hardship to such licensee or the ratepayers of such licensee.
(B) In the event that the Commission assesses a lesser annual deferred premium amount under subparagraph (A), the Commission shall require payment of the difference between the standard annual deferred premium assessment under paragraph (1) and any such lesser annual deferred premium assessment within a reasonable period of time, with interest at a rate determined by the Secretary of the Treasury on the basis of the current average market yield on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States of comparable maturities during the month preceding the date that the standard annual deferred premium assessment under paragraph (1) would become due.
(3) The Commission shall establish such requirements as are necessary to assure availability of funds to meet any assessment of deferred premiums within a reasonable time when due, and may provide reinsurance or shall otherwise guarantee the payment of such premiums in the event it appears that the amount of such premiums will not be available on a timely basis through the resources of private industry and insurance. Any agreement by the Commission with a licensee or indemnitor to guarantee the payment of deferred premiums may contain such terms as the Commission deems appropriate to carry out the purposes of this section and to assure reimbursement to the Commission for its payments made due to the failure of such licensee or indemnitor to meet any of its obligations arising under or in connection with financial protection required under this subsection including without limitation terms creating liens upon the licensed facility and the revenues derived therefrom or any other property or revenues of such licensee to secure such reimbursement and consent to the automatic revocation of any license.
(4)
(A)
In the event that the funds available to pay valid claims in any year are insufficient as a result of the limitation on the amount of deferred premiums that may be required of a licensee in any year under paragraph (1) or (2), or the Commission is required to make reinsurance or guaranteed payments under paragraph (3), the Commission shall, in order to advance the necessary funds—
(i) request the Congress to appropriate sufficient funds to satisfy such payments; or
(ii) to the extent approved in appropriation Acts, issue to the Secretary of the Treasury obligations in such forms and denominations, bearing such maturities, and subject to such terms and conditions as may be agreed to by the Commission and the Secretary of the Treasury.
(B) Except for funds appropriated for purposes of making reinsurance or guaranteed payments under paragraph (3), any funds appropriated under subparagraph (A)(i) shall be repaid to the general fund of the United States Treasury from amounts made available by standard deferred premium assessments, with interest at a rate determined by the Secretary of the Treasury on the basis of the current average market yield on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States of comparable maturities during the month preceding the date that the funds appropriated under such subparagraph are made available.
(C) Except for funds appropriated for purposes of making reinsurance or guaranteed payments under paragraph (3), redemption of obligations issued under subparagraph (A)(ii) shall be made by the Commission from amounts made available by standard deferred premium assessments. Such obligations shall bear interest at a rate determined by the Secretary of the Treasury by taking into consideration the average market yield on outstanding marketable obligations to the United States of comparable maturities during the month preceding the issuance of the obligations under this paragraph. The Secretary of the Treasury shall purchase any issued obligations, and for such purpose the Secretary of the Treasury may use as a public debt transaction the proceeds from the sale of any securities issued under chapter 31 of title 31, and the purposes for which securities may be issued under such chapter are extended to include any purchase of such obligations. The Secretary of the Treasury may at any time sell any of the obligations acquired by the Secretary of the Treasury under this paragraph. All redemptions, purchases, and sales by the Secretary of the Treasury of obligations under this paragraph shall be treated as public debt transactions of the United States.
(5)
(A) For purposes of this section only, the Commission shall consider a combination of facilities described in subparagraph (B) to be a single facility having a rated capacity of 100,000 electrical kilowatts or more.
(B) A combination of facilities referred to in subparagraph (A) is two or more facilities located at a single site, each of which has a rated capacity of 100,000 electrical kilowatts or more but not more than 300,000 electrical kilowatts, with a combined rated capacity of not more than 1,300,000 electrical kilowatts.
(c)
Indemnification of licensees by Nuclear Regulatory Commission

The Commission shall, with respect to licenses issued between August 30, 1954, and December 31, 2025, for which it requires financial protection of less than $560,000,000, agree to indemnify and hold harmless the licensee and other persons indemnified, as their interest may appear, from public liability arising from nuclear incidents which is in excess of the level of financial protection required of the licensee. The aggregate indemnity for all persons indemnified in connection with each nuclear incident shall not exceed $500,000,000 excluding costs of investigating and settling claims and defending suits for damage: Provided, however, That this amount of indemnity shall be reduced by the amount that the financial protection required shall exceed $60,000,000. Such a contract of indemnification shall cover public liability arising out of or in connection with the licensed activity. With respect to any production or utilization facility for which a construction permit is issued between August 30, 1954, and December 31, 2025, the requirements of this subsection shall apply to any license issued for such facility subsequent to December 31, 2025.

(d)
Indemnification of contractors by Department of Energy
(1)
(A) In addition to any other authority the Secretary of Energy (in this section referred to as the “Secretary”) may have, the Secretary shall, until December 31, 2025, enter into agreements of indemnification under this subsection with any person who may conduct activities under a contract with the Department of Energy that involve the risk of public liability and that are not subject to financial protection requirements under subsection (b) or agreements of indemnification under subsection (c) or (k).
(B)
(i)(I) Beginning 60 days after August 20, 1988, agreements of indemnification under subparagraph (A) shall be the exclusive means of indemnification for public liability arising from activities described in such subparagraph, including activities conducted under a contract that contains an indemnification clause under Public Law 85–804 [50 U.S.C. 1431 et seq.] entered into between August 1, 1987, and August 20, 1988.(II) The Secretary may incorporate in agreements of indemnification under subparagraph (A) the provisions relating to the waiver of any issue or defense as to charitable or governmental immunity authorized in subsection (n)(1) to be incorporated in agreements of indemnification. Any such provisions incorporated under this subclause shall apply to any nuclear incident arising out of nuclear waste activities subject to an agreement of indemnification under subparagraph (A).
(ii) Public liability arising out of nuclear waste activities subject to an agreement of indemnification under subparagraph (A) that are funded by the Nuclear Waste Fund established in section 10222 of this title shall be compensated from the Nuclear Waste Fund in an amount not to exceed the maximum amount of financial protection required of licensees under subsection (b).
(2)
In an agreement of indemnification entered into under paragraph (1), the Secretary—
(A) may require the contractor to provide and maintain financial protection of such a type and in such amounts as the Secretary shall determine to be appropriate to cover public liability arising out of or in connection with the contractual activity; and
(B) shall indemnify the persons indemnified against such liability above the amount of the financial protection required, in the amount of $10,000,000,000 (subject to adjustment for inflation under subsection (t)), in the aggregate, for all persons indemnified in connection with the contract and for each nuclear incident, including such legal costs of the contractor as are approved by the Secretary.
(3) All agreements of indemnification under which the Department of Energy (or its predecessor agencies) may be required to indemnify any person under this section shall be deemed to be amended, on August 8, 2005, to reflect the amount of indemnity for public liability and any applicable financial protection required of the contractor under this subsection.
(4) Financial protection under paragraph (2) and indemnification under paragraph (1) shall be the exclusive means of financial protection and indemnification under this section for any Department of Energy demonstration reactor licensed by the Commission under section 5842 of this title.
(5) In the case of nuclear incidents occurring outside the United States, the amount of the indemnity provided by the Secretary under this subsection shall not exceed $500,000,000.
(6) The provisions of this subsection may be applicable to lump sum as well as cost type contracts and to contracts and projects financed in whole or in part by the Secretary.
(7) A contractor with whom an agreement of indemnification has been executed under paragraph (1)(A) and who is engaged in activities connected with the underground detonation of a nuclear explosive device shall be liable, to the extent so indemnified under this subsection, for injuries or damage sustained as a result of such detonation in the same manner and to the same extent as would a private person acting as principal, and no immunity or defense founded in the Federal, State, or municipal character of the contractor or of the work to be performed under the contract shall be effective to bar such liability.
(e)
Limitation on aggregate public liability
(1)
The aggregate public liability for a single nuclear incident of persons indemnified, including such legal costs as are authorized to be paid under subsection (o)(1)(D), shall not exceed—
(A) in the case of facilities designed for producing substantial amounts of electricity and having a rated capacity of 100,000 electrical kilowatts or more, the maximum amount of financial protection required of such facilities under subsection (b) (plus any surcharge assessed under subsection (o)(1)(E));
(B) in the case of contractors with whom the Secretary has entered into an agreement of indemnification under subsection (d), the amount of indemnity and financial protection that may be required under paragraph (2) of subsection (d); and
(C)
in the case of all other licensees of the Commission required to maintain financial protection under this section—
(i) $500,000,000, together with the amount of financial protection required of the licensee; or
(ii) if the amount of financial protection required of the licensee exceeds $60,000,000, $560,000,000 or the amount of financial protection required of the licensee, whichever amount is more.
(2) In the event of a nuclear incident involving damages in excess of the amount of aggregate public liability under paragraph (1), the Congress will thoroughly review the particular incident in accordance with the procedures set forth in subsection (i) and will in accordance with such procedures, take whatever action is determined to be necessary (including approval of appropriate compensation plans and appropriation of funds) to provide full and prompt compensation to the public for all public liability claims resulting from a disaster of such magnitude.
(3) No provision of paragraph (1) may be construed to preclude the Congress from enacting a revenue measure, applicable to licensees of the Commission required to maintain financial protection pursuant to subsection (b), to fund any action undertaken pursuant to paragraph (2).
(4) With respect to any nuclear incident occurring outside of the United States to which an agreement of indemnification entered into under the provisions of subsection (d) is applicable, such aggregate public liability shall not exceed the amount of $500,000,000, together with the amount of financial protection required of the contractor.
(f)
Collection of fees by Nuclear Regulatory Commission

The Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, is authorized to collect a fee from all persons with whom an indemnification agreement is executed under this section. This fee shall be $30 per year per thousand kilowatts of thermal energy capacity for facilities licensed under section 2133 of this title: Provided, That the Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, is authorized to reduce the fee for such facilities in reasonable relation to increases in financial protection required above a level of $60,000,000. For facilities licensed under section 2134 of this title, and for construction permits under section 2235 of this title, the Commission is authorized to reduce the fee set forth above. The Commission shall establish criteria in writing for determination of the fee for facilities licensed under section 2134 of this title, taking into consideration such factors as (1) the type, size, and location of facility involved, and other factors pertaining to the hazard, and (2) the nature and purpose of the facility. For other licenses, the Commission shall collect such nominal fees as it deems appropriate. No fee under this subsection shall be less than $100 per year.

(g)
Use of services of private insurers

In administering the provisions of this section, the Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, shall use, to the maximum extent practicable, the facilities and services of private insurance organizations, and the Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, may contract to pay a reasonable compensation for such services. Any contract made under the provisions of this subsection may be made without regard to the provisions of section 6101 of title 41 upon a showing by the Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, that advertising is not reasonably practicable and advance payments may be made.

(h)
Conditions of agreements of indemnification

The agreement of indemnification may contain such terms as the Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, deems appropriate to carry out the purposes of this section. Such agreement shall provide that, when the Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, makes a determination that the United States will probably be required to make indemnity payments under this section, the Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, shall collaborate with any person indemnified and may approve the payment of any claim under the agreement of indemnification, appear through the Attorney General on behalf of the person indemnified, take charge of such action, and settle or defend any such action. The Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, shall have final authority on behalf of the United States to settle or approve the settlement of any such claim on a fair and reasonable basis with due regard for the purposes of this chapter. Such settlement shall not include expenses in connection with the claim incurred by the person indemnified.

(i)
Compensation plans
(1)
After any nuclear incident involving damages that are likely to exceed the applicable amount of aggregate public liability under subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of subsection (e)(1), the Secretary or the Commisison,
(A) make a survey of the causes and extent of damage; and
(B) expeditiously submit a report setting forth the results of such survey to the Congress, to the Representatives of the affected districts, to the Senators of the affected States, and (except for information that will cause serious damage to the national defense of the United States) to the public, to the parties involved, and to the courts.
(2)
Not later than 90 days after any determination by a court, pursuant to subsection (o), that the public liability from a single nuclear incident may exceed the applicable amount of aggregate public liability under subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of subsection (e)(1) the President shall submit to the Congress—
(A) an estimate of the aggregate dollar value of personal injuries and property damage that arises from the nuclear incident and exceeds the amount of aggregate public liability under subsection (e)(1);
(B) recommendations for additional sources of funds to pay claims exceeding the applicable amount of aggregate public liability under subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of subsection (e)(1), which recommendations shall consider a broad range of possible sources of funds (including possible revenue measures on the sector of the economy, or on any other class, to which such revenue measures might be applied);
(C) 1 or more compensation plans, that either individually or collectively shall provide for full and prompt compensation for all valid claims and contain a recommendation or recommendations as to the relief to be provided, including any recommendations that funds be allocated or set aside for the payment of claims that may arise as a result of latent injuries that may not be discovered until a later date; and
(D) any additional legislative authorities necessary to implement such compensation plan or plans.
(3)
(A) Any compensation plan transmitted to the Congress pursuant to paragraph (2) shall bear an identification number and shall be transmitted to both Houses of Congress on the same day and to each House while it is in session.
(B) The provisions of paragraphs (4) through (6) shall apply with respect to consideration in the Senate of any compensation plan transmitted to the Senate pursuant to paragraph (2).
(4) No such compensation plan may be considered approved for purposes of subsection (e)(2) unless between the date of transmittal and the end of the first period of sixty calendar days of continuous session of Congress after the date on which such action is transmitted to the Senate, the Senate passes a resolution described in paragraph 6 2
2 So in original. Probably should be paragraph “(6)”.
of this subsection.
(5)
For the purpose of paragraph (4) of this subsection—
(A) continuity of session is broken only by an adjournment of Congress sine die; and
(B) the days on which either House is not in session because of an adjournment of more than three days to a day certain are excluded in the computation of the sixty-day calendar period.
(6)
(A)
This paragraph is enacted—
(i) as an exercise of the rulemaking power of the Senate and as such it is deemed a part of the rules of the Senate, but applicable only with respect to the procedure to be followed in the Senate in the case of resolutions described by subparagraph (B) and it supersedes other rules only to the extent that it is inconsistent therewith; and
(ii) with full recognition of the constitutional right of the Senate to change the rules at any time, in the same manner and to the same extent as in the case of any other rule of the Senate.
(B) For purposes of this paragraph, the term “resolution” means only a joint resolution of the Congress the matter after the resolving clause  of  which  is  as  follows:  “That  the                  approves the compensation plan numbered            submitted to the Congress on            , 19  .”, the first blank space therein being filled with the name of the resolving House and the other blank spaces being appropriately filled; but does not include a resolution which specifies more than one compensation plan.
(C) A resolution once introduced with respect to a compensation plan shall immediately be referred to a committee (and all resolutions with respect to the same compensation plan shall be referred to the same committee) by the President of the Senate.
(D)
(i) If the committee of the Senate to which a resolution with respect to a compensation plan has been referred has not reported it at the end of twenty calendar days after its referral, it shall be in order to move either to discharge the committee from further consideration of such resolution or to discharge the committee from further consideration with respect to such compensation plan which has been referred to the committee.
(ii) A motion to discharge may be made only by an individual favoring the resolution, shall be highly privileged (except that it may not be made after the committee has reported a resolution with respect to the same compensation plan), and debate thereon shall be limited to not more than one hour, to be divided equally between those favoring and those opposing the resolution. An amendment to the motion shall not be in order, and it shall not be in order to move to reconsider the vote by which the motion was agreed to or disagreed to.
(iii) If the motion to discharge is agreed to or disagreed to, the motion may not be renewed, nor may another motion to discharge the committee be made with respect to any other resolution with respect to the same compensation plan.
(E)
(i) When the committee has reported, or has been discharged from further consideration of, a resolution, it shall be at any time thereafter in order (even though a previous motion to the same effect has been disagreed to) to move to proceed to the consideration of the resolution. The motion shall be highly privileged and shall not be debatable. An amendment to the motion shall not be in order, and it shall not be in order to move to reconsider the vote by which the motion was agreed to or disagreed to.
(ii) Debate on the resolution referred to in clause (i) of this subparagraph shall be limited to not more than ten hours, which shall be divided equally between those favoring and those opposing such resolution. A motion further to limit debate shall not be debatable. An amendment to, or motion to recommit, the resolution shall not be in order, and it shall not be in order to move to reconsider the vote by which such resolution was agreed to or disagreed to.
(F)
(i) Motions to postpone, made with respect to the discharge from committee, or the consideration of a resolution or motions to proceed to the consideration of other business, shall be decided without debate.
(ii) Appeals from the decision of the Chair relating to the application of the rules of the Senate to the procedures relating to a resolution shall be decided without debate.
(j)
Contracts in advance of appropriations

In administering the provisions of this section, the Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, may make contracts in advance of appropriations and incur obligations without regard to sections 1341, 1342, 1349, 1350, and 1351, and subchapter II of chapter 15, of title 31.

(k)
Exemption from financial protection requirement for nonprofit educational institutions
With respect to any license issued pursuant to section 2073, 2093, 2111, 2134(a), or 2134(c) of this title, for the conduct of educational activities to a person found by the Commission to be a nonprofit educational institution, the Commission shall exempt such licensee from the financial protection requirement of subsection (a). With respect to licenses issued between August 30, 1954, and December 31, 2025, for which the Commission grants such exemption:
(1) the Commission shall agree to indemnify and hold harmless the licensee and other persons indemnified, as their interests may appear, from public liability in excess of $250,000 arising from nuclear incidents. The aggregate indemnity for all persons indemnified in connection with each nuclear incident shall not exceed $500,000,000, including such legal costs of the licensee as are approved by the Commission;
(2) such contracts of indemnification shall cover public liability arising out of or in connection with the licensed activity; and shall include damage to property of persons indemnified, except property which is located at the site of and used in connection with the activity where the nuclear incident occurs; and
(3) such contracts of indemnification, when entered into with a licensee having immunity from public liability because it is a State agency, shall provide also that the Commission shall make payments under the contract on account of activities of the licensee in the same manner and to the same extent as the Commission would be required to do if the licensee were not such a State agency.
Any licensee may waive an exemption to which it is entitled under this subsection. With respect to any production or utilization facility for which a construction permit is issued between August 30, 1954, and December 31, 2025, the requirements of this subsection shall apply to any license issued for such facility subsequent to December 31, 2025.
(l)
Presidential commission on catastrophic nuclear accidents
(1) Not later than 90 days after August 20, 1988, the President shall establish a commission (in this subsection referred to as the “study commission”) in accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) to study means of fully compensating victims of a catastrophic nuclear accident that exceeds the amount of aggregate public liability under subsection (e)(1).
(2)
(A)
The study commission shall consist of not less than 7 and not more than 11 members, who—
(i) shall be appointed by the President; and
(ii) shall be representative of a broad range of views and interests.
(B) The members of the study commission shall be appointed in a manner that ensures that not more than a mere majority of the members are of the same political party.
(C) Each member of the study commission shall hold office until the termination of the study commission, but may be removed by the President for inefficiency, neglect of duty, or malfeasance in office.
(D) Any vacancy in the study commission shall be filled in the manner in which the original appointment was made.
(E) The President shall designate one of the members of the study commission as chairperson, to serve at the pleasure of the President.
(3)
The study commission shall conduct a comprehensive study of appropriate means of fully compensating victims of a catastrophic nuclear accident that exceeds the amount of aggregate public liability under subsection (e)(1), and shall submit to the Congress a final report setting forth—
(A) recommendations for any changes in the laws and rules governing the liability or civil procedures that are necessary for the equitable, prompt, and efficient resolution and payment of all valid damage claims, including the advisability of adjudicating public liability claims through an administrative agency instead of the judicial system;
(B) recommendations for any standards or procedures that are necessary to establish priorities for the hearing, resolution, and payment of claims when awards are likely to exceed the amount of funds available within a specific time period; and
(C) recommendations for any special standards or procedures necessary to decide and pay claims for latent injuries caused by the nuclear incident.
(4)
(A) The chairperson of the study commission may appoint and fix the compensation of a staff of such persons as may be necessary to discharge the responsibilities of the study commission, subject to the applicable provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) and title 5.
(B) To the extent permitted by law and requested by the chairperson of the study commission, the Administrator of General Services shall provide the study commission with necessary administrative services, facilities, and support on a reimbursable basis.
(C) The Attorney General, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, and the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency shall, to the extent permitted by law and subject to the availability of funds, provide the study commission with such facilities, support, funds and services, including staff, as may be necessary for the effective performance of the functions of the study commission.
(D) The study commission may request any Executive agency to furnish such information, advice, or assistance as it determines to be necessary to carry out its functions. Each such agency is directed, to the extent permitted by law, to furnish such information, advice or assistance upon request by the chairperson of the study commission.
(E) Each member of the study commission may receive compensation at the maximum rate prescribed by the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) for each day such member is engaged in the work of the study commission. Each member may also receive travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence under sections 5702 and 5703 of title 5.
(F) The functions of the President under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) that are applicable to the study commission, except the function of reporting annually to the Congress, shall be performed by the Administrator of General Services.
(5) The final report required in paragraph (3) shall be submitted to the Congress not later than the expiration of the 2-year period beginning on August 20, 1988.
(6) The study commission shall terminate upon the expiration of the 2-month period beginning on the date on which the final report required in paragraph (3) is submitted.
(m)
Coordinated procedures for prompt settlement of claims and emergency assistance

The Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, is authorized to enter into agreements with other indemnitors to establish coordinated procedures for the prompt handling, investigation, and settlement of claims for public liability. The Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, and other indemnitors may make payments to, or for the aid of, claimants for the purpose of providing immediate assistance following a nuclear incident. Any funds appropriated to the Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, shall be available for such payments. Such payments may be made without securing releases, shall not constitute an admission of the liability of any person indemnified or of any indemnitor, and shall operate as a satisfaction to the extent thereof of any final settlement or judgment.

(n)
Waiver of defenses and judicial procedures
(1)
With respect to any extraordinary nuclear occurrence to which an insurance policy or contract furnished as proof of financial protection or an indemnity agreement applies and which—
(A) arises out of or results from or occurs in the course of the construction, possession, or operation of a production or utilization facility,
(B) arises out of or results from or occurs in the course of transportation of source material, byproduct material, or special nuclear material to or from a production or utilization facility,
(C) during the course of the contract activity arises out of or results from the possession, operation, or use by a Department of Energy contractor or subcontractor of a device utilizing special nuclear material or byproduct material,
(D) arises out of, results from, or occurs in the course of, the construction, possession, or operation of any facility licensed under section 2073, 2093, or 2111 of this title, for which the Commission has imposed as a condition of the license a requirement that the licensee have and maintain financial protection under subsection (a),
(E) arises out of, results from, or occurs in the course of, transportation of source material, byproduct material, or special nuclear material to or from any facility licensed under section 2073, 2093, or 2111 of this title, for which the Commission has imposed as a condition of the license a requirement that the licensee have and maintain financial protection under subsection (a), or
(F) arises out of, results from, or occurs in the course of nuclear waste activities.3
3 So in original. The period probably should be a comma.
the Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, may incorporate provisions in indemnity agreements with licensees and contractors under this section, and may require provisions to be incorporated in insurance policies or contracts furnished as proof of financial protection, which waive (i) any issue or defense as to conduct of the claimant or fault of persons indemnified, (ii) any issue or defense as to charitable or governmental immunity, and (iii) any issue or defense based on any statute of limitations if suit is instituted within three years from the date on which the claimant first knew, or reasonably could have known, of his injury or damage and the cause thereof. The waiver of any such issue or defense shall be effective regardless of whether such issue or defense may otherwise be deemed jurisdictional or relating to an element in the cause of action. When so incorporated, such waivers shall be judicially enforcible in accordance with their terms by the claimant against the person indemnified. Such waivers shall not preclude a defense based upon a failure to take reasonable steps to mitigate damages, nor shall such waivers apply to injury or damage to a claimant or to a claimant’s property which is intentionally sustained by the claimant or which results from a nuclear incident intentionally and wrongfully caused by the claimant. The waivers authorized in this subsection shall, as to indemnitors, be effective only with respect to those obligations set forth in the insurance policies or the contracts furnished as proof of financial protection and in the indemnity agreements. Such waivers shall not apply to, or prejudice the prosecution or defense of, any claim or portion of claim which is not within the protection afforded under (i) the terms of insurance policies or contracts furnished as proof of financial protection, or indemnity agreements, and (ii) the limit of liability provisions of subsection (e).
(2) With respect to any public liability action arising out of or resulting from a nuclear incident, the United States district court in the district where the nuclear incident takes place, or in the case of a nuclear incident taking place outside the United States, the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, shall have original jurisdiction without regard to the citizenship of any party or the amount in controversy. Upon motion of the defendant or of the Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, any such action pending in any State court (including any such action pending on August 20, 1988
(3)
(A)
Following any nuclear incident, the chief judge of the United States district court having jurisdiction under paragraph (2) with respect to public liability actions (or the judicial council of the judicial circuit in which the nuclear incident occurs) may appoint a special caseload management panel (in this paragraph referred to as the “management panel”) to coordinate and assign (but not necessarily hear themselves) cases arising out of the nuclear incident, if—
(i) a court, acting pursuant to subsection (o), determines that the aggregate amount of public liability is likely to exceed the amount of primary financial protection available under subsection (b) (or an equivalent amount in the case of a contractor indemnified under subsection (d)); or
(ii) the chief judge of the United States district court (or the judicial council of the judicial circuit) determines that cases arising out of the nuclear incident will have an unusual impact on the work of the court.
(B)
(i) Each management panel shall consist only of members who are United States district judges or circuit judges.
(ii) Members of a management panel may include any United States district judge or circuit judge of another district court or court of appeals, if the chief judge of such other district court or court of appeals consents to such assignment.
(C)
It shall be the function of each management panel—
(i) to consolidate related or similar claims for hearing or trial;
(ii) to establish priorities for the handling of different classes of cases;
(iii) to assign cases to a particular judge or special master;
(iv) to appoint special masters to hear particular types of cases, or particular elements or procedural steps of cases;
(v) to promulgate special rules of court, not inconsistent with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, to expedite cases or allow more equitable consideration of claims;
(vi) to implement such other measures, consistent with existing law and the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, as will encourage the equitable, prompt, and efficient resolution of cases arising out of the nuclear incident; and
(vii) to assemble and submit to the President such data, available to the court, as may be useful in estimating the aggregate damages from the nuclear incident.
(o)
Plan for distribution of funds
(1)
Whenever the United States district court in the district where a nuclear incident occurs, or the United States District Court for the District of Columbia in case of a nuclear incident occurring outside the United States, determines upon the petition of any indemnitor or other interested person that public liability from a single nuclear incident may exceed the limit of liability under the applicable limit of liability under subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of subsection (e)(1):
(A) Total payments made by or for all indemnitors as a result of such nuclear incident shall not exceed 15 per centum of such limit of liability without the prior approval of such court;
(B) The court shall not authorize payments in excess of 15 per centum of such limit of liability unless the court determines that such payments are or will be in accordance with a plan of distribution which has been approved by the court or such payments are not likely to prejudice the subsequent adoption and implementation by the court of a plan of distribution pursuant to subparagraph (C); and
(C) The Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, shall, and any other indemnitor or other interested person may, submit to such district court a plan for the disposition of pending claims and for the distribution of remaining funds available. Such a plan shall include an allocation of appropriate amounts for personal injury claims, property damage claims, and possible latent injury claims which may not be discovered until a later time and shall include establishment of priorities between claimants and classes of claims, as necessary to insure the most equitable allocation of available funds. Such court shall have all power necessary to approve, disapprove, or modify plans proposed, or to adopt another plan; and to determine the proportionate share of funds available for each claimant. The Commission or the Secretary as appropriate, any other indemnitor, and any person indemnified shall be entitled to such orders as may be appropriate to implement and enforce the provisions of this section, including orders limiting the liability of the persons indemnified, orders approving or modifying the plan, orders staying the payment of claims and the execution of court judgments, orders apportioning the payments to be made to claimants, and orders permitting partial payments to be made before final determination of the total claims. The orders of such court shall be effective throughout the United States.
(D) A court may authorize payment of only such legal costs as are permitted under paragraph (2) from the amount of financial protection required by subsection (b).
(E) If the sum of public liability claims and legal costs authorized under paragraph (2) arising from any nuclear incident exceeds the maximum amount of financial protection required under subsection (b), any licensee required to pay a standard deferred premium under subsection (b)(1) shall, in addition to such deferred premium, be charged such an amount as is necessary to pay a pro rata share of such claims and costs, but in no case more than 5 percent of the maximum amount of such standard deferred premium described in such subsection.
(2)
A court may authorize the payment of legal costs under paragraph (1)(D) only if the person requesting such payment has—
(A) submitted to the court the amount of such payment requested; and
(B)
demonstrated to the court—
(i) that such costs are reasonable and equitable; and
(ii)
that such person has—
(I) litigated in good faith;(II) avoided unnecessary duplication of effort with that of other parties similarly situated;(III) not made frivolous claims or defenses; and(IV) not attempted to unreasonably delay the prompt settlement or adjudication of such claims.
(p)
Reports to Congress

The Commission and the Secretary shall submit to the Congress by December 31, 2021, detailed reports concerning the need for continuation or modification of the provisions of this section, taking into account the condition of the nuclear industry, availability of private insurance, and the state of knowledge concerning nuclear safety at that time, among other relevant factors, and shall include recommendations as to the repeal or modification of any of the provisions of this section.

(q)
Limitation on awarding of precautionary evacuation costs

No court may award costs of a precautionary evacuation unless such costs constitute a public liability.

(r)
Limitation on liability of lessors

No person under a bona fide lease of any utilization or production facility (or part thereof or undivided interest therein) shall be liable by reason of an interest as lessor of such production or utilization facility, for any legal liability arising out of or resulting from a nuclear incident resulting from such facility, unless such facility is in the actual possession and control of such person at the time of the nuclear incident giving rise to such legal liability.

(s)
Limitation on punitive damages

No court may award punitive damages in any action with respect to a nuclear incident or precautionary evacuation against a person on behalf of whom the United States is obligated to make payments under an agreement of indemnification covering such incident or evacuation.

(t)
Inflation adjustment
(1)
The Commission shall adjust the amount of the maximum total and annual standard deferred premium under subsection (b)(1) not less than once during each 5-year period following August 20, 2003, in accordance with the aggregate percentage change in the Consumer Price Index since—
(A)August 20, 2003, in the case of the first adjustment under this subsection; or
(B) the previous adjustment under this subsection.
(2)
The Secretary shall adjust the amount of indemnification provided under an agreement of indemnification under subsection (d) not less than once during each 5-year period following July 1, 2003, in accordance with the aggregate percentage change in the Consumer Price Index since—
(A) that date, in the case of the first adjustment under this paragraph; or
(B) the previous adjustment under this paragraph.
(3) For purposes of this subsection, the term “Consumer Price Index” means the Consumer Price Index for all urban consumers published by the Secretary of Labor.
(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, § 170, as added Pub. L. 85–256, § 4, Sept. 2, 1957, 71 Stat. 576; amended Pub. L. 85–602, §§ 2, 2[3], Aug. 8, 1958, 72 Stat. 525; Pub. L. 85–744, Aug. 23, 1958, 72 Stat. 837; Pub. L. 87–206, § 15, Sept. 6, 1961, 75 Stat. 479; Pub. L. 87–615, §§ 6, 7, Aug. 29, 1962, 76 Stat. 410; Pub. L. 88–394, §§ 2, 3, Aug. 1, 1964, 78 Stat. 376; Pub. L. 89–210, §§ 1–5, Sept. 29, 1965, 79 Stat. 855–857; Pub. L. 89–645, §§ 2, 3, Oct. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 891; Pub. L. 94–197, §§ 2–14, Dec. 31, 1975, 89 Stat. 1111–1115; Pub. L. 100–408, §§ 2–4(a), 5(c)–11(a), (c), (d)(1), 12–15, 16(a)(2), (b)(3)–(c), (d)(4)–(e), Aug. 20, 1988, 102 Stat. 1066–1068, 1070–1080; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, § 902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; Pub. L. 105–362, title XII, § 1201(b), Nov. 10, 1998, 112 Stat. 3292; Pub. L. 107–314, div. C, title XXXI, § 3171, Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2743; Pub. L. 108–7, div. O, § 101, Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 551; Pub. L. 108–375, div. C, title XXXI, § 3141, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2171; Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, §§ 602–608, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 779–781; Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, § 612(c), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1410.)
§ 2210a.
Conflicts of interest relating to contracts and other arrangements
(a)
Disclosure requirements
The Commission shall, by rule, require any person proposing to enter into a contract, agreement, or other arrangement, whether by competitive bid or negotiation, under this chapter or any other law administered by it for the conduct of research, development, evaluation activities, or for technical and management
(1) being able to render impartial, technically sound, or objective assistance or advice in light of other activities or relationships with other persons, or
(2) being given an unfair competitive advantage. Such person shall insure, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Commission, compliance with this section by any subcontractor (other than a supply subcontractor) of such person in the case of any subcontract for more than $10,000.
(b)
Evaluation
(1)
In general
Except as provided in paragraph (2), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission shall not enter into any such contract agreement or arrangement unless it finds, after evaluating all information provided under subsection (a) and any other information otherwise available to the Commission that—
(A) it is unlikely that a conflict of interest would exist, or
(B) such conflict has been avoided after appropriate conditions have been included in such contract, agreement, or arrangement; except that if the Commission determines that such conflict of interest exists and that such conflict of interest cannot be avoided by including appropriate conditions therein, the Commission may enter into such contract, agreement, or arrangement, if the Commission determines that it is in the best interests of the United States to do so and includes appropriate conditions in such contract, agreement, or arrangement to mitigate such conflict.
(2)
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Notwithstanding any conflict of interest, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission may enter into a contract, agreement, or arrangement with the Department of Energy or the operator of a Department of Energy facility, if the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines that—
(A) the conflict of interest cannot be mitigated; and
(B) adequate justification exists to proceed without mitigation of the conflict of interest.
(c)
Promulgation and publication of rules

The Commission shall publish rules for the implementation of this section, in accordance with section 553 of title 5 (without regard to subsection (a)(2) thereof) as soon as practicable after November 6, 1978, but in no event later than 120 days after such date.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, § 170A, as added Pub. L. 95–601, § 8(a), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2950; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, § 902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; amended Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, § 639, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 794.)
§ 2210b.
Uranium supply
(a)
Assessment of domestic uranium industry viability; monitoring and reporting requirements; criteria; implementation by rules and regulations

The Secretary of Energy shall monitor and for the years 1983 to 1992 report annually to the Congress and to the President a determination of the viability of the domestic uranium mining and milling industry and shall establish by rule, after public notice and in accordance with the requirements of section 2231 of this title, within 9 months of January 4, 1983, specific criteria which shall be assessed in the annual reports on the domestic uranium industry’s viability. The Secretary of Energy is authorized to issue regulations providing for the collection of such information as the Secretary of Energy deems necessary to carry out the monitoring and reporting requirements of this section.

(b)
Disclosure of information

Upon a satisfactory showing to the Secretary of Energy by any person that any information, or portion thereof obtained under this section, would, if made public, divulge proprietary information of such person, the Secretary shall not disclose such information and disclosure thereof shall be punishable under section 1905 of title 18.

(c)
Criteria for monitoring and reporting requirements
The criteria referred to in subsection (a) shall also include, but not be limited to—
(1) an assessment of whether executed contracts or options for source material or special nuclear material will result in greater than 37½ percent of actual or projected domestic uranium requirements for any two-consecutive-year period being supplied by source material or special nuclear material from foreign sources;
(2) projections of uranium requirements and inventories of domestic utilities for a 10 year period;
(3) present and probable future use of the domestic market by foreign imports;
(4) whether domestic economic reserves can supply all future needs for a future 10 year period;
(5) present and projected domestic uranium exploration expenditures and plans;
(6) present and projected employment and capital investment in the uranium industry;
(7) the level of domestic uranium production capacity sufficient to meet projected domestic nuclear power needs for a 10 year period; and
(8) a projection of domestic uranium production and uranium price levels which will be in effect under various assumptions with respect to imports.
(d)
Excessive imports; investigation by United States International Trade Commission

The Secretary or 1

1 So in original. Probably should be “of”.
Energy, at any time, may determine on the basis of the monitoring and annual reports required under this section that source material or special nuclear material from foreign sources is being imported in such increased quantities as to be a substantial cause of serious injury, or threat thereof, to the United States uranium mining and milling industry. Based on that determination, the United States Trade Representative shall request that the United States International Trade Commission initiate an investigation under section 2251 2
2 See References in Text note below.
of title 19.

(e)
Excessive imports for contracts or options as threatening national security; investigation by Secretary of Commerce; recommendation for further investigation
(1) If, during the period 1982 to 1992, the Secretary of Energy determines that executed contracts or options for source material or special nuclear material from foreign sources for use in utilization facilities within or under the jurisdiction of the United States represent greater than 37½ percent of actual or projected domestic uranium requirements for any two-consecutive-year period, or if the Secretary of Energy determines the level of contracts or options involving source material and special nuclear material from foreign sources may threaten to impair the national security, the Secretary of Energy shall request the Secretary of Commerce to initiate under section 1862 of title 19 an investigation to determine the effects on the national security of imports of source material and special nuclear material. The Secretary of Energy shall cooperate fully with the Secretary of Commerce in carrying out such an investigation and shall make available to the Secretary of Commerce the findings that lead to this request and such other information that will assist the Secretary of Commerce in the conduct of the investigation.
(2) The Secretary of Commerce shall, in the conduct of any investigation requested by the Secretary of Energy pursuant to this section, take into account any information made available by the Secretary of Energy, including information regarding the impact on national security of projected or executed contracts or options for source material or special nuclear material from foreign sources or whether domestic production capacity is sufficient to supply projected national security requirements.
(3) No sooner than 3 years following completion of any investigation by the Secretary of Commerce under paragraph (1), if no recommendation has been made pursuant to such study for trade adjustments to assist or protect domestic uranium production, the Secretary of Energy may initiate a request for another such investigation by the Secretary of Commerce.
(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, § 170B, as added Pub. L. 97–415, § 23(b)(1), Jan. 4, 1983, 96 Stat. 2081; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, § 902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)
§ 2210c.
Elimination of pension offset for certain rehired Federal retirees
(a)
In general
The Commission may waive the application of section 8344 or 8468 of title 5 on a case-by-case basis for employment of an annuitant—
(1) in a position of the Commission for which there is exceptional difficulty in recruiting or retaining a qualified employee; or
(2) when a temporary emergency hiring need exists.
(b)
Procedures
The Commission shall prescribe procedures for the exercise of authority under this section, including—
(1) criteria for any exercise of authority; and
(2) procedures for a delegation of authority.
(c)
Effect of waiver

An employee as to whom a waiver under this section is in effect shall not be considered an employee for purposes of subchapter II of chapter 83, or chapter 84, of title 5.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, § 170C, as added Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, § 624(a), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 783.)
§ 2210d.
Security evaluations
(a)
Security response evaluations

Not less often than once every 3 years, the Commission shall conduct security evaluations at each licensed facility that is part of a class of licensed facilities, as the Commission considers to be appropriate, to assess the ability of a private security force of a licensed facility to defend against any applicable design basis threat.

(b)
Force-on-force exercises
(1) The security evaluations shall include force-on-force exercises.
(2) The force-on-force exercises shall, to the maximum extent practicable, simulate security threats in accordance with any design basis threat applicable to a facility.
(3) In conducting a security evaluation, the Commission shall mitigate any potential conflict of interest that could influence the results of a force-on-force exercise, as the Commission determines to be necessary and appropriate.
(c)
Action by licensees

The Commission shall ensure that an affected licensee corrects those material defects in performance that adversely affect the ability of a private security force at that facility to defend against any applicable design basis threat.

(d)
Facilities under heightened threat levels

The Commission may suspend a security evaluation under this section if the Commission determines that the evaluation would compromise security at a nuclear facility under a heightened threat level.

(e)
Report

Not less often than once each year, the Commission shall submit to the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives a report, in classified form and unclassified form, that describes the results of each security response evaluation conducted and any relevant corrective action taken by a licensee during the previous year.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, § 170D, as added Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, § 651(a)(1), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 799.)
§ 2210e.
Design basis threat rulemaking
(a)
Rulemaking
The Commission shall—
(1) not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this section, initiate a rulemaking proceeding, including notice and opportunity for public comment, to be completed not later than 18 months after that date, to revise the design basis threats of the Commission; or
(2) not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this section, complete any ongoing rulemaking to revise the design basis threats.
(b)
Factors
When conducting its rulemaking, the Commission shall consider the following, but not be limited to—
(1) the events of September 11, 2001;
(2) an assessment of physical, cyber, biochemical, and other terrorist threats;
(3) the potential for attack on facilities by multiple coordinated teams of a large number of individuals;
(4) the potential for assistance in an attack from several persons employed at the facility;
(5) the potential for suicide attacks;
(6) the potential for water-based and air-based threats;
(7) the potential use of explosive devices of considerable size and other modern weaponry;
(8) the potential for attacks by persons with a sophisticated knowledge of facility operations;
(9) the potential for fires, especially fires of long duration;
(10) the potential for attacks on spent fuel shipments by multiple coordinated teams of a large number of individuals;
(11) the adequacy of planning to protect the public health and safety at and around nuclear facilities, as appropriate, in the event of a terrorist attack against a nuclear facility; and
(12) the potential for theft and diversion of nuclear materials from such facilities.
(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, § 170E, as added Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, § 651(a)(1), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 799.)
§ 2210f.
Recruitment tools

The Commission may purchase promotional items of nominal value for use in the recruitment of individuals for employment.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, § 170F, as added Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, § 651(c)(2), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 801.)
§ 2210g.
Expenses authorized to be paid by the Commission
The Commission may—
(1)
pay transportation, lodging, and subsistence expenses of employees who—
(A) assist scientific, professional, administrative, or technical employees of the Commission; and
(B) are students in good standing at an institution of higher education (as defined in section 1002 of title 20) pursuing courses related to the field in which the students are employed by the Commission; and
(2) pay the costs of health and medical services furnished, pursuant to an agreement between the Commission and the Department of State, to employees of the Commission and dependents of the employees serving in foreign countries.
(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, § 170G, as added Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, § 651(c)(3), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 801.)
§ 2210h.
Radiation source protection
(a)
Definitions
In this section:
(1)
Code of conduct

The term “Code of Conduct” means the code entitled the “Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources”, approved by the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency and dated September 8, 2003.

(2)
Radiation source
The term “radiation source” means—
(A) a Category 1 Source or a Category 2 Source, as defined in the Code of Conduct; and
(B) any other material that poses a threat such that the material is subject to this section, as determined by the Commission, by regulation, other than spent nuclear fuel and special nuclear materials.
(b)
Commission approval
Not later than 180 days after August 8, 2005, the Commission shall issue regulations prohibiting a person from—
(1)
exporting a radiation source, unless the Commission has specifically determined under section 2077 or 2112 of this title, consistent with the Code of Conduct, with respect to the exportation, that—
(A) the recipient of the radiation source may receive and possess the radiation source under the laws and regulations of the country of the recipient;
(B) the recipient country has the appropriate technical and administrative capability, resources, and regulatory structure to ensure that the radiation source will be managed in a safe and secure manner; and
(C)
before the date on which the radiation source is shipped—
(i) a notification has been provided to the recipient country; and
(ii) a notification has been received from the recipient country;
as the Commission determines to be appropriate;
(2)
importing a radiation source, unless the Commission has determined, with respect to the importation, that—
(A) the proposed recipient is authorized by law to receive the radiation source; and
(B) the shipment will be made in accordance with any applicable Federal or State law or regulation; and
(3)
selling or otherwise transferring ownership of a radiation source, unless the Commission—
(A) has determined that the licensee has verified that the proposed recipient is authorized under law to receive the radiation source; and
(B) has required that the transfer shall be made in accordance with any applicable Federal or State law or regulation.
(c)
Tracking system
(1)
(A) Not later than 1 year after August 8, 2005, the Commission shall issue regulations establishing a mandatory tracking system for radiation sources in the United States.
(B) In establishing the tracking system under subparagraph (A), the Commission shall coordinate with the Secretary of Transportation to ensure compatibility, to the maximum extent practicable, between the tracking system and any system established by the Secretary of Transportation to track the shipment of radiation sources.
(2)
The tracking system under paragraph (1) shall—
(A) enable the identification of each radiation source by serial number or other unique identifier;
(B) require reporting within 7 days of any change of possession of a radiation source;
(C) require reporting within 24 hours of any loss of control of, or accountability for, a radiation source; and
(D) provide for reporting under subparagraphs (B) and (C) through a secure Internet connection.
(d)
Penalty

A violation of a regulation issued under subsection (a) or (b) shall be punishable by a civil penalty not to exceed $1,000,000.

(e)
National Academy of Sciences study
(1) Not later than 60 days after August 8, 2005, the Commission shall enter into an arrangement with the National Academy of Sciences under which the National Academy of Sciences shall conduct a study of industrial, research, and commercial uses for radiation sources.
(2)
The study under paragraph (1) shall include a review of uses of radiation sources in existence on the date on which the study is conducted, including an identification of any industrial or other process that—
(A) uses a radiation source that could be replaced with an economically and technically equivalent (or improved) process that does not require the use of a radiation source; or
(B) may be used with a radiation source that would pose a lower risk to public health and safety in the event of an accident or attack involving the radiation source.
(3) Not later than 2 years after August 8, 2005, the Commission shall submit to Congress the results of the study under paragraph (1).
(f)
Task force on radiation source protection and security
(1) There is established a task force on radiation source protection and security (referred to in this section as the “task force”).
(2)
(A) The chairperson of the task force shall be the Chairperson of the Commission (or a designee).
(B)
The membership of the task force shall consist of the following:
(i) The Secretary of Homeland Security (or a designee).
(ii) The Secretary of Defense (or a designee).
(iii) The Secretary of Energy (or a designee).
(iv) The Secretary of Transportation (or a designee).
(v) The Attorney General (or a designee).
(vi) The Secretary of State (or a designee).
(vii) The Director of National Intelligence (or a designee).
(viii) The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (or a designee).
(ix) The Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (or a designee).
(x) The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (or a designee).
(xi) The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (or a designee).
(3)
(A) The task force, in consultation with Federal, State, and local agencies, the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, and the Organization of Agreement States, and after public notice and an opportunity for comment, shall evaluate, and provide recommendations relating to, the security of radiation sources in the United States from potential terrorist threats, including acts of sabotage, theft, or use of a radiation source in a radiological dispersal device.
(B)
Not later than 1 year after August 8, 2005, and not less than once every 4 years thereafter, the task force shall submit to Congress and the President a report, in unclassified form with a classified annex if necessary, providing recommendations, including recommendations for appropriate regulatory and legislative changes, for—
(i)
a list of additional radiation sources that should be required to be secured under this chapter, based on the potential attractiveness of the sources to terrorists and the extent of the threat to public health and safety of the sources, taking into consideration—
(I) radiation source radioactivity levels;(II) radioactive half-life of a radiation source;(III) dispersability;(IV) chemical and material form;(V) for radioactive materials with a medical use, the availability of the sources to physicians and patients for medical treatment; and(VI) any other factor that the Chairperson of the Commission determines to be appropriate;
(ii) the establishment of, or modifications to, a national system for recovery of lost or stolen radiation sources;
(iii) the storage of radiation sources that are not used in a safe and secure manner as of the date on which the report is submitted;
(iv) modifications to the national tracking system for radiation sources;
(v) the establishment of, or modifications to, a national system (including user fees and other methods) to provide for the proper disposal of radiation sources secured under this chapter;
(vi) modifications to export controls on radiation sources to ensure that foreign recipients of radiation sources are able and willing to adequately control radiation sources from the United States;
(vii)(I) any alternative technologies available as of the date on which the report is submitted that may perform some or all of the functions performed by devices or processes that employ radiation sources; and(II)
the establishment of appropriate regulations and incentives for the replacement of the devices and processes described in subclause (I)—
(aa) with alternative technologies in order to reduce the number of radiation sources in the United States; or(bb) with radiation sources that would pose a lower risk to public health and safety in the event of an accident or attack involving the radiation source; and
(viii)
the creation of, or modifications to, procedures for improving the security of use, transportation, and storage of radiation sources, including—
(I) periodic audits or inspections by the Commission to ensure that radiation sources are properly secured and can be fully accounted for;(II) evaluation of the security measures by the Commission;(III) increased fines for violations of Commission regulations relating to security and safety measures applicable to licensees that possess radiation sources;(IV) criminal and security background checks for certain individuals with access to radiation sources (including individuals involved with transporting radiation sources);(V) requirements for effective and timely exchanges of information relating to the results of criminal and security background checks between the Commission and any State with which the Commission has entered into an agreement under section 2021(b) of this title;(VI) assurances of the physical security of facilities that contain radiation sources (including facilities used to temporarily store radiation sources being transported); and(VII) the screening of shipments to facilities that the Commission determines to be particularly at risk for sabotage of radiation sources to ensure that the shipments do not contain explosives.
(g)
Action by Commission
Not later than 60 days after the date of receipt by Congress and the President of a report under subsection (f)(3)(B), the Commission, in accordance with the recommendations of the task force, shall—
(1) take any action the Commission determines to be appropriate, including revising the system of the Commission for licensing radiation sources; and
(2) ensure that States that have entered into agreements with the Commission under section 2021(b) of this title take similar action in a timely manner.
(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, § 170H, as added Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, § 651(d)(1), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 802; amended Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, § 612(c), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1410.)
§ 2210i.
Secure transfer of nuclear materials
(a) The Commission shall establish a system to ensure that materials described in subsection (b), when transferred or received in the United States by any party pursuant to an import or export license issued pursuant to this chapter, are accompanied by a manifest describing the type and amount of materials being transferred or received. Each individual receiving or accompanying the transfer of such materials shall be subject to a security background check conducted by appropriate Federal entities.
(b) Except as otherwise provided by the Commission by regulation, the materials referred to in subsection (a) are byproduct materials, source materials, special nuclear materials, high-level radioactive waste, spent nuclear fuel, transuranic waste, and low-level radioactive waste (as defined in section 10101(16) of this title).
(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, § 170I, as added Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, § 656(a), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 813.)
§ 2211.
Payment of claims or judgments for damage resulting from nuclear incident involving nuclear reactor of United States warship; exception; terms and conditions

It is the policy of the United States that it will pay claims or judgments for bodily injury, death, or damage to or loss of real or personal property proven to have resulted from a nuclear incident involving the nuclear reactor of a United States warship: Provided, That the injury, death, damage, or loss was not caused by the act of an armed force engaged in combat or as a result of civil insurrection. The President may authorize, under such terms and conditions as he may direct, the payment of such claims or judgments from any contingency funds available to the Government or may certify such claims or judgments to the Congress for appropriation of the necessary funds.

(Pub. L. 93–513, Dec. 6, 1974, 88 Stat. 1611.)
§ 2212.
Transferred
§ 2213.
Repealed. Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, § 637(b), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 791
§ 2214.
Repealed. Pub. L. 115–439, title I, § 101(b), Jan. 14, 2019, 132 Stat. 5568
§ 2215.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission user fees and annual charges for fiscal year 2021 and each fiscal year thereafter
(a)
Annual budget justification
(1)
In general

In the annual budget justification submitted by the Commission to Congress, the Commission shall expressly identify anticipated expenditures necessary for completion of the requested activities of the Commission anticipated to occur during the applicable fiscal year.

(2)
Restriction

Budget authority granted to the Commission for purposes of the requested activities of the Commission shall be used, to the maximum extent practicable, solely for conducting requested activities of the Commission.

(3)
Limitation on corporate support costs
With respect to the annual budget justification submitted to Congress, corporate support costs, to the maximum extent practicable, shall not exceed the following percentages of the total budget authority of the Commission requested in the annual budget justification:
(A) 30 percent for each of fiscal years 2021 and 2022.
(B) 29 percent for each of fiscal years 2023 and 2024.
(C) 28 percent for fiscal year 2025 and each fiscal year thereafter.
(b)
Fees and charges
(1)
Annual assessment
(A)
In general
Each fiscal year, the Commission shall assess and collect fees and charges in accordance with paragraphs (2) and (3) in a manner that ensures that, to the maximum extent practicable, the amount assessed and collected is equal to an amount that approximates—
(i) the total budget authority of the Commission for that fiscal year; less
(ii) the budget authority of the Commission for the activities described in subparagraph (B).
(B)
Excluded activities described
The activities referred to in subparagraph (A)(ii) are the following:
(i) Any fee relief activity, as identified by the Commission.
(ii)
Amounts appropriated for a fiscal year to the Commission—
(I) from the Nuclear Waste Fund established under section 10222(c) of this title;(II) for implementation of section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (50 U.S.C. 2601 note; 1
1 See References in Text below.
Public Law 108–375);
(III) for the homeland security activities of the Commission (other than for the costs of fingerprinting and background checks required under section 2169 of this title and the costs of conducting security inspections);(IV) for the Inspector General services of the Commission provided to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board;(V) for research and development at universities in areas relevant to the mission of the Commission; and(VI) for a nuclear science and engineering grant program that will support multiyear projects that do not align with programmatic missions but are critical to maintaining the discipline of nuclear science and engineering.
(iii) Costs for activities related to the development of regulatory infrastructure for advanced nuclear reactor technologies, including activities required under section 103.1
(C)
Exception

The exclusion described in subparagraph (B)(iii) shall cease to be effective on January 1, 2031.

(D)
Report

Not later than December 31, 2029, the Commission shall submit to the Committee on Appropriations and the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate and the Committee on Appropriations and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives a report describing the views of the Commission on the continued appropriateness and necessity of the funding described in subparagraph (B)(iii).

(2)
Fees for service or thing of value

In accordance with section 9701 of title 31, the Commission shall assess and collect fees from any person who receives a service or thing of value from the Commission to cover the costs to the Commission of providing the service or thing of value.

(3)
Annual charges
(A)
In general

Subject to subparagraph (B) and except as provided in subparagraph (D), the Commission may charge to any licensee or certificate holder of the Commission an annual charge in addition to the fees assessed and collected under paragraph (2).

(B)
Cap on annual charges of certain licensees
(i)
Operating reactors

The annual charge under subparagraph (A) charged to an operating reactor licensee, to the maximum extent practicable, shall not exceed the annual fee amount per operating reactor licensee established in the final rule of the Commission entitled “Revision of Fee Schedules; Fee Recovery for Fiscal Year 2015” (80 Fed. Reg. 37432 (June 30, 2015)), as may be adjusted annually by the Commission to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the Department of Labor.

(ii)
Waiver

The Commission may waive, for a period of 1 year, the cap on annual charges described in clause (i) if the Commission submits to the Committee on Appropriations and the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate and the Committee on Appropriations and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives a written determination that the cap on annual charges may compromise the safety and security mission of the Commission.

(C)
Amount per licensee
(i)
In general

The Commission shall establish by rule a schedule of annual charges fairly and equitably allocating the aggregate amount of charges described in subparagraph (A) among licensees and certificate holders.

(ii)
Requirement
The schedule of annual charges under clause (i)—
(I) to the maximum extent practicable, shall be reasonably related to the cost of providing regulatory services; and(II) may be based on the allocation of the resources of the Commission among licensees or certificate holders or classes of licensees or certificate holders.
(D)
Exemption
(i)
Definition of research reactor
In this subparagraph, the term “research reactor” means a nuclear reactor that—
(I) is licensed by the Commission under section 2134(c) of this title for operation at a thermal power level of not more than 10 megawatts; and(II)
if licensed under subclause (I) for operation at a thermal power level of more than 1 megawatt, does not contain—
(aa)(bb) a liquid fuel loading; or(cc) an experimental facility in the core in excess of 16 square inches in cross-section.
(ii)
Exemption

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to the holder of any license for a federally owned research reactor used primarily for educational training and academic research purposes.

(c)
Performance and reporting
(1)
In general
Not later than 180 days after January 14, 2019, the Commission shall develop for the requested activities of the Commission—
(A) performance metrics; and
(B) milestone schedules.
(2)
Delays in issuance of final safety evaluation

The Executive Director for Operations of the Commission shall inform the Commission of a delay in issuance of the final safety evaluation for a requested activity of the Commission by the completion date required by the performance metrics or milestone schedule under paragraph (1) by not later than 30 days after the completion date.

(3)
Delays in issuance of final safety evaluation exceeding 180 days

If the final safety evaluation for the requested activity of the Commission described in paragraph (2) is not completed by the date that is 180 days after the completion date required by the performance metrics or milestone schedule under paragraph (1), the Commission shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a timely report describing the delay, including a detailed explanation accounting for the delay and a plan for timely completion of the final safety evaluation.

(d)
Accurate invoicing
With respect to invoices for fees described in subsection (b)(2), the Commission shall—
(1) ensure appropriate review and approval prior to the issuance of invoices;
(2) develop and implement processes to audit invoices to ensure accuracy, transparency, and fairness; and
(3) modify regulations to ensure fair and appropriate processes to provide licensees and applicants an opportunity to efficiently dispute or otherwise seek review and correction of errors in invoices for those fees.
(e)
Report

Not later than September 30, 2021, the Commission shall submit to the Committee on Appropriations and the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate and the Committee on Appropriations and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives a report describing the implementation of this section, including any impacts and recommendations for improvement.

(f)
Effective date

Except as provided in subsection (c), this section takes effect on October 1, 2020.

(Pub. L. 115–439, title I, § 102, Jan. 14, 2019, 132 Stat. 5568.)