- § 264. Regulations to control communicable diseases
- § 265. Suspension of entries and imports from designated places to prevent spread of communicable diseases
- § 266. Special quarantine powers in time of war
- § 267. Quarantine stations, grounds, and anchorages
- § 268. Quarantine duties of consular and other officers
- § 269. Bills of health
- § 270. Quarantine regulations governing civil air navigation and civil aircraft
- § 271. Penalties for violation of quarantine laws
- § 272. Administration of oaths by quarantine officers
The Surgeon General, with the approval of the Secretary, is authorized to make and enforce such regulations as in his judgment are necessary to prevent the introduction, transmission, or spread of communicable diseases from foreign countries into the States or possessions, or from one State or possession into any other State or possession. For purposes of carrying out and enforcing such regulations, the Surgeon General may provide for such inspection, fumigation, disinfection, sanitation, pest extermination, destruction of animals or articles found to be so infected or contaminated as to be sources of dangerous infection to human beings, and other measures, as in his judgment may be necessary.
Regulations prescribed under this section shall not provide for the apprehension, detention, or conditional release of individuals except for the purpose of preventing the introduction, transmission, or spread of such communicable diseases as may be specified from time to time in Executive orders of the President upon the recommendation of the Secretary, in consultation with the Surgeon General,1
Except as provided in subsection (d), regulations prescribed under this section, insofar as they provide for the apprehension, detention, examination, or conditional release of individuals, shall be applicable only to individuals coming into a State or possession from a foreign country or a possession.
Nothing in this section or section 266 of this title, or the regulations promulgated under such sections, may be construed as superseding any provision under State law (including regulations and including provisions established by political subdivisions of States), except to the extent that such a provision conflicts with an exercise of Federal authority under this section or section 266 of this title.
Whenever the Surgeon General determines that by reason of the existence of any communicable disease in a foreign country there is serious danger of the introduction of such disease into the United States, and that this danger is so increased by the introduction of persons or property from such country that a suspension of the right to introduce such persons and property is required in the interest of the public health, the Surgeon General, in accordance with regulations approved by the President, shall have the power to prohibit, in whole or in part, the introduction of persons and property from such countries or places as he shall designate in order to avert such danger, and for such period of time as he may deem necessary for such purpose.
To protect the military and naval forces and war workers of the United States, in time of war, against any communicable disease specified in Executive orders as provided in subsection (b) of section 264 of this title, the Secretary, in consultation with the Surgeon General, is authorized to provide by regulations for the apprehension and examination, in time of war, of any individual reasonably believed (1) to be infected with such disease and (2) to be a probable source of infection to members of the armed forces of the United States or to individuals engaged in the production or transportation of arms, munitions, ships, food, clothing, or other supplies for the armed forces. Such regulations may provide that if upon examination any such individual is found to be so infected, he may be detained for such time and in such manner as may be reasonably necessary.
Except as provided in title II 1
The Surgeon General shall establish the hours during which quarantine service shall be performed at each quarantine station, and, upon application by any interested party, may establish quarantine inspection during the twenty-four hours of the day, or any fraction thereof, at such quarantine stations as, in his opinion, require such extended service. He may restrict the performance of quarantine inspection to hours of daylight for such arriving vessels as cannot, in his opinion, be satisfactorily inspected during hours of darkness. No vessel shall be required to undergo quarantine inspection during the hours of darkness, unless the quarantine officer at such quarantine station shall deem an immediate inspection necessary to protect the public health. Uniformity shall not be required in the hours during which quarantine inspection may be obtained at the various ports of the United States.
The Surgeon General shall fix a reasonable rate of extra compensation for overtime services of employees of the United States Public Health Service, Foreign Quarantine Division, performing overtime duties including the operation of vessels, in connection with the inspection or quarantine treatment of persons (passengers and crews), conveyances, or goods arriving by land, water, or air in the United States or any place subject to the jurisdiction thereof, hereinafter referred to as “employees of the Public Health Service”, when required to be on duty between the hours of 6 o’clock postmeridian and 6 o’clock antemeridian (or between the hours of 7 o’clock postmeridian and 7 o’clock antemeridian at stations which have a declared workday of from 7 o’clock antemeridian to 7 o’clock postmeridian), or on Sundays or holidays, such rate, in lieu of compensation under any other provision of law, to be fixed at two times the basic hourly rate for each hour that the overtime extends beyond 6 o’clock (or 7 o’clock as the case may be) postmeridian, and two times the basic hourly rate for each overtime hour worked on Sundays or holidays. As used in this subsection, the term “basic hourly rate” shall mean the regular basic rate of pay which is applicable to such employees for work performed within their regular scheduled tour of duty.
Except as otherwise prescribed in regulations, any vessel at any foreign port or place clearing or departing for any port or place in a State or possession shall be required to obtain from the consular officer of the United States or from the Public Health Service officer, or other medical officer of the United States designated by the Surgeon General, at the port or place of departure, a bill of health in duplicate, in the form prescribed by the Surgeon General. The President, from time to time, shall specify the ports at which a medical officer shall be stationed for this purpose. Such bill of health shall set forth the sanitary history and condition of said vessel, and shall state that it has in all respects complied with the regulations prescribed pursuant to subsection (c). Before granting such duplicate bill of health, such consular or medical officer shall be satisfied that the matters and things therein stated are true. The consular officer shall be entitled to demand and receive the fees for bills of health and such fees shall be established by regulation.
Original bills of health shall be delivered to the collectors of customs at the port of entry. Duplicate copies of such bills of health shall be delivered at the time of inspection to quarantine officers at such port. The bills of health herein prescribed shall be considered as part of the ship’s papers, and when duly certified to by the proper consular or other officer of the United States, over his official signature and seal, shall be accepted as evidence of the statements therein contained in any court of the United States.
The Surgeon General shall from time to time prescribe regulations, applicable to vessels referred to in subsection (a) of this section for the purpose of preventing the introduction into the States or possessions of the United States of any communicable disease by securing the best sanitary condition of such vessels, their cargoes, passengers, and crews. Such regulations shall be observed by such vessels prior to departure, during the course of the voyage, and also during inspection, disinfection, or other quarantine procedure upon arrival at any United States quarantine station.
The provisions of subsections (a) and (b) of this section shall not apply to vessels plying between such foreign ports on or near the frontiers of the United States and ports of the United States as are designated by treaty.
It shall be unlawful for any vessel to enter any port in any State or possession of the United States to discharge its cargo, or land its passengers, except upon a certificate of the quarantine officer that regulations prescribed under subsection (c) have in all respects been complied with by such officer, the vessel, and its master. The master of every such vessel shall deliver such certificate to the collector of customs at the port of entry, together with the original bill of health and other papers of the vessel. The certificate required by this subsection shall be procurable from the quarantine officer, upon arrival of the vessel at the quarantine station and satisfactory inspection thereof, at any time within which quarantine services are performed at such station.
The Surgeon General is authorized to provide by regulations for the application to air navigation and aircraft of any of the provisions of sections 267 to 269 of this title and regulations prescribed thereunder (including penalties and forfeitures for violations of such sections and regulations), to such extent and upon such conditions as he deems necessary for the safeguarding of the public health.
Any person who violates any regulation prescribed under sections 264 to 266 of this title, or any provision of section 269 of this title or any regulation prescribed thereunder, or who enters or departs from the limits of any quarantine station, ground, or anchorage in disregard of quarantine rules and regulations or without permission of the quarantine officer in charge, shall be punished by a fine of not more than $1,000 or by imprisonment for not more than one year, or both.
Any vessel which violates section 269 of this title, or any regulations thereunder or under section 267 of this title, or which enters within or departs from the limits of any quarantine station, ground, or anchorage in disregard of the quarantine rules and regulations or without permission of the officer in charge, shall forfeit to the United States not more than $5,000, the amount to be determined by the court, which shall be a lien on such vessel, to be recovered by proceedings in the proper district court of the United States. In all such proceedings the United States attorney shall appear on behalf of the United States; and all such proceedings shall be conducted in accordance with the rules and laws governing cases of seizure of vessels for violation of the revenue laws of the United States.
With the approval of the Secretary, the Surgeon General may, upon application therefor, remit or mitigate any forfeiture provided for under subsection (b) of this section, and he shall have authority to ascertain the facts upon all such applications.
Medical officers of the United States, when performing duties as quarantine officers at any port or place within the United States, are authorized to take declarations and administer oaths in matters pertaining to the administration of the quarantine laws and regulations of the United States.