Collapse to view only § 421. Disability determinations

§ 401.
Trust Funds
(a)
Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund
There is hereby created on the books of the Treasury of the United States a trust fund to be known as the “Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund”. The Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund shall consist of the securities held by the Secretary of the Treasury for the Old-Age Reserve Account and the amount standing to the credit of the Old-Age Reserve Account on the books of the Treasury on January 1, 1940, which securities and amount the Secretary of the Treasury is authorized and directed to transfer to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund, and, in addition, such gifts and bequests as may be made as provided in subsection (i)(1), and such amounts as may be appropriated to, or deposited in, the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund as hereinafter provided. There is hereby appropriated to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1941, and for each fiscal year thereafter, out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, amounts equivalent to 100 per centum of—
(1) the taxes (including interest, penalties, and additions to the taxes) received under subchapter A of chapter 9 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 (and covered into the Treasury) which are deposited into the Treasury by collectors of internal revenue before January 1, 1951; and
(2) the taxes certified each month by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue as taxes received under subchapter A of chapter 9 of such Code which are deposited into the Treasury by collectors of internal revenue after December 31, 1950, and before January 1, 1953, with respect to assessments of such taxes made before January 1, 1951; and
(3) the taxes imposed by subchapter A of chapter 9 of such Code with respect to wages (as defined in section 1426 of such Code), and by chapter 21 (other than sections 3101(b) and 3111(b)) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 with respect to wages (as defined in section 3121 of such Code) reported to the Commissioner of Internal Revenue pursuant to section 1420(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 after December 31, 1950, or to the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegates pursuant to subtitle F of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 after December 31, 1954, as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury by applying the applicable rates of tax under such subchapter or chapter 21 (other than sections 3101(b) and 3111(b)) to such wages, which wages shall be certified by the Commissioner of Social Security on the basis of the records of wages established and maintained by such Commissioner in accordance with such reports, less the amounts specified in clause (1) of subsection (b) of this section; and
(4) the taxes imposed by subchapter E of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, with respect to self-employment income (as defined in section 481 of such Code), and by chapter 2 (other than section 1401(b)) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 with respect to self-employment income (as defined in section 1402 of such Code) reported to the Commissioner of Internal Revenue on tax returns under such subchapter or to the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate on tax returns under subtitle F of such Code, as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury by applying the applicable rate of tax under such subchapter or chapter (other than section 1401(b)) to such self-employment income, which self-employment income shall be certified by the Commissioner of Social Security on the basis of the records of self-employment income established and maintained by the Commissioner of Social Security in accordance with such returns, less the amounts specified in clause (2) of subsection (b) of this section.
The amounts appropriated by clauses (3) and (4) of this subsection shall be transferred from time to time from the general fund in the Treasury to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund, and the amounts appropriated by clauses (1) and (2) of subsection (b) shall be transferred from time to time from the general fund in the Treasury to the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, such amounts to be determined on the basis of estimates by the Secretary of the Treasury of the taxes, specified in clauses (3) and (4) of this subsection, paid to or deposited into the Treasury; and proper adjustments shall be made in amounts subsequently transferred to the extent prior estimates were in excess of or were less than the taxes specified in such clauses (3) and (4) of this subsection. All amounts transferred to either Trust Fund under the preceding sentence shall be invested by the Managing Trustee in the same manner and to the same extent as the other assets of such Trust Fund. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, in any case in which the Secretary of the Treasury determines that the assets of either such Trust Fund would otherwise be inadequate to meet such Fund’s obligations for any month, the Secretary of the Treasury shall transfer to such Trust Fund on the first day of such month the amount which would have been transferred to such Fund under this section as in effect on October 1, 1990; and such Trust Fund shall pay interest to the general fund on the amount so transferred on the first day of any month at a rate (calculated on a daily basis, and applied against the difference between the amount so transferred on such first day and the amount which would have been transferred to the Trust Fund up to that day under the procedures in effect on January 1, 1983) equal to the rate earned by the investments of such Fund in the same month under subsection (d).
(b)
Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund
There is hereby created on the books of the Treasury of the United States a trust fund to be known as the “Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund”. The Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund shall consist of such gifts and bequests as may be made as provided in subsection (i)(1), and such amounts as may be appropriated to, or deposited in, such fund as provided in this section. There is hereby appropriated to the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1957, and for each fiscal year thereafter, out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, amounts equivalent to 100 per centum of—
(1)
(A) ½ of 1 per centum of the wages (as defined in section 3121 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954) paid after December 31, 1956, and before January 1, 1966, and reported to the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate pursuant to subtitle F of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, (B) 0.70 of 1 per centum of the wages (as so defined) paid after December 31, 1965, and before January 1, 1968
(2)
(A) ⅜ of 1 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as defined in section 1402 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954) reported to the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate on tax returns under subtitle F of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1956, and before January 1, 1966, (B) 0.525 of 1 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1965, and before January 1, 1968, (C) 0.7125 of 1 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1967, and before January 1, 1970, (D) 0.825 of 1 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1969, and before January 1, 1973, (E) 0.795 of 1 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1972, and before January 1, 1974, (F) 0.815 of 1 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) as reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1973, and before January 1, 1978, (G) 1.090 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1977, and before January 1, 1979, (H) 1.0400 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1978, and before January 1, 1980, (I) 0.7775 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1979, and before January 1, 1981, (J) 0.9750 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1980, and before January 1, 1982, (K) 1.2375 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1981, and before January 1, 1983, (L) 0.9375 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1982, and before January 1, 1984, (M) 1.00 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1983, and before January 1, 1988, (N) 1.06 per centum of the self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1987, and before January 1, 1990, (O) 1.20 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1989, and before January 1, 1994, (P) 1.88 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1993, and before January 1, 1997, (Q) 1.70 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1996, and before January 1, 2000, (R) 1.80 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1999, and before January 1, 2016, (S) 2.37 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 2015, and before January 1, 2019, and (T) 1.80 per centum of the amount of self-employment income (as so defined) so reported for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 2018, which self-employment income shall be certified by the Commissioner of Social Security on the basis of the records of self-employment income established and maintained by the Commissioner of Social Security in accordance with such returns.
(c)
Board of Trustees; duties; reports to Congress
With respect to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund (hereinafter in this subchapter called the “Trust Funds”) there is hereby created a body to be known as the Board of Trustees of the Trust Funds (hereinafter in this subchapter called the “Board of Trustees”) which Board of Trustees shall be composed of the Commissioner of Social Security, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Labor, and the Secretary of Health and Human Services, all ex officio, and of two members of the public (both of whom may not be from the same political party), who shall be nominated by the President for a term of four years and subject to confirmation by the Senate. A member of the Board of Trustees serving as a member of the public and nominated and confirmed to fill a vacancy occurring during a term shall be nominated and confirmed only for the remainder of such term. An individual nominated and confirmed as a member of the public may serve in such position after the expiration of such member’s term until the earlier of the time at which the member’s successor takes office or the time at which a report of the Board is first issued under paragraph (2) after the expiration of the member’s term. The Secretary of the Treasury shall be the Managing Trustee of the Board of Trustees (hereinafter in this subchapter called the “Managing Trustee”). The Deputy Commissioner of Social Security shall serve as Secretary of the Board of Trustees. The Board of Trustees shall meet not less frequently than once each calendar year. It shall be the duty of the Board of Trustees to—
(1) Hold the Trust Funds;
(2) Report to the Congress not later than the first day of April of each year on the operation and status of the Trust Funds during the preceding fiscal year and on their expected operation and status during the next ensuing five fiscal years;
(3) Report immediately to the Congress whenever the Board of Trustees is of the opinion that the amount of either of the Trust Funds is unduly small;
(4) Recommend improvements in administrative procedures and policies designed to effectuate the proper coordination of the old-age and survivors insurance and Federal-State unemployment compensation program; and
(5) Review the general policies followed in managing the Trust Funds, and recommend changes in such policies, including necessary changes in the provisions of the law which govern the way in which the Trust Funds are to be managed.
The report provided for in paragraph (2) of this subsection shall include a statement of the assets of, and the disbursements made from, the Trust Funds during the preceding fiscal year, an estimate of the expected future income to, and disbursements to be made from, the Trust Funds during each of the next ensuing five fiscal years, and a statement of the actuarial status of the Trust Funds. Such statement shall include a finding by the Board of Trustees as to whether the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, individually and collectively, are in close actuarial balance (as defined by the Board of Trustees). Such report shall include an actuarial opinion by the Chief Actuary of the Social Security Administration certifying that the techniques and methodologies used are generally accepted within the actuarial profession and that the assumptions and cost estimates used are reasonable. Such report shall also include an actuarial analysis of the benefit disbursements made from the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund with respect to disabled beneficiaries. Such report shall be printed as a House document of the session of the Congress to which the report is made. A person serving on the Board of Trustees shall not be considered to be a fiduciary and shall not be personally liable for actions taken in such capacity with respect to the Trust Funds.
(d)
Investments

It shall be the duty of the Managing Trustee to invest such portion of the Trust Funds as is not, in his judgment, required to meet current withdrawals. Such investments may be made only in interest-bearing obligations of the United States or in obligations guaranteed as to both principal and interest by the United States. For such purpose such obligations may be acquired (1) on original issue at the issue price, or (2) by purchase of outstanding obligations at the market price. The purposes for which obligations of the United States may be issued under chapter 31 of title 31 are hereby extended to authorize the issuance at par of public-debt obligations for purchase by the Trust Funds. Such obligations issued for purchase by the Trust Funds shall have maturities fixed with due regard for the needs of the Trust Funds and shall bear interest at a rate equal to the average market yield (computed by the Managing Trustee on the basis of market quotations as of the end of the calendar month next preceding the date of such issue) on all marketable interest-bearing obligations of the United States then forming a part of the public debt which are not due or callable until after the expiration of four years from the end of such calendar month; except that where such average market yield is not a multiple of one-eighth of 1 per centum, the rate of interest of such obligations shall be the multiple of one-eighth of 1 per centum nearest such market yield. Each obligation issued for purchase by the Trust Funds under this subsection shall be evidenced by a paper instrument in the form of a bond, note, or certificate of indebtedness issued by the Secretary of the Treasury setting forth the principal amount, date of maturity, and interest rate of the obligation, and stating on its face that the obligation shall be incontestable in the hands of the Trust Fund to which it is issued, that the obligation is supported by the full faith and credit of the United States, and that the United States is pledged to the payment of the obligation with respect to both principal and interest. The Managing Trustee may purchase other interest-bearing obligations of the United States or obligations guaranteed as to both principal and interest by the United States, on original issue or at the market price, only where he determines that the purchase of such other obligations is in the public interest.

(e)
Sale of acquired obligations

Any obligations acquired by the Trust Funds (except public-debt obligations issued exclusively to the Trust Funds) may be sold by the Managing Trustee at the market price, and such public-debt obligations may be redeemed at par plus accrued interest.

(f)
Proceeds from sale or redemption of obligations; interest

The interest on, and the proceeds from the sale or redemption of, any obligations held in the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund shall be credited to and form a part of the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Disability Insurance Trust Fund, respectively. Payment from the general fund of the Treasury to either of the Trust Funds of any such interest or proceeds shall be in the form of paper checks drawn on such general fund to the order of such Trust Fund.

(g)
Payments into Treasury
(1)
(A)
The Managing Trustee of the Trust Funds (which for purposes of this paragraph shall include also the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund established by subchapter XVIII) is directed to pay from the Trust Funds into the Treasury—
(i)2
2 So in original. Two cls. (i) and (ii) have been enacted.
the amounts estimated by the Managing Trustee, the Commissioner of Social Security, and the Secretary of Health and Human Services which will be expended, out of moneys appropriated from the general fund in the Treasury, during a three-month period by the Department of Health and Human Services for the administration of subchapter XVIII of this chapter, and by the Department of the Treasury for the administration of subchapters II and XVIII of this chapter and chapters 2 and 21 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, less
(ii)1 the amounts estimated (pursuant to the applicable method prescribed under paragraph (4) of this subsection) by the Commissioner of Social Security which will be expended, out of moneys made available for expenditures from the Trust Funds, during such three-month period to cover the cost of carrying out the functions of the Social Security Administration, specified in section 432 of this title, which relate to the administration of provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 other than those referred to in clause (i) and the functions of the Social Security Administration in connection with the withholding of taxes from benefits, as described in section 407(c) of this title, pursuant to requests by persons entitled to such benefits or such persons’ representative payee.
Such payments shall be carried into the Treasury as the net amount of repayments due the general fund account for reimbursement of expenses incurred in connection with the administration of subchapters II and XVIII of this chapter and chapters 2 and 21 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986. A final accounting of such payments for any fiscal year shall be made at the earliest practicable date after the close thereof. There are hereby authorized to be made available for expenditure, out of any or all of the Trust Funds, such amounts as the Congress may deem appropriate to pay the costs of the part of the administration of this subchapter, subchapter VIII, subchapter XVI, and subchapter XVIII for which the Commissioner of Social Security is responsible, the costs of subchapter XVIII for which the Secretary of Health and Human Services is responsible, and the costs of carrying out the functions of the Social Security Administration, specified in section 432 of this title, which relate to the administration of provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 other than those referred to in clause (i) of the first sentence of this subparagraph and the functions of the Social Security Administration in connection with the withholding of taxes from benefits, as described in section 407(c) of this title, pursuant to requests by persons entitled to such benefits or such persons’ representative payee. Of the amounts authorized to be made available out of the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund under the preceding sentence, there are hereby authorized to be made available from either or both of such Trust Funds for continuing disability reviews—
(i)2 for fiscal year 1996, $260,000,000;
(ii)2 for fiscal year 1997, $360,000,000;
(iii) for fiscal year 1998, $570,000,000;
(iv) for fiscal year 1999, $720,000,000;
(v) for fiscal year 2000, $720,000,000;
(vi) for fiscal year 2001, $720,000,000; and
(viii)3
3 So in original. Probably should be “(vii)”.
for fiscal year 2002, $720,000,000.
For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “continuing disability review” means a review conducted pursuant to section 421(i) of this title and a review or disability eligibility redetermination conducted to determine the continuing disability and eligibility of a recipient of benefits under the supplemental security income program under subchapter XVI, including any review or redetermination conducted pursuant to section 207 or 208 of the Social Security Independence and Program Improvements Act of 1994 (Public Law 103–296).
(B)
After the close of each fiscal year—
(i)
the Commissioner of Social Security shall determine—
(I) the portion of the costs, incurred during such fiscal year, of administration of this subchapter, subchapter VIII, subchapter XVI, and subchapter XVIII for which the Commissioner is responsible and of carrying out the functions of the Social Security Administration, specified in section 432 of this title, which relate to the administration of provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (other than those referred to in clause (i) of the first sentence of subparagraph (A)) and the functions of the Social Security Administration in connection with the withholding of taxes from benefits, as described in section 407(c) of this title, pursuant to requests by persons entitled to such benefits or such persons’ representative payee, which should have been borne by the general fund of the Treasury,(II) the portion of such costs which should have been borne by the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund,(III) the portion of such costs which should have been borne by the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund,(IV) the portion of such costs which should have been borne by the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund, and(V) the portion of such costs which should have been borne by the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund (and, of such portion, the portion of such costs which should have been borne by the Medicare Prescription Drug Account in such Trust Fund), and
(ii)
the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall determine—
(I) the portion of the costs, incurred during such fiscal year, of the administration of subchapter XVIII for which the Secretary is responsible, which should have been borne by the general fund of the Treasury,(II) the portion of such costs which should have been borne by the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund, and(III) the portion of such costs which should have been borne by the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund (and, of such portion, the portion of such costs which should have been borne by the Medicare Prescription Drug Account in such Trust Fund).
(C)
After the determinations under subparagraph (B) have been made for any fiscal year, the Commisioner 4
4 So in original. Probably should be “Commissioner”.
of Social Security and the Secretary shall each certify to the Managing Trustee the amounts, if any, which should be transferred from one to any of the other such Trust Funds and the amounts, if any, which should be transferred between the Trust Funds (or one of the Trust Funds) and the general fund of the Treasury, in order to ensure that each of the Trust Funds and the general fund of the Treasury have borne their proper share of the costs, incurred during such fiscal year, for—
(i) the parts of the administration of this subchapter, subchapter VIII, subchapter XVI, and subchapter XVIII for which the Commissioner of Social Security is responsible,
(ii) the parts of the administration of subchapter XVIII for which the Secretary is responsible, and
(iii) carrying out the functions of the Social Security Administration, specified in section 432 of this title, which relate to the administration of provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (other than those referred to in clause (i) of the first sentence of subparagraph (A)) and the functions of the Social Security Administration in connection with the withholding of taxes from benefits, as described in section 407(c) of this title, pursuant to requests by persons entitled to such benefits or such persons’ representative payee.
The Managing Trustee shall transfer any such amounts in accordance with any certification so made.
(D) The determinations required under subclauses (IV) and (V) of subparagraph (B)(i) shall be made in accordance with the cost allocation methodology in existence on
(2) The Managing Trustee is directed to pay from time to time from the Trust Funds into the Treasury the amount estimated by him as taxes imposed under section 3101(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 which are subject to refund under section 6413(c) of such Code with respect to wages (as defined in section 3121 of such Code). Such taxes shall be determined on the basis of the records of wages maintained by the Commissioner of Social Security in accordance with the wages reported to the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate pursuant to subtitle F of such Code, and the Commissioner of Social Security shall furnish the Managing Trustee such information as may be required by the Trustee for such purpose. The payments by the Managing Trustee shall be covered into the Treasury as repayments to the account for refunding internal revenue collections. Payments pursuant to the first sentence of this paragraph shall be made from the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund in the ratio in which amounts were appropriated to such Trust Funds under clause (3) of subsection (a) of this section and clause (1) of subsection (b) of this section.
(3) Repayments made under paragraph (1) or (2) of this subsection shall not be available for expenditures but shall be carried to the surplus fund of the Treasury. If it subsequently appears that the estimates under either such paragraph in any particular period were too high or too low, appropriate adjustments shall be made by the Managing Trustee in future payments.
(4) The Commissioner of Social Security shall utilize the method prescribed pursuant to this paragraph, as in effect immediately before August 15, 1994, for determining the costs which should be borne by the general fund of the Treasury of carrying out the functions of the Commissioner, specified in section 432 of this title, which relate to the administration of provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (other than those referred to in clause (i) of the first sentence of paragraph (1)(A)). The Board of Trustees of such Trust Funds shall prescribe the method of determining the costs which should be borne by the general fund in the Treasury of carrying out the functions of the Social Security Administration in connection with the withholding of taxes from benefits, as described in section 407(c) of this title, pursuant to requests by persons entitled to such benefits or such persons’ representative payee. If at any time or times thereafter the Boards of Trustees of such Trust Funds consider such action advisable, they may modify the method of determining such costs.
(h)
Benefit payments

Benefit payments required to be made under section 423 of this title, and benefit payments required to be made under subsection (b), (c), or (d) of section 402 of this title to individuals entitled to benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an individual entitled to disability insurance benefits, shall be made only from the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund. All other benefit payments required to be made under this subchapter (other than section 426 of this title) shall be made only from the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund.

(i)
Gifts and bequests
(1) The Managing Trustee may accept on behalf of the United States money gifts and bequests made unconditionally to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund, the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund, or the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund (and for the Medicare Prescription Drug Account and the Transitional Assistance Account in such Trust Fund) or to the Social Security Administration, the Department of Health and Human Services, or any part or officer thereof, for the benefit of any of such Funds or any activity financed through such Funds.
(2)
Any such gift accepted pursuant to the authority granted in paragraph (1) of this subsection shall be deposited in—
(A) the specific trust fund designated by the donor or
(B) if the donor has not so designated, the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund.
(j)
Travel expenses

There are authorized to be made available for expenditure, out of the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund, or the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund (as determined appropriate by the Commissioner of Social Security), such amounts as are required to pay travel expenses, either on an actual cost or commuted basis, to individuals for travel incident to medical examinations requested by the Commissioner of Social Security in connection with disability determinations under this subchapter, and to parties, their representatives, and all reasonably necessary witnesses for travel within the United States (as defined in section 410(i) of this title) to attend reconsideration interviews and proceedings before administrative law judges with respect to any determination under this subchapter. The amount available under the preceding sentence for payment for air travel by any person shall not exceed the coach fare for air travel between the points involved unless the use of first-class accommodations is required (as determined under regulations of the Commissioner of Social Security) because of such person’s health condition or the unavailability of alternative accommodations; and the amount available for payment for other travel by any person shall not exceed the cost of travel (between the points involved) by the most economical and expeditious means of transportation appropriate to such person’s health condition, as specified in such regulations. The amount available for payment under this subsection for travel by a representative to attend an administrative proceeding before an administrative law judge or other adjudicator shall not exceed the maximum amount allowable under this subsection for such travel originating within the geographic area of the office having jurisdiction over such proceeding.

(k)
Experiment and demonstration project expenditures

Expenditures made for experiments and demonstration projects under section 434 of this title shall be made from the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund, as determined appropriate by the Commissioner of Social Security.

(l)
Interfund borrowing
(1) If at any time prior to January 1988 the Managing Trustee determines that borrowing authorized under this subsection is appropriate in order to best meet the need for financing the benefit payments from the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund or the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, the Managing Trustee may borrow such amounts as he determines to be appropriate from the other such Trust Fund, or, subject to paragraph (5), from the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund established under section 1395i of this title, for transfer to and deposit in the Trust Fund whose need for financing is involved.
(2) In any case where a loan has been made to a Trust Fund under paragraph (1), there shall be transferred on the last day of each month after such loan is made, from the borrowing Trust Fund to the lending Trust Fund, the total interest accrued to such day with respect to the unrepaid balance of such loan at a rate equal to the rate which the lending Trust Fund would earn on the amount involved if the loan were an investment under subsection (d) (even if such an investment would earn interest at a rate different than the rate earned by investments redeemed by the lending fund in order to make the loan).
(3)
(A) If in any month after a loan has been made to a Trust Fund under paragraph (1), the Managing Trustee determines that the assets of such Trust Fund are sufficient to permit repayment of all or part of any loans made to such Fund under paragraph (1), he shall make such repayments as he determines to be appropriate.
(B)
(i)
If on the last day of any year after a loan has been made under paragraph (1) by the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund or the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, the Managing Trustee determines that the OASDI trust fund ratio exceeds 15 percent, he shall transfer from the borrowing Trust Fund to the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund an amount that—
(I) together with any amounts transferred from another borrowing Trust Fund under this paragraph for such year, will reduce the OASDI trust fund ratio to 15 percent; and(II) does not exceed the outstanding balance of such loan.
(ii) Amounts required to be transferred under clause (i) shall be transferred on the last day of the first month of the year succeeding the year in which the determination described in clause (i) is made.
(iii)
For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “OASDI trust fund ratio” means, with respect to any calendar year, the ratio of—
(I) the combined balance in the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, as of the last day of such calendar year, to(II) the amount estimated by the Commissioner of Social Security to be the total amount to be paid from the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund during the calendar year following such calendar year for all purposes authorized by this section (other than payments of interest on, and repayments of, loans from the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund under paragraph (1), but excluding any transfer payments between such trust funds and reducing the amount of any transfer to the Railroad Retirement Account by the amount of any transfers into either such trust fund from that Account).
(C)
(i) The full amount of all loans made under paragraph (1) (whether made before or after January 1, 1983) shall be repaid at the earliest feasible date and in any event no later than December 31, 1989.
(ii) For the period after December 31, 1987, and before January 1, 1990, the Managing Trustee shall transfer each month to the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund from any Trust Fund with any amount outstanding on a loan made from the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund under paragraph (1) an amount not less than an amount equal to (I) the amount owed to the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund by such Trust Fund at the beginning of such month (plus the interest accrued on the outstanding balance of such loan during such month), divided by (II) the number of months elapsing after the preceding month and before January 1990. The Managing Trustee may, during this period, transfer larger amounts than prescribed by the preceding sentence.
(4) The Board of Trustees shall make a timely report to the Congress of any amounts transferred (including interest payments) under this subsection.
(5)
(A) No amounts may be borrowed from the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund under paragraph (1) during any month if the Hospital Insurance Trust Fund ratio for such month is less than 10 percent.
(B)
For purposes of this paragraph, the term “Hospital Insurance Trust Fund ratio” means, with respect to any month, the ratio of—
(i) the balance in the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund, reduced by the outstanding amount of any loan (including interest thereon) theretofore made to such Trust Fund under this subsection, as of the last day of the second month preceding such month, to
(ii) the amount obtained by multiplying by twelve the total amount which (as estimated by the Secretary) will be paid from the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund during the month for which such ratio is to be determined (other than payments of interest on, or repayments of loans from another Trust Fund under this subsection), and reducing the amount of any transfers to the Railroad Retirement Account by the amount of any transfer into the Hospital Insurance Trust Fund from that Account.
(m)
Accounting for unnegotiated benefit checks
(1) The Secretary of the Treasury shall implement procedures to permit the identification of each check issued for benefits under this subchapter that has not been presented for payment by the close of the sixth month following the month of its issuance.
(2) The Secretary of the Treasury shall, on a monthly basis, credit each of the Trust Funds for the amount of all benefit checks (including interest thereon) drawn on such Trust Fund more than 6 months previously but not presented for payment and not previously credited to such Trust Fund, to the extent provided in advance in appropriation Acts.
(3) If a benefit check is presented for payment to the Treasury and the amount thereof has been previously credited pursuant to paragraph (2) to one of the Trust Funds, the Secretary of the Treasury shall nevertheless pay such check, if otherwise proper, recharge such Trust Fund, and notify the Commissioner of Social Security.
(4) A benefit check bearing a current date may be issued to an individual who did not negotiate the original benefit check and who surrenders such check for cancellation if the Secretary of the Treasury determines it is necessary to effect proper payment of benefits.
(n)
Payments to Funds in satisfaction of obligations
Not later than July 1, 2004, the Secretary of the Treasury shall transfer, from amounts in the general fund of the Treasury that are not otherwise appropriated—
(1) $624,971,854 to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund;
(2) $105,379,671 to the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund; and
(3) $173,306,134 to the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund.
Amounts transferred in accordance with this subsection shall be in satisfaction of certain outstanding obligations for deemed wage credits for 2000 and 2001.
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title II, § 201, 49 Stat. 622; Aug. 10, 1939, ch. 666, title II, § 201, 53 Stat. 1362; Feb. 25, 1944, ch. 63, title IX, § 902, 58 Stat. 93; Aug. 28, 1950, ch. 809, title I, § 109(a), 64 Stat. 521; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, title I, § 103(e), 70 Stat. 819; Pub. L. 85–840, title II, § 205(a), Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 1021; Pub. L. 86–346, title I, § 104(2), Sept. 22, 1959, 73 Stat. 622; Pub. L. 86–778, title VII, § 701(a)–(e), Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 992, 993; Pub. L. 89–97, title I, § 108(a), title III, §§ 305, 327, July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 338, 370, 400; Pub. L. 90–248, title I, §§ 110, 169, Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 837, 875; Pub. L. 91–172, title X, § 1005, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 741; Pub. L. 92–336, title II, § 205, July 1, 1972, 86 Stat. 422; Pub. L. 92–603, title I, §§ 132(a)–(c), 136, title III, § 305(a), Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1360, 1364, 1484; Pub. L. 93–233, § 7, Dec. 31, 1973, 87 Stat. 955; Pub. L. 94–202, § 8(d), Jan. 2, 1976, 89 Stat. 1137; Pub. L. 95–216, title I, § 102(a), Dec. 20, 1977, 91 Stat. 1513; Pub. L. 96–265, title III, § 310(a), title V, § 505(a)(5), June 9, 1980, 94 Stat. 459, 474; Pub. L. 96–403, § 1, Oct. 9, 1980, 94 Stat. 1709; Pub. L. 97–123, § 1(a), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1659; Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §§ 126, 141(a), 142(a)(1), (2)(A), (3), (4), 152(a), 154(a), title III, § 341(a), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 91, 98–100, 105, 107, 135; Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VI, §§ 2661(a), 2663(a)(1), (j)(2)(A)(i), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1156, 1160, 1170; Pub. L. 99–272, title IX, § 9213(a), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 180; Pub. L. 100–360, title II, § 212(c)(1), July 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 741; Pub. L. 100–647, title VIII, § 8005(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3781; Pub. L. 101–234, title II, § 202(a), Dec. 13, 1989, 103 Stat. 1981; Pub. L. 101–508, title V, §§ 5106(c), 5115(a), title XIII, § 13304, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–268, 1388–274, 1388–627; Pub. L. 103–296, title I, § 107(b), title III, §§ 301(a), (b), 321(a)(1), (c)(1)(A)(i), (B)(i), (C), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1478, 1517, 1535, 1537; Pub. L. 103–387, § 3(a), (b), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4074, 4075; Pub. L. 104–121, title I, § 103(a), Mar. 29, 1996, 110 Stat. 848; Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title IV, § 4005(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–911; Pub. L. 106–169, title II, § 251(b)(1), Dec. 14, 1999, 113 Stat. 1854; Pub. L. 106–170, title III, § 301(b)(1)(B), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1902; Pub. L. 108–173, title I, § 101(e)(3)(A), (B), Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2150, 2151; Pub. L. 108–203, title IV, § 420(a), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 535; Pub. L. 114–74, title VIII, § 833(1), (2), Nov. 2, 2015, 129 Stat. 613.)
§ 401a.
Omitted
§ 402.
Old-age and survivors insurance benefit payments
(a)
Old-age insurance benefits
Every individual who—
(1) is a fully insured individual (as defined in section 414(a) of this title),
(2) has attained age 62, and
(3) has filed application for old-age insurance benefits or was entitled to disability insurance benefits for the month preceding the month in which he attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title),
shall be entitled to an old-age insurance benefit for each month, beginning with—
(A) in the case of an individual who has attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), the first month in which such individual meets the criteria specified in paragraphs (1), (2), and (3), or
(B) in the case of an individual who has attained age 62, but has not attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), the first month throughout which such individual meets the criteria specified in paragraphs (1) and (2) (if in that month he meets the criterion specified in paragraph (3)),
and ending with the month preceding the month in which he dies. Except as provided in subsection (q) and subsection (w), such individual’s old-age insurance benefit for any month shall be equal to his primary insurance amount (as defined in section 415(a) of this title) for such month.
(b)
Wife’s insurance benefits
(1)
The wife (as defined in section 416(b) of this title) and every divorced wife (as defined in section 416(d) of this title) of an individual entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, if such wife or such divorced wife—
(A) has filed application for wife’s insurance benefits,
(B)
(i) has attained age 62, or
(ii) in the case of a wife, has in her care (individually or jointly with such individual) at the time of filing such application a child entitled to a child’s insurance benefit on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual,
(C) in the case of a divorced wife, is not married, and
(D) is not entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, or is entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits based on a primary insurance amount which is less than one-half of the primary insurance amount of such individual,
shall (subject to subsection (s)) be entitled to a wife’s insurance benefit for each month, beginning with—
(i) in the case of a wife or divorced wife (as so defined) of an individual entitled to old-age benefits, if such wife or divorced wife has attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), the first month in which she meets the criteria specified in subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (D), or
(ii)
in the case of a wife or divorced wife (as so defined) of—
(I) an individual entitled to old-age insurance benefits, if such wife or divorced wife has not attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), or(II) an individual entitled to disability insurance benefits,
the first month throughout which she is such a wife or divorced wife and meets the criteria specified in subparagraphs (B), (C), and (D) (if in such month she meets the criterion specified in subparagraph (A)),
whichever is earlier, and ending with the month preceding the month in which any of the following occurs—
(E) she dies,
(F) such individual dies,
(G) in the case of a wife, they are divorced and either (i) she has not attained age 62, or (ii) she has attained age 62 but has not been married to such individual for a period of 10 years immediately before the date the divorce became effective,
(H) in the case of a divorced wife, she marries a person other than such individual,
(I) in the case of a wife who has not attained age 62, no child of such individual is entitled to a child’s insurance benefit,
(J) she becomes entitled to an old-age or disability insurance benefit based on a primary insurance amount which is equal to or exceeds one-half of the primary insurance amount of such individual, or
(K) such individual is not entitled to disability insurance benefits and is not entitled to old-age insurance benefits.
(2) Except as provided in subsections (k)(5) and (q), such wife’s insurance benefit for each month shall be equal to one-half of the primary insurance amount of her husband (or, in the case of a divorced wife, her former husband) for such month.
(3)
In the case of any divorced wife who marries—
(A) an individual entitled to benefits under subsection (c), (f), (g), or (h) of this section, or
(B) an individual who has attained the age of 18 and is entitled to benefits under subsection (d),
such divorced wife’s entitlement to benefits under this subsection shall, notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) (but subject to subsection (s)), not be terminated by reason of such marriage.
(4)
(A)
Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this subsection, except as provided in subparagraph (B), the divorced wife of an individual who is not entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, but who has attained age 62 and is a fully insured individual (as defined in section 414 of this title), if such divorced wife—
(i) meets the requirements of subparagraphs (A) through (D) of paragraph (1), and
(ii) has been divorced from such insured individual for not less than 2 years,
shall be entitled to a wife’s insurance benefit under this subsection for each month, in such amount, and beginning and ending with such months, as determined (under regulations of the Commissioner of Social Security) in the manner otherwise provided for wife’s insurance benefits under this subsection, as if such insured individual had become entitled to old-age insurance benefits on the date on which the divorced wife first meets the criteria for entitlement set forth in clauses (i) and (ii).
(B) A wife’s insurance benefit provided under this paragraph which has not otherwise terminated in accordance with subparagraph (E), (F), (H), or (J) of paragraph (1) shall terminate with the month preceding the first month in which the insured individual is no longer a fully insured individual.
(c)
Husband’s insurance benefits
(1)
The husband (as defined in section 416(f) of this title) and every divorced husband (as defined in section 416(d) of this title) of an individual entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, if such husband or such divorced husband—
(A) has filed application for husband’s insurance benefits,
(B)
(i) has attained age 62, or
(ii) in the case of a husband, has in his care (individually or jointly with such individual) at the time of filing such application a child entitled to a child’s insurance benefit on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual,
(C) in the case of a divorced husband, is not married, and
(D) is not entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, or is entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits based on a primary insurance amount which is less than one-half of the primary insurance amount of such individual,
shall (subject to subsection (s)) be entitled to a husband’s insurance benefit for each month, beginning with—
(i) in the case of a husband or divorced husband (as so defined) of an individual who is entitled to an old-age insurance benefit, if such husband or divorced husband has attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), the first month in which he meets the criteria specified in subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (D), or
(ii)
in the case of a husband or divorced husband (as so defined) of—
(I) an individual entitled to old-age insurance benefits, if such husband or divorced husband has not attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), or(II) an individual entitled to disability insurance benefits,
the first month throughout which he is such a husband or divorced husband and meets the criteria specified in subparagraphs (B), (C), and (D) (if in such month he meets the criterion specified in subparagraph (A)),
whichever is earlier, and ending with the month preceding the month in which any of the following occurs:
(E) he dies,
(F) such individual dies,
(G) in the case of a husband, they are divorced and either (i) he has not attained age 62, or (ii) he has attained age 62 but has not been married to such individual for a period of 10 years immediately before the divorce became effective,
(H) in the case of a divorced husband, he marries a person other than such individual,
(I) in the case of a husband who has not attained age 62, no child of such individual is entitled to a child’s insurance benefit,
(J) he becomes entitled to an old-age or disability insurance benefit based on a primary insurance amount which is equal to or exceeds one-half of the primary insurance amount of such individual, or
(K) such individual is not entitled to disability insurance benefits and is not entitled to old-age insurance benefits.
(2) Except as provided in subsections (k)(5) and (q), such husband’s insurance benefit for each month shall be equal to one-half of the primary insurance amount of his wife (or, in the case of a divorced husband, his former wife) for such month.
(3)
In the case of any divorced husband who marries—
(A) an individual entitled to benefits under subsection (b), (e), (g), or (h) of this section, or
(B) an individual who has attained the age of 18 and is entitled to benefits under subsection (d), by reason of paragraph (1)(B)(ii) thereof,
such divorced husband’s entitlement to benefits under this subsection, notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) (but subject to subsection (s)), shall not be terminated by reason of such marriage.
(4)
(A)
Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this subsection, except as provided in subparagraph (B), the divorced husband of an individual who is not entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, but who has attained age 62 and is a fully insured individual (as defined in section 414 of this title), if such divorced husband—
(i) meets the requirements of subparagraphs (A) through (D) of paragraph (1), and
(ii) has been divorced from such insured individual for not less than 2 years,
shall be entitled to a husband’s insurance benefit under this subsection for each month, in such amount, and beginning and ending with such months, as determined (under regulations of the Commissioner of Social Security) in the manner otherwise provided for husband’s insurance benefits under this subsection, as if such insured individual had become entitled to old-age insurance benefits on the date on which the divorced husband first meets the criteria for entitlement set forth in clauses (i) and (ii).
(B) A husband’s insurance benefit provided under this paragraph which has not otherwise terminated in accordance with subparagraph (E), (F), (H), or (J) of paragraph (1) shall terminate with the month preceding the first month in which the insured individual is no longer a fully insured individual.
(d)
Child’s insurance benefits
(1)
Every child (as defined in section 416(e) of this title) of an individual entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, or of an individual who dies a fully or currently insured individual, if such child—
(A) has filed application for child’s insurance benefits,
(B) at the time such application was filed was unmarried and (i) either had not attained the age of 18 or was a full-time elementary or secondary school student and had not attained the age of 19, or (ii) is under a disability (as defined in section 423(d) of this title) which began before he attained the age of 22, and
(C)
was dependent upon such individual—
(i) if such individual is living, at the time such application was filed,
(ii) if such individual has died, at the time of such death, or
(iii) if such individual had a period of disability which continued until he became entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, or (if he has died) until the month of his death, at the beginning of such period of disability or at the time he became entitled to such benefits,
shall be entitled to a child’s insurance benefit for each month, beginning with—
(i) in the case of a child (as so defined) of such an individual who has died, the first month in which such child meets the criteria specified in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C), or
(ii) in the case of a child (as so defined) of an individual entitled to an old-age insurance benefit or to a disability insurance benefit, the first month throughout which such child is a child (as so defined) and meets the criteria specified in subparagraphs (B) and (C) (if in such month he meets the criterion specified in subparagraph (A)),
whichever is earlier, and ending with the month preceding whichever of the following first occurs—
(D) the month in which such child dies, or marries,
(E) the month in which such child attains the age of 18, but only if he (i) is not under a disability (as so defined) at the time he attains such age, and (ii) is not a full-time elementary or secondary school student during any part of such month,
(F)
if such child was not under a disability (as so defined) at the time he attained the age of 18, the earlier of—
(i) the first month during no part of which he is a full-time elementary or secondary school student, or
(ii) the month in which he attains the age of 19,
but only if he was not under a disability (as so defined) in such earlier month;
(G)
if such child was under a disability (as so defined) at the time he attained the age of 18 or if he was not under a disability (as so defined) at such time but was under a disability (as so defined) at or prior to the time he attained (or would attain) the age of 22—
(i) the termination month, subject to section 423(e) of this title (and for purposes of this subparagraph, the termination month for any individual shall be the third month following the month in which his disability ceases; except that, in the case of an individual who has a period of trial work which ends as determined by application of section 422(c)(4)(A) of this title, the termination month shall be the earlier of (I) the third month following the earliest month after the end of such period of trial work with respect to which such individual is determined to no longer be suffering from a disabling physical or mental impairment, or (II) the third month following the earliest month in which such individual engages or is determined able to engage in substantial gainful activity, but in no event earlier than the first month occurring after the 36 months following such period of trial work in which he engages or is determined able to engage in substantial gainful activity),
or (if later) the earlier of—
(ii) the first month during no part of which he is a full-time elementary or secondary school student, or
(iii) the month in which he attains the age of 19,
but only if he was not under a disability (as so defined) in such earlier month; or
(H) if the benefits under this subsection are based on the wages and self-employment income of a stepparent who is subsequently divorced from such child’s natural parent, the month after the month in which such divorce becomes final.
Entitlement of any child to benefits under this subsection on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an individual entitled to disability insurance benefits shall also end with the month before the first month for which such individual is not entitled to such benefits unless such individual is, for such later month, entitled to old-age insurance benefits or unless he dies in such month. No payment under this paragraph may be made to a child who would not meet the definition of disability in section 423(d) of this title except for paragraph (1)(B) thereof for any month in which he engages in substantial gainful activity.
(2) Such child’s insurance benefit for each month shall, if the individual on the basis of whose wages and self-employment income the child is entitled to such benefit has not died prior to the end of such month, be equal to one-half of the primary insurance amount of such individual for such month. Such child’s insurance benefit for each month shall, if such individual has died in or prior to such month, be equal to three-fourths of the primary insurance amount of such individual.
(3)
A child shall be deemed dependent upon his father or adopting father or his mother or adopting mother at the time specified in paragraph (1)(C) of this subsection unless, at such time, such individual was not living with or contributing to the support of such child and—
(A) such child is neither the legitimate nor adopted child of such individual, or
(B) such child has been adopted by some other individual.
For purposes of this paragraph, a child deemed to be a child of a fully or currently insured individual pursuant to section 416(h)(2)(B) or section 416(h)(3) of this title shall be deemed to be the legitimate child of such individual.
(4) A child shall be deemed dependent upon his stepfather or stepmother at the time specified in paragraph (1)(C) of this subsection if, at such time, the child was receiving at least one-half of his support from such stepfather or stepmother.
(5)
In the case of a child who has attained the age of eighteen and who marries—
(A) an individual entitled to benefits under subsection (a), (b), (c), (e), (f), (g), or (h) of this section or under section 423(a) of this title, or
(B) another individual who has attained the age of eighteen and is entitled to benefits under this subsection,
such child’s entitlement to benefits under this subsection shall, notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) but subject to subsection (s), not be terminated by reason of such marriage.
(6)
A child whose entitlement to child’s insurance benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an insured individual terminated with the month preceding the month in which such child attained the age of 18, or with a subsequent month, may again become entitled to such benefits (provided no event specified in paragraph (1)(D) has occurred) beginning with the first month thereafter in which he—
(A)
(i) is a full-time elementary or secondary school student and has not attained the age of 19, or (ii) is under a disability (as defined in section 423(d) of this title) and has not attained the age of 22, or
(B) is under a disability (as so defined) which began (i) before the close of the 84th month following the month in which his most recent entitlement to child’s insurance benefits terminated because he ceased to be under such disability, or (ii) after the close of the 84th month following the month in which his most recent entitlement to child’s insurance benefits terminated because he ceased to be under such disability due to performance of substantial gainful activity,
but only if he has filed application for such reentitlement. Such reentitlement shall end with the month preceding whichever of the following first occurs:
(C) the first month in which an event specified in paragraph (1)(D) occurs;
(D) the earlier of (i) the first month during no part of which he is a full-time elementary or secondary school student or (ii) the month in which he attains the age of 19, but only if he is not under a disability (as so defined) in such earlier month; or
(E)
if he was under a disability (as so defined), the termination month (as defined in paragraph (1)(G)(i)), subject to section 423(e) of this title, or (if later) the earlier of—
(i) the first month during no part of which he is a full-time elementary or secondary school student, or
(ii) the month in which he attains the age of 19.
(7)
For the purposes of this subsection—
(A) A “full-time elementary or secondary school student” is an individual who is in full-time attendance as a student at an elementary or secondary school, as determined by the Commissioner of Social Security (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Commissioner) in the light of the standards and practices of the schools involved, except that no individual shall be considered a “full-time elementary or secondary school student” if he is paid by his employer while attending an elementary or secondary school at the request, or pursuant to a requirement, of his employer. An individual shall not be considered a “full-time elementary or secondary school student” for the purpose of this section while that individual is confined in a jail, prison, or other penal institution or correctional facility, pursuant to his conviction of an offense (committed after the effective date of this sentence 1
1 See References in Text note below.
 ) which constituted a felony under applicable law. An individual who is determined to be a full-time elementary or secondary school student shall be deemed to be such a student throughout the month with respect to which such determination is made.
(B) Except to the extent provided in such regulations, an individual shall be deemed to be a full-time elementary or secondary school student during any period of nonattendance at an elementary or secondary school at which he has been in full-time attendance if (i) such period is 4 calendar months or less, and (ii) he shows to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security that he intends to continue to be in full-time attendance at an elementary or secondary school immediately following such period. An individual who does not meet the requirement of clause (ii) with respect to such period of nonattendance shall be deemed to have met such requirement (as of the beginning of such period) if he is in full-time attendance at an elementary or secondary school immediately following such period.
(C)
(i) An “elementary or secondary school” is a school which provides elementary or secondary education, respectively, as determined under the law of the State or other jurisdiction in which it is located.
(ii) For the purpose of determining whether a child is a “full-time elementary or secondary school student” or “intends to continue to be in full-time attendance at an elementary or secondary school”, within the meaning of this subsection, there shall be disregarded any education provided, or to be provided, beyond grade 12.
(D)
(8)
In the case of—
(A) an individual entitled to old-age insurance benefits (other than an individual referred to in subparagraph (B)), or
(B) an individual entitled to disability insurance benefits, or an individual entitled to old-age insurance benefits who was entitled to disability insurance benefits for the month preceding the first month for which he was entitled to old-age insurance benefits,
a child of such individual adopted after such individual became entitled to such old-age or disability insurance benefits shall be deemed not to meet the requirements of clause (i) or (iii) of paragraph (1)(C) unless such child—
(C) is the natural child or stepchild of such individual (including such a child who was legally adopted by such individual), or
(D)
(i) was legally adopted by such individual in an adoption decreed by a court of competent jurisdiction within the United States, and
(ii) in the case of a child who attained the age of 18 prior to the commencement of proceedings for adoption, the child was living with or receiving at least one-half of the child’s support from such individual for the year immediately preceding the month in which the adoption is decreed.
(9)
(A) A child who is a child of an individual under clause (3) of the first sentence of section 416(e) of this title and is not a child of such individual under clause (1) or (2) of such first sentence shall be deemed not to be dependent on such individual at the time specified in subparagraph (1)(C) of this subsection unless (i) such child was living with such individual in the United States and receiving at least one-half of his support from such individual (I) for the year immediately before the month in which such individual became entitled to old-age insurance benefits or disability insurance benefits or died, or (II) if such individual had a period of disability which continued until he had become entitled to old-age insurance benefits, or disability insurance benefits, or died, for the year immediately before the month in which such period of disability began, and (ii) the period during which such child was living with such individual began before the child attained age 18.
(B) In the case of a child who was born in the one-year period during which such child must have been living with and receiving at least one-half of his support from such individual, such child shall be deemed to meet such requirements for such period if, as of the close of such period, such child has lived with such individual in the United States and received at least one-half of his support from such individual for substantially all of the period which begins on the date of such child’s birth.
(10)
For purposes of paragraph (1)(H)—
(A) each stepparent shall notify the Commissioner of Social Security of any divorce upon such divorce becoming final; and
(B) the Commissioner shall annually notify any stepparent of the rule for termination described in paragraph (1)(H) and of the requirement described in subparagraph (A).
(e)
Widow’s insurance benefits
(1)
The widow (as defined in section 416(c) of this title) and every surviving divorced wife (as defined in section 416(d) of this title) of an individual who died a fully insured individual, if such widow or such surviving divorced wife—
(A) is not married,
(B)
(i) has attained age 60, or (ii) has attained age 50 but has not attained age 60 and is under a disability (as defined in section 423(d) of this title) which began before the end of the period specified in paragraph (4),
(C)
(i) has filed application for widow’s insurance benefits,
(ii)
was entitled to wife’s insurance benefits, on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual, for the month preceding the month in which such individual died, and—
(I) has attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title),(II) is not entitled to benefits under subsection (a) or section 423 of this title, or(III) has in effect a certificate (described in paragraph (8)) filed by her with the Commissioner of Social Security, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Commissioner of Social Security, in which she elects to receive widow’s insurance benefits (subject to reduction as provided in subsection (q)), or
(iii) was entitled, on the basis of such wages and self-employment income, to mother’s insurance benefits for the month preceding the month in which she attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), and
(D) is not entitled to old-age insurance benefits or is entitled to old-age insurance benefits each of which is less than the primary insurance amount (as determined after application of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (2)) of such deceased individual,
shall be entitled to a widow’s insurance benefit for each month, beginning with—
(E) if she satisfies subparagraph (B) by reason of clause (i) thereof, the first month in which she becomes so entitled to such insurance benefits, or
(F)
if she satisfies subparagraph (B) by reason of clause (ii) thereof—
(i) the first month after her waiting period (as defined in paragraph (5)) in which she becomes so entitled to such insurance benefits, or
(ii) the first month during all of which she is under a disability and in which she becomes so entitled to such insurance benefits, but only if she was previously entitled to insurance benefits under this subsection on the basis of being under a disability and such first month occurs (I) in the period specified in paragraph (4) and (II) after the month in which a previous entitlement to such benefits on such basis terminated,
and ending with the month preceding the first month in which any of the following occurs: she remarries, dies, becomes entitled to an old-age insurance benefit equal to or exceeding the primary insurance amount (as determined after application of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (2)) of such deceased individual, or, if she became entitled to such benefits before she attained age 60, subject to section 423(e) of this title, the termination month (unless she attains retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) on or before the last day of such termination month). For purposes of the preceding sentence, the termination month for any individual shall be the third month following the month in which her disability ceases; except that, in the case of an individual who has a period of trial work which ends as determined by application of section 422(c)(4)(A) of this title, the termination month shall be the earlier of (I) the third month following the earliest month after the end of such period of trial work with respect to which such individual is determined to no longer be suffering from a disabling physical or mental impairment, or (II) the third month following the earliest month in which such individual engages or is determined able to engage in substantial gainful activity, but in no event earlier than the first month occurring after the 36 months following such period of trial work in which she engages or is determined able to engage in substantial gainful activity.
(2)
(A) Except as provided in subsection (k)(5), subsection (q), and subparagraph (D) of this paragraph, such widow’s insurance benefit for each month shall be equal to the primary insurance amount (as determined for purposes of this subsection after application of subparagraphs (B) and (C)) of such deceased individual.
(B)
(i)
For purposes of this subsection, in any case in which such deceased individual dies before attaining age 62 and section 415(a)(1) of this title (as in effect after December 1978) is applicable in determining such individual’s primary insurance amount—
(I) such primary insurance amount shall be determined under the formula set forth in section 415(a)(1)(B)(i) and (ii) of this title which is applicable to individuals who initially become eligible for old-age insurance benefits in the second year after the year specified in clause (ii),(II) the year specified in clause (ii) shall be substituted for the second calendar year specified in section 415(b)(3)(A)(ii)(I) of this title, and(III) such primary insurance amount shall be increased under section 415(i) of this title as if it were the primary insurance amount referred to in section 415(i)(2)(A)(ii)(II) of this title, except that it shall be increased only for years beginning after the first year after the year specified in clause (ii).
(ii)
The year specified in this clause is the earlier of—
(I) the year in which the deceased individual attained age 60, or would have attained age 60 had he lived to that age, or(II) the second year preceding the year in which the widow or surviving divorced wife first meets the requirements of paragraph (1)(B) or the second year preceding the year in which the deceased individual died, whichever is later.
(iii) This subparagraph shall apply with respect to any benefit under this subsection only to the extent its application does not result in a primary insurance amount for purposes of this subsection which is less than the primary insurance amount otherwise determined for such deceased individual under section 415 of this title.
(C) If such deceased individual was (or upon application would have been) entitled to an old-age insurance benefit which was increased (or subject to being increased) on account of delayed retirement under the provisions of subsection (w), then, for purposes of this subsection, such individual’s primary insurance amount, if less than the old-age insurance benefit (increased, where applicable, under section 415(f)(5), 415(f)(6), or 415(f)(9)(B) of this title and under section 415(i) of this title as if such individual were still alive in the case of an individual who has died) which he was receiving (or would upon application have received) for the month prior to the month in which he died, shall be deemed to be equal to such old-age insurance benefit, and (notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (3) of such subsection (w)) the number of increment months shall include any month in the months of the calendar year in which he died, prior to the month in which he died, which satisfy the conditions in paragraph (2) of such subsection (w).
(D)
If the deceased individual (on the basis of whose wages and self-employment income a widow or surviving divorced wife is entitled to widow’s insurance benefits under this subsection) was, at any time, entitled to an old-age insurance benefit which was reduced by reason of the application of subsection (q), the widow’s insurance benefit of such widow or surviving divorced wife for any month shall, if the amount of the widow’s insurance benefit of such widow or surviving divorced wife (as determined under subparagraph (A) and after application of subsection (q)) is greater than—
(i) the amount of the old-age insurance benefit to which such deceased individual would have been entitled (after application of subsection (q)) for such month if such individual were still living and section 415(f)(5), 415(f)(6), or 415(f)(9)(B) of this title were applied, where applicable, and
(ii) 82½ percent of the primary insurance amount (as determined without regard to subparagraph (C)) of such deceased individual,
be reduced to the amount referred to in clause (i), or (if greater) the amount referred to in clause (ii).
(3)
For purposes of paragraph (1), if—
(A) a widow or surviving divorced wife marries after attaining age 60 (or after attaining age 50 if she was entitled before such marriage occurred to benefits based on disability under this subsection), or
(B) a disabled widow or disabled surviving divorced wife described in paragraph (1)(B)(ii) marries after attaining age 50,
such marriage shall be deemed not to have occurred.
(4)
The period referred to in paragraph (1)(B)(ii), in the case of any widow or surviving divorced wife, is the period beginning with whichever of the following is the latest:
(A) the month in which occurred the death of the fully insured individual referred to in paragraph (1) on whose wages and self-employment income her benefits are or would be based, or
(B) the last month for which she was entitled to mother’s insurance benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual, or
(C) the month in which a previous entitlement to widow’s insurance benefits on the basis of such wages and self-employment income terminated because her disability had ceased,
and ending with the month before the month in which she attains age 60, or, if earlier, with the close of the eighty-fourth month following the month with which such period began.
(5)
(A)
The waiting period referred to in paragraph (1)(F), in the case of any widow or surviving divorced wife, is the earliest period of five consecutive calendar months—
(i) throughout which she has been under a disability, and
(ii) which begins not earlier than with whichever of the following is the later: (I) the first day of the seventeenth month before the month in which her application is filed, or (II) the first day of the fifth month before the month in which the period specified in paragraph (4) begins.
(B) For purposes of paragraph (1)(F)(i), each month in the period commencing with the first month for which such widow or surviving divorced wife is first eligible for supplemental security income benefits under subchapter XVI, or State supplementary payments of the type referred to in section 1382e(a) of this title (or payments of the type described in section 212(a) of Public Law 93–66) which are paid by the Commissioner of Social Security under an agreement referred to in section 1382e(a) of this title (or in section 212(b) of Public Law 93–66), shall be included as one of the months of such waiting period for which the requirements of subparagraph (A) have been met.
(6) In the case of an individual entitled to monthly insurance benefits payable under this section for any month prior to January 1973 whose benefits were not redetermined under section 102(g) of the Social Security Amendments of 1972, such benefits shall not be redetermined pursuant to such section, but shall be increased pursuant to any general benefit increase (as defined in section 415(i)(3) of this title) or any increase in benefits made under or pursuant to section 415(i) of this title, including for this purpose the increase provided effective for March 1974, as though such redetermination had been made.
(7)
Any certificate filed pursuant to paragraph (1)(C)(ii)(III) shall be effective for purposes of this subsection—
(A) for the month in which it is filed and for any month thereafter, and
(B) for months, in the period designated by the individual filing such certificate, of one or more consecutive months (not exceeding 12) immediately preceding the month in which such certificate is filed;
except that such certificate shall not be effective for any month before the month in which she attains age 62.
(8) An individual shall be deemed to be under a disability for purposes of paragraph (1)(B)(ii) if such individual is eligible for supplemental security income benefits under subchapter XVI, or State supplementary payments of the type referred to in section 1382e(a) of this title (or payments of the type described in section 212(a) of Public Law 93–66) which are paid by the Commissioner of Social Security under an agreement referred to in section 1382e(a) of this title (or in section 212(b) of Public Law 93–66), for the month for which all requirements of paragraph (1) for entitlement to benefits under this subsection (other than being under a disability) are met.
(f)
Widower’s insurance benefits
(1)
The widower (as defined in section 416(g) of this title) and every surviving divorced husband (as defined in section 416(d) of this title) of an individual who died a fully insured individual, if such widower or such surviving divorced husband—
(A) is not married,
(B)
(i) has attained age 60, or (ii) has attained age 50 but has not attained age 60 and is under a disability (as defined in section 423(d) of the title) which began before the end of the period specified in paragraph (4),
(C)
(i) has filed application for widower’s insurance benefits,
(ii)
was entitled to husband’s insurance benefits, on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual, for the month preceding the month in which such individual died, and—
(I) has attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title),(II) is not entitled to benefits under subsection (a) or section 423 of this title, or(III)
(iii) was entitled, on the basis of such wages and self-employment income, to father’s insurance benefits for the month preceding the month in which he attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), and
(D) is not entitled to old-age insurance benefits, or is entitled to old-age insurance benefits each of which is less than the primary insurance amount (as determined after application of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (3)) of such deceased individual,
shall be entitled to a widower’s insurance benefit for each month, beginning with—
(E) if he satisfies subparagraph (B) by reason of clause (i) thereof, the first month in which he becomes so entitled to such insurance benefits, or
(F)
if he satisfies subparagraph (B) by reason of clause (ii) thereof—
(i) the first month after his waiting period (as defined in paragraph (5)) in which he becomes so entitled to such insurance benefits, or
(ii) the first month during all of which he is under a disability and in which he becomes so entitled to such insurance benefits, but only if he was previously entitled to insurance benefits under this subsection on the basis of being under a disability and such first month occurs (I) in the period specified in paragraph (4) and (II) after the month in which a previous entitlement to such benefits on such basis terminated,
and ending with the month preceding the first month in which any of the following occurs: he remarries, dies, or becomes entitled to an old-age insurance benefit equal to or exceeding the primary insurance amount (as determined after application of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (3)) 1 of such deceased individual, or, if he became entitled to such benefits before he attained age 60, subject to section 423(e) of this title, the termination month (unless he attains retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) on or before the last day of such termination month). For purposes of the preceding sentence, the termination month for any individual shall be the third month following the month in which his disability ceases; except that, in the case of an individual who has a period of trial work which ends as determined by application of section 422(c)(4)(A) of this title, the termination month shall be the earlier of (I) the third month following the earliest month after the end of such period of trial work with respect to which such individual is determined to no longer be suffering from a disabling physical or mental impairment, or (II) the third month following the earliest month in which such individual engages or is determined able to engage in substantial gainful activity, but in no event earlier than the first month occurring after the 36 months following such period of trial work in which he engages or is determined able to engage in substantial gainful activity.
(2)
(A) Except as provided in subsection (k)(5), subsection (q), and subparagraph (D) of this paragraph, such widower’s insurance benefit for each month shall be equal to the primary insurance amount (as determined for purposes of this subsection after application of subparagraphs (B) and (C)) of such deceased individual.
(B)
(i)
For purposes of this subsection, in any case in which such deceased individual dies before attaining age 62 and section 415(a)(1) of this title (as in effect after December 1978) is applicable in determining such individual’s primary insurance amount—
(I) such primary insurance amount shall be determined under the formula set forth in section 415(a)(1)(B)(i) and (ii) of this title which is applicable to individuals who initially become eligible for old-age insurance benefits in the second year after the year specified in clause (ii),(II) the year specified in clause (ii) shall be substituted for the second calendar year specified in section 415(b)(3)(A)(ii)(I) of this title, and(III) such primary insurance amount shall be increased under section 415(i) of this title as if it were the primary insurance amount referred to in section 415(i)(2)(A)(ii)(II) of this title, except that it shall be increased only for years beginning after the first year after the year specified in clause (ii).
(ii)
The year specified in this clause is the earlier of—
(I) the year in which the deceased individual attained age 60, or would have attained age 60 had she lived to that age, or(II) the second year preceding the year in which the widower or surviving divorced husband first meets the requirements of paragraph (1)(B) or the second year preceding the year in which the deceased individual died, whichever is later.
(iii) This subparagraph shall apply with respect to any benefit under this subsection only to the extent its application does not result in a primary insurance amount for purposes of this subsection which is less than the primary insurance amount otherwise determined for such deceased individual under section 415 of this title.
(C) If such deceased individual was (or upon application would have been) entitled to an old-age insurance benefit which was increased (or subject to being increased) on account of delayed retirement under the provisions of subsection (w), then, for purposes of this subsection, such individual’s primary insurance amount, if less than the old-age insurance benefit (increased, where applicable, under section 415(f)(5), 415(f)(6), or 415(f)(9)(B) of this title and under section 415(i) of this title as if such individual were still alive in the case of an individual who has died) which she was receiving (or would upon application have received) for the month prior to the month in which she died, shall be deemed to be equal to such old-age insurance benefit, and (notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (3) of such subsection (w)) the number of increment months shall include any month in the months of the calendar year in which she died, prior to the month in which she died, which satisfy the conditions in paragraph (2) of such subsection (w).
(D)
If the deceased individual (on the basis of whose wages and self-employment income a widower or surviving divorced husband is entitled to widower’s insurance benefits under this subsection) was, at any time, entitled to an old-age insurance benefit which was reduced by reason of the application of subsection (q), the widower’s insurance benefit of such widower or surviving divorced husband for any month shall, if the amount of the widower’s insurance benefit of such widower or surviving divorced husband (as determined under subparagraph (A) and after application of subsection (q)) is greater than—
(i) the amount of the old-age insurance benefit to which such deceased individual would have been entitled (after application of subsection (q)) for such month if such individual were still living and section 415(f)(5), 415(f)(6), or 415(f)(9)(B) of this title were applied, where applicable, and
(ii) 82½ percent of the primary insurance amount (as determined without regard to subparagraph (C)) of such deceased individual;
be reduced to the amount referred to in clause (i), or (if greater) the amount referred to in clause (ii).
(3)
For purposes of paragraph (1), if—
(A) a widower or surviving divorced husband marries after attaining age 60 (or after attaining age 50 if he was entitled before such marriage occurred to benefits based on disability under this subsection), or
(B) a disabled widower or surviving divorced husband described in paragraph (1)(B)(ii) marries after attaining age 50,
such marriage shall be deemed not to have occurred.
(4)
The period referred to in paragraph (1)(B)(ii), in the case of any widower or surviving divorced husband, is the period beginning with whichever of the following is the latest:
(A) the month in which occurred the death of the fully insured individual referred to in paragraph (1) on whose wages and self-employment income his benefits are or would be based,
(B) the last month for which he was entitled to father’s insurance benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual, or
(C) the month in which a previous entitlement to widower’s insurance benefits on the basis of such wages and self-employment income terminated because his disability had ceased,
and ending with the month before the month in which he attains age 60, or, if earlier, with the close of the eighty-fourth month following the month with which such period began.
(5)
(A)
The waiting period referred to in paragraph (1)(F), in the case of any widower or surviving divorced husband, is the earliest period of five consecutive calendar months—
(i) throughout which he has been under a disability, and
(ii) which begins not earlier than with whichever of the following is the later: (I) the first day of the seventeenth month before the month in which his application is filed, or (II) the first day of the fifth month before the month in which the period specified in paragraph (4) begins.
(B) For purposes of paragraph (1)(F)(i), each month in the period commencing with the first month for which such widower or surviving divorced husband is first eligible for supplemental security income benefits under subchapter XVI, or State supplementary payments of the type referred to in section 1382e(a) of this title (or payments of the type described in section 212(a) of Public Law 93–66) which are paid by the Commissioner of Social Security under an agreement referred to in section 1382e(a) of this title (or in section 212(b) of Public Law 93–66), shall be included as one of the months of such waiting period for which the requirements of subparagraph (A) have been met.
(6) In the case of an individual entitled to monthly insurance benefits payable under this section for any month prior to January 1973 whose benefits were not redetermined under section 102(g) of the Social Security Amendments of 1972, such benefits shall not be redetermined pursuant to such section, but shall be increased pursuant to any general benefit increase (as defined in section 415(i)(3) of this title) or any increase in benefits made under or pursuant to section 415(i) of this title, including for this purpose the increase provided effective for March 1974, as though such redetermination had been made.
(7)
Any certificate filed pursuant to paragraph (1)(C)(ii)(III) shall be effective for purposes of this subsection—
(A) for the month in which it is filed and for any month thereafter, and
(B) for months, in the period designated by the individual filing such certificate, of one or more consecutive months (not exceeding 12) immediately preceding the month in which such certificate is filed;
except that such certificate shall not be effective for any month before the month in which he attains age 62.
(8) An individual shall be deemed to be under a disability for purposes of paragraph (1)(B)(ii) if such individual is eligible for supplemental security income benefits under subchapter XVI, or State supplementary payments of the type referred to in section 1382e(a) of this title (or payments of the type described in section 212(a) of Public Law 93–66) which are paid by the Commissioner of Social Security under an agreement referred to in such section 1382e(a) of this title (or in section 212(b) of Public Law 93–66), for the month for which all requirements of paragraph (1) for entitlement to benefits under this subsection (other than being under a disability) are met.
(g)
Mother’s and father’s insurance benefits
(1)
The surviving spouse and every surviving divorced parent (as defined in section 416(d) of this title) of an individual who died a fully or currently insured individual, if such surviving spouse or surviving divorced parent—
(A) is not married,
(B) is not entitled to a surviving spouse’s insurance benefit,
(C) is not entitled to old-age insurance benefits, or is entitled to old-age insurance benefits each of which is less than three-fourths of the primary insurance amount of such individual,
(D) has filed application for mother’s or father’s insurance benefits, or was entitled to a spouse’s insurance benefit on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual for the month preceding the month in which such individual died,
(E) at the time of filing such application has in his or her care a child of such individual entitled to a child’s insurance benefit, and
(F)
in the case of a surviving divorced parent—
(i) the child referred to in subparagraph (E) is his or her son, daughter, or legally adopted child, and
(ii) the benefits referred to in such subparagraph are payable on the basis of such individual’s wages and self-employment income,
shall (subject to subsection (s)) be entitled to a mother’s or father’s insurance benefit for each month, beginning with the first month in which he or she becomes so entitled to such insurance benefits and ending with the month preceding the first month in which any of the following occurs: no child of such deceased individual is entitled to a child’s insurance benefit, such surviving spouse or surviving divorced parent becomes entitled to an old-age insurance benefit equal to or exceeding three-fourths of the primary insurance amount of such deceased individual, he or she becomes entitled to a surviving spouse’s insurance benefit, he or she remarries, or he or she dies. Entitlement to such benefits shall also end, in the case of a surviving divorced parent, with the month immediately preceding the first month in which no son, daughter, or legally adopted child of such surviving divorced parent is entitled to a child’s insurance benefit on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such deceased individual.
(2) Such mother’s or father’s insurance benefit for each month shall be equal to three-fourths of the primary insurance amount of such deceased individual.
(3)
In the case of a surviving spouse or surviving divorced parent who marries—
(A) an individual entitled to benefits under this subsection or subsection (a), (b), (c), (e), (f), or (h), or under section 423(a) of this title, or
(B) an individual who has attained the age of eighteen and is entitled to benefits under subsection (d),
the entitlement of such surviving spouse or surviving divorced parent to benefits under this subsection shall, notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection but subject to subsection (s), not be terminated by reason of such marriage.
(h)
Parent’s insurance benefits
(1)
Every parent (as defined in this subsection) of an individual who died a fully insured individual, if such parent—
(A) has attained age 62,
(B)
(i) was receiving at least one-half of his support from such individual at the time of such individual’s death or, if such individual had a period of disability which did not end prior to the month in which he died, at the time such period began or at the time of such death, and (ii) filed proof of such support within two years after the date of such death, or, if such individual had such a period of disability, within two years after the month in which such individual filed application with respect to such period of disability or two years after the date of such death, as the case may be,
(C) has not married since such individual’s death,
(D) is not entitled to old-age insurance benefits, or is entitled to old-age insurance benefits each of which is less than 82½ percent of the primary insurance amount of such deceased individual if the amount of the parent’s insurance benefit for such month is determinable under paragraph (2)(A) (or 75 percent of such primary insurance amount in any other case), and
(E) has filed application for parent’s insurance benefits,
shall be entitled to a parent’s insurance benefit for each month beginning with the first month after August 1950 in which such parent becomes so entitled to such parent’s insurance benefits and ending with the month preceding the first month in which any of the following occurs: such parent dies, marries, or becomes entitled to an old-age insurance benefit equal to or exceeding 82½ percent of the primary insurance amount of such deceased individual if the amount of the parent’s insurance benefit for such month is determinable under paragraph (2)(A) (or 75 percent of such primary insurance amount in any other case).
(2)
(A) Except as provided in subparagraphs (B) and (C), such parent’s insurance benefit for each month shall be equal to 82½ percent of the primary insurance amount of such deceased individual.
(B) For any month for which more than one parent is entitled to parent’s insurance benefits on the basis of such deceased individual’s wages and self-employment income, such benefit for each such parent for such month shall (except as provided in subparagraph (C)) be equal to 75 percent of the primary insurance amount of such deceased individual.
(C)
In any case in which—
(i) any parent is entitled to a parent’s insurance benefit for a month on the basis of a deceased individual’s wages and self-employment income, and
(ii) another parent of such deceased individual is entitled to a parent’s insurance benefit for such month on the basis of such wages and self-employment income, and on the basis of an application filed after such month and after the month in which the application for the parent’s benefits referred to in clause (i) was filed,
the amount of the parent’s insurance benefit of the parent referred to in clause (i) for the month referred to in such clause shall be determined under subparagraph (A) instead of subparagraph (B) and the amount of the parent’s insurance benefit of a parent referred to in clause (ii) for such month shall be equal to 150 percent of the primary insurance amount of the deceased individual minus the amount (before the application of section 403(a) of this title) of the benefit for such month of the parent referred to in clause (i).
(3) As used in this subsection, the term “parent” means the mother or father of an individual, a stepparent of an individual by a marriage contracted before such individual attained the age of sixteen, or an adopting parent by whom an individual was adopted before he attained the age of sixteen.
(4)
In the case of a parent who marries—
(A)
(B) an individual who has attained the age of eighteen and is entitled to benefits under subsection (d),
such parent’s entitlement to benefits under this subsection shall, notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection but subject to subsection (s), not be terminated by reason of such marriage.
(i)
Lump-sum death payments
Upon the death, after August 1950, of an individual who died a fully or currently insured individual, an amount equal to three times such individual’s primary insurance amount (as determined without regard to the amendments made by section 2201 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981, relating to the repeal of the minimum benefit provisions), or an amount equal to $255, whichever is the smaller, shall be paid in a lump sum to the person, if any, determined by the Commissioner of Social Security to be the widow or widower of the deceased and to have been living in the same household with the deceased at the time of death. If there is no such person, or if such person dies before receiving payment, then such amount shall be paid—
(1) to a widow (as defined in section 416(c) of this title) or widower (as defined in section 416(g) of this title) who is entitled (or would have been so entitled had a timely application been filed), on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such insured individual, to benefits under subsection (e), (f), or (g) of this section for the month in which occurred such individual’s death; or
(2) if no person qualifies for payment under paragraph (1), or if such person dies before receiving payment, in equal shares to each person who is entitled (or would have been so entitled had a timely application been filed), on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such insured individual, to benefits under subsection (d) of this section for the month in which occurred such individual’s death.
No payment shall be made to any person under this subsection unless application therefor shall have been filed, by or on behalf of such person (whether or not legally competent), prior to the expiration of two years after the date of death of such insured individual, or unless such person was entitled to wife’s or husband’s insurance benefits, on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such insured individual, for the month preceding the month in which such individual died. In the case of any individual who died outside the forty-eight States and the District of Columbia after December 1953 and before January 1, 1957, whose death occurred while he was in the active military or naval service of the United States, and who is returned to any of such States, the District of Columbia, Alaska, Hawaii, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, or American Samoa for interment or reinterment, the provisions of the preceding sentence shall not prevent payment to any person under the second sentence of this subsection if application for a lump-sum death payment with respect to such deceased individual is filed by or on behalf of such person (whether or not legally competent) prior to the expiration of two years after the date of such interment or reinterment. In the case of any individual who died outside the fifty States and the District of Columbia after December 1956 while he was performing service, as a member of a uniformed service, to which the provisions of section 410(l)(1) of this title are applicable, and who is returned to any State, or to any Territory or possession of the United States, for interment or reinterment, the provisions of the third sentence of this subsection shall not prevent payment to any person under the second sentence of this subsection if application for a lump-sum death payment with respect to such deceased individual is filed by or on behalf of such person (whether or not legally competent) prior to the expiration of two years after the date of such interment or reinterment.
(j)
Application for monthly insurance benefits
(1)
Subject to the limitations contained in paragraph (4), an individual who would have been entitled to a benefit under subsection (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), or (h) for any month after August 1950 had he filed application therefor prior to the end of such month shall be entitled to such benefit for such month if he files application therefor prior to—
(A) the end of the twelfth month immediately succeeding such month in any case where the individual (i) is filing application for a benefit under subsection (e) or (f), and satisfies paragraph (1)(B) of such subsection by reason of clause (ii) thereof, or (ii) is filing application for a benefit under subsection (b), (c), or (d) on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of a person entitled to disability insurance benefits, or
(B) the end of the sixth month immediately succeeding such month in any case where subparagraph (A) does not apply.
Any benefit under this subchapter for a month prior to the month in which application is filed shall be reduced, to any extent that may be necessary, so that it will not render erroneous any benefit which, before the filing of such application, the Commissioner of Social Security has certified for payment for such prior month.
(2) An application for any monthly benefits under this section filed before the first month in which the applicant satisfies the requirements for such benefits shall be deemed a valid application (and shall be deemed to have been filed in such first month) only if the applicant satisfies the requirements for such benefits before the Commissioner of Social Security makes a final decision on the application and no request under section 405(b) of this title for notice and opportunity for a hearing thereon is made or, if such a request is made, before a decision based upon the evidence adduced at the hearing is made (regardless of whether such decision becomes the final decision of the Commissioner of Social Security).
(3) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1), an individual may, at his option, waive entitlement to any benefit referred to in paragraph (1) for any one or more consecutive months (beginning with the earliest month for which such individual would otherwise be entitled to such benefit) which occur before the month in which such individual files application for such benefit; and, in such case, such individual shall not be considered as entitled to such benefits for any such month or months before such individual filed such application. An individual shall be deemed to have waived such entitlement for any such month for which such benefit would, under the second sentence of paragraph (1), be reduced to zero.
(4)
(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), no individual shall be entitled to a monthly benefit under subsection (a), (b), (c), (e), or (f) for any month prior to the month in which he or she files an application for benefits under that subsection if the amount of the monthly benefit to which such individual would otherwise be entitled for any such month would be subject to reduction pursuant to subsection (q).
(B)
(i) If the individual applying for retroactive benefits is a widow, surviving divorced wife, or widower and is under a disability (as defined in section 423(d) of this title), and such individual would, except for subparagraph (A), be entitled to retroactive benefits as a disabled widow or widower or disabled surviving divorced wife for any month before attaining the age of 60, then subparagraph (A) shall not apply with respect to such month or any subsequent month.
(ii) Subparagraph (A) does not apply to a benefit under subsection (e) or (f) for the month immediately preceding the month of application, if the insured individual died in that preceding month.
(iii) As used in this subparagraph, the term “retroactive benefits” means benefits to which an individual becomes entitled for a month prior to the month in which application for such benefits is filed.
(5)
In any case in which it is determined to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security that an individual failed as of any date to apply for monthly insurance benefits under this subchapter by reason of misinformation provided to such individual by any officer or employee of the Social Security Administration relating to such individual’s eligibility for benefits under this subchapter, such individual shall be deemed to have applied for such benefits on the later of—
(A) the date on which such misinformation was provided to such individual, or
(B) the date on which such individual met all requirements for entitlement to such benefits (other than application therefor).
(k)
Simultaneous entitlement to benefits
(1) A child, entitled to child’s insurance benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an insured individual, who would be entitled, on filing application, to child’s insurance benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of some other insured individual, shall be deemed entitled, subject to the provisions of paragraph (2) of this subsection, to child’s insurance benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such other individual if an application for child’s insurance benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such other individual has been filed by any other child who would, on filing application, be entitled to child’s insurance benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of both such insured individuals.
(2)
(A) Any child who under the preceding provisions of this section is entitled for any month to child’s insurance benefits on the wages and self-employment income of more than one insured individual shall, notwithstanding such provisions, be entitled to only one of such child’s insurance benefits for such month. Such child’s insurance benefits for such month shall be the benefit based on the wages and self-employment income of the insured individual who has the greatest primary insurance amount, except that such child’s insurance benefits for such month shall be the largest benefit to which such child could be entitled under subsection (d) (without the application of section 403(a) of this title) or subsection (m) if entitlement to such benefit would not, with respect to any person, result in a benefit lower (after the application of section 403(a) of this title) than the benefit which would be applicable if such child were entitled on the wages and self-employment income of the individual with the greatest primary insurance amount. Where more than one child is entitled to child’s insurance benefits pursuant to the preceding provisions of this paragraph, each such child who is entitled on the wages and self-employment income of the same insured individuals shall be entitled on the wages and self-employment income of the same such insured individual.
(B) Any individual (other than an individual to whom subsection (e)(3) or (f)(3) applies) who, under the preceding provisions of this section and under the provisions of section 423 of this title, is entitled for any month to more than one monthly insurance benefit (other than an old-age or disability insurance benefit) under this subchapter shall be entitled to only one such monthly benefit for such month, such benefit to be the largest of the monthly benefits to which he (but for this subparagraph) would otherwise be entitled for such month. Any individual who is entitled for any month to more than one widow’s or widower’s insurance benefit to which subsection (e)(3) or (f)(3) applies shall be entitled to only one such benefit for such month, such benefit to be the largest of such benefits.
(3)
(A) If an individual is entitled to an old-age or disability insurance benefit for any month and to any other monthly insurance benefit for such month, such other insurance benefit for such month, after any reduction under subsection (q), subsection (e)(2) or (f)(2), and any reduction under section 403(a) of this title, shall be reduced, but not below zero, by an amount equal to such old-age or disability insurance benefit (after reduction under such subsection (q)).
(B) If an individual is entitled for any month to a widow’s or widower’s insurance benefit to which subsection (e)(3) or (f)(3) applies and to any other monthly insurance benefit under this section (other than an old-age insurance benefit), such other insurance benefit for such month, after any reduction under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, any reduction under subsection (q), and any reduction under section 403(a) of this title, shall be reduced, but not below zero, by an amount equal to such widow’s or widower’s insurance benefit after any reduction or reductions under such subparagraph (A) and such section 403(a).
(4) Any individual who, under this section and section 423 of this title, is entitled for any month to both an old-age insurance benefit and a disability insurance benefit under this subchapter shall be entitled to only the larger of such benefits for such month, except that, if such individual so elects, he shall instead be entitled to only the smaller of such benefits for such month.
(5)
(A)
The amount of a monthly insurance benefit of any individual for each month under subsection (b), (c), (e), (f), or (g) (as determined after application of the provisions of subsection (q) and the preceding provisions of this subsection) shall be reduced (but not below zero) by an amount equal to two-thirds of the amount of any monthly periodic benefit payable to such individual for such month which is based upon such individual’s earnings while in the service of the Federal Government or any State (or political subdivision thereof, as defined in section 418(b)(2) of this title) if, during any portion of the last 60 months of such service ending with the last day such individual was employed by such entity—
(i) such service did not constitute “employment” as defined in section 410 of this title, or
(ii)
such service was being performed while in the service of the Federal Government, and constituted “employment” as so defined solely by reason of—
(I) clause (ii) or (iii) of subparagraph (G) of section 410(a)(5) of this title, where the lump-sum payment described in such clause (ii) or the cessation of coverage described in such clause (iii) (whichever is applicable) was received or occurred on or after January 1, 1988, or(II) an election to become subject to the Federal Employees’ Retirement System provided in chapter 84 of title 5 or the Foreign Service Pension System provided in subchapter II of chapter 8 of title I of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 [22 U.S.C. 4071 et seq.] made pursuant to law after December 31, 1987,
unless subparagraph (B) applies.
The amount of the reduction in any benefit under this subparagraph, if not a multiple of $0.10, shall be rounded to the next higher multiple of $0.10.
(B)
(i) Subparagraph (A)(i) shall not apply with respect to monthly periodic benefits based wholly on service as a member of a uniformed service (as defined in section 410(m) of this title).
(ii) Subparagraph (A)(ii) shall not apply with respect to monthly periodic benefits based in whole or in part on service which constituted “employment” as defined in section 410 of this title if such service was performed for at least 60 months in the aggregate during the period beginning January 1, 1988, and ending with the close of the first calendar month as of the end of which such individual is eligible for benefits under this subsection and has made a valid application for such benefits.
(C) For purposes of this paragraph, any periodic benefit which otherwise meets the requirements of subparagraph (A), but which is paid on other than a monthly basis, shall be allocated on a basis equivalent to a monthly benefit (as determined by the Commissioner of Social Security) and such equivalent monthly benefit shall constitute a monthly periodic benefit for purposes of subparagraph (A). For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “periodic benefit” includes a benefit payable in a lump sum if it is a commutation of, or a substitute for, periodic payments.
(l)
Entitlement to survivor benefits under railroad retirement provisions

If any person would be entitled, upon filing application therefor to an annuity under section 2 of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 [45 U.S.C. 231a], or to a lump-sum payment under section 6(b) of such Act [45 U.S.C. 231e(b)], with respect to the death of an employee (as defined in such Act) no lump-sum death payment, and no monthly benefit for the month in which such employee died or for any month thereafter, shall be paid under this section to any person on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such employee.

(m)
Repealed. Pub. L. 97–35, title XXII, § 2201(b)(10), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 831
(n)
Termination of benefits upon removal of primary beneficiary
(1)
If any individual is (after September 1, 1954) removed under section 1227(a) of title 8 (other than under paragraph (1)(C) of such section) or under section 1182(a)(6)(A) of title 8, then, notwithstanding any other provisions of this subchapter—
(A) no monthly benefit under this section or section 423 of this title shall be paid to such individual, on the basis of his wages and self-employment income, for any month occurring (i) after the month in which the Commissioner of Social Security is notified by the Attorney General or the Secretary of Homeland Security that such individual has been so removed, and (ii) before the month in which such individual is thereafter lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence,
(B) if no benefit could be paid to such individual (or if no benefit could be paid to him if he were alive) for any month by reason of subparagraph (A), no monthly benefit under this section shall be paid, on the basis of his wages and self-employment income, for such month to any other person who is not a citizen of the United States and is outside the United States for any part of such month, and
(C) no lump-sum death payment shall be made on the basis of such individual’s wages and self-employment income if he dies (i) in or after the month in which such notice is received, and (ii) before the month in which he is thereafter lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence.
Section 403(b), (c), and (d) of this title shall not apply with respect to any such individual for any month for which no monthly benefit may be paid to him by reason of this paragraph.
(2)
(A) In the case of the removal of any individual under any of the paragraphs of section 1227(a) of title 8 (other than under paragraph (1)(C) of such section) or under section 1182(a)(6)(A) of title 8, the revocation and setting aside of citizenship of any individual under section 1451 of title 8 in any case in which the revocation and setting aside is based on conduct described in section 1182(a)(3)(E)(i) of title 8 (relating to participation in Nazi persecution), or the renunciation of nationality by any individual under section 1481(a)(5) of title 8 pursuant to a settlement agreement with the Attorney General where the individual has admitted to conduct described in section 1182(a)(3)(E)(i) of title 8 (relating to participation in Nazi persecution) occurring after December 18, 2014, the Attorney General or the Secretary of Homeland Security shall notify the Commissioner of Social Security of such removal, revocation and setting aside, or renunciation of nationality not later than 7 days after such removal, revocation and setting aside, or renunciation of nationality (or, in the case of any such removal, revocation and setting aside, of 2
2 So in original. Probably should be “or”.
renunciation of nationality that has occurred prior to December 18, 2014, not later than 7 days after December 18, 2014).
(B)
(i) Not later than 30 days after December 18, 2014, the Attorney General shall certify to the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate that the Commissioner of Social Security has been notified of each removal, revocation and setting aside, or renunciation of nationality described in subparagraph (A).
(ii) Not later than 30 days after each notification with respect to an individual under subparagraph (A), the Commissioner of Social Security shall certify to the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate that such individual’s benefits were terminated under this subsection.
(3)
For purposes of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection—
(A) an individual against whom a final order of removal has been issued under section 1227(a)(4)(D) of title 8
(B) an individual with respect to whom an order admitting the individual to citizenship has been revoked and set aside under section 1451 of title 8 in any case in which the revocation and setting aside is based on conduct described in section 1182(a)(3)(E)(i) of title 8 (relating to participation in Nazi persecution), concealment of a material fact about such conduct, or willful misrepresentation about such conduct shall be considered to have been removed as described in paragraph (1) as of the date of such revocation and setting aside; and
(C) an individual who pursuant to a settlement agreement with the Attorney General has admitted to conduct described in section 1182(a)(3)(E)(i) of title 8 (relating to participation in Nazi persecution) and who pursuant to such settlement agreement has lost status as a national of the United States by a renunciation under section 1481(a)(5) of title 8 shall be considered to have been removed as described in paragraph (1) as of the date of such renunciation.
(4)
In the case of any individual described in paragraph (3) whose monthly benefits are terminated under paragraph (1)—
(A) no benefits otherwise available under this section based on the wages and self-employment income of any other individual shall be paid to such individual for any month after such termination; and
(B) no supplemental security income benefits under subchapter XVI shall be paid to such individual for any such month, including supplementary payments pursuant to an agreement for Federal administration under section 1382e(a) of this title and payments pursuant to an agreement entered into under section 212(b) of Public Law 93–66 3
3 So in original. Probably should be followed by a period.
(o)
Application for benefits by survivors of members and former members of uniformed services

In the case of any individual who would be entitled to benefits under subsection (d), (e), (g), or (h) upon filing proper application therefor, the filing with the Administrator of Veterans’ Affairs by or on behalf of such individual of an application for such benefits, on the form described in section 5105 of title 38, shall satisfy the requirement of such subsection (d), (e), (g), or (h) that an application for such benefits be filed.

(p)
Extension of period for filing proof of support and applications for lump-sum death payment
In any case in which there is a failure—
(1) to file proof of support under subparagraph (B) of subsection (h)(1), or under clause (B) of subsection (f)(1) of this section as in effect prior to the Social Security Act Amendments of 1950, within the period prescribed by such subparagraph or clause, or
(2) to file, in the case of a death after 1946, application for a lump-sum death payment under subsection (i), or under subsection (g) of this section as in effect prior to the Social Security Act Amendments of 1950, within the period prescribed by such subsection,
any such proof or application, as the case may be, which is filed after the expiration of such period shall be deemed to have been filed within such period if it is shown to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security that there was good cause for failure to file such proof or application within such period. The determination of what constitutes good cause for purposes of this subsection shall be made in accordance with regulations of the Commissioner of Social Security.
(q)
Reduction of benefit amounts for certain beneficiaries
(1)
Subject to paragraph (9), if the first month for which an individual is entitled to an old-age, wife’s, husband’s, widow’s, or widower’s insurance benefit is a month before the month in which such individual attains retirement age, the amount of such benefit for such month and for any subsequent month shall, subject to the succeeding paragraphs of this subsection, be reduced by—
(A)59 of 1 percent of such amount if such benefit is an old-age insurance benefit, 2536 of 1 percent of such amount if such benefit is a wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit, or 1940 of 1 percent of such amount if such benefit is a widow’s or widower’s insurance benefit, multiplied by
(B)
(i) the number of months in the reduction period for such benefit (determined under paragraph (6)), if such benefit is for a month before the month in which such individual attains retirement age, or
(ii) if less, the number of such months in the adjusted reduction period for such benefit (determined under paragraph (7)), if such benefit is (I) for the month in which such individual attains age 62, or (II) for the month in which such individual attains retirement age.
(2) If an individual is entitled to a disability insurance benefit for a month after a month for which such individual was entitled to an old-age insurance benefit, such disability insurance benefit for each month shall be reduced by the amount such old-age insurance benefit would be reduced under paragraphs (1) and (4) for such month had such individual attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) in the first month for which he most recently became entitled to a disability insurance benefit.
(3)
(A)
If the first month for which an individual both is entitled to a wife’s, husband’s, widow’s, or widower’s insurance benefit and has attained age 62 (in the case of a wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit) or age 50 (in the case of a widow’s or widower’s insurance benefit) is a month for which such individual is also entitled to—
(i) an old-age insurance benefit (to which such individual was first entitled for a month before he attains retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title)), or
(ii) a disability insurance benefit,
then in lieu of any reduction under paragraph (1) (but subject to the succeeding paragraphs of this subsection) such wife’s, husband’s, widow’s, or widower’s insurance benefit for each month shall be reduced as provided in subparagraph (B), (C), or (D).
(B)
For any month for which such individual is entitled to an old-age insurance benefit and is not entitled to a disability insurance benefit, such individual’s wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit shall be reduced by the sum of—
(i) the amount by which such old-age insurance benefit is reduced under paragraph (1) for such month, and
(ii) the amount by which such wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit would be reduced under paragraph (1) for such month if it were equal to the excess of such wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit (before reduction under this subsection) over such old-age insurance benefit (before reduction under this subsection).
(C)
For any month for which such individual is entitled to a disability insurance benefit, such individual’s wife’s, husband’s, widow’s, or widower’s insurance benefit shall be reduced by the sum of—
(i) the amount by which such disability insurance benefit is reduced under paragraph (2) for such month (if such paragraph applied to such benefit), and
(ii) the amount by which such wife’s, husband’s, widow’s, or widower’s insurance benefit would be reduced under paragraph (1) for such month if it were equal to the excess of such wife’s, husband’s, widow’s, or widower’s insurance benefit (before reduction under this subsection) over such disability insurance benefit (before reduction under this subsection).
(D) For any month for which such individual is entitled neither to an old-age insurance benefit nor to a disability insurance benefit, such individual’s wife’s, husband’s, widow’s, or widower’s insurance benefit shall be reduced by the amount by which it would be reduced under paragraph (1).
(E) Notwithstanding subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, if the first month for which an individual is entitled to a widow’s or widower’s insurance benefit is a month for which such individual is also entitled to an old-age insurance benefit to which such individual was first entitled for that month or for a month before she or he became entitled to a widow’s or widower’s benefit, the reduction in such widow’s or widower’s insurance benefit shall be determined under paragraph (1).
(4)
If—
(A) an individual is or was entitled to a benefit subject to reduction under paragraph (1) or (3) of this subsection, and
(B) such benefit is increased by reason of an increase in the primary insurance amount of the individual on whose wages and self-employment income such benefit is based,
then the amount of the reduction of such benefit (after the application of any adjustment under paragraph (7)) for each month beginning with the month of such increase in the primary insurance amount shall be computed under paragraph (1) or (3), whichever applies, as though the increased primary insurance amount had been in effect for and after the month for which the individual first became entitled to such monthly benefit reduced under such paragraph (1) or (3).
(5)
(A)
No wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit shall be reduced under this subsection—
(i) for any month before the first month for which there is in effect a certificate filed by him or her with the Commissioner of Social Security, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Commissioner of Social Security, in which he or she elects to receive wife’s or husband’s insurance benefits reduced as provided in this subsection, or
(ii) for any month in which he or she has in his or her care (individually or jointly with the person on whose wages and self-employment income the wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit is based) a child of such person entitled to child’s insurance benefits.
(B)
Any certificate described in subparagraph (A)(i) shall be effective for purposes of this subsection (and for purposes of preventing deductions under section 403(c)(2) of this title)—
(i) for the month in which it is filed and for any month thereafter, and
(ii) for months, in the period designated by the individual filing such certificate, of one or more consecutive months (not exceeding 12) immediately preceding the month in which such certificate is filed;
except that such certificate shall not be effective for any month before the month in which he or she attains age 62, nor shall it be effective for any month to which subparagraph (A)(ii) applies.
(C) If an individual does not have in his or her care a child described in subparagraph (A)(ii) in the first month for which he or she is entitled to a wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit, and if such first month is a month before the month in which he or she attains retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), he or she shall be deemed to have filed in such first month the certificate described in subparagraph (A)(i).
(D) No widow’s or widower’s insurance benefit for a month in which he or she has in his or her care a child of his or her deceased spouse (or deceased former spouse) entitled to child’s insurance benefits shall be reduced under this subsection below the amount to which he or she would have been entitled had he or she been entitled for such month to mother’s or father’s insurance benefits on the basis of his or her deceased spouse’s (or deceased former spouse’s) wages and self-employment income.
(6)
For purposes of this subsection, the “reduction period” for an individual’s old-age, wife’s, husband’s, widow’s, or widower’s insurance benefit is the period—
(A)
beginning—
(i) in the case of an old-age insurance benefit, with the first day of the first month for which such individual is entitled to such benefit,
(ii) in the case of a wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit, with the first day of the first month for which a certificate described in paragraph (5)(A)(i) is effective, or
(iii) in the case of a widow’s or widower’s insurance benefit, with the first day of the first month for which such individual is entitled to such benefit or the first day of the month in which such individual attains age 60, whichever is the later, and
(B) ending with the last day of the month before the month in which such individual attains retirement age.
(7)
For purposes of this subsection, the “adjusted reduction period” for an individual’s old-age, wife’s, husband’s, widow’s, or widower’s insurance benefit is the reduction period prescribed in paragraph (6) for such benefit, excluding—
(A) any month in which such benefit was subject to deductions under section 403(b), 403(c)(1), 403(d)(1), or 422(b) of this title,
(B) in the case of wife’s or husband’s insurance benefits, any month in which such individual had in his or her care (individually or jointly with the person on whose wages and self-employment income such benefit is based) a child of such person entitled to child’s insurance benefits,
(C) in the case of wife’s or husband’s insurance benefits, any month for which such individual was not entitled to such benefits because of the occurrence of an event that terminated her or his entitlement to such benefits,
(D) in the case of widow’s or widower’s insurance benefits, any month in which the reduction in the amount of such benefit was determined under paragraph (5)(D),
(E) in the case of widow’s or widower’s insurance benefits, any month before the month in which she or he attained age 62, and also for any later month before the month in which she or he attained retirement age, for which she or he was not entitled to such benefit because of the occurrence of an event that terminated her or his entitlement to such benefits, and
(F) in the case of old-age insurance benefits, any month for which such individual was entitled to a disability insurance benefit.
(8) This subsection shall be applied after reduction under section 403(a) of this title and before application of section 415(g) of this title. If the amount of any reduction computed under paragraph (1), (2), or (3) is not a multiple of $0.10, it shall be increased to the next higher multiple of $0.10.
(9)
The amount of the reduction for early retirement specified in paragraph (1)—
(A) for old-age insurance benefits, wife’s insurance benefits, and husband’s insurance benefits, shall be the amount specified in such paragraph for the first 36 months of the reduction period (as defined in paragraph (6)) or adjusted reduction period (as defined in paragraph (7)), and five-twelfths of 1 percent for any additional months included in such periods; and
(B)
for widow’s insurance benefits and widower’s insurance benefits, shall be periodically revised by the Commissioner of Social Security such that—
(i) the amount of the reduction at early retirement age as defined in section 416(l) of this title shall be 28.5 percent of the full benefit; and
(ii) the amount of the reduction for each month in the reduction period (specified in paragraph (6)) or the adjusted reduction period (specified in paragraph (7)) shall be established by linear interpolation between 28.5 percent at the month of attainment of early retirement age and 0 percent at the month of attainment of retirement age.
(10)
For purposes of applying paragraph (4), with respect to monthly benefits payable for any month after December 1977 to an individual who was entitled to a monthly benefit as reduced under paragraph (1) or (3) prior to January 1978, the amount of reduction in such benefit for the first month for which such benefit is increased by reason of an increase in the primary insurance amount of the individual on whose wages and self-employment income such benefit is based and for all subsequent months (and similarly for all subsequent increases) shall be increased by a percentage equal to the percentage increase in such primary insurance amount (such increase being made in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (8)). In the case of an individual whose reduced benefit under this section is increased as a result of the use of an adjusted reduction period (in accordance with paragraphs (1) and (3) of this subsection), then for the first month for which such increase is effective, and for all subsequent months, the amount of such reduction (after the application of the previous sentence, if applicable) shall be determined—
(A) in the case of old-age, wife’s, and husband’s insurance benefits, by multiplying such amount by the ratio of (i) the number of months in the adjusted reduction period to (ii) the number of months in the reduction period,
(B) in the case of widow’s and widower’s insurance benefits for the month in which such individual attains age 62, by multiplying such amount by the ratio of (i) the number of months in the reduction period beginning with age 62 multiplied by 1940 of 1 percent, plus the number of months in the adjusted reduction period prior to age 62 multiplied by 1940 of 1 percent to (ii) the number of months in the reduction period multiplied by 1940 of 1 percent, and
(C) in the case of widow’s and widower’s insurance benefits for the month in which such individual attains retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), by multiplying such amount by the ratio of (i) the number of months in the adjusted reduction period multiplied by 1940 of 1 percent to (ii) the number of months in the reduction period beginning with age 62 multiplied by 1940 of 1 percent, plus the number of months in the adjusted reduction period prior to age 62 multiplied by 1940 of 1 percent,
such determination being made in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (8).
(11) When an individual is entitled to more than one monthly benefit under this subchapter and one or more of such benefits are reduced under this subsection, paragraph (10) shall apply separately to each such benefit reduced under this subsection before the application of subsection (k) (pertaining to the method by which monthly benefits are offset when an individual is entitled to more than one kind of benefit) and the application of this paragraph shall operate in conjunction with paragraph (3).
(r)
Presumed filing of application by individuals eligible for old-age insurance benefits and for wife’s or husband’s insurance benefits
(1) If an individual is eligible for a wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit (except in the case of eligibility pursuant to clause (ii) of subsection (b)(1)(B) or subsection (c)(1)(B), as appropriate), in any month for which the individual is entitled to an old-age insurance benefit, such individual shall be deemed to have filed an application for wife’s or husband’s insurance benefits for such month.
(2)
If an individual is eligible (but for subsection (k)(4)) for an old-age insurance benefit in any month for which the individual is entitled to a wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit (except in the case of entitlement pursuant to clause (ii) of subsection (b)(1)(B) or subsection (c)(1)(B), as appropriate), such individual shall be deemed to have filed an application for old-age insur
(A) for such month, or
(B) if such individual is also entitled to a disability insurance benefit for such month, in the first subsequent month for which such individual is not entitled to a disability insurance benefit.
(3) For purposes of this subsection, an individual shall be deemed eligible for a benefit for a month if, upon filing application therefor in such month, he would be entitled to such benefit for such month.
(s)
Child over specified age to be disregarded for certain benefit purposes unless disabled
(1) For the purposes of subsections (b)(1), (c)(1), (g)(1), (q)(5), and (q)(7) of this section and paragraphs (2), (3), and (4) of section 403(c) of this title, a child who is entitled to child’s insurance benefits under subsection (d) for any month, and who has attained the age of 16 but is not in such month under a disability (as defined in section 423(d) of this title), shall be deemed not entitled to such benefits for such month, unless he was under such a disability in the third month before such month.
(2) So much of subsections (b)(3), (c)(4),1 (d)(5), (g)(3), and (h)(4) of this section as precedes the semicolon, shall not apply in the case of any child unless such child, at the time of the marriage referred to therein, was under a disability (as defined in section 423(d) of this title) or had been under such a disability in the third month before the month in which such marriage occurred.
(3) The last sentence of subsection (c) of section 403 of this title, subsection (f)(1)(C) of section 403 of this title, and subsections (b)(3)(B), (c)(6)(B),1 (f)(3)(B), and (g)(6)(B) 1 of section 416 of this title shall not apply in the case of any child with respect to any month referred to therein unless in such month or the third month prior thereto such child was under a disability (as defined in section 423(d) of this title).
(t)
Suspension of benefits of aliens who are outside United States; residency requirements for dependents and survivors
(1)
Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, no monthly benefits shall be paid under this section or under section 423 of this title to any individual who is not a citizen or national of the United States for any month which is—
(A) after the sixth consecutive calendar month during all of which the Commissioner of Social Security finds, on the basis of information furnished to the Commissioner by the Attorney General or information which otherwise comes to the Commissioner’s attention, that such individual is outside the United States, and
(B) prior to the first month thereafter for all of which such individual has been in the United States.
For purposes of the preceding sentence, after an individual has been outside the United States for any period of thirty consecutive days he shall be treated as remaining outside the United States until he has been in the United States for a period of thirty consecutive days.
(2)
Subject to paragraph (11), paragraph (1) of this subsection shall not apply to any individual who is a citizen of a foreign country which the Commissioner of Social Security finds has in effect a social insurance or pension system which is of general application in such country and under which—
(A) periodic benefits, or the actuarial equivalent thereof, are paid on account of old age, retirement, or death, and
(B) individuals who are citizens of the United States but not citizens of such foreign country and who qualify for such benefits are permitted to receive such benefits or the actuarial equivalent thereof while outside such foreign country without regard to the duration of the absence.
(3) Paragraph (1) of this subsection shall not apply in any case where its application would be contrary to any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on August 1, 1956.
(4)
Subject to paragraph (11), paragraph (1) of this subsection shall not apply to any benefit for any month if—
(A) not less than forty of the quarters elapsing before such month are quarters of coverage for the individual on whose wages and self-employment income such benefit is based, or
(B) the individual on whose wages and self-employment income such benefit is based has, before such month, resided in the United States for a period or periods aggregating ten years or more, or
(C) the individual entitled to such benefit is outside the United States while in the active military or naval service of the United States, or
(D) the individual on whose wages and self-employment income such benefit is based died, before such month, either (i) while on active duty or inactive duty training (as those terms are defined in section 410(l) (2) and (3) of this title) as a member of a uniformed service (as defined in section 410(m) of this title), or (ii) as the result of a disease or injury which the Secretary of Veterans Affairs determines was incurred or aggravated in line of duty while on active duty (as defined in section 410(l)(2) of this title), or an injury which he determines was incurred or aggravated in line of duty while on inactive duty training (as defined in section 410(l)(3) of this title), as a member of a uniformed service (as defined in section 410(m) of this title), if the Secretary of Veterans Affairs determines that such individual was discharged or released from the period of such active duty or inactive duty training under conditions other than dishonorable, and if the Secretary of Veterans Affairs certifies to the Commissioner of Social Security his determinations with respect to such individual under this clause, or
(E) the individual on whose employment such benefit is based had been in service covered by the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 or 1974 [45 U.S.C. 228a et seq., 231 et seq.] which was treated as employment covered by this chapter pursuant to the provisions of section 5(k)(1) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 [45 U.S.C. 228e(k)(1)] or section 18(2) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 [45 U.S.C. 231q(2)];
except that subparagraphs (A) and (B) of this paragraph shall not apply in the case of any individual who is a citizen of a foreign country that has in effect a social insurance or pension system which is of general application in such country and which satisfies subparagraph (A) but not subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2), or who is a citizen of a foreign country that has no social insurance or pension system of general application if at any time within five years prior to the month in which the Social Security Amendments of 1967 are enacted (or the first month thereafter for which his benefits are subject to suspension under paragraph (1)) payments to individuals residing in such country were withheld by the Treasury Department under sections 3329(a) and 3330(a) of title 31.
(5) No person who is, or upon application would be, entitled to a monthly benefit under this section for December 1956 shall be deprived, by reason of paragraph (1) of this subsection, of such benefit or any other benefit based on the wages and self-employment income of the individual on whose wages and self-employment income such monthly benefit for December 1956 is based.
(6) If an individual is outside the United States when he dies and no benefit may, by reason of paragraph (1) or (10) of this subsection, be paid to him for the month preceding the month in which he dies, no lump-sum death payment may be made on the basis of such individual’s wages and self-employment income.
(7) Subsections (b), (c), and (d) of section 403 of this title shall not apply with respect to any individual for any month for which no monthly benefit may be paid to him by reason of paragraph (1) of this subsection.
(8) The Attorney General shall certify to the Commissioner of Social Security such information regarding aliens who depart from the United States to any foreign country (other than a foreign country which is territorially contiguous to the continental United States) as may be necessary to enable the Commissioner of Social Security to carry out the purposes of this subsection and shall otherwise aid, assist, and cooperate with the Commissioner of Social Security in obtaining such other information as may be necessary to enable the Commissioner of Social Security to carry out the purposes of this subsection.
(9) No payments shall be made under part A of subchapter XVIII with respect to items or services furnished to an individual in any month for which the prohibition in paragraph (1) against payment of benefits to him is applicable (or would be if he were entitled to any such benefits).
(10) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, no monthly benefits shall be paid under this section or under section 423 of this title, for any month beginning after June 30, 1968, to an individual who is not a citizen or national of the United States and who resides during such month in a foreign country if payments for such month to individuals residing in such country are withheld by the Treasury Department under sections 3329(a) and 3330(a) of title 31.
(11)
(A) Paragraph (2) and subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (E) of paragraph (4) shall apply with respect to an individual’s monthly benefits under subsection (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), or (h) only if such individual meets the residency requirements of this paragraph with respect to those benefits.
(B) An individual entitled to benefits under subsection (b), (c), (e), (f), or (g) meets the residency requirements of this paragraph with respect to those benefits only if such individual has resided in the United States, and while so residing bore a spousal relationship to the person on whose wages and self-employment income such entitlement is based, for a total period of not less than 5 years. For purposes of this subparagraph, a period of time for which an individual bears a spousal relationship to another person consists of a period throughout which the individual has been, with respect to such other person, a wife, a husband, a widow, a widower, a divorced wife, a divorced husband, a surviving divorced wife, a surviving divorced husband, a surviving divorced mother, a surviving divorced father, or (as applicable in the course of such period) any two or more of the foregoing.
(C)
An individual entitled to benefits under subsection (d) meets the residency requirements of this paragraph with respect to those benefits only if—
(i)(I) such individual has resided in the United States (as the child of the person on whose wages and self-employment income such entitlement is based) for a total period of not less than 5 years, or(II) the person on whose wages and self-employment income such entitlement is based, and the individual’s other parent (within the meaning of subsection (h)(3)), if any, have each resided in the United States for a total period of not less than 5 years (or died while residing in the United States), and
(ii)
in the case of an individual entitled to such benefits as an adopted child, such individual was adopted within the United States by the person on whose wages and self-employment income such entitlement is based, and has lived in the United States with such person and received at least one-half of his or her support from such person for a period (beginning before such individual attained age 18) consisting of—
(I) the year immediately before the month in which such person became eligible for old-age insurance benefits or disability insurance benefits or died, whichever occurred first, or(II) if such person had a period of disability which continued until he or she became entitled to old-age insurance benefits or disability insurance benefits or died, the year immediately before the month in which such period of disability began.
(D) An individual entitled to benefits under subsection (h) meets the residency requirements of this paragraph with respect to those benefits only if such individual has resided in the United States, and while so residing was a parent (within the meaning of subsection (h)(3)) of the person on whose wages and self-employment income such entitlement is based, for a total period of not less than 5 years.
(E) This paragraph shall not apply with respect to any individual who is a citizen or resident of a foreign country with which the United States has an agreement in force concluded pursuant to section 433 of this title, except to the extent provided by such agreement.
(u)
Conviction of subversive activities, etc.
(1)
If any individual is convicted of any offense (committed after August 1, 1956) under—
(A) chapter 37 (relating to espionage and censorship), chapter 105 (relating to sabotage), or chapter 115 (relating to treason, sedition, and subversive activities) of title 18, or
(B)section 783 of title 50,
then the court may, in addition to all other penalties provided by law, impose a penalty that in determining whether any monthly insurance benefit under this section or section 423 of this title is payable to such individual for the month in which he is convicted or for any month thereafter, in determining the amount of any such benefit payable to such individual for any such month, and in determining whether such individual is entitled to insurance benefits under part A of subchapter XVIII for any such month, there shall not be taken into account—
(C) any wages paid to such individual or to any other individual in the calendar year in which such conviction occurs or in any prior calendar year, and
(D) any net earnings from self-employment derived by such individual or by any other individual during a taxable year in which such conviction occurs or during any prior taxable year.
(2) As soon as practicable after an additional penalty has, pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection, been imposed with respect to any individual, the Attorney General shall notify the Commissioner of Social Security of such imposition.
(3) If any individual with respect to whom an additional penalty has been imposed pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection is granted a pardon of the offense by the President of the United States, such additional penalty shall not apply for any month beginning after the date on which such pardon is granted.
(v)
Waiver of benefits
(1) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this subchapter, and subject to paragraph (3), in the case of any individual who files a waiver pursuant to section 1402(g) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and is granted a tax exemption thereunder, no benefits or other payments shall be payable under this subchapter to him, no payments shall be made on his behalf under part A of subchapter XVIII, and no benefits or other payments under this subchapter shall be payable on the basis of his wages and self-employment income to any other person, after the filing of such waiver.
(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, and subject to paragraph (3), in the case of any individual who files a waiver pursuant to section 3127 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and is granted a tax exemption thereunder, no benefits or other payments shall be payable under this subchapter to him, no payments shall be made on his behalf under part A of subchapter XVIII, and no benefits or other payments under this subchapter shall be payable on the basis of his wages and self-employment income to any other person, after the filing of such waiver.
(3)
If, after an exemption referred to in paragraph (1) or (2) is granted to an individual, such exemption ceases to be effective, the waiver referred to in such paragraph shall cease to be applicable in the case of benefits and other payments under this subchapter and part A of subchapter XVIII to the extent based on—
(A) his wages for and after the calendar year following the calendar year in which occurs the failure to meet the requirements of section 1402(g) or 3127 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 on which the cessation of such exemption is based, and
(B) his self-employment income for and after the taxable year in which occurs such failure.
(w)
Increase in old-age insurance benefit amounts on account of delayed retirement
(1)
The amount of an old-age insurance benefit (other than a benefit based on a primary insurance amount determined under section 415(a)(3) of this title as in effect in December 1978 or section 415(a)(1)(C)(i) of this title as in effect thereafter) which is payable without regard to this subsection to an individual shall be increased by—
(A) the applicable percentage (as determined under paragraph (6)) of such amount, multiplied by
(B) the number (if any) of the increment months for such individual.
(2)
For purposes of this subsection, the number of increment months for any individual shall be a number equal to the total number of the months—
(A) which have elapsed after the month before the month in which such individual attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) or (if later) December 1970 and prior to the month in which such individual attained age 70, and
(B)
with respect to which—
(i) such individual was a fully insured individual (as defined in section 414(a) of this title),
(ii) such individual either was not entitled to an old-age insurance benefit or, if so entitled, did not receive benefits pursuant to a request under subsection (z) by such individual that benefits not be paid, and
(iii) such individual was not subject to a penalty imposed under section 1320a–8a of this title.
(3) For purposes of applying the provisions of paragraph (1), a determination shall be made under paragraph (2) for each year, beginning with 1972, of the total number of an individual’s increment months through the year for which the determination is made and the total so determined shall be applicable to such individual’s old-age insurance benefits beginning with benefits for January of the year following the year for which such determination is made; except that the total number applicable in the case of an individual who attains age 70 after 1972 shall be determined through the month before the month in which he attains such age and shall be applicable to his old-age insurance benefit beginning with the month in which he attains such age.
(4) This subsection shall be applied after reduction under section 403(a) of this title.
(5) If an individual’s primary insurance amount is determined under paragraph (3) of section 415(a) of this title as in effect in December 1978, or section 415(a)(1)(C)(i) of this title as in effect thereafter, and, as a result of this subsection, he would be entitled to a higher old-age insurance benefit if his primary insurance amount were determined under section 415(a) of this title (whether before, in, or after December 1978) without regard to such paragraph, such individual’s old-age insurance benefit based upon his primary insurance amount determined under such paragraph shall be increased by an amount equal to the difference between such benefit and the benefit to which he would be entitled if his primary insurance amount were determined under such section without regard to such paragraph.
(6)
For purposes of paragraph (1)(A), the “applicable percentage” is—
(A)112 of 1 percent in the case of an individual who first becomes eligible for an old-age insurance benefit in any calendar year before 1979;
(B) ¼ of 1 percent in the case of an individual who first becomes eligible for an old-age insurance benefit in any calendar year after 1978 and before 1987;
(C) in the case of an individual who first becomes eligible for an old-age insurance benefit in a calendar year after 1986 and before 2005, a percentage equal to the applicable percentage in effect under this paragraph for persons who first became eligible for an old-age insurance benefit in the preceding calendar year (as increased pursuant to this subparagraph), plus 124 of 1 percent if the calendar year in which that particular individual first becomes eligible for such benefit is not evenly divisible by 2; and
(D) ⅔ of 1 percent in the case of an individual who first becomes eligible for an old-age insurance benefit in a calendar year after 2004.
(x)
Limitation on payments to prisoners, certain other inmates of publicly funded institutions, fugitives, probationers, and parolees
(1)
(A)
Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, no monthly benefits shall be paid under this section or under section 423 of this title to any individual for any month ending with or during or beginning with or during a period of more than 30 days throughout all of which such individual—
(i) is confined in a jail, prison, or other penal institution or correctional facility pursuant to his conviction of a criminal offense,
(ii)
is confined by court order in an institution at public expense in connection with—
(I) a verdict or finding that the individual is guilty but insane, with respect to a criminal offense,(II) a verdict or finding that the individual is not guilty of such an offense by reason of insanity,(III) a finding that such individual is incompetent to stand trial under an allegation of such an offense, or(IV) a similar verdict or finding with respect to such an offense based on similar factors (such as a mental disease, a mental defect, or mental incompetence),
(iii) immediately upon completion of confinement as described in clause (i) pursuant to conviction of a criminal offense an element of which is sexual activity, is confined by court order in an institution at public expense pursuant to a finding that the individual is a sexually dangerous person or a sexual predator or a similar finding,
(iv) is fleeing to avoid prosecution, or custody or confinement after conviction, under the laws of the place from which the person flees, for a crime, or an attempt to commit a crime, which is a felony under the laws of the place from which the person flees, or, in jurisdictions that do not define crimes as felonies, is punishable by death or imprisonment for a term exceeding 1 year regardless of the actual sentence imposed, or
(v) is violating a condition of probation or parole imposed under Federal or State law.
(B)
(i) For purposes of clause (i) of subparagraph (A), an individual shall not be considered confined in an institution comprising a jail, prison, or other penal institution or correctional facility during any month throughout which such individual is residing outside such institution at no expense (other than the cost of monitoring) to such institution or the penal system or to any agency to which the penal system has transferred jurisdiction over the individual.
(ii)
For purposes of clauses (ii) and (iii) of subparagraph (A), an individual confined in an institution as described in such clause (ii) shall be treated as remaining so confined until—
(I) he or she is released from the care and supervision of such institution, and(II) such institution ceases to meet the individual’s basic living needs.
(iii)
Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), the Commissioner shall, for good cause shown, pay the individual benefits that have been withheld or would otherwise be withheld pursuant to clause (iv) or (v) of subparagraph (A) if the Commissioner determines that—
(I) a court of competent jurisdiction has found the individual not guilty of the criminal offense, dismissed the charges relating to the criminal offense, vacated the warrant for arrest of the individual for the criminal offense, or issued any similar exonerating order (or taken similar exonerating action), or(II) the individual was erroneously implicated in connection with the criminal offense by reason of identity fraud.
(iv)
Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), the Commissioner may, for good cause shown based on mitigating circumstances, pay the individual benefits that have been withheld or would otherwise be withheld pursuant to clause (iv) or (v) of subparagraph (A) if the Commissioner determines that—
(I) the offense described in clause (iv) or underlying the imposition of the probation or parole described in clause (v) was nonviolent and not drug-related, and(II) in the case of an individual from whom benefits have been withheld or otherwise would be withheld pursuant to subparagraph (A)(v), the action that resulted in the violation of a condition of probation or parole was nonviolent and not drug-related.
(2) Benefits which would be payable to any individual (other than a confined individual to whom benefits are not payable by reason of paragraph (1)) under this subchapter on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such a confined individual but for the provisions of paragraph (1), shall be payable as though such confined individual were receiving such benefits under this section or section 423 of this title.
(3)
(A) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 552a of title 5 or any other provision of Federal or State law, any agency of the United States Government or of any State (or political subdivision thereof) shall make available to the Commissioner of Social Security, upon written request, the name and social security account number of any individual who is confined as described in paragraph (1) if the confinement is under the jurisdiction of such agency and the Commissioner of Social Security requires such information to carry out the provisions of this section.
(B)
(i)
The Commissioner shall enter into an agreement under this subparagraph with any interested State or local institution comprising a jail, prison, penal institution, or correctional facility, or comprising any other institution a purpose of which is to confine individuals as described in paragraph (1)(A)(ii). Under such agreement—
(I) the institution shall provide to the Commissioner, on a monthly basis and in a manner specified by the Commissioner, the first, middle, and last names, Social Security account numbers or taxpayer identification numbers, prison assigned inmate numbers, last known addresses, dates of birth, confinement commencement dates, dates of release or anticipated dates of release, dates of work release, and, to the extent available to the institution, such other identifying information concerning the individuals confined in the institution as the Commissioner may require for the purpose of carrying out paragraph (1) and clause (iv) of this subparagraph and other provisions of this subchapter; and(II) the Commissioner shall pay to the institution, with respect to information described in subclause (I) concerning each individual who is confined therein as described in paragraph (1)(A), who receives a benefit under this subchapter for the month preceding the first month of such confinement, and whose benefit under this subchapter is determined by the Commissioner to be not payable by reason of confinement based on the information provided by the institution, $400 (subject to reduction under clause (ii)) if the institution furnishes the information to the Commissioner within 30 days after the date such individual’s confinement in such institution begins, or $200 (subject to reduction under clause (ii)) if the institution furnishes the information after 30 days after such date but within 90 days after such date.
(ii) The dollar amounts specified in clause (i)(II) shall be reduced by 50 percent if the Commissioner is also required to make a payment to the institution with respect to the same individual under an agreement entered into under section 1382(e)(1)(I) of this title.
(iii) There are authorized to be transferred from the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, as appropriate, such sums as may be necessary to enable the Commissioner to make payments to institutions required by clause (i)(II).
(iv) The Commissioner shall maintain, and shall provide on a reimbursable basis, information obtained pursuant to agreements entered into under this paragraph to any agency administering a Federal or federally-assisted cash, food, or medical assistance program for eligibility and other administrative purposes under such program, for statistical and research activities conducted by Federal and State agencies, and to the Secretary of the Treasury for the purposes of tax administration, debt collection, and identifying, preventing, and recovering improper payments under federally funded programs.
(v)(I) The Commissioner may disclose information received pursuant to this paragraph to any officer, employee, agent, or contractor of the Department of the Treasury whose official duties require such information to assist in the identification, prevention, and recovery of improper payments or in the collection of delinquent debts owed to the United States, including payments certified by the head of an executive, judicial, or legislative paying agency, and payments made to individuals whose eligibility, or continuing eligibility, to participate in a Federal program (including those administered by a State or political subdivision thereof) is being reviewed.(II) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 552a of title 5 or any other provision of Federal or State law, the Secretary of the Treasury may compare information disclosed under subclause (I) with any other personally identifiable information derived from a Federal system of records or similar records maintained by a Federal contractor, a Federal grantee, or an entity administering a Federal program or activity, and may redisclose such comparison of information to any paying or administering agency and to the head of the Federal Bureau of Prisons and the head of any State agency charged with the administration of prisons with respect to inmates whom the Secretary of the Treasury has determined may have been issued, or facilitated in the issuance of, an improper payment.(III) The comparison of information disclosed under subclause (I) shall not be considered a matching program for purposes of section 552a of title 5.
(C)
Notwithstanding the provisions of section 552a of title 5 or any other provision of Federal or State law (other than section 6103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and section 1306(c) of this title), the Commissioner shall furnish any Federal, State, or local law enforcement officer, upon the written request of the officer, with the current address, Social Security number, and photograph (if applicable) of any beneficiary under this subchapter, if the officer furnishes the Commissioner with the name of the beneficiary, and other identifying information as reasonably required by the Commissioner to establish the unique identity of the beneficiary, and notifies the Commissioner that—
(i) the beneficiary is described in clause (iv) or (v) of paragraph (1)(A); and
(ii) the location or apprehension of the beneficiary is within the officer’s official duties.
(y)
Limitation on payments to aliens

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no monthly benefit under this subchapter shall be payable to any alien in the United States for any month during which such alien is not lawfully present in the United States as determined by the Attorney General.

(z)
Voluntary suspension
(1)
(A)
Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, any individual who has attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) and is entitled to old-age insurance benefits may request that payment of such benefits be suspended—
(i) beginning with the month following the month in which such request is received by the Commissioner, and
(ii) ending with the earlier of the month following the month in which a request by the individual for a resumption of such benefits is so received or the month following the month in which the individual attains the age of 70.
(2)
An individual may not suspend such benefits under this subsection, and any suspension of such benefits under this subsection shall end, effective with respect to any month in which the individual becomes subject to—
(A) mandatory suspension of such benefits under subsection (x);
(B) termination of such benefits under subsection (n);
(C) a penalty under section 1320a–8a of this title imposing nonpayment of such benefits; or
(D) any other withholding, in whole or in part, of such benefits under any other provision of law that authorizes recovery of a debt by withholding such benefits.
(3)
In the case of an individual who requests that such benefits be suspended under this subsection, for any month during the period in which the suspension is in effect—
(A) no retroactive benefits (as defined in subsection (j)(4)(B)(iii)) shall be payable to such individual;
(B) no monthly benefit shall be payable to any other individual on the basis of such individual’s wages and self-employment income; and
(C) no monthly benefit shall be payable to such individual on the basis of another individual’s wages and self-employment income.
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title II, § 202, 49 Stat. 623; Aug. 10, 1939, ch. 666, title II, § 201, 53 Stat. 1362, 1363; Aug. 10, 1946, ch. 951, title IV, §§ 402, 403(a), 404(a), 405(a), 60 Stat. 986, 987; Aug. 28, 1950, ch. 809, title I, § 101(a), 64 Stat. 482; Aug. 14, 1953, ch. 483, § 2, 67 Stat. 580; Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1206, title I, §§ 102(i), 105(a), 107, 110, 68 Stat. 1073, 1079, 1083, 1085; Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 685, § 2, 69 Stat. 621; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, title I, §§ 101(a)–(c), 102(c), (d)(1)–(10), 103(c)(1)–(3), 113, 114(a), 118(a), 121(a), 70 Stat. 807, 810–814, 818, 831, 832, 835, 838; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 837, title IV, §§ 403(a), 407, 70 Stat. 871, 876; Pub. L. 85–238, §§ 1, 3(a)–(g), Aug. 30, 1957, 71 Stat. 518; Pub. L. 85–798, § 1, Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 964; Pub. L. 85–840, title I, § 101(e), title II, § 205(b)–(i), title III, §§ 301(a)(1), (b)(1), (c)(1), 303, 304(a)(1), 305(a), 306(a), 307(a)–(e), Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 1017, 1021–1024, 1026, 1027, 1029–1032; Pub. L. 85–857, § 13(i)(1), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1265; Pub. L. 85–927, § 301, Sept. 6, 1958, 72 Stat. 1783; Pub. L. 86–70, § 32(c)(1), June 25, 1959, 73 Stat. 149; Pub. L. 86–624, § 30(c)(1), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 420; Pub. L. 86–778, title I, § 103(a)(1), (j)(2)(C), (D), title II, §§ 201(a), (b), 202(a), 203(a), 205(a), (b), 208(d), 211(i)–(l), title III, § 301(a), title IV, § 403(d), Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 936, 937, 946, 947, 949, 952, 957–959, 1969; Pub. L. 87–64, title I, §§ 102(a), (b)(1), (2)(A), (3), (e), 104(a)–(d), June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 131, 134–136, 138, 139; Pub. L. 89–97, title I, § 104(a), title III, §§ 303(d), 304(a)–(j), 306(a), (b), (c)(1)–(9), 307(a), (b), 308(a), (b), (d)(1), (2)(A), (3)–(5), (12), (13), 319(d), 323(a), 324(a), 328(a), 333(a)–(c), 334(e), (f), 339(b), 343(a), July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 334, 367–379, 392, 397, 398, 400, 403–405, 410, 412; Pub. L. 90–248, title I, §§ 103(a)–(d), 104(a)–(c), 112(a), 151(a)–(d)(1), (2), 157(a), (b), 158(c)(1), (2), 162(a)(1), (b)(1), (c)(1), (2), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 828–830, 838, 860, 867, 868, 871; Pub. L. 91–172, title X, § 1004(a)–(c), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 741; Pub. L. 92–223, § 1, Dec. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 802; Pub. L. 92–603, title I, §§ 102(a), (b), (d)–(f), 103(a), (b), 107(a), 108(a)–(e), 109(a), 110(a), 111(a), 112(a), 113(b), 114(a)–(c), 116(b), (c), Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1335, 1336, 1338–1340, 1343–1348, 1350; Pub. L. 93–66, title II, § 240(a), July 9, 1973, 87 Stat. 161; Pub. L. 93–233, §§ 1(f), (g), 18(b), Dec. 31, 1973, 87 Stat. 947, 948, 967; Pub. L. 93–445, title III, § 301, Oct. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 1357; Pub. L. 95–216, title II, §§ 203, 204(a)–(d), 205(a), (b), title III, §§ 331(a)–(c), 332(a)(1), (2), 334(a)–(d)(4)(A), (5), (6), (e), 336(a), (b), 337(b), 353(f)(1), Dec. 20, 1977, 91 Stat. 1527–1529, 1541–1548, 1554; Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, § 703(j)(14)(A), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2942; Pub. L. 96–265, title III, §§ 303(b)(1)(B)–(D), 306(a), June 9, 1980, 94 Stat. 451, 452, 457; Pub. L. 96–473, §§ 5(b), 6(a), Oct. 19, 1980, 94 Stat. 2265; Pub. L. 96–499, title X, § 1011(a), Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2655; Pub. L. 97–35, title XXII, §§ 2201(b)(10), (11), (d), (f), 2202(a)(1), 2203(a), (b)(1), (c)(1), (d)(1), (2), 2205(a), 2206(b)(1), 2210(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 831–838, 841; Pub. L. 97–123, § 2(e), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1660; Pub. L. 97–455, § 7(c), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2501; Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §§ 111(a)(7), 113(d), 114(a)–(c)(1), 131(a)(1)–(3)(G), (b)(1)–(3)(F), (c), 132(a), 133(a), (b), 134(a), (b), title II, § 201(b), (c)(1)(A), title III, §§ 301(a), (b), 302, 306(a), (b), (d)–(h), 307(a), 309(a)–(e), 334(a), 337(a), 339(a), 340(a), (b), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 72
§ 403.
Reduction of insurance benefits
(a)
Maximum benefits
(1)
In the case of an individual whose primary insurance amount has been computed or recomputed under section 415(a)(1) or (4) of this title, or section 415(d) of this title, as in effect after December 1978, the total monthly benefits to which beneficiaries may be entitled under section 402 or 423 of this title for a month on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual shall, except as provided by paragraphs (3) and (6) (but prior to any increases resulting from the application of paragraph (2)(A)(ii)(III) of section 415(i) of this title), be reduced as necessary so as not to exceed—
(A) 150 percent of such individual’s primary insurance amount to the extent that it does not exceed the amount established with respect to this subparagraph by paragraph (2),
(B) 272 percent of such individual’s primary insurance amount to the extent that it exceeds the amount established with respect to subparagraph (A) but does not exceed the amount established with respect to this subparagraph by paragraph (2),
(C) 134 percent of such individual’s primary insurance amount to the extent that it exceeds the amount established with respect to subparagraph (B) but does not exceed the amount established with respect to this subparagraph by paragraph (2), and
(D) 175 percent of such individual’s primary insurance amount to the extent that it exceeds the amount established with respect to subparagraph (C).
Any such amount that is not a multiple of $0.10 shall be decreased to the next lower multiple of $0.10.
(2)
(A) For individuals who initially become eligible for old-age or disability insurance benefits, or who die (before becoming so eligible for such benefits), in the calendar year 1979, the amounts established with respect to subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of paragraph (1) shall be $230, $332, and $433, respectively.
(B) For individuals who initially become eligible for old-age or disability insurance benefits, or who die (before becoming so eligible for such benefits), in any calendar year after 1979, each of the amounts so established shall equal the product of the corresponding amount established for the calendar year 1979 by subparagraph (A) of this paragraph and the quotient obtained under subparagraph (B)(ii) of section 415(a)(1) of this title, with such product being rounded in the manner prescribed by section 415(a)(1)(B)(iii) of this title.
(C) In each calendar year after 1978 the Commissioner of Social Security shall publish in the Federal Register, on or before November 1, the formula which (except as provided in section 415(i)(2)(D) of this title) is to be applicable under this paragraph to individuals who become eligible for old-age or disability insurance benefits, or who die (before becoming eligible for such benefits), in the following calendar year.
(D) A year shall not be counted as the year of an individual’s death or eligibility for purposes of this paragraph or paragraph (8) in any case where such individual was entitled to a disability insurance benefit for any of the 12 months immediately preceding the month of such death or eligibility (but there shall be counted instead the year of the individual’s eligibility for the disability insurance benefits to which he was entitled during such 12 months).
(3)
(A)
When an individual who is entitled to benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of any insured individual and to whom this subsection applies would (but for the provisions of section 402(k)(2)(A) of this title) be entitled to child’s insurance benefits for a month on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of one or more other insured individuals, the total monthly benefits to which all beneficiaries are entitled on the basis of such wages and self-employment income shall not be reduced under this subsection to less than the smaller of—
(i) the sum of the maximum amounts of benefits payable on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of all such insured individuals, or
(ii) an amount (I) initially equal to the product of 1.75 and the primary insurance amount that would be computed under section 415(a)(1) of this title, for January of the year determined for purposes of this clause under the following two sentences, with respect to average indexed monthly earnings equal to one-twelfth of the contribution and benefit base determined for that year under section 430 of this title, and (II) thereafter increased in accordance with the provisions of section 415(i)(2)(A)(ii) of this title.
The year established for purposes of clause (ii) shall be 1983 or, if it occurs later with respect to any individual, the year in which occurred the month that the application of the reduction provisions contained in this subparagraph began with respect to benefits payable on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of the insured individual. If for any month subsequent to the first month for which clause (ii) applies (with respect to benefits payable on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of the insured individual) the reduction under this subparagraph ceases to apply, then the year determined under the preceding sentence shall be redetermined (for purposes of any subsequent application of this subparagraph with respect to benefits payable on the basis of such wages and self-employment income) as though this subparagraph had not been previously applicable.
(B)
When two or more persons were entitled (without the application of section 402(j)(1) of this title and section 423(b) of this title) to monthly benefits under section 402 or 423 of this title for January 1971 or any prior month on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such insured individual and the provisions of this subsection as in effect for any such month were applicable in determining the benefit amount of any persons on the basis of such wages and self-employment income, the total of benefits for any month after January 1971 shall not be reduced to less than the largest of—
(i) the amount determined under this subsection without regard to this subparagraph,
(ii) the largest amount which has been determined for any month under this subsection for persons entitled to monthly benefits on the basis of such insured individual’s wages and self-employment income, or
(iii) if any persons are entitled to benefits on the basis of such wages and self-employment income for the month before the effective month (after September 1972) of a general benefit increase under this title (as defined in section 415(i)(3) of this title) or a benefit increase under the provisions of section 415(i) of this title, an amount equal to the sum of amounts derived by multiplying the benefit amount determined under this subchapter (excluding any part thereof determined under section 402(w) of this title) for the month before such effective month (including this subsection, but without the application of section 422(b) 1
1 See References in Text note below.
of this title, section 402(q) of this title, and subsections (b), (c), and (d) of this section), for each such person for such month, by a percentage equal to the percentage of the increase provided under such benefit increase (with any such increased amount which is not a multiple of $0.10 being rounded to the next lower multiple of $0.10);
but in any such case (I) subparagraph (A) of this paragraph shall not be applied to such total of benefits after the application of clause (ii) or (iii), and (II) if section 402(k)(2)(A) of this title was applicable in the case of any such benefits for a month, and ceases to apply for a month after such month, the provisions of clause (ii) or (iii) shall be applied, for and after the month in which section 402(k)(2)(A) of this title ceases to apply, as though subparagraph (A) of this paragraph had not been applicable to such total of benefits for the last month for which clause (ii) or (iii) was applicable.
(C) When any of such individuals is entitled to monthly benefits as a divorced spouse under section 402(b) or (c) of this title or as a surviving divorced spouse under section 402(e) or (f) of this title for any month, the benefit to which he or she is entitled on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such insured individual for such month shall be determined without regard to this subsection, and the benefits of all other individuals who are entitled for such month to monthly benefits under section 402 of this title on the wages and self-employment income of such insured individual shall be determined as if no such divorced spouse or surviving divorced spouse were entitled to benefits for such month.
(D)
In any case in which—
(i) two or more individuals are entitled to monthly benefits for the same month as a spouse under subsection (b) or (c) of section 402 of this title, or as a surviving spouse under subsection (e), (f), or (g) of section 402 of this title,
(ii) at least one of such individuals is entitled by reason of subparagraph (A)(ii) or (B) of section 416(h)(1) of this title, and
(iii) such entitlements are based on the wages and self-employment income of the same insured individual,
the benefit of the entitled individual whose entitlement is based on a valid marriage (as determined without regard to subparagraphs (A)(ii) and (B) of section 416(h)(1) of this title) to such insured individual shall, for such month and all months thereafter, be determined without regard to this subsection, and the benefits of all other individuals who are entitled, for such month or any month thereafter, to monthly benefits under section 402 of this title based on the wages and self-employment income of such insured individual shall be determined as if such entitled individual were not entitled to benefits for such month.
(4)
In any case in which benefits are reduced pursuant to the provisions of this subsection, the reduction shall be made after any deductions under this section and after any deductions under section 422(b) 1 of this title. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, any reduction under this subsection in the case of an individual who is entitled to a benefit under subsection (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), or (h) of section 402 of this title for any month on the basis of the same wages and self-employment income as another person—
(A) who also is entitled to a benefit under subsection (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), or (h) of section 402 of this title for such month,
(B) who does not live in the same household as such individual, and
(C) whose benefit for such month is suspended (in whole or in part) pursuant to subsection (h)(3) of this section,
shall be made before the suspension under subsection (h)(3). Whenever a reduction is made under this subsection in the total of monthly benefits to which individuals are entitled for any month on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an insured individual, each such benefit other than the old-age or disability insurance benefit shall be proportionately decreased.
(5)
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, when—
(A) two or more persons are entitled to monthly benefits for a particular month on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an insured individual and (for such particular month) the provisions of this subsection are applicable to such monthly benefits, and
(B) such individual’s primary insurance amount is increased for the following month under any provision of this subchapter,
then the total of monthly benefits for all persons on the basis of such wages and self-employment income for such particular month, as determined under the provisions of this subsection, shall for purposes of determining the total monthly benefits for all persons on the basis of such wages and self-employment income for months subsequent to such particular month be considered to have been increased by the smallest amount that would have been required in order to assure that the total of monthly benefits payable on the basis of such wages and self-employment income for any such subsequent month will not be less (after the application of the other provisions of this subsection and section 402(q) of this title) than the total of monthly benefits (after the application of the other provisions of this subsection and section 402(q) of this title) payable on the basis of such wages and self-employment income for such particular month.
(6)
Notwithstanding any of the preceding provisions of this subsection other than paragraphs (3)(A), (3)(C), (3)(D), (4), and (5) (but subject to section 415(i)(2)(A)(ii) of this title), the total monthly benefits to which beneficiaries may be entitled under sections 402 and 423 of this title for any month on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an individual entitled to disability insurance benefits shall be reduced (before the application of section 424a of this title) to the smaller of—
(A) 85 percent of such individual’s average indexed monthly earnings (or 100 percent of his primary insurance amount, if larger), or
(B) 150 percent of such individual’s primary insurance amount.
(7) In the case of any individual who is entitled for any month to benefits based upon the primary insurance amounts of two or more insured individuals, one or more of which primary insurance amounts were determined under section 415(a) or (d) of this title as in effect (without regard to the table contained therein) prior to January 1979 and one or more of which primary insurance amounts were determined under section 415(a)(1) or (4) of this title, or section 415(d) of this title, as in effect after December 1978, the total benefits payable to that individual and all other individuals entitled to benefits for that month based upon those primary insurance amounts shall be reduced to an amount equal to the amount determined in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (3)(A)(ii) of this subsection, except that for this purpose the references to subparagraph (A) in the last two sentences of paragraph (3)(A) shall be deemed to be references to paragraph (7).
(8) Subject to paragraph (7) and except as otherwise provided in paragraph (10)(C), this subsection as in effect in December 1978 shall remain in effect with respect to a primary insurance amount computed under section 415(a) or (d) of this title, as in effect (without regard to the table contained therein) in December 1978 and as amended by section 5117 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990, except that a primary insurance amount so computed with respect to an individual who first becomes eligible for an old-age or disability insurance benefit, or dies (before becoming eligible for such a benefit), after December 1978, shall instead be governed by this section as in effect after December 1978. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the phrase “rounded to the next higher multiple of $0.10”, as it appeared in subsection (a)(2)(C) of this section as in effect in December 1978, shall be deemed to read “rounded to the next lower multiple of $0.10”.
(9)
When—
(A) one or more persons were entitled (without the application of section 402(j)(1) of this title) to monthly benefits under section 402 of this title
(B) the benefit of at least one such person for June 1978 is increased by reason of the amendments made by section 204 of the Social Security Amendments of 1977; and
(C) the total amount of benefits to which all such persons are entitled under such section 402 of this title are reduced under the provisions of this subsection (or would be so reduced except for the first sentence of subsection (a)(4)),
then the amount of the benefit to which each such person is entitled for months after May 1978 shall be increased (after such reductions are made under this subsection) to the amount such benefits would have been if the benefit of the person or persons referred to in subparagraph (B) had not been so increased.
(10)
(A)
Subject to subparagraphs (B) and (C)—
(i) the total monthly benefits to which beneficiaries may be entitled under sections 402 and 423 of this title for a month on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an individual whose primary insurance amount is computed under section 415(a)(2)(B)(i) of this title shall equal the total monthly benefits which were authorized by this section with respect to such individual’s primary insurance amount for the last month of his prior entitlement to disability insurance benefits, increased for this purpose by the general benefit increases and other increases under section 415(i) of this title that would have applied to such total monthly benefits had the individual remained entitled to disability insurance benefits until the month in which he became entitled to old-age insurance benefits or reentitled to disability insurance benefits or died, and
(ii) the total monthly benefits to which beneficiaries may be entitled under sections 402 and 423 of this title for a month on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of an individual whose primary insurance amount is computed under section 415(a)(2)(C) of this title shall equal the total monthly benefits which were authorized by this section with respect to such individual’s primary insurance amount for the last month of his prior entitlement to disability insurance benefits.
(B)
In any case in which—
(i) the total monthly benefits with respect to such individual’s primary insurance amount for the last month of his prior entitlement to disability insurance benefits was computed under paragraph (6), and
(ii) the individual’s primary insurance amount is computed under subparagraph (B)(i) or (C) of section 415(a)(2) of this title by reason of the individual’s entitlement to old-age insurance benefits or death,
the total monthly benefits shall equal the total monthly benefits that would have been authorized with respect to the primary insurance amount for the last month of his prior entitlement to disability insurance benefits if such total monthly benefits had been computed without regard to paragraph (6).
(C) This paragraph shall apply before the application of paragraph (3)(A), and before the application of subsection (a)(1) of this section as in effect in December 1978.
(b)
Deductions on account of work
(1)
Deductions, in such amounts and at such time or times as the Commissioner of Social Security shall determine, shall be made from any payment or payments under this subchapter to which an individual is entitled, and from any payment or payments to which any other persons are entitled on the basis of such individual’s wages and self-employment income, until the total of such deductions equals—
(A) such individual’s benefit or benefits under section 402 of this title for any month, and
(B) if such individual was entitled to old-age insurance benefits under section 402(a) of this title for such month, the benefit or benefits of all other persons for such month under section 402 of this title based on such individual’s wages and self-employment income,
if for such month he is charged with excess earnings, under the provisions of subsection (f) of this section, equal to the total of benefits referred to in clauses (A) and (B). If the excess earnings so charged are less than such total of benefits, such deductions with respect to such month shall be equal only to the amount of such excess earnings. If a child who has attained the age of 18 and is entitled to child’s insurance benefits, or a person who is entitled to mother’s or father’s insurance benefits, is married to an individual entitled to old-age insurance benefits under section 402(a) of this title, such child or such person, as the case may be, shall, for the purposes of this subsection and subsection (f), be deemed to be entitled to such benefits on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual entitled to old-age insurance benefits. If a deduction has already been made under this subsection with respect to a person’s benefit or benefits under section 402 of this title for a month, he shall be deemed entitled to payments under such section for such month for purposes of further deductions under this subsection, and for purposes of charging of each person’s excess earnings under subsection (f), only to the extent of the total of his benefits remaining after such earlier deductions have been made. For purposes of this subsection and subsection (f)—
(i) an individual shall be deemed to be entitled to payments under section 402 of this title equal to the amount of the benefit or benefits to which he is entitled under such section after the application of subsection (a) of this section, but without the application of the first sentence of paragraph (4) thereof; and
(ii) if a deduction is made with respect to an individual’s benefit or benefits under section 402 of this title because of the occurrence in any month of an event specified in subsection (c) or (d) of this section or in section 422(b) 1 of this title, such individual shall not be considered to be entitled to any benefits under such section 402 for such month.
(2)
(A)
Except as provided in subparagraph (B), in any case in which—
(i) any of the other persons referred to in paragraph (1)(B) is entitled to monthly benefits as a divorced spouse under section 402(b) or (c) of this title for any month, and
(ii) such person has been divorced for not less than 2 years,
the benefit to which he or she is entitled on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of the individual referred to in paragraph (1) for such month shall be determined without regard to deductions under this subsection as a result of excess earnings of such individual, and the benefits of all other individuals who are entitled for such month to monthly benefits under section 402 of this title on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual referred to in paragraph (1) shall be determined as if no such divorced spouse were entitled to benefits for such month.
(B) Clause (ii) of subparagraph (A) shall not apply with respect to any divorced spouse in any case in which the individual referred to in paragraph (1) became entitled to old-age insurance benefits under section 402(a) of this title before the date of the divorce.
(c)
Deductions on account of noncovered work outside United States or failure to have child in care
Deductions, in such amounts and at such time or times as the Commissioner of Social Security shall determine, shall be made from any payment or payments under this subchapter to which an individual is entitled, until the total of such deductions equals such individual’s benefits or benefit under section 402 of this title for any month—
(1) in which such individual is under retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) and for more than forty-five hours of which such individual engaged in noncovered remunerative activity outside the United States;
(2) in which such individual, if a wife or husband under retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) entitled to a wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit, did not have in his or her care (individually or jointly with his or her spouse) a child of such spouse entitled to a child’s insurance benefit and such wife’s or husband’s insurance benefit for such month was not reduced under the provisions of section 402(q) of this title;
(3) in which such individual, if a widow or widower entitled to a mother’s or father’s insurance benefit, did not have in his or her care a child of his or her deceased spouse entitled to a child’s insurance benefit; or
(4) in which such an individual, if a surviving divorced mother or father entitled to a mother’s or father’s insurance benefit, did not have in his or her care a child of his or her deceased former spouse who (A) is his or her son, daughter, or legally adopted child and (B) is entitled to a child’s insurance benefit on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such deceased former spouse.
For purposes of paragraphs (2), (3), and (4) of this subsection, a child shall not be considered to be entitled to a child’s insurance benefit for any month in which paragraph (1) of section 402(s) of this title applies or an event specified in section 422(b) 1 of this title occurs with respect to such child. Subject to paragraph (3) of such section 402(s) of this title, no deduction shall be made under this subsection from any child’s insurance benefit for the month in which the child entitled to such benefit attained the age of eighteen or any subsequent month; nor shall any deduction be made under this subsection from any widow’s or widower’s insurance benefit if the widow, surviving divorced wife, widower, or surviving divorced husband involved became entitled to such benefit prior to attaining age 60.
(d)
Deductions from dependents’ benefits on account of noncovered work outside United States by old-age insurance beneficiary
(1)
(A) Deductions shall be made from any wife’s, husband’s, or child’s insurance benefit, based on the wages and self-employment income of an individual entitled to old-age insurance benefits, to which a wife, divorced wife, husband, divorced husband, or child is entitled, until the total of such deductions equals such wife’s, husband’s, or child’s insurance benefit or benefits under section 402 of this title for any month in which such individual is under retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) and for more than forty-five hours of which such individual engaged in noncovered remunerative activity outside the United States.
(B)
(i)
Except as provided in clause (ii), in any case in which—
(I) a divorced spouse is entitled to monthly benefits under section 402(b) or (c) of this title for any month, and(II) such divorced spouse has been divorced for not less than 2 years,
the benefit to which he or she is entitled for such month on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of the individual entitled to old-age insurance benefits referred to in subparagraph (A) shall be determined without regard to deductions under this paragraph as a result of excess earnings of such individual, and the benefits of all other individuals who are entitled for such month to monthly benefits under section 402 of this title on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual referred to in subparagraph (A) shall be determined as if no such divorced spouse were entitled to benefits for such month.
(ii) Subclause (II) of clause (i) shall not apply with respect to any divorced spouse in any case in which the individual entitled to old-age insurance benefits referred to in subparagraph (A) became entitled to such benefits before the date of the divorce.
(2) Deductions shall be made from any child’s insurance benefit to which a child who has attained the age of eighteen is entitled, or from any mother’s or father’s insurance benefit to which a person is entitled, until the total of such deductions equals such child’s insurance benefit or benefits or mother’s or father’s insurance benefit or benefits under section 402 of this title for any month in which such child or person entitled to mother’s or father’s insurance benefits is married to an individual under retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) who is entitled to old-age insurance benefits and for more than forty-five hours of which such individual engaged in noncovered remunerative activity outside the United States.
(e)
Occurrence of more than one event

If more than one of the events specified in subsections (c) and (d) and section 422(b) 1 of this title occurs in any one month which would occasion deductions equal to a benefit for such month, only an amount equal to such benefit shall be deducted.

(f)
Months to which earnings are charged
For purposes of subsection (b)—
(1) The amount of an individual’s excess earnings (as defined in paragraph (3)) shall be charged to months as follows: There shall be charged to the first month of such taxable year an amount of his excess earnings equal to the sum of the payments to which he and all other persons (excluding divorced spouses referred to in subsection (b)(2)) are entitled for such month under section 402 of this title on the basis of his wages and self-employment income (or the total of his excess earnings if such excess earnings are less than such sum), and the balance, if any, of such excess earnings shall be charged to each succeeding month in such year to the extent, in the case of each such month, of the sum of the payments to which such individual and all such other persons are entitled for such month under section 402 of this title on the basis of his wages and self-employment income, until the total of such excess has been so charged. Where an individual is entitled to benefits under section 402(a) of this title and other persons (excluding divorced spouses referred to in subsection (b)(2)) are entitled to benefits under section 402(b), (c), or (d) of this title on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individual, the excess earnings of such individual for any taxable year shall be charged in accordance with the provisions of this subsection before the excess earnings of such persons for a taxable year are charged to months in such individual’s taxable year. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this paragraph but subject to section 402(s) of this title, no part of the excess earnings of an individual shall be charged to any month (A) for which such individual was not entitled to a benefit under this subchapter, (B) in which such individual was at or above retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), (C) in which such individual, if a child entitled to child’s insurance benefits, has attained the age of 18, (D) for which such individual is entitled to widow’s or widower’s insurance benefits if such individual became so entitled prior to attaining age 60, (E) in which such individual did not engage in self-employment and did not render services for wages (determined as provided in paragraph (5) of this subsection) of more than the applicable exempt amount as determined under paragraph (8), if such month is in the taxable year in which occurs the first month after December 1977 that is both (i) a month for which the individual is entitled to benefits under subsection (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), or (h) of section 402 of this title (without having been entitled for the preceding month to a benefit under any other of such subsections), and (ii) a month in which the individual did not engage in self-employment and did not render services for wages (determined as provided in paragraph (5)) of more than the applicable exempt amount as determined under paragraph (8), or (F) in which such individual did not engage in self-employment and did not render services for wages (determined as provided in paragraph (5) of this subsection) of more than the applicable exempt amount as determined under paragraph (8), in the case of an individual entitled to benefits under section 402(b) or (c) of this title (but only by reason of having a child in his or her care within the meaning of paragraph (1)(B) of subsection (b) or (c), as may be applicable) or under section 402(d) or (g) of this title, if such month is in a year in which such entitlement ends for a reason other than the death of such individual, and such individual is not entitled to any benefits under this subchapter for the month following the month during which such entitlement under section 402(b), (d), or (g) of this title ended.
(2) As used in paragraph (1), the term “first month of such taxable year” means the earliest month in such year to which the charging of excess earnings described in such paragraph is not prohibited by the application of clauses (A), (B), (C), (D), (E), and (F) thereof.
(3) For purposes of paragraph (1) and subsection (h), an individual’s excess earnings for a taxable year shall be 33⅓ percent of his earnings for such year in excess of the product of the applicable exempt amount as determined under paragraph (8) in the case of an individual who has attained (or, but for the individual’s death, would have attained) retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) before the close of such taxable year, or 50 percent of his earnings for such year in excess of such product in the case of any other individual, multiplied by the number of months in such year, except that, in determining an individual’s excess earnings for the taxable year in which he attains retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), there shall be excluded any earnings of such individual for the month in which he attains such age and any subsequent month (with any net earnings or net loss from self-employment in such year being prorated in an equitable manner under regulations of the Commissioner of Social Security). For purposes of the preceding sentence, notwithstanding section 411(e) of this title, the number of months in the taxable year in which an individual dies shall be 12. The excess earnings as derived under the first sentence of this paragraph, if not a multiple of $1, shall be reduced to the next lower multiple of $1.
(4)
For purposes of clause (E) of paragraph (1)—
(A) An individual will be presumed, with respect to any month, to have been engaged in self-employment in such month until it is shown to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security that such individual rendered no substantial services in such month with respect to any trade or business the net income or loss of which is includible in computing (as provided in paragraph (5) of this subsection) his net earnings or net loss from self-employment for any taxable year. The Commissioner of Social Security shall by regulations prescribe the methods and criteria for determining whether or not an individual has rendered substantial services with respect to any trade or business.
(B) An individual will be presumed, with respect to any month, to have rendered services for wages (determined as provided in paragraph (5) of this subsection) of more than the applicable exempt amount as determined under paragraph (8) until it is shown to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security that such individual did not render such services in such month for more than such amount.
(5)
(A) An individual’s earnings for a taxable year shall be (i) the sum of his wages for services rendered in such year and his net earnings from self-employment for such year, minus (ii) any net loss from self-employment for such year.
(B)
For purposes of this section—
(i) an individual’s net earnings from self-employment for any taxable year shall be determined as provided in section 411 of this title, except that paragraphs (1), (4), and (5) of section 411(c) of this title shall not apply and the gross income shall be computed by excluding the amounts provided by subparagraph (D) of this paragraph, and
(ii) an individual’s net loss from self-employment for any taxable year is the excess of the deductions (plus his distributive share of loss described in section 702(a)(8) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) taken into account under clause (i) over the gross income (plus his distributive share of income so described) taken into account under clause (i).
(C)
For purposes of this subsection, an individual’s wages shall be computed without regard to the limitations as to amounts of remuneration specified in paragraphs (1), (6)(B), (6)(C), (7)(B), and (8) of section 409(a) of this title; and in making such computation services which do not constitute employment as defined in section 410 of this title, performed within the United States by the individual as an employee or performed outside the United States in the active military or naval service of the United States, shall be deemed to be employment as so defined if the remuneration for such services is not includible in computing his net earnings or net loss from self-employment. The term “wages” does not include—
(i) the amount of any payment made to, or on behalf of, an employee or any of his dependents (including any amount paid by an employer for insurance or annuities, or into a fund, to provide for any such payment) on account of retirement, or
(ii)
(D)
In the case of—
(i) an individual who has attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) on or before the last day of the taxable year, and who shows to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security that he or she is receiving royalties attributable to a copyright or patent obtained before the taxable year in which he or she attained such age and that the property to which the copyright or patent relates was created by his or her own personal efforts, or
(ii) an individual who has become entitled to insurance benefits under this subchapter, other than benefits under section 423 of this title or benefits payable under section 402(d) of this title by reason of being under a disability, and who shows to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security that he or she is receiving, in a year after his or her initial year of entitlement to such benefits, any other income not attributable to services performed after the month in which he or she initially became entitled to such benefits,
there shall be excluded from gross income any such royalties or other income.
(E) For purposes of this section, any individual’s net earnings from self-employment which result from or are attributable to the performance of services by such individual as a director of a corporation during any taxable year shall be deemed to have been derived (and received) by such individual in that year, at the time the services were performed, regardless of when the income, on which the computation of such net earnings from self-employment is based, is actually paid to or received by such individual (unless such income was actually paid and received prior to that year).
(6) For purposes of this subsection, wages (determined as provided in paragraph (5)(C)) which, according to reports received by the Commissioner of Social Security, are paid to an individual during a taxable year shall be presumed to have been paid to him for services performed in such year until it is shown to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security that they were paid for services performed in another taxable year. If such reports with respect to an individual show his wages for a calendar year, such individual’s taxable year shall be presumed to be a calendar year for purposes of this subsection until it is shown to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security that his taxable year is not a calendar year.
(7) Where an individual’s excess earnings are charged to a month and the excess earnings so charged are less than the total of the payments (without regard to such charging) to which all persons (excluding divorced spouses referred to in subsection (b)(2)) are entitled under section 402 of this title for such month on the basis of his wages and self-employment income, the difference between such total and the excess so charged to such month shall be paid (if it is otherwise payable under this subchapter) to such individual and other persons in the proportion that the benefit to which each of them is entitled (without regard to such charging, without the application of section 402(k)(3) of this title, and prior to the application of section 403(a) of this title) bears to the total of the benefits to which all of them are entitled.
(8)
(A) Whenever the Commissioner of Social Security pursuant to section 415(i) of this title increases benefits effective with the month of December following a cost-of-living computation quarter 2
2 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.
the Commissioner shall also determine and publish in the Federal Register on or before November 1 of the calendar year in which such quarter occurs the new exempt amounts (separately stated for individuals described in subparagraph (D) and for other individuals) which are to be applicable (unless prevented from becoming effective by subparagraph (C)) with respect to taxable years ending in (or with the close of) the calendar year after the calendar year in which such benefit increase is effective (or, in the case of an individual who dies during the calendar year after the calendar year in which the benefit increase is effective, with respect to such individual’s taxable year which ends, upon his death, during such year).
(B)
Except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (D), the exempt amount which is applicable to individuals described in such subparagraph and the exempt amount which is applicable to other individuals, for each month of a particular taxable year, shall each be whichever of the following is the larger—
(i) the corresponding exempt amount which is in effect with respect to months in the taxable year in which the determination under subparagraph (A) is made, or
(ii)
the product of the corresponding exempt amount which is in effect with respect to months in the taxable year ending after 2001 and before 2003 (with respect to individuals described in subparagraph (D)) or the taxable year ending after 1993 and before 1995 (with respect to other individuals), and the ratio of—
(I) the national average wage index (as defined in section 409(k)(1) of this title) for the calendar year before the calendar year in which the determination under subparagraph (A) is made, to(II) the national average wage index (as so defined) for 2000 (with respect to individuals described in subparagraph (D)) or 1992 (with respect to other individuals),
with such product, if not a multiple of $10, being rounded to the next higher multiple of $10 where such product is a multiple of $5 but not of $10 and to the nearest multiple of $10 in any other case.
Whenever the Commissioner of Social Security determines that an exempt amount is to be increased in any year under this paragraph, the Commissioner shall notify the House Committee on Ways and Means and the Senate Committee on Finance within 30 days after the close of the base quarter (as defined in section 415(i)(1)(A) of this title) in such year of the estimated amount of such increase, indicating the new exempt amount, the actuarial estimates of the effect of the increase, and the actuarial assumptions and methodology used in preparing such estimates.
(C) Notwithstanding the determination of a new exempt amount by the Commissioner of Social Security under subparagraph (A) (and notwithstanding any publication thereof under such subparagraph or any notification thereof under the last sentence of subparagraph (B)), such new exempt amount shall not take effect pursuant thereto if during the calendar year in which such determination is made a law increasing the exempt amount is enacted.
(D)
Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection, the exempt amount which is applicable to an individual who has attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) before the close of the taxable year involved shall be—
(i) for each month of any taxable year ending after 1995 and before 1997, $1,041.66⅔,
(ii) for each month of any taxable year ending after 1996 and before 1998, $1,125.00,
(iii) for each month of any taxable year ending after 1997 and before 1999, $1,208.33⅓,
(iv) for each month of any taxable year ending after 1998 and before 2000, $1,291.66⅔,
(v) for each month of any taxable year ending after 1999 and before 2001, $1,416.66⅔,
(vi) for each month of any taxable year ending after 2000 and before 2002, $2,083.33⅓, and
(vii) for each month of any taxable year ending after 2001 and before 2003, $2,500.00.
(E) Notwithstanding subparagraph (D), no deductions in benefits shall be made under subsection (b) with respect to the earnings of any individual in any month beginning with the month in which the individual attains retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title).
(9) For purposes of paragraphs (3), (5)(D)(i), (8)(D), and (8)(E), the term “retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title)”, with respect to any individual entitled to monthly insurance benefits under section 402 of this title, means the retirement age (as so defined) which is applicable in the case of old-age insurance benefits, regardless of whether or not the particular benefits to which the individual is entitled (or the only such benefits) are old-age insurance benefits.
(g)
Penalty for failure to report certain events
Any individual in receipt of benefits subject to deduction under subsection (c), (or who is in receipt of such benefits on behalf of another individual), because of the occurrence of an event specified therein, who fails to report such occurrence to the Commissioner of Social Security prior to the receipt and acceptance of an insurance benefit for the second month following the month in which such event occurred, shall suffer deductions in addition to those imposed under subsection (c) as follows:
(1) if such failure is the first one with respect to which an additional deduction is imposed by this subsection, such additional deduction shall be equal to his benefit or benefits for the first month of the period for which there is a failure to report even though such failure is with respect to more than one month;
(2) if such failure is the second one with respect to which an additional deduction is imposed by this subsection, such additional deduction shall be equal to two times his benefit or benefits for the first month of the period for which there is a failure to report even though such failure is with respect to more than two months; and
(3) if such failure is the third or a subsequent one for which an additional deduction is imposed under this subsection, such additional deduction shall be equal to three times his benefit or benefits for the first month of the period for which there is a failure to report even though the failure to report is with respect to more than three months;
except that the number of additional deductions required by this subsection shall not exceed the number of months in the period for which there is a failure to report. As used in this subsection, the term “period for which there is a failure to report” with respect to any individual means the period for which such individual received and accepted insurance benefits under section 402 of this title without making a timely report and for which deductions are required under subsection (c).
(h)
Report of earnings to Commissioner
(1)
(A)
If an individual is entitled to any monthly insurance benefit under section 402 of this title during any taxable year in which he has earnings or wages, as computed pursuant to paragraph (5) of subsection (f), in excess of the product of the applicable exempt amount as determined under subsection (f)(8) times the number of months in such year, such individual (or the individual who is in receipt of such benefit on his behalf) shall make a report to the Commissioner of Social Security of his earnings (or wages) for such taxable year. Such report shall be made on or before the fifteenth day of the fourth month following the close of such year, and shall contain such information and be made in such manner as the Commissioner of Social Security may by regulations prescribe. Such report need not be made for any taxable year—
(i) beginning with or after the month in which such individual attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), or
(ii)
if benefit payments for all months (in such taxable year) in which such individual is under retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) have been suspended under the provisions of the first sentence of paragraph (3) of this subsection, unless—
(I) such individual is entitled to benefits under subsection (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), or (h) of section 402 of this title,(II) such benefits are reduced under subsection (a) of this section for any month in such taxable year, and(III) in any such month there is another person who also is entitled to benefits under subsection (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), or (h) of section 402 of this title on the basis of the same wages and self-employment income and who does not live in the same household as such individual.
The Commissioner of Social Security may grant a reasonable extension of time for making the report of earnings required in this paragraph if the Commissioner finds that there is valid reason for a delay, but in no case may the period be extended more than four months.
(B) If the benefit payments of an individual have been suspended for all months in any taxable year under the provisions of the first sentence of paragraph (3) of this subsection, no benefit payment shall be made to such individual for any such month in such taxable year after the expiration of the period of three years, three months, and fifteen days following the close of such taxable year unless within such period the individual, or some other person entitled to benefits under this subchapter on the basis of the same wages and self-employment income, files with the Commissioner of Social Security information showing that a benefit for such month is payable to such individual.
(2)
If an individual fails to make a report required under paragraph (1) of this subsection, within the time prescribed by or in accordance with such paragraph, for any taxable year and any deduction is imposed under subsection (b) by reason of his earnings for such year, he shall suffer additional deductions as follows:
(A) if such failure is the first one with respect to which an additional deduction is imposed under this paragraph, such additional deduction shall be equal to his benefit or benefits for the last month of such year for which he was entitled to a benefit under section 402 of this title, except that if the deduction imposed under subsection (b) by reason of his earnings for such year is less than the amount of his benefit (or benefits) for the last month of such year for which he was entitled to a benefit under section 402 of this title, the additional deduction shall be equal to the amount of the deduction imposed under subsection (b) but not less than $10;
(B) if such failure is the second one for which an additional deduction is imposed under this paragraph, such additional deduction shall be equal to two times his benefit or benefits for the last month of such year for which he was entitled to a benefit under section 402 of this title;
(C) if such failure is the third or a subsequent one for which an additional deduction is imposed under this paragraph, such additional deduction shall be equal to three times his benefit or benefits for the last month of such year for which he was entitled to a benefit under section 402 of this title;
except that the number of the additional deductions required by this paragraph with respect to a failure to report earnings for a taxable year shall not exceed the number of months in such year for which such individual received and accepted insurance benefits under section 402 of this title and for which deductions are imposed under subsection (b) by reason of his earnings. In determining whether a failure to report earnings is the first or a subsequent failure for any individual, all taxable years ending prior to the imposition of the first additional deduction under this paragraph, other than the latest one of such years, shall be disregarded.
(3) If the Commissioner of Social Security determines, on the basis of information obtained by or submitted to the Commissioner, that it may reasonably be expected that an individual entitled to benefits under section 402 of this title for any taxable year will suffer deductions imposed under subsection (b) by reason of his earnings for such year, the Commissioner of Social Security may, before the close of such taxable year, suspend the total or less than the total payment for each month in such year (or for only such months as the Commissioner of Social Security may specify) of the benefits payable on the basis of such individual’s wages and self-employment income; and such suspension shall remain in effect with respect to the benefits for any month until the Commissioner of Social Security has determined whether or not any deduction is imposed for such month under subsection (b). The Commissioner of Social Security is authorized, before the close of the taxable year of an individual entitled to benefits during such year, to request of such individual that he make, at such time or times as the Commissioner of Social Security may specify, a declaration of his estimated earnings for the taxable year and that he furnish to the Commissioner of Social Security such other information with respect to such earnings as the Commissioner of Social Security may specify. A failure by such individual to comply with any such request shall in itself constitute justification for a determination under this paragraph that it may reasonably be expected that the individual will suffer deductions imposed under subsection (b) by reason of his earnings for such year. If, after the close of a taxable year of an individual entitled to benefits under section 402 of this title for such year, the Commissioner of Social Security requests such individual to furnish a report of his earnings (as computed pursuant to paragraph (5) of subsection (f)) for such taxable year or any other information with respect to such earnings which the Commissioner of Social Security may specify, and the individual fails to comply with such request, such failure shall in itself constitute justification for a determination that such individual’s benefits are subject to deductions under subsection (b) for each month in such taxable year (or only for such months thereof as the Commissioner of Social Security may specify) by reason of his earnings for such year.
(4) The Commissioner of Social Security shall develop and implement procedures in accordance with this subsection to avoid paying more than the correct amount of benefits to any individual under this subchapter as a result of such individual’s failure to file a correct report or estimate of earnings or wages. Such procedures may include identifying categories of individuals who are likely to be paid more than the correct amount of benefits and requesting that they estimate their earnings or wages more frequently than other persons subject to deductions under this section on account of earnings or wages.
(i)
Repealed. Pub. L. 103–296, title III, § 309(a), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1523
(j)
Attainment of retirement age

For the purposes of this section, an individual shall be considered as having attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title) during the entire month in which he attains such age.

(k)
Noncovered remunerative activity outside United States

An individual shall be considered to be engaged in noncovered remunerative activity outside the United States if he performs services outside the United States as an employee and such services do not constitute employment as defined in section 410 of this title and are not performed in the active military or naval service of the United States, or if he carries on a trade or business outside the United States (other than the performance of service as an employee) the net income or loss of which (1) is not includible in computing his net earnings from self-employment for a taxable year and (2) would not be excluded from net earnings from self-employment, if carried on in the United States, by any of the numbered paragraphs of section 411(a) of this title. When used in the preceding sentence with respect to a trade or business (other than the performance of service as an employee), the term “United States” does not include the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, or American Samoa in the case of an alien who is not a resident of the United States (including the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa); and the term “trade or business” shall have the same meaning as when used in section 162 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

(l)
Good cause for failure to make reports required

The failure of an individual to make any report required by subsection (g) or (h)(1)(A) within the time prescribed therein shall not be regarded as such a failure if it is shown to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security that he had good cause for failing to make such report within such time. The determination of what constitutes good cause for purposes of this subsection shall be made in accordance with regulations of the Commissioner of Social Security, except that in making any such determination, the Commissioner of Social Security shall specifically take into account any physical, mental, educational, or linguistic limitation such individual may have (including any lack of facility with the English language).

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title II, § 203, 49 Stat. 623; Aug. 10, 1939, ch. 666, title II, § 201, 53 Stat. 1362, 1367; Aug. 10, 1946, ch. 951, title IV, § 406, 60 Stat. 988; Aug. 28, 1950, ch. 809, title I, §§ 102(a), 103(a), 64 Stat. 489; July 18, 1952, ch. 945, §§ 2(b)(2), 4(a)–(d), 66 Stat. 768, 773; Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1206, title I, §§ 102(e)(7), 103(a)–(h), (i)(3), 112(a), 68 Stat. 1070, 1073–1077, 1078, 1085; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, title I, §§ 101(d)–(g), 102(d)(11), 107(a), 112 (a), (b), 70 Stat. 808
§ 404.
Overpayments and underpayments
(a)
Procedure for adjustment or recovery
(1)
Whenever the Commissioner of Social Security finds that more or less than the correct amount of payment has been made to any person under this subchapter, proper adjustment or recovery shall be made, under regulations prescribed by the Commissioner of Social Security, as follows:
(A) With respect to payment to a person of more than the correct amount, the Commissioner of Social Security shall decrease any payment under this subchapter to which such overpaid person is entitled, or shall require such overpaid person or his estate to refund the amount in excess of the correct amount, or shall decrease any payment under this subchapter payable to his estate or to any other person on the basis of the wages and self-employment income which were the basis of the payments to such overpaid person, or shall obtain recovery by means of reduction in tax refunds based on notice to the Secretary of the Treasury as permitted under section 3720A of title 31, or shall apply any combination of the foregoing. A payment made under this subchapter on the basis of an erroneous report of death by the Department of Defense of an individual in the line of duty while he is a member of the uniformed services (as defined in section 410(m) of this title) on active duty (as defined in section 410(l) of this title) shall not be considered an incorrect payment for any month prior to the month such Department notifies the Commissioner of Social Security that such individual is alive.
(B)
(i) Subject to clause (ii), with respect to payment to a person of less than the correct amount, the Commissioner of Social Security shall make payment of the balance of the amount due such underpaid person, or, if such person dies before payments are completed or before negotiating one or more checks representing correct payments, disposition of the amount due shall be made in accordance with subsection (d).
(ii)
No payment shall be made under this subparagraph to any person during any period for which monthly insurance benefits of such person—
(I) are subject to nonpayment by reason of section 402(x)(1) of this title, or(II) in the case of a person whose monthly insurance benefits have terminated for a reason other than death, would be subject to nonpayment by reason of section 402(x)(1) of this title but for the termination of such benefits,
until section 402(x)(1) of this title no longer applies, or would no longer apply in the case of benefits that have terminated.
(iii) Nothing in clause (ii) shall be construed to limit the Commissioner’s authority to withhold amounts, make adjustments, or recover amounts due under this subchapter, subchapter VIII or subchapter XVI that would be deducted from a payment that would otherwise be payable to such person but for such clause.
(2)
Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, when any payment of more than the correct amount is made to or on behalf of an individual who has died, and such payment—
(A) is made by direct deposit to a financial institution;
(B) is credited by the financial institution to a joint account of the deceased individual and another person; and
(C) such other person was entitled to a monthly benefit on the basis of the same wages and self-employment income as the deceased individual for the month preceding the month in which the deceased individual died,
the amount of such payment in excess of the correct amount shall be treated as a payment of more than the correct amount to such other person. If any payment of more than the correct amount is made to a representative payee on behalf of an individual after the individual’s death, the representative payee shall be liable for the repayment of the overpayment, and the Commissioner of Social Security shall establish an overpayment control record under the social security account number of the representative payee.
(3)
(A) When any payment of more than the correct amount is made on behalf of an individual who is a represented minor beneficiary for a month in which such individual is in foster care under the responsibility of a State and the State is the representative payee of such individual, the State shall be liable for the repayment of the overpayment, and there shall be no adjustment of payments to, or recovery by the United States from, such individual.
(B) For purposes of this paragraph, the term “represented minor beneficiary” has the meaning given such term in subsection (j)(11)(B)(iii).1
1 See References in Text note below.
(b)
Access to financial information for old-age, survivors, and disability insurance waivers
(1) In any case in which more than the correct amount of payment has been made, there shall be no adjustment of payments to, or recovery by the United States from, any person who is without fault if such adjustment or recovery would defeat the purpose of this subchapter or would be against equity and good conscience.
(2) In making for purposes of this subsection any determination of whether any individual is without fault, the Commissioner of Social Security shall specifically take into account any physical, mental, educational, or linguistic limitation such individual may have (including any lack of facility with the English language).
(3)
(A) In making for purposes of this subsection any determination of whether such adjustment or recovery would defeat the purpose of this subchapter, the Commissioner of Social Security shall require an individual to provide authorization for the Commissioner to obtain (subject to the cost reimbursement requirements of section 1115(a) of the Right to Financial Privacy Act [12 U.S.C. 3415]) from any financial institution (within the meaning of section 1101(1) of such Act [12 U.S.C. 3401(1)]) any financial record (within the meaning of section 1101(2) of such Act [12 U.S.C. 3401(2)]) held by the institution with respect to such individual whenever the Commissioner determines the record is needed in connection with a determination with respect to such adjustment or recovery.
(B)
Notwithstanding section 1104(a)(1) of the Right to Financial Privacy Act [12 U.S.C. 3404(a)(1)], an authorization provided by an individual pursuant this paragraph shall remain effective until the earlier of—
(i) the rendering of a final decision on whether adjustment or recovery would defeat the purpose of this subchapter; or
(ii) the express revocation by the individual of the authorization, in a written notification to the Commissioner.
(C)
(i) An authorization obtained by the Commissioner of Social Security pursuant this paragraph shall be considered to meet the requirements of the Right to Financial Privacy Act [12 U.S.C. 3401 et seq.] for purposes of section 1103(a) of such Act [12 U.S.C. 3403(a)], and need not be furnished to the financial institution, notwithstanding section 1104(a) of such Act [12 U.S.C. 3404(a)].
(ii) The certification requirements of section 1103(b) of the Right to Financial Privacy Act [12 U.S.C. 3403(b)] shall not apply to requests by the Commissioner of Social Security pursuant to an authorization provided under this paragraph.
(iii) A request by the Commissioner pursuant to an authorization provided under this paragraph is deemed to meet the requirements of section 1104(a)(3) of the Right to Financial Privacy Act [12 U.S.C. 3404(a)(3)] and the flush language of section 1102 of such Act [12 U.S.C. 3402].
(D) The Commissioner shall inform any person who provides authorization pursuant to this paragraph of the duration and scope of the authorization.
(E) If an individual refuses to provide, or revokes, any authorization for the Commissioner of Social Security to obtain from any financial institution any financial record, the Commissioner may, on that basis, determine that adjustment or recovery would not defeat the purpose of this subchapter.
(c)
Nonliability of certifying and disbursing officers

No certifying or disbursing officer shall be held liable for any amount certified or paid by him to any person where the adjustment or recovery of such amount is waived under subsection (b), or where adjustment under subsection (a) is not completed prior to the death of all persons against whose benefits deductions are authorized.

(d)
Payment to survivors or heirs when eligible person is deceased
If an individual dies before any payment due him under this subchapter is completed, payment of the amount due (including the amount of any unnegotiated checks) shall be made—
(1) to the person, if any, who is determined by the Commissioner of Social Security to be the surviving spouse of the deceased individual and who either (i) was living in the same household with the deceased at the time of his death or (ii) was, for the month in which the deceased individual died, entitled to a monthly benefit on the basis of the same wages and self-employment income as was the deceased individual;
(2) if there is no person who meets the requirements of paragraph (1), or if the person who meets such requirements dies before the payment due him under this subchapter is completed, to the child or children, if any, of the deceased individual who were, for the month in which the deceased individual died, entitled to monthly benefits on the basis of the same wages and self-employment income as was the deceased individual (and, in case there is more than one such child, in equal parts to each such child);
(3) if there is no person who meets the requirements of paragraph (1) or (2), or if each person who meets such requirements dies before the payment due him under this subchapter is completed, to the parent or parents, if any, of the deceased individual who were, for the month in which the deceased individual died, entitled to monthly benefits on the basis of the same wages and self-employment income as was the deceased individual (and, in case there is more than one such parent, in equal parts to each such parent);
(4) if there is no person who meets the requirements of paragraph (1), (2), or (3), or if each person who meets such requirements dies before the payment due him under this subchapter is completed, to the person, if any, determined by the Commissioner of Social Security to be the surviving spouse of the deceased individual;
(5) if there is no person who meets the requirements of paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4), or if each person who meets such requirements dies before the payment due him under this subchapter is completed, to the person or persons, if any, determined by the Commissioner of Social Security to be the child or children of the deceased individual (and, in case there is more than one such child, in equal parts to each such child);
(6) if there is no person who meets the requirements of paragraph (1), (2), (3), (4), or (5), or if each person who meets such requirements dies before the payment due him under this subchapter is completed, to the parent or parents, if any, of the deceased individual (and, in case there is more than one such parent, in equal parts to each such parent); or
(7) if there is no person who meets the requirements of paragraph (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), or (6), or if each person who meets such requirements dies before the payment due him under this subchapter is completed, to the legal representative of the estate of the deceased individual, if any.
(e)
Adjustments due to supplemental security income payments

For payments which are adjusted by reason of payment of benefits under the supplemental security income program established by subchapter XVI, see section 1320a–6 of this title.

(f)
Collection of delinquent amounts
(1) With respect to any deliquent 2
2 So in original. Probably should be “delinquent”.
amount, the Commissioner of Social Security may use the collection practices described in sections 3711(f), 3716, 3717, and 3718 of title 31 and in section 5514 of title 5, all as in effect immediately after April 26, 1996.
(2)
For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “delinquent amount” means an amount—
(A) in excess of the correct amount of payment under this subchapter;
(B) paid to a person after such person has attained 18 years of age; and
(C) determined by the Commissioner of Social Security, under regulations, to be otherwise unrecoverable under this section after such person ceases to be a beneficiary under this subchapter.
(g)
Cross-program recovery of overpayments

For provisions relating to the cross-program recovery of overpayments made under programs administered by the Commissioner of Social Security, see section 1320b–17 of this title.

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title II, § 204, 49 Stat. 624; Aug. 10, 1939, ch. 666, title II, § 201, 53 Stat. 1362, 1368; Aug. 28, 1950, ch. 809, title I, § 109(b)(1), 64 Stat. 523; Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1206, title I, § 111(a), 68 Stat. 1085; Pub. L. 89–97, title III, § 329, July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 401; Pub. L. 90–248, title I, §§ 152, 153(a), 154(a), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 860, 861; Pub. L. 96–265, title V, § 501(b), June 9, 1980, 94 Stat. 470; Pub. L. 99–272, title XII, § 12113(a), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 288; Pub. L. 101–239, title X, § 10305(b), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2483; Pub. L. 101–508, title V, § 5129(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–287; Pub. L. 103–296, title I, § 107(a)(4), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1478; Pub. L. 103–387, § 5(a), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4077; Pub. L. 104–134, title III, § 31001(z)(2)(A), Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–379; Pub. L. 104–316, title I, § 115(g)(2)(E), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3835; Pub. L. 105–306, § 8(b)(1), Oct. 28, 1998, 112 Stat. 2929; Pub. L. 106–169, title II, §§ 201(a), 203(c), Dec. 14, 1999, 113 Stat. 1831, 1832; Pub. L. 108–203, title II, § 210(b)(1), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 517; Pub. L. 111–115, § 2(a), Dec. 15, 2009, 123 Stat. 3029; Pub. L. 114–74, title VIII, § 834(a), Nov. 2, 2015, 129 Stat. 614; Pub. L. 115–165, title I, § 104(a), Apr. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1263.)
§ 405.
Evidence, procedure, and certification for payments
(a)
Rules and regulations; procedures

The Commissioner of Social Security shall have full power and authority to make rules and regulations and to establish procedures, not inconsistent with the provisions of this subchapter, which are necessary or appropriate to carry out such provisions, and shall adopt reasonable and proper rules and regulations to regulate and provide for the nature and extent of the proofs and evidence and the method of taking and furnishing the same in order to establish the right to benefits hereunder.

(b)
Administrative determination of entitlement to benefits; findings of fact; hearings; investigations; evidentiary hearings in reconsiderations of disability benefit terminations; subsequent applications
(1) The Commissioner of Social Security is directed to make findings of fact, and decisions as to the rights of any individual applying for a payment under this subchapter. Any such decision by the Commissioner of Social Security which involves a determination of disability and which is in whole or in part unfavorable to such individual shall contain a statement of the case, in understandable language, setting forth a discussion of the evidence, and stating the Commissioner’s determination and the reason or reasons upon which it is based. Upon request by any such individual or upon request by a wife, divorced wife, widow, surviving divorced wife, surviving divorced mother, surviving divorced father, husband, divorced husband, widower, surviving divorced husband, child, or parent who makes a showing in writing that his or her rights may be prejudiced by any decision the Commissioner of Social Security has rendered, the Commissioner shall give such applicant and such other individual reasonable notice and opportunity for a hearing with respect to such decision, and, if a hearing is held, shall, on the basis of evidence adduced at the hearing, affirm, modify, or reverse the Commissioner’s findings of fact and such decision. Any such request with respect to such a decision must be filed within sixty days after notice of such decision is received by the individual making such request. The Commissioner of Social Security is further authorized, on the Commissioner’s own motion, to hold such hearings and to conduct such investigations and other proceedings as the Commissioner may deem necessary or proper for the administration of this subchapter. In the course of any hearing, investigation, or other proceeding, the Commissioner may administer oaths and affirmations, examine witnesses, and receive evidence. Evidence may be received at any hearing before the Commissioner of Social Security even though inadmissible under rules of evidence applicable to court procedure.
(2)
In any case where—
(A) an individual is a recipient of disability insurance benefits, or of child’s, widow’s, or widower’s insurance benefits based on disability,
(B) the physical or mental impairment on the basis of which such benefits are payable is found to have ceased, not to have existed, or to no longer be disabling, and
(C) as a consequence of the finding described in subparagraph (B), such individual is determined by the Commissioner of Social Security not to be entitled to such benefits,
any reconsideration of the finding described in subparagraph (B), in connection with a reconsideration by the Commissioner of Social Security (before any hearing under paragraph (1) on the issue of such entitlement) of the Commissioner’s determination described in subparagraph (C), shall be made only after opportunity for an evidentiary hearing, with regard to the finding described in subparagraph (B), which is reasonably accessible to such individual. Any reconsideration of a finding described in subparagraph (B) may be made either by the State agency or the Commissioner of Social Security where the finding was originally made by the State agency, and shall be made by the Commissioner of Social Security where the finding was originally made by the Commissioner of Social Security. In the case of a reconsideration by a State agency of a finding described in subparagraph (B) which was originally made by such State agency, the evidentiary hearing shall be held by an adjudicatory unit of the State agency other than the unit that made the finding described in subparagraph (B). In the case of a reconsideration by the Commissioner of Social Security of a finding described in subparagraph (B) which was originally made by the Commissioner of Social Security, the evidentiary hearing shall be held by a person other than the person or persons who made the finding described in subparagraph (B).
(3)
(A) A failure to timely request review of an initial adverse determination with respect to an application for any benefit under this subchapter or an adverse determination on reconsideration of such an initial determination shall not serve as a basis for denial of a subsequent application for any benefit under this subchapter if the applicant demonstrates that the applicant, or any other individual referred to in paragraph (1), failed to so request such a review acting in good faith reliance upon incorrect, incomplete, or misleading information, relating to the consequences of reapplying for benefits in lieu of seeking review of an adverse determination, provided by any officer or employee of the Social Security Administration or any State agency acting under section 421 of this title.
(B) In any notice of an adverse determination with respect to which a review may be requested under paragraph (1), the Commissioner of Social Security shall describe in clear and specific language the effect on possible entitlement to benefits under this subchapter of choosing to reapply in lieu of requesting review of the determination.
(c)
Wage records
(1)
For the purposes of this subsection—
(A) The term “year” means a calendar year when used with respect to wages and a taxable year when used with respect to self-employment income.
(B) The term “time limitation” means a period of three years, three months, and fifteen days.
(C) The term “survivor” means an individual’s spouse, surviving divorced wife, surviving divorced husband, surviving divorced mother, surviving divorced father, child, or parent, who survives such individual.
(D)
The term “period” when used with respect to self-employment income means a taxable year and when used with respect to wages means—
(i) a quarter if wages were reported or should have been reported on a quarterly basis on tax returns filed with the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate under section 6011 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 or regulations thereunder (or on reports filed by a State under section 418(e) 1
1 See References in Text note below.
of this title (as in effect prior to December 31, 1986) or regulations thereunder),
(ii) a year if wages were reported or should have been reported on a yearly basis on such tax returns or reports, or
(iii) the half year beginning January 1 or July 1 in the case of wages which were reported or should have been reported for calendar year 1937.
(2)
(A) On the basis of information obtained by or submitted to the Commissioner of Social Security, and after such verification thereof as the Commissioner deems necessary, the Commissioner of Social Security shall establish and maintain records of the amounts of wages paid to, and the amounts of self-employment income derived by, each individual and of the periods in which such wages were paid and such income was derived and, upon request, shall inform any individual or his survivor, or the legal representative of such individual or his estate, of the amounts of wages and self-employment income of such individual and the periods during which such wages were paid and such income was derived, as shown by such records at the time of such request.
(B)
(i)
In carrying out the Commissioner’s duties under subparagraph (A) and subparagraph (F), the Commissioner of Social Security shall take affirmative measures to assure that social security account numbers will, to the maximum extent practicable, be assigned to all members of appropriate groups or categories of individuals by assigning such numbers (or ascertaining that such numbers have already been assigned):
(I) to aliens at the time of their lawful admission to the United States either for permanent residence or under other authority of law permitting them to engage in employment in the United States and to other aliens at such time as their status is so changed as to make it lawful for them to engage in such employment;(II) to any individual who is an applicant for or recipient of benefits under any program financed in whole or in part from Federal funds including any child on whose behalf such benefits are claimed by another person; and(III) to any other individual when it appears that he could have been but was not assigned an account number under the provisions of subclauses (I) or (II) but only after such investigation as is necessary to establish to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security, the identity of such individual, the fact that an account number has not already been assigned to such individual, and the fact that such individual is a citizen or a noncitizen who is not, because of his alien status, prohibited from engaging in employment;(IV) to or on behalf of children who are below school age at the request of their parents or guardians; and(V) to children of school age at the time of their first enrollment in school.
and, in carrying out such duties, the Commissioner of Social Security is authorized to take affirmative measures to assure the issuance of social security numbers:
(ii) The Commissioner of Social Security shall require of applicants for social security account numbers such evidence as may be necessary to establish the age, citizenship, or alien status, and true identity of such applicants, and to determine which (if any) social security account number has previously been assigned to such individual. With respect to an application for a social security account number for an individual who has not attained the age of 18 before such application, such evidence shall include the information described in subparagraph (C)(ii).
(iii) In carrying out the requirements of this subparagraph, the Commissioner of Social Security shall enter into such agreements as may be necessary with the Attorney General and other officials and with State and local welfare agencies and school authorities (including nonpublic school authorities).
(C)
(i) It is the policy of the United States that any State (or political subdivision thereof) may, in the administration of any tax, general public assistance, driver’s license, or motor vehicle registration law within its jurisdiction, utilize the social security account numbers issued by the Commissioner of Social Security for the purpose of establishing the identification of individuals affected by such law, and may require any individual who is or appears to be so affected to furnish to such State (or political subdivision thereof) or any agency thereof having administrative responsibility for the law involved, the social security account number (or numbers, if he has more than one such number) issued to him by the Commissioner of Social Security.
(ii) In the administration of any law involving the issuance of a birth certificate, each State shall require each parent to furnish to such State (or political subdivision thereof) or any agency thereof having administrative responsibility for the law involved, the social security account number (or numbers, if the parent has more than one such number) issued to the parent unless the State (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Commissioner of Social Security) finds good cause for not requiring the furnishing of such number. The State shall make numbers furnished under this subclause available to the Commissioner of Social Security and the agency administering the State’s plan under part D of subchapter IV in accordance with Federal or State law and regulation. Such numbers shall not be recorded on the birth certificate. A State shall not use any social security account number, obtained with respect to the issuance by the State of a birth certificate, for any purpose other than for the enforcement of child support orders in effect in the State, unless section 7(a) of the Privacy Act of 1974 does not prohibit the State from requiring the disclosure of such number, by reason of the State having adopted, before January 1, 1975, a statute or regulation requiring such disclosure.
(iii)(I) In the administration of section 9 of the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (7 U.S.C. 2018) involving the determination of the qualifications of applicants under such Act [7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.], the Secretary of Agriculture may require each applicant retail store or wholesale food concern to furnish to the Secretary of Agriculture the social security account number of each individual who is an officer of the store or concern and, in the case of a privately owned applicant, furnish the social security account numbers of the owners of such applicant. No officer or employee of the Department of Agriculture shall have access to any such number for any purpose other than the establishment and maintenance of a list of the names and social security account numbers of such individuals for use in determining those applicants who have been previously sanctioned or convicted under section 12 or 15 of such Act (7 U.S.C. 2021 or 2024).(II) The Secretary of Agriculture may share any information contained in any list referred to in subclause (I) with any other agency or instrumentality of the United States which otherwise has access to social security account numbers in accordance with this subsection or other applicable Federal law, except that the Secretary of Agriculture may share such information only to the extent that such Secretary determines such sharing would assist in verifying and matching such information against information maintained by such other agency or instrumentality. Any such information shared pursuant to this subclause may be used by such other agency or instrumentality only for the purpose of effective administration and enforcement of the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 [7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.] or for the purpose of investigation of violations of other Federal laws or enforcement of such laws.(III) The Secretary of Agriculture, and the head of any other agency or instrumentality referred to in this subclause, shall restrict, to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security, access to social security account numbers obtained pursuant to this clause only to officers and employees of the United States whose duties or responsibilities require access for the purposes described in subclause (II).(IV) The Secretary of Agriculture, and the head of any agency or instrumentality with which information is shared pursuant to clause 2
2
(iv) In the administration of section 506 of the Federal Crop Insurance Act [7 U.S.C. 1506], the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation may require each policyholder and each reinsured company to furnish to the insurer or to the Corporation the social security account number of such policyholder, subject to the requirements of this clause. No officer or employee of the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation shall have access to any such number for any purpose other than the establishment of a system of records necessary for the effective administration of such Act [7 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.]. The Manager of the Corporation may require each policyholder to provide to the Manager, at such times and in such manner as prescribed by the Manager, the social security account number of each individual that holds or acquires a substantial beneficial interest in the policyholder. For purposes of this clause, the term “substantial beneficial interest” means not less than 5 percent of all beneficial interest in the policyholder. The Secretary of Agriculture shall restrict, to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security, access to social security account numbers obtained pursuant to this clause only to officers and employees of the United States or authorized persons whose duties or responsibilities require access for the administration of the Federal Crop Insurance Act. The Secretary of Agriculture shall provide such other safeguards as the Commissioner of Social Security determines to be necessary or appropriate to protect the confidentiality of such social security account numbers. For purposes of this clause the term “authorized person” means an officer or employee of an insurer whom the Manager of the Corporation designates by rule, subject to appropriate safeguards including a prohibition against the release of such social security account number (other than to the Corporation) by such person.
(v) If and to the extent that any provision of Federal law heretofore enacted is inconsistent with the policy set forth in clause (i), such provision shall, on and after October 4, 1976, be null, void, and of no effect. If and to the extent that any such provision is inconsistent with the requirement set forth in clause (ii), such provision shall, on and after October 13, 1988, be null, void, and of no effect.
(vi)(I) For purposes of clause (i) of this subparagraph, an agency of a State (or political subdivision thereof) charged with the administration of any general public assistance, driver’s license, or motor vehicle registration law which did not use the social security account number for identification under a law or regulation adopted before January 1, 1975, may require an individual to disclose his or her social security number to such agency solely for the purpose of administering the laws referred to in clause (i) above and for the purpose of responding to requests for information from an agency administering a program funded under part A of subchapter IV or an agency operating pursuant to the provisions of part D of such subchapter.(II) Any State or political subdivision thereof (and any person acting as an agent of such an agency or instrumentality), in the administration of any driver’s license or motor vehicle registration law within its jurisdiction, may not display a social security account number issued by the Commissioner of Social Security (or any derivative of such number) on any driver’s license, motor vehicle registration, or personal identification card (as defined in section 7212(a)(2) of the 9/11 Commission Implementation Act of 2004), or include, on any such license, registration, or personal identification card, a magnetic strip, bar code, or other means of communication which conveys such number (or derivative thereof).
(vii) For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “State” includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.
(viii)(I) Social security account numbers and related records that are obtained or maintained by authorized persons pursuant to any provision of law enacted on or after October 1, 1990, shall be confidential, and no authorized person shall disclose any such social security account number or related record.(II) Paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of section 7213(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall apply with respect to the unauthorized willful disclosure to any person of social security account numbers and related records obtained or maintained by an authorized person pursuant to a provision of law enacted on or after October 1, 1990, in the same manner and to the same extent as such paragraphs apply with respect to unauthorized disclosures of return and return information described in such paragraphs. Paragraph (4) of section 7213(a) of such Code shall apply with respect to the willful offer of any item of material value in exchange for any such social security account number or related record in the same manner and to the same extent as such paragraph applies with respect to offers (in exchange for any return or return information) described in such paragraph.(III) For purposes of this clause, the term “authorized person” means an officer or employee of the United States, an officer or employee of any State, political subdivision of a State, or agency of a State or political subdivision of a State, and any other person (or officer or employee thereof), who has or had access to social security account numbers or related records pursuant to any provision of law enacted on or after October 1, 1990. For purposes of this subclause, the term “officer or employee” includes a former officer or employee.(IV) For purposes of this clause, the term “related record” means any record, list, or compilation that indicates, directly or indirectly, the identity of any individual with respect to whom a social security account number or a request for a social security account number is maintained pursuant to this clause.
(ix) In the administration of the provisions of chapter 81 of title 5 and the Longshore and Harbor Workers’ Compensation Act (33 U.S.C. 901 et seq.), the Secretary of Labor may require by regulation that any person filing a notice of injury or a claim for benefits under such provisions provide as part of such notice or claim such person’s social security account number, subject to the requirements of this clause. No officer or employee of the Department of Labor shall have access to any such number for any purpose other than the establishment of a system of records necessary for the effective administration of such provisions. The Secretary of Labor shall restrict, to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security, access to social security account numbers obtained pursuant to this clause to officers and employees of the United States whose duties or responsibilities require access for the administration or enforcement of such provisions. The Secretary of Labor shall provide such other safeguards as the Commissioner of Social Security determines to be necessary or appropriate to protect the confidentiality of the social security account numbers.
(x) The Secretary of Health and Human Services, and the Exchanges established under section 1311 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act [42 U.S.C. 18031], are authorized to collect and use the names and social security account numbers of individuals as required to administer the provisions of, and the amendments made by, the such Act.3
3 So in original. Probably should be “amendments made by, such Act.”
(xi) No Federal, State, or local agency may display the Social Security 4
4 So in original.
account number of any individual, or any derivative of such number, on any check issued for any payment by the Federal, State, or local agency.
(xii) No Federal, State, or local agency may employ, or enter into a contract for the use or employment of, prisoners in any capacity that would allow such prisoners access to the Social Security 4 account numbers of other individuals. For purposes of this clause, the term “prisoner” means an individual confined in a jail, prison, or other penal institution or correctional facility pursuant to such individual’s conviction of a criminal offense.
(xiii) The Secretary of Health and Human Services, in consultation with the Commissioner of Social Security, shall establish cost-effective procedures to ensure that a Social Security 4 account number (or derivative thereof) is not displayed, coded, or embedded on the Medicare card issued to an individual who is entitled to benefits under part A of subchapter XVIII or enrolled under part B of subchapter XVIII and that any other identifier displayed on such card is not identifiable as a Social Security 4 account number (or derivative thereof).
(D)
(i)
It is the policy of the United States that—
(I) any State (or any political subdivision of a State) and any authorized blood donation facility may utilize the social security account numbers issued by the Commissioner of Social Security for the purpose of identifying blood donors, and(II) any State (or political subdivision of a State) may require any individual who donates blood within such State (or political subdivision) to furnish to such State (or political subdivision), to any agency thereof having related administrative responsibility, or to any authorized blood donation facility the social security account number (or numbers, if the donor has more than one such number) issued to the donor by the Commissioner of Social Security.
(ii) If and to the extent that any provision of Federal law enacted before November 10, 1988, is inconsistent with the policy set forth in clause (i), such provision shall, on and after November 10, 1988, be null, void, and of no effect.
(iii)
For purposes of this subparagraph—
(I) the term “authorized blood donation facility” means an entity described in section 1320b–11(h)(1)(B) of this title, and(II) the term “State” includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.
(E)
(i)
It is the policy of the United States that—
(I) any State (or any political subdivision of a State) may utilize the social security account numbers issued by the Commissioner of Social Security for the additional purposes described in clause (ii) if such numbers have been collected and are otherwise utilized by such State (or political subdivision) in accordance with applicable law, and(II) any district court of the United States may use, for such additional purposes, any such social security account numbers which have been so collected and are so utilized by any State.
(ii)
The additional purposes described in this clause are the following:
(I) Identifying duplicate names of individuals on master lists used for jury selection purposes.(II) Identifying on such master lists those individuals who are ineligible to serve on a jury by reason of their conviction of a felony.
(iii) To the extent that any provision of Federal law enacted before August 15, 1994, is inconsistent with the policy set forth in clause (i), such provision shall, on and after August 15, 1994, be null, void, and of no effect.
(iv) For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “State” has the meaning such term has in subparagraph (D).
(F) The Commissioner of Social Security shall require, as a condition for receipt of benefits under this subchapter, that an individual furnish satisfactory proof of a social security account number assigned to such individual by the Commissioner of Social Security or, in the case of an individual to whom no such number has been assigned, that such individual make proper application for assignment of such a number.
(G) The Commissioner of Social Security shall issue a social security card to each individual at the time of the issuance of a social security account number to such individual. The social security card shall be made of banknote paper, and (to the maximum extent practicable) shall be a card which cannot be counterfeited.
(H) The Commissioner of Social Security shall share with the Secretary of the Treasury the information obtained by the Commissioner pursuant to the second sentence of subparagraph (B)(ii) and to subparagraph (C)(ii) for the purpose of administering those sections of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 which grant tax benefits based on support or residence of children.
(3) The Commissioner’s records shall be evidence for the purpose of proceedings before the Commissioner of Social Security or any court of the amounts of wages paid to, and self-employment income derived by, an individual and of the periods in which such wages were paid and such income was derived. The absence of an entry in such records as to wages alleged to have been paid to, or as to self-employment income alleged to have been derived by, an individual in any period shall be evidence that no such alleged wages were paid to, or that no such alleged income was derived by, such individual during such period.
(4)
Prior to the expiration of the time limitation following any year the Commissioner of Social Security may, if it is brought to the Commissioner’s attention that any entry of wages or self-employment income in the Commissioner’s records for such year is erroneous or that any item of wages or self-employment income for such year has been omitted from such records, correct such entry or include such omitted item in the Commissioner’s records, as the case may be. After the expiration of the time limitation following any year—
(A) the Commissioner’s records (with changes, if any, made pursuant to paragraph (5) of this subsection) of the amounts of wages paid to, and self-employment income derived by, an individual during any period in such year shall be conclusive for the purposes of this subchapter;
(B) the absence of an entry in the Commissioner’s records as to the wages alleged to have been paid by an employer to an individual during any period in such year shall be presumptive evidence for the purposes of this subchapter that no such alleged wages were paid to such individual in such period; and
(C) the absence of an entry in the Commissioner’s records as to the self-employment income alleged to have been derived by an individual in such year shall be conclusive for the purposes of this subchapter that no such alleged self-employment income was derived by such individual in such year unless it is shown that he filed a tax return of his self-employment income for such year before the expiration of the time limitation following such year, in which case the Commissioner of Social Security shall include in the Commissioner’s records the self-employment income of such individual for such year.
(5)
After the expiration of the time limitation following any year in which wages were paid or alleged to have been paid to, or self-employment income was derived or alleged to have been derived by, an individual, the Commissioner of Social Security may change or delete any entry with respect to wages or self-employment income in the Commissioner’s records of such year for such individual or include in the Commissioner’s records of such year for such individual any omitted item of wages or self-employment income but only—
(A) if an application for monthly benefits or for a lump-sum death payment was filed within the time limitation following such year; except that no such change, deletion, or inclusion may be made pursuant to this subparagraph after a final decision upon the application for monthly benefits or lump-sum death payment;
(B) if within the time limitation following such year an individual or his survivor makes a request for a change or deletion, or for an inclusion of an omitted item, and alleges in writing that the Commissioner’s records of the wages paid to, or the self-employment income derived by, such individual in such year are in one or more respects erroneous; except that no such change, deletion, or inclusion may be made pursuant to this subparagraph after a final decision upon such request. Written notice of the Commissioner’s decision on any such request shall be given to the individual who made the request;
(C) to correct errors apparent on the face of such records;
(D) to transfer items to records of the Railroad Retirement Board if such items were credited under this subchapter when they should have been credited under the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 or 1974 [45 U.S.C. 228a et seq., 231 et seq.], or to enter items transferred by the Railroad Retirement Board which have been credited under the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 or 1974 when they should have been credited under this subchapter;
(E) to delete or reduce the amount of any entry which is erroneous as a result of fraud;
(F)
to conform the Commissioner’s records to—
(i) tax returns or portions thereof (including information returns and other written statements) filed with the Commissioner of Internal Revenue under title VIII of the Social Security Act, under subchapter E of chapter 1 or subchapter A of chapter 9 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, under chapter 2 or 21 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 or the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or under regulations made under authority of such title, subchapter, or chapter;
(ii) wage reports filed by a State pursuant to an agreement under section 418 of this title or regulations of the Commissioner of Social Security thereunder; or
(iii) assessments of amounts due under an agreement pursuant to section 418 of this title (as in effect prior to December 31, 1986), if such assessments are made within the period specified in subsection (q) 1 of such section (as so in effect), or allowances of credits or refunds of overpayments by a State under an agreement pursuant to such section;
except that no amount of self-employment income of an individual for any taxable year (if such return or statement was filed after the expiration of the time limitation following the taxable year) shall be included in the Commissioner’s records pursuant to this subparagraph;
(G) to correct errors made in the allocation, to individuals or periods, of wages or self-employment income entered in the records of the Commissioner of Social Security;
(H) to include wages paid during any period in such year to an individual by an employer;
(I) to enter items which constitute remuneration for employment under subsection (o), such entries to be in accordance with certified reports of records made by the Railroad Retirement Board pursuant to section 5(k)(3) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 [45 U.S.C. 228e(k)(3)] or section 7(b)(7) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 [45 U.S.C. 231f(b)(7)]; or
(J) to include self-employment income for any taxable year, up to, but not in excess of, the amount of wages deleted by the Commissioner of Social Security as payments erroneously included in such records as wages paid to such individual, if such income (or net earnings from self-employment), not already included in such records as self-employment income, is included in a return or statement (referred to in subparagraph (F) of this subsection) filed before the expiration of the time limitation following the taxable year in which such deletion of wages is made.
(6) Written notice of any deletion or reduction under paragraph (4) or (5) of this subsection shall be given to the individual whose record is involved or to his survivor, except that (A) in the case of a deletion or reduction with respect to any entry of wages such notice shall be given to such individual only if he has previously been notified by the Commissioner of Social Security of the amount of his wages for the period involved, and (B) such notice shall be given to such survivor only if he or the individual whose record is involved has previously been notified by the Commissioner of Social Security of the amount of such individual’s wages and self-employment income for the period involved.
(7) Upon request in writing (within such period, after any change or refusal of a request for a change of the Commissioner’s records pursuant to this subsection, as the Commissioner of Social Security may prescribe), opportunity for hearing with respect to such change or refusal shall be afforded to any individual or his survivor. If a hearing is held pursuant to this paragraph the Commissioner of Social Security shall make findings of fact and a decision based upon the evidence adduced at such hearing and shall include any omitted items, or change or delete any entry, in the Commissioner’s records as may be required by such findings and decision.
(8)
A translation into English by a third party of a statement made in a foreign language by an applicant for or beneficiary of monthly insurance benefits under this subchapter shall not be regarded as reliable for any purpose under this subchapter unless the third party, under penalty of perjury—
(A) certifies that the translation is accurate; and
(B) discloses the nature and scope of the relationship between the third party and the applicant or recipient, as the case may be.
(9) Decisions of the Commissioner of Social Security under this subsection shall be reviewable by commencing a civil action in the United States district court as provided in subsection (g).
(d)
Issuance of subpenas in administrative proceedings

For the purpose of any hearing, investigation, or other proceeding authorized or directed under this subchapter, or relative to any other matter within the Commissioner’s jurisdiction hereunder, the Commissioner of Social Security shall have power to issue subpenas requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of any evidence that relates to any matter under investigation or in question before the Commissioner of Social Security. Such attendance of witnesses and production of evidence at the designated place of such hearing, investigation, or other proceeding may be required from any place in the United States or in any Territory or possession thereof. Subpenas of the Commissioner of Social Security shall be served by anyone authorized by the Commissioner (1) by delivering a copy thereof to the individual named therein, or (2) by registered mail or by certified mail addressed to such individual at his last dwelling place or principal place of business. A verified return by the individual so serving the subpena setting forth the manner of service, or, in the case of service by registered mail or by certified mail, the return post-office receipt therefor signed by the individual so served, shall be proof of service. Witnesses so subpenaed shall be paid the same fees and mileage as are paid witnesses in the district courts of the United States.

(e)
Judicial enforcement of subpenas; contempt

In case of contumacy by, or refusal to obey a subpena duly served upon, any person, any district court of the United States for the judicial district in which said person charged with contumacy or refusal to obey is found or resides or transacts business, upon application by the Commissioner of Social Security, shall have jurisdiction to issue an order requiring such person to appear and give testimony, or to appear and produce evidence, or both; any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by said court as contempt thereof.

(f)
Repealed. Pub. L. 91–452, title II, § 236, Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 930
(g)
Judicial review

Any individual, after any final decision of the Commissioner of Social Security made after a hearing to which he was a party, irrespective of the amount in controversy, may obtain a review of such decision by a civil action commenced within sixty days after the mailing to him of notice of such decision or within such further time as the Commissioner of Social Security may allow. Such action shall be brought in the district court of the United States for the judicial district in which the plaintiff resides, or has his principal place of business, or, if he does not reside or have his principal place of business within any such judicial district, in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia. As part of the Commissioner’s answer the Commissioner of Social Security shall file a certified copy of the transcript of the record including the evidence upon which the findings and decision complained of are based. The court shall have power to enter, upon the pleadings and transcript of the record, a judgment affirming, modifying, or reversing the decision of the Commissioner of Social Security, with or without remanding the cause for a rehearing. The findings of the Commissioner of Social Security as to any fact, if supported by substantial evidence, shall be conclusive, and where a claim has been denied by the Commissioner of Social Security or a decision is rendered under subsection (b) of this section which is adverse to an individual who was a party to the hearing before the Commissioner of Social Security, because of failure of the claimant or such individual to submit proof in conformity with any regulation prescribed under subsection (a) of this section, the court shall review only the question of conformity with such regulations and the validity of such regulations. The court may, on motion of the Commissioner of Social Security made for good cause shown before the Commissioner files the Commissioner’s answer, remand the case to the Commissioner of Social Security for further action by the Commissioner of Social Security, and it may at any time order additional evidence to be taken before the Commissioner of Social Security, but only upon a showing that there is new evidence which is material and that there is good cause for the failure to incorporate such evidence into the record in a prior proceeding; and the Commissioner of Social Security shall, after the case is remanded, and after hearing such additional evidence if so ordered, modify or affirm the Commissioner’s findings of fact or the Commissioner’s decision, or both, and shall file with the court any such additional and modified findings of fact and decision, and, in any case in which the Commissioner has not made a decision fully favorable to the individual, a transcript of the additional record and testimony upon which the Commissioner’s action in modifying or affirming was based. Such additional or modified findings of fact and decision shall be reviewable only to the extent provided for review of the original findings of fact and decision. The judgment of the court shall be final except that it shall be subject to review in the same manner as a judgment in other civil actions. Any action instituted in accordance with this subsection shall survive notwithstanding any change in the person occupying the office of Commissioner of Social Security or any vacancy in such office.

(h)
Finality of Commissioner’s decision

The findings and decision of the Commissioner of Social Security after a hearing shall be binding upon all individuals who were parties to such hearing. No findings of fact or decision of the Commissioner of Social Security shall be reviewed by any person, tribunal, or governmental agency except as herein provided. No action against the United States, the Commissioner of Social Security, or any officer or employee thereof shall be brought under section 1331 or 1346 of title 28 to recover on any claim arising under this subchapter.

(i)
Certification for payment

Upon final decision of the Commissioner of Social Security, or upon final judgment of any court of competent jurisdiction, that any person is entitled to any payment or payments under this subchapter, the Commissioner of Social Security shall certify to the Managing Trustee the name and address of the person so entitled to receive such payment or payments, the amount of such payment or payments, and the time at which such payment or payments should be made, and the Managing Trustee, through the Fiscal Service of the Department of the Treasury, and prior to any action thereon by the Government Accountability Office, shall make payment in accordance with the certification of the Commissioner of Social Security (except that in the case of (A) an individual who will have completed ten years of service (or five or more years of service, all of which accrues after December 31, 1995) creditable under the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 [45 U.S.C. 228a et seq.] or the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 [45 U.S.C. 231 et seq.], (B) the wife or husband or divorced wife or divorced husband of such an individual, (C) any survivor of such an individual if such survivor is entitled, or could upon application become entitled, to an annuity under section 2 of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 [45 U.S.C. 231a], and (D) any other person entitled to benefits under section 402 of this title on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such an individual (except a survivor of such an individual where such individual did not have a current connection with the railroad industry, as defined in the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974, at the time of his death), such certification shall be made to the Railroad Retirement Board which shall provide for such payment or payments to such person on behalf of the Managing Trustee in accordance with the provisions of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974): Provided, That where a review of the Commissioner’s decision is or may be sought under subsection (g) the Commissioner of Social Security may withhold certification of payment pending such review. The Managing Trustee shall not be held personally liable for any payment or payments made in accordance with a certification by the Commissioner of Social Security.

(j)
Representative payees
(1)
(A) If the Commissioner of Social Security determines that the interest of any individual under this subchapter would be served thereby, certification of payment of such individual’s benefit under this subchapter may be made, regardless of the legal competency or incompetency of the individual, either for direct payment to the individual, or for his or her use and benefit, to another individual, or an organization, with respect to whom the requirements of paragraph (2) have been met (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the individual’s “representative payee”). If the Commissioner of Social Security or a court of competent jurisdiction determines that a representative payee has misused any individual’s benefit paid to such representative payee pursuant to this subsection or section 1007 or 1383(a)(2) of this title, the Commissioner of Social Security shall promptly revoke certification for payment of benefits to such representative payee pursuant to this subsection and certify payment to an alternative representative payee or, if the interest of the individual under this subchapter would be served thereby, to the individual.
(B) In the case of an individual entitled to benefits based on disability, the payment of such benefits shall be made to a representative payee if the Commissioner of Social Security determines that such payment would serve the interest of the individual because the individual also has an alcoholism or drug addiction condition (as determined by the Commissioner) and the individual is incapable of managing such benefits.
(C)
(i)
An individual who is entitled to or is an applicant for a benefit under this subchapter, subchapter VIII, or subchapter XVI, who has attained 18 years of age or is an emancipated minor, may, at any time, designate one or more other individuals to serve as a representative payee for such individual in the event that the Commissioner of Social Security determines under subparagraph (A) that the interest of such individual would be served by certification for payment of such benefits to which the individual is entitled to a representative payee. If the Commissioner of Social Security makes such a determination with respect to such individual at any time after such designation has been made, the Commissioner shall—
(I) certify payment of such benefits to the designated individual, subject to the requirements of paragraph (2); or(II) if the Commissioner determines that certification for payment of such benefits to the designated individual would not satisfy the requirements of paragraph (2), that the designated individual is unwilling or unable to serve as representative payee, or that other good cause exists, certify payment of such benefits to another individual or organization, in accordance with paragraph (1).
(ii) An organization may not be designated to serve as a representative payee under this subparagraph.
(2)
(A)
Any certification made under paragraph (1) for payment of benefits to an individual’s representative payee shall be made on the basis of—
(i) an investigation by the Commissioner of Social Security of the person to serve as representative payee, which shall be conducted in advance of such certification and shall, to the extent practicable, include a face-to-face interview with such person, and
(ii) adequate evidence that such certification is in the interest of such individual (as determined by the Commissioner of Social Security in regulations).
(B)
(i)
As part of the investigation referred to in subparagraph (A)(i), the Commissioner of Social Security shall—
(I) require the person being investigated to submit documented proof of the identity of such person, unless information establishing such identity has been submitted with an application for benefits under this subchapter, subchapter VIII, or subchapter XVI,(II) verify such person’s social security account number (or employer identification number),(III) determine whether such person has been convicted of a violation of section 408, 1011, or 1383a of this title,(IV) obtain information concerning whether such person has been convicted of any other offense under Federal or State law which resulted in imprisonment for more than 1 year,(V) obtain information concerning whether such person is a person described in section 402(x)(1)(A)(iv) of this title,(VI) determine whether certification of payment of benefits to such person has been revoked pursuant to this subsection, the designation of such person as a representative payee has been revoked pursuant to section 1007(a) of this title, or payment of benefits to such person has been terminated pursuant to section 1383(a)(2)(A)(iii) of this title by reason of misuse of funds paid as benefits under this subchapter, subchapter VIII, or subchapter XVI, and(VII) determine whether such person has been convicted (and not subsequently exonerated), under Federal or State law, of a felony provided under clause (iv), or of an attempt or a conspiracy to commit such a felony.
(ii)
The Commissioner of Social Security shall establish and maintain a centralized file, which shall be updated periodically and which shall be in a form which renders it readily retrievable by each servicing office of the Social Security Administration. Such file shall consist of—
(I) a list of the names and social security account numbers (or employer identification numbers) of all persons with respect to whom certification of payment of benefits has been revoked on or after January 1, 1991, pursuant to this subsection, whose designation as a representative payee has been revoked pursuant to section 1007(a) of this title, or with respect to whom payment of benefits has been terminated on or after such date pursuant to section 1383(a)(2)(A)(iii) of this title, by reason of misuse of funds paid as benefits under this subchapter, subchapter VIII, or subchapter XVI, and(II) a list of the names and social security account numbers (or employer identification numbers) of all persons who have been convicted of a violation of section 408, 1011, or 1383a of this title.
(iii)
Notwithstanding the provisions of section 552a of title 5 or any other provision of Federal or State law (other than section 6103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and section 1306(c) of this title), the Commissioner shall furnish any Federal, State, or local law enforcement officer, upon the written request of the officer, with the current address, social security account number, and photograph (if applicable) of any person investigated under this paragraph, if the officer furnishes the Commissioner with the name of such person and such other identifying information as may reasonably be required by the Commissioner to establish the unique identity of such person, and notifies the Commissioner that—
(I) such person is described in section 402(x)(1)(A)(iv) of this title,(II) such person has information that is necessary for the officer to conduct the officer’s official duties, and(III) the location or apprehension of such person is within the officer’s official duties.
(iv)
The felony crimes provided under this clause, whether an offense under State or Federal law, are the following:
(I) Human trafficking, including as prohibited under sections 1590 and 1591 of title 18.(II) False imprisonment, including as prohibited under section 1201 of title 18.(III) Kidnapping, including as prohibited under section 1201 of title 18.(IV) Rape and sexual assault, including as prohibited under sections 2241, 2242, 2243, and 2244 of title 18.(V) First-degree homicide, including as prohibited under section 1111 of title 18.(VI) Robbery, including as prohibited under section 2111 of title 18.(VII) Fraud to obtain access to government assistance, including as prohibited under sections 287, 1001, and 1343 of title 18.(VIII) Fraud by scheme, including as prohibited under section 1343 of title 18.(IX) Theft of government funds or property, including as prohibited under section 641 of title 18.(X) Abuse or neglect, including as prohibited under sections 111, 113, 114, 115, 116, or 117 of title 18.(XI) Forgery, including as prohibited under section 642 and chapter 25 (except section 512) of title 18.(XII) Identity theft or identity fraud, including as prohibited under sections 1028 and 1028A of title 18.
The Commissioner of Social Security may promulgate regulations to provide for additional felony crimes under this clause.
(v)(I) For the purpose of carrying out the activities required under subparagraph (B)(i) as part of the investigation under subparagraph (A)(i), the Commissioner may conduct a background check of any individual seeking to serve as a representative payee under this subsection and may disqualify from service as a representative payee any such individual who fails to grant permission for the Commissioner to conduct such a background check.(II) The Commissioner may revoke certification of payment of benefits under this subsection to any individual serving as a representative payee on or after January 1, 2019 who fails to grant permission for the Commissioner to conduct such a background check.
(C)
(i)
Benefits of an individual may not be certified for payment to any other person pursuant to this subsection if—
(I) such person has previously been convicted as described in subparagraph (B)(i)(III),(II) except as provided in clause (ii), certification of payment of benefits to such person under this subsection has previously been revoked as described in subparagraph (B)(i)(VI) 5
5 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.
the designation of such person as a representative payee has been revoked pursuant to section 1007(a) of this title, or payment of benefits to such person pursuant to section 1383(a)(2)(A)(ii) of this title has previously been terminated as described in section 1383(a)(2)(B)(ii)(VI) of this title,
(III) except as provided in clause (iii), such person is a creditor of such individual who provides such individual with goods or services for consideration,(IV) such person has previously been convicted as described in subparagraph (B)(i)(IV), unless the Commissioner determines that such certification would be appropriate notwithstanding such conviction,(V) such person is a person described in section 402(x)(1)(A)(iv) of this title,(VI) except as provided in clause (vi), such person has previously been convicted (and not subsequently exonerated) as described in subparagraph (B)(i)(VII), or(VII) such person’s benefits under this subchapter, subchapter VIII, or subchapter XVI are certified for payment to a representative payee during the period for which the individual’s benefits would be certified for payment to another person.
(ii) The Commissioner of Social Security shall prescribe regulations under which the Commissioner of Social Security may grant exemptions to any person from the provisions of clause (i)(II) on a case-by-case basis if such exemption is in the best interest of the individual whose benefits would be paid to such person pursuant to this subsection.
(iii)
Clause (i)(III) shall not apply with respect to any person who is a creditor referred to therein if such creditor is—
(I) a relative of such individual if such relative resides in the same household as such individual,(II) a legal guardian or legal representative of such individual,(III) a facility that is licensed or certified as a care facility under the law of a State or a political subdivision of a State,(IV) a person who is an administrator, owner, or employee of a facility referred to in subclause (III) if such individual resides in such facility, and the certification of payment to such facility or such person is made only after good faith efforts have been made by the local servicing office of the Social Security Administration to locate an alternative representative payee to whom such certification of payment would serve the best interests of such individual, or(V) an individual who is determined by the Commissioner of Social Security, on the basis of written findings and under procedures which the Commissioner of Social Security shall prescribe by regulation, to be acceptable to serve as a representative payee.
(iv)
The procedures referred to in clause (iii)(V) shall require the individual who will serve as representative payee to establish, to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security, that—
(I) such individual poses no risk to the beneficiary,(II) the financial relationship of such individual to the beneficiary poses no substantial conflict of interest, and(III) no other more suitable representative payee can be found.
(v)
In the case of an individual described in paragraph (1)(B), when selecting such individual’s representative payee, preference shall be given to—
(I) a certified community-based nonprofit social service agency (as defined in paragraph (10)),(II) a Federal, State, or local government agency whose mission is to carry out income maintenance, social service, or health care-related activities,(III) a State or local government agency with fiduciary responsibilities, or(IV) a designee of an agency (other than of a Federal agency) referred to in the preceding subclauses of this clause, if the Commissioner of Social Security deems it appropriate,
unless the Commissioner of Social Security determines that selection of a family member would be appropriate.
(vi)(I)
With respect to any person described in subclause (II)—
(aa) subparagraph (B)(i)(VII) shall not apply; and(bb) the Commissioner may grant an exemption from the provisions of clause (i)(VI) if the Commissioner determines that such exemption is in the best interest of the individual entitled to benefits.(II)
A person is described in this subclause if the person—
(aa) is the custodial parent of a minor child for whom the person applies to serve;(bb) is the custodial spouse of the beneficiary for whom the person applies to serve;(cc) is the custodial parent of a beneficiary who is under a disability (as defined in section 423(d) of this title) which began before the beneficiary attained the age of 22, for whom the person applies to serve;(dd) is the custodial court appointed guardian of the beneficiary for whom the person applies to serve;(ee) is the custodial grandparent of a minor grandchild for whom the person applies to serve;(ff) is the parent who was previously representative payee for his or her minor child who has since turned 18 and continues to be eligible for such benefit; or(gg) received a presidential or gubernatorial pardon for the relevant conviction.
(D)
(i) Subject to clause (ii), if the Commissioner of Social Security makes a determination described in the first sentence of paragraph (1) with respect to any individual’s benefit and determines that direct payment of the benefit to the individual would cause substantial harm to the individual, the Commissioner of Social Security may defer (in the case of initial entitlement) or suspend (in the case of existing entitlement) direct payment of such benefit to the individual, until such time as the selection of a representative payee is made pursuant to this subsection.
(ii)(I) Except as provided in subclause (II), any deferral or suspension of direct payment of a benefit pursuant to clause (i) shall be for a period of not more than 1 month.(II) Subclause (I) shall not apply in any case in which the individual is, as of the date of the Commissioner’s determination, legally incompetent, under the age of 15 years, or described in paragraph (1)(B).
(iii) Payment pursuant to this subsection of any benefits which are deferred or suspended pending the selection of a representative payee shall be made to the individual or the representative payee as a single sum or over such period of time as the Commissioner of Social Security determines is in the best interest of the individual entitled to such benefits.
(E)
(i) Any individual who is dissatisfied with a determination by the Commissioner of Social Security to certify payment of such individual’s benefit to a representative payee under paragraph (1) or with the designation of a particular person to serve as representative payee shall be entitled to a hearing by the Commissioner of Social Security to the same extent as is provided in subsection (b), and to judicial review of the Commissioner’s final decision as is provided in subsection (g).
(ii)
In advance of the certification of payment of an individual’s benefit to a representative payee under paragraph (1), the Commissioner of Social Security shall provide written notice of the Commissioner’s initial determination to certify such payment. Such notice shall be provided to such individual, except that, if such individual—
(I) is under the age of 15,(II) is an unemancipated minor under the age of 18, or(III) is legally incompetent,
then such notice shall be provided solely to the legal guardian or legal representative of such individual.
(iii)
Any notice described in clause (ii) shall be clearly written in language that is easily understandable to the reader, shall identify the person to be designated as such individual’s representative payee, and shall explain to the reader the right under clause (i) of such individual or of such individual’s legal guardian or legal representative—
(I) to appeal a determination that a representative payee is necessary for such individual,(II) to appeal the designation of a particular person to serve as the representative payee of such individual, and(III) to review the evidence upon which such designation is based and submit additional evidence.
(3)
(A) In any case where payment under this subchapter is made to a person other than the individual entitled to such payment, the Commissioner of Social Security shall establish a system of accountability monitoring whereby such person shall report not less often than annually with respect to the use of such payments. The Commissioner of Social Security shall establish and implement statistically valid procedures for reviewing such reports in order to identify instances in which such persons are not properly using such payments.
(B) Subparagraph (A) shall not apply in any case where the other person to whom such payment is made is a State institution. In such cases, the Commissioner of Social Security shall establish a system of accountability monitoring for institutions in each State.
(C) Subparagraph (A) shall not apply in any case where the individual entitled to such payment is a resident of a Federal institution and the other person to whom such payment is made is the institution.
(D)
(i)
Subparagraph (A) shall not apply in any case where the other person to whom such payment is made is—
(I) a parent, or other individual who is a legal guardian of, a minor child entitled to such payment who primarily resides in the same household;(II) a parent of an individual entitled to such payment who is under a disability (as defined in section 423(d) of this title) who primarily resides in the same household; or(III) the spouse of the individual entitled to such payment.
(ii) The Commissioner of Social Security shall establish and implement procedures as necessary for the Commissioner to determine the eligibility of such parties for the exemption provided in clause (i). The Commissioner shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to determine eligibility for such exemption.
(E) Notwithstanding subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (D), the Commissioner of Social Security may require a report at any time from any person receiving payments on behalf of another, if the Commissioner of Social Security has reason to believe that the person receiving such payments is misusing such payments.
(F) In any case in which the person described in subparagraph (A) or (E) receiving payments on behalf of another fails to submit a report required by the Commissioner of Social Security under subparagraph (A) or (E), the Commissioner may, after furnishing notice to such person and the individual entitled to such payment, require that such person appear in person at a field office of the Social Security Administration serving the area in which the individual resides in order to receive such payments.
(G)
The Commissioner of Social Security shall maintain a centralized file, which shall be updated periodically and which shall be in a form which will be readily retrievable by each servicing office of the Social Security Administration, of—
(i) the address and the social security account number (or employer identification number) of each representative payee who is receiving benefit payments pursuant to this subsection, section 1007 of this title, or section 1383(a)(2) of this title, and
(ii) the address and social security account number of each individual for whom each representative payee is reported to be providing services as representative payee pursuant to this subsection, section 1007 of this title, or section 1383(a)(2) of this title.
(H) Each servicing office of the Administration shall maintain a list, which shall be updated periodically, of public agencies and certified community-based nonprofit social service agencies (as defined in paragraph (10)) which are qualified to serve as representative payees pursuant to this subsection or section 1007 or 1383(a)(2) of this title and which are located in the area served by such servicing office.
(4)
(A)
(i)
Except as provided in the next sentence, a qualified organization may collect from an individual a monthly fee for expenses (including overhead) incurred by such organization in providing services performed as such individual’s representative payee pursuant to this subsection if such fee does not exceed the lesser of—
(I) 10 percent of the monthly benefit involved, or(II) $25.00 per month ($50.00 per month in any case in which the individual is described in paragraph (1)(B)).
A qualified organization may not collect a fee from an individual for any month with respect to which the Commissioner of Social Security or a court of competent jurisdiction has determined that the organization misused all or part of the individual’s benefit, and any amount so collected by the qualified organization for such month shall be treated as a misused part of the individual’s benefit for purposes of paragraphs (5) and (6). The Commissioner shall adjust annually (after 1995) each dollar amount set forth in subclause (II) under procedures providing for adjustments in the same manner and to the same extent as adjustments are provided for under the procedures used to adjust benefit amounts under section 415(i)(2)(A) of this title, except that any amount so adjusted that is not a multiple of $1.00 shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of $1.00. Any agreement providing for a fee in excess of the amount permitted under this subparagraph shall be void and shall be treated as misuse by such organization of such individual’s benefits.
(ii) In the case of an individual who is no longer currently entitled to monthly insurance benefits under this subchapter but to whom all past-due benefits have not been paid, for purposes of clause (i), any amount of such past-due benefits payable in any month shall be treated as a monthly benefit referred to in clause (i)(I).
(B)
For purposes of this paragraph, the term “qualified organization” means any State or local government agency whose mission is to carry out income maintenance, social service, or health care-related activities, any State or local government agency with fiduciary responsibilities, or any certified community-based nonprofit social service agency (as defined in paragraph (10)), if such agency, in accordance with any applicable regulations of the Commissioner of Social Security—
(i) regularly provides services as the representative payee, pursuant to this subsection or section 1007 or 1383(a)(2) of this title, concurrently to 5 or more individuals,6
6 So in original. Probably should be followed by “and”.
(ii) demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security that such agency is not otherwise a creditor of any such individual.
The Commissioner of Social Security shall prescribe regulations under which the Commissioner of Social Security may grant an exception from clause (ii) for any individual on a case-by-case basis if such exception is in the best interests of such individual.
(C) Any qualified organization which knowingly charges or collects, directly or indirectly, any fee in excess of the maximum fee prescribed under subparagraph (A) or makes any agreement, directly or indirectly, to charge or collect any fee in excess of such maximum fee, shall be fined in accordance with title 18, or imprisoned not more than 6 months, or both.
(5)
In cases where the negligent failure of the Commissioner of Social Security to investigate or monitor a representative payee results in misuse of benefits by the representative payee, the Commissioner of Social Security shall certify for payment to the beneficiary or the beneficiary’s alternative representative payee an amount equal to such misused benefits. In any case in which a representative payee that—
(A) is not an individual (regardless of whether it is a “qualified organization” within the meaning of paragraph (4)(B)); or
(B) is an individual who, for any month during a period when misuse occurs, serves 15 or more individuals who are beneficiaries under this subchapter, subchapter VIII, subchapter XVI, or any combination of such subchapters;
misuses all or part of an individual’s benefit paid to such representative payee, the Commissioner of Social Security shall certify for payment to the beneficiary or the beneficiary’s alternative representative payee an amount equal to the amount of such benefit so misused. The provisions of this paragraph are subject to the limitations of paragraph (7)(B). The Commissioner of Social Security shall make a good faith effort to obtain restitution from the terminated representative payee.
(6)
In addition to such other reviews of representative payees as the Commissioner of Social Security may otherwise conduct, the Commissioner shall provide for the periodic onsite review of any person or agency located in the United States that receives the benefits payable under this subchapter (alone or in combination with benefits payable under subchapter VIII or subchapter XVI) to another individual pursuant to the appointment of such person or agency as a representative payee under this subsection, section 1007 of this title, or section 1383(a)(2) of this title in any case in which—
(i) the representative payee is a person who serves in that capacity with respect to 15 or more such individuals;
(ii) the representative payee is a certified community-based nonprofit social service agency (as defined in paragraph (10) of this subsection or section 1383(a)(2)(I) of this title);
(iii) the representative payee is an agency (other than an agency described in clause (ii)) that serves in that capacity with respect to 50 or more such individuals; or
(iv) the representative payee collects a fee for its services.
The Commissioner shall also conduct periodic onsite reviews of individual and organizational payees, including payees who are related to the beneficiary and primarily reside in the same household, selected on the basis of risk-factors for potential misuse or unsuitability associated with such payees or beneficiaries.
(C)
7
7 So in original. There are no subpars. (A) and (B).
 (i) The Commissioner of Social Security shall make annual grants directly to the protection and advocacy system serving each of the States and the American Indian consortium for the purpose of conducting reviews of representative payees in accordance with this subparagraph. The total amount used by the Commissioner for such grants each year—
(I) shall be an amount sufficient, as determined by the Commissioner in consultation with each of the protection and advocacy systems, to carry out all of the activities described in clause (ii); and(II) shall not be less than $25,000,000.
(ii)
A protection and advocacy system awarded a grant under this subparagraph shall use the grant funds to—
(I) conduct all periodic onsite reviews pursuant to this paragraph and such other reviews of representative payees as the Commissioner may request, including reviews conducted in response to allegations or concerns about the performance or suitability of the payee;(II) conduct additional reviews that the protection and advocacy system has reason to believe are warranted;(III) develop corrective action plans to assist representative payees in conforming to requirements specified by the Commissioner;(IV) submit a report to the Commissioner on each completed review containing such information as the Commissioner shall require; and(V) conduct an initial onsite assessment of any organization that begins collecting a fee for its services as a representative payee to ensure that such organization is established as such a representative payee in accordance with requirements specified by the Commissioner.
A protection and advocacy system may refer beneficiaries to other programs or services as the protection and advocacy system considers appropriate.
(iii)
To be eligible to receive grants under this section, a protection and advocacy system shall submit an initial application to the Commissioner at such time, in such form and manner, and accompanied by such information and assurances as the Commissioner may require.
(iv)(I) Subject to subclause (II), the Commissioner shall ensure that any funds used for grants under clause (i) shall be allocated to the protection and advocacy systems serving each of the States and the American Indian consortium in a manner such that the amount provided to each protection and advocacy system bears the same ratio to the total of such funds as the number of represented beneficiaries in the State or American Indian consortium in which such protection and advocacy system is located bears to the total number of represented beneficiaries.(II)
The amount of an annual grant to a protection and advocacy system under clause (i) shall—
(aa) in the case of a protection and advocacy system serving American Samoa, Guam, the United States Virgin Islands, or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or the American Indian consortium, not be less than $30,000; and(bb) in the case of a protection and advocacy system serving any other State, not be less than $60,000.(III) Funds provided to a protection and advocacy system through a grant under clause (i) for a 1-year period shall remain available through the end of the following 1-year period.(IV)
For purposes of this clause, the term “represented beneficiary” means an individual—
(aa) who is entitled to benefits under this subchapter, subchapter VIII, or subchapter XVI; and(bb) whose benefits have been certified for payment to a representative payee.
(v)(I) The Commissioner shall make annual grants, in an amount equal to 4 percent of the total amount of grants awarded each year under clause (i), to an eligible national association for the provision of training and technical assistance, administrative support, and data collection services to protection and advocacy systems in connection with grants awarded under clause (i).(II) In this clause, the term “eligible national association” means a national disability association with extensive knowledge and demonstrated experience in providing training, technical assistance, and administrative oversight to protection and advocacy systems that monitor representative payees.
(vi) In conducting reviews under this section, a protection and advocacy system shall have the same authorities, including access to records, facilities, and persons, as such system would have for purposes of providing services under subtitle C of title I of the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C. 15041 et seq.).
(vii) Whenever benefit amounts under this subchapter are increased by any percentage effective with any month after November 2018 as a result of a determination made under section 415(i) of this title, each of the dollar amounts specified in clauses (i)(II) and (iv)(II) shall be increased by the same percentage.
(viii) No additional funds are authorized to be appropriated to carry out the requirements of this subparagraph. Such requirements shall be carried out using amounts otherwise authorized.
(ix)
In this subparagraph:
(I) The term “American Indian consortium” means a consortium established under subtitle C of title I of the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C. 15041 et seq.).(II) The term “protection and advocacy system” means a protection and advocacy system established under subtitle C of title I of the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C. 15041 et seq.).(III) The term “State” means the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
(7)
(A) If the Commissioner of Social Security or a court of competent jurisdiction determines that a representative payee that is not a Federal, State, or local government agency has misused all or part of an individual’s benefit that was paid to such representative payee under this subsection, the representative payee shall be liable for the amount misused, and such amount (to the extent not repaid by the representative payee) shall be treated as an overpayment of benefits under this subchapter to the representative payee for all purposes of this chapter and related laws pertaining to the recovery of such overpayments. Subject to subparagraph (B), upon recovering all or any part of such amount, the Commissioner shall certify an amount equal to the recovered amount for payment to such individual or such individual’s alternative representative payee.
(B) The total of the amount certified for payment to such individual or such individual’s alternative representative payee under subparagraph (A) and the amount certified for payment under paragraph (5) may not exceed the total benefit amount misused by the representative payee with respect to such individual.
(8) For purposes of this subsection, the term “benefit based on disability” of an individual means a disability insurance benefit of such individual under section 423 of this title or a child’s, widow’s, or widower’s insurance benefit of such individual under section 402 of this title based on such individual’s disability.
(9) For purposes of this subsection, misuse of benefits by a representative payee occurs in any case in which the representative payee receives payment under this subchapter for the use and benefit of another person and converts such payment, or any part thereof, to a use other than for the use and benefit of such other person. The Commissioner of Social Security may prescribe by regulation the meaning of the term “use and benefit” for purposes of this paragraph.
(10) For purposes of this subsection, the term “certified community-based nonprofit social service agency” means a community-based nonprofit social service agency which is in compliance with requirements, under regulations which shall be prescribed by the Commissioner, for annual certification to the Commissioner that it is bonded in accordance with requirements specified by the Commissioner and that it is licensed in each State in which it serves as a representative payee (if licensing is available in the State) in accordance with requirements specified by the Commissioner. Any such annual certification shall include a copy of any independent audit on the agency which may have been performed since the previous certification.
(11)
(A)
The Commissioner of Social Security shall—
(i) enter into agreements with each State with a plan approved under part E of subchapter IV for the purpose of sharing and matching data, on an automated monthly basis, in the system of records of the Social Security Administration with each Statewide and Tribal Automated Child Welfare Information System to identify represented minor beneficiaries who are in foster care under the responsibility of the State for such month; and
(ii) in any case in which a represented minor beneficiary has entered or exited foster care or changed foster care placement in such month, redetermine the appropriate representative payee for such individual.
(B)
For purposes of this paragraph—
(i) the term “State” has the meaning given such term for purposes of part E of subchapter IV;
(ii) the term “Statewide and Tribal Automated Child Welfare Information System” means a statewide mechanized data collection and information retrieval system described in section 674(a)(3)(C) of this title; and
(iii) the term “represented minor beneficiary”, with respect to an individual for a month, means a child (as defined for purposes of section 675(8) of this title) entitled to benefits under this subchapter for such month whose benefits are certified for payment to a representative payee.
(12)
(A)
Not later than January 31 of each fiscal year, the Commissioner shall submit to the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate a report on the total number of individuals entitled to benefits under subchapters II, VIII, and XVI, respectively, (and the number of individuals concurrently entitled to benefits under more than one such subchapter) who have a representative payee, the total number of such representative payees, and the results of all reviews of representative payees conducted during the previous fiscal year in connection with benefits under this subchapter, subchapter VIII, or subchapter XVI. Such report shall summarize problems identified in such reviews and corrective actions taken or planned to be taken to correct such problems, and shall include—
(i) the number of such reviews;
(ii) the results of such reviews;
(iii) the number of cases in which the representative payee was changed and why;
(iv) the number of reviews conducted in response to allegations or concerns about the performance or suitability of the payee;
(v) the number of cases discovered in which there was a misuse of funds, and the total dollar amount of benefits determined by the Commissioner during such fiscal year to have been misused by a representative payee (regardless of the fiscal year in which such misuse occurred);
(vi) the number of cases discovered in which such misuse of funds resulted from the negligent failure of the Commissioner to investigate or monitor a representative payee;
(vii)
the final disposition of such cases of misuse of funds, including—
(I) any criminal, civil, and administrative penalties imposed;(II)
the total dollar amount of misused benefits repaid to beneficiaries and alternative representative payees under each of—
(aa) paragraph (5) (on the basis of a negligent failure of the Commissioner described in such paragraph);(bb) paragraph (5) (on any other basis); and(cc) paragraph (7);(III)
the total dollar amount of misused benefits recovered under each of—
(aa) paragraph (5); and(bb) paragraph (7);
(viii) any updates to prior year reports necessary to reflect subsequent recoveries and repayments pertaining to misuse determinations made in prior years; and
(ix) such other information as the Commissioner deems appropriate.
(B)
Each report required under this paragraph for a fiscal year shall include the information described in clauses (i) through (ix) of subparagraph (A) with respect to—
(i) all representative payees reviewed during such fiscal year;
(ii) all such representative payees that are organizations, separated by whether such organization collects a fee for its services as a representative payee;
(iii) all such representative payees that are individuals serving 15 or more individuals; and
(iv) all such representative payees that are individuals serving less than 15 individuals, separated by whether such representative payee is a family member.
(k)
Payments to incompetents

Any payment made after December 31, 1939, under conditions set forth in subsection (j), any payment made before January 1, 1940, to, or on behalf of, a legally incompetent individual, and any payment made after December 31, 1939, to a legally incompetent individual without knowledge by the Commissioner of Social Security of incompetency prior to certification of payment, if otherwise valid under this subchapter, shall be a complete settlement and satisfaction of any claim, right, or interest in and to such payment.

(l)
Delegation of powers and duties by Commissioner

The Commissioner of Social Security is authorized to delegate to any member, officer, or employee of the Social Security Administration designated by the Commissioner any of the powers conferred upon the Commissioner by this section, and is authorized to be represented by the Commissioner’s own attorneys in any court in any case or proceeding arising under the provisions of subsection (e).

(m)
Repealed. Aug. 28, 1950, ch. 809, title I, § 101(b)(2), 64 Stat. 488
(n)
Joint payments

The Commissioner of Social Security may, in the Commissioner’s discretion, certify to the Managing Trustee any two or more individuals of the same family for joint payment of the total benefits payable to such individuals for any month, and if one of such individuals dies before a check representing such joint payment is negotiated, payment of the amount of such unnegotiated check to the surviving individual or individuals may be authorized in accordance with regulations of the Secretary of the Treasury; except that appropriate adjustment or recovery shall be made under section 404(a) of this title with respect to so much of the amount of such check as exceeds the amount to which such surviving individual or individuals are entitled under this subchapter for such month.

(o)
Crediting of compensation under Railroad Retirement Act

If there is no person who would be entitled, upon application therefor, to an annuity under section 2 of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 [45 U.S.C. 231a], or to a lump-sum payment under section 6(b) of such Act [45 U.S.C. 231e(b)], with respect to the death of an employee (as defined in such Act), then, notwithstanding section 410(a)(9) of this title, compensation (as defined in such Railroad Retirement Act, but excluding compensation attributable as having been paid during any month on account of military service creditable under section 3(i) of such Act [45 U.S.C. 231b(i)] if wages are deemed to have been paid to such employee during such month under subsection (a) or (e) of section 417 of this title) of such employee shall constitute remuneration for employment for purposes of determining (A) entitlement to and the amount of any lump-sum death payment under this subchapter on the basis of such employee’s wages and self-employment income and (B) entitlement to and the amount of any monthly benefit under this subchapter, for the month in which such employee died or for any month thereafter, on the basis of such wages and self-employment income. For such purposes, compensation (as so defined) paid in a calendar year before 1978 shall, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, be presumed to have been paid in equal proportions with respect to all months in the year in which the employee rendered services for such compensation.

(p)
Special rules in case of Federal service
(1) With respect to service included as employment under section 410 of this title which is performed in the employ of the United States or in the employ of any instrumentality which is wholly owned by the United States, including service, performed as a member of a uniformed service, to which the provisions of subsection (l)(1) of such section are applicable, and including service, performed as a volunteer or volunteer leader within the meaning of the Peace Corps Act [22 U.S.C. 2501 et seq.], to which the provisions of section 410(o) of this title are applicable, the Commissioner of Social Security shall not make determinations as to the amounts of remuneration for such service, or the periods in which or for which such remuneration was paid, but shall accept the determinations with respect thereto of the head of the appropriate Federal agency or instrumentality, and of such agents as such head may designate, as evidenced by returns filed in accordance with the provisions of section 3122 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 and certifications made pursuant to this subsection. Such determinations shall be final and conclusive. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to affect the Commissioner’s authority to determine under sections 409 and 410 of this title whether any such service constitutes employment, the periods of such employment, and whether remuneration paid for any such service constitutes wages.
(2)
(3) The provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection shall be applicable in the case of service performed by a civilian employee, not compensated from funds appropriated by the Congress, in the Army and Air Force Exchange Service, Army and Air Force Motion Picture Service, Navy Exchanges, Marine Corps Exchanges, or other activities, conducted by an instrumentality of the United States subject to the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Defense, at installations of the Department of Defense for the comfort, pleasure, contentment, and mental and physical improvement of personnel of such Department; and for purposes of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection the Secretary of Defense shall be deemed to be the head of such instrumentality. The provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) shall be applicable also in the case of service performed by a civilian employee, not compensated from funds appropriated by the Congress, in the Coast Guard Exchanges or other activities, conducted by an instrumentality of the United States subject to the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Homeland Security, at installations of the Coast Guard for the comfort, pleasure, contentment, and mental and physical improvement of personnel of the Coast Guard; and for purposes of paragraphs (1) and (2) the Secretary of Homeland Security shall be deemed to be the head of such instrumentality.
(q)
Expedited benefit payments
(1) The Commissioner of Social Security shall establish and put into effect procedures under which expedited payment of monthly insurance benefits under this subchapter will, subject to paragraph (4) of this subsection, be made as set forth in paragraphs (2) and (3) of this subsection.
(2)
In any case in which—
(A) an individual makes an allegation that a monthly benefit under this subchapter was due him in a particular month but was not paid to him, and
(B)
such individual submits a written request for the payment of such benefit—
(i) in the case of an individual who received a regular monthly benefit in the month preceding the month with respect to which such allegation is made, not less than 30 days after the 15th day of the month with respect to which such allegation is made (and in the event that such request is submitted prior to the expiration of such 30-day period, it shall be deemed to have been submitted upon the expiration of such period), and
(ii) in any other case, not less than 90 days after the later of (I) the date on which such benefit is alleged to have been due, or (II) the date on which such individual furnished the last information requested by the Commissioner of Social Security (and such written request will be deemed to be filed on the day on which it was filed, or the ninetieth day after the first day on which the Commissioner of Social Security has evidence that such allegation is true, whichever is later),
the Commissioner of Social Security shall, if the Commissioner finds that benefits are due, certify such benefits for payment, and payment shall be made within 15 days immediately following the date on which the written request is deemed to have been filed.
(3) In any case in which the Commissioner of Social Security determines that there is evidence, although additional evidence might be required for a final decision, that an allegation described in paragraph (2)(A) is true, the Commissioner may make a preliminary certification of such benefit for payment even though the 30-day or 90-day periods described in paragraph (2)(B)(i) and (B)(ii) have not elapsed.
(4) Any payment made pursuant to a certification under paragraph (3) of this subsection shall not be considered an incorrect payment for purposes of determining the liability of the certifying or disbursing officer.
(5) For purposes of this subsection, benefits payable under section 428 of this title shall be treated as monthly insurance benefits payable under this subchapter. However, this subsection shall not apply with respect to any benefit for which a check has been negotiated, or with respect to any benefit alleged to be due under either section 423 of this title, or section 402 of this title to a wife, husband, or child of an individual entitled to or applying for benefits under section 423 of this title, or to a child who has attained age 18 and is under a disability, or to a widow or widower on the basis of being under a disability.
(r)
Use of death certificates to correct program information
(1)
The Commissioner of Social Security shall undertake to establish a program under which—
(A) States (or political subdivisions thereof) voluntarily contract with the Commissioner of Social Security to furnish the Commissioner of Social Security periodically with information (in a form established by the Commissioner of Social Security in consultation with the States) concerning individuals with respect to whom death certificates (or equivalent documents maintained by the States or subdivisions) have been officially filed with them; and
(B) there will be (i) a comparison of such information on such individuals with information on such individuals in the records being used in the administration of this chapter, (ii) validation of the results of such comparisons, and (iii) corrections in such records to accurately reflect the status of such individuals.
(2) Each State (or political subdivision thereof) which furnishes the Commissioner of Social Security with information on records of deaths in the State or subdivision under this subsection may be paid by the Commissioner of Social Security from amounts available for administration of this chapter the reasonable costs (established by the Commissioner of Social Security in consultations with the States) for transcribing and transmitting such information to the Commissioner of Social Security.
(3)
In the case of individuals with respect to whom federally funded benefits are provided by (or through) a Federal or State agency other than under this chapter, the Commissioner of Social Security shall to the extent feasible provide such information through a cooperative arrangement with such agency, for ensuring proper payment of those benefits with respect to such individuals if—
(A) under such arrangement the agency provides reimbursement to the Commissioner of Social Security for the reasonable cost of carrying out such arrangement, and
(B) such arrangement does not conflict with the duties of the Commissioner of Social Security under paragraph (1).
(4) The Commissioner of Social Security may enter into similar agreements with States to provide information for their use in programs wholly funded by the States if the requirements of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (3) are met.
(5) The Commissioner of Social Security may use or provide for the use of such records as may be corrected under this section, subject to such safeguards as the Commissioner of Social Security determines are necessary or appropriate to protect the information from unauthorized use or disclosure, for statistical and research activities conducted by Federal and State agencies.
(6) Information furnished to the Commissioner of Social Security under this subsection may not be used for any purpose other than the purpose described in this subsection and is exempt from disclosure under section 552 of title 5 and from the requirements of section 552a of such title.
(7) The Commissioner of Social Security shall include information on the status of the program established under this section and impediments to the effective implementation of the program in the 1984 report required under section 904 of this title.
(8)
(A)
The Commissioner of Social Security shall, upon the request of the official responsible for a State driver’s license agency pursuant to the Help America Vote Act of 2002—
(i) enter into an agreement with such official for the purpose of verifying applicable information, so long as the requirements of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (3) are met; and
(ii) include in such agreement safeguards to assure the maintenance of the confidentiality of any applicable information disclosed and procedures to permit such agency to use the applicable information for the purpose of maintaining its records.
(B) Information provided pursuant to an agreement under this paragraph shall be provided at such time, in such place, and in such manner as the Commissioner determines appropriate.
(C) The Commissioner shall develop methods to verify the accuracy of information provided by the agency with respect to applications for voter registration, for whom the last 4 digits of a social security number are provided instead of a driver’s license number.
(D)
For purposes of this paragraph—
(i)
the term “applicable information” means information regarding whether—
(I) the name (including the first name and any family forename or surname), the date of birth (including the month, day, and year), and social security number of an individual provided to the Commissioner match the information contained in the Commissioner’s records, and(II) such individual is shown on the records of the Commissioner as being deceased; and
(ii) the term “State driver’s license agency” means the State agency which issues driver’s licenses to individuals within the State and maintains records relating to such licensure.
(E) Nothing in this paragraph may be construed to require the provision of applicable information with regard to a request for a record of an individual if the Commissioner determines there are exceptional circumstances warranting an exception (such as safety of the individual or interference with an investigation).
(F) Applicable information provided by the Commission pursuant to an agreement under this paragraph or by an individual to any agency that has entered into an agreement under this paragraph shall be considered as strictly confidential and shall be used only for the purposes described in this paragraph and for carrying out an agreement under this paragraph. Any officer or employee or former officer or employee of a State, or any officer or employee or former officer or employee of a contractor of a State who, without the written authority of the Commissioner, publishes or communicates any applicable information in such individual’s possession by reason of such employment or position as such an officer, shall be guilty of a felony and upon conviction thereof shall be fined or imprisoned, or both, as described in section 408 of this title.
(9)
(A)
The Commissioner of Social Security shall, upon the request of the Secretary or the Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services—
(i) enter into an agreement with the Secretary or such Inspector General for the purpose of matching data in the system of records of the Social Security Administration and the system of records of the Department of Health and Human Services; and
(ii) include in such agreement safeguards to assure the maintenance of the confidentiality of any information disclosed.
(B) For purposes of this paragraph, the term “system of records” has the meaning given such term in section 552a(a)(5) of title 5.
(s)
Notice requirements
The Commissioner of Social Security shall take such actions as are necessary to ensure that any notice to one or more individuals issued pursuant to this subchapter by the Commissioner of Social Security or by a State agency—
(1) is written in simple and clear language, and
(2) includes the address and telephone number of the local office of the Social Security Administration which serves the recipient.
In the case of any such notice which is not generated by a local servicing office, the requirements of paragraph (2) shall be treated as satisfied if such notice includes the address of the local office of the Social Security Administration which services the recipient of the notice and a telephone number through which such office can be reached.
(t)
Same-day personal interviews at field offices in cases where time is of essence
In any case in which an individual visits a field office of the Social Security Administration and represents during the visit to an officer or employee of the Social Security Administration in the office that the individual’s visit is occasioned by—
(1) the receipt of a notice from the Social Security Administration indicating a time limit for response by the individual, or
(2) the theft, loss, or nonreceipt of a benefit payment under this subchapter,
the Commissioner of Social Security shall ensure that the individual is granted a face-to-face interview at the office with an officer or employee of the Social Security Administration before the close of business on the day of the visit.
(u)
Redetermination of entitlement
(1)
(A) The Commissioner of Social Security shall immediately redetermine the entitlement of individuals to monthly insurance benefits under this subchapter if there is reason to believe that fraud or similar fault was involved in the application of the individual for such benefits, unless a United States attorney, or equivalent State prosecutor, with jurisdiction over potential or actual related criminal cases, certifies, in writing, that there is a substantial risk that such action by the Commissioner of Social Security with regard to beneficiaries in a particular investigation would jeopardize the criminal prosecution of a person involved in a suspected fraud.
(B) When redetermining the entitlement, or making an initial determination of entitlement, of an individual under this subchapter, the Commissioner of Social Security shall disregard any evidence if there is reason to believe that fraud or similar fault was involved in the providing of such evidence.
(2)
For purposes of paragraph (1), similar fault is involved with respect to a determination if—
(A) an incorrect or incomplete statement that is material to the determination is knowingly made; or
(B) information that is material to the determination is knowingly concealed.
(3) If, after redetermining pursuant to this subsection the entitlement of an individual to monthly insurance benefits, the Commissioner of Social Security determines that there is insufficient evidence to support such entitlement, the Commissioner of Social Security may terminate such entitlement and may treat benefits paid on the basis of such insufficient evidence as overpayments.
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title II, § 205, 49 Stat. 624; Aug. 10, 1939, ch. 666, title II, § 201, 53 Stat. 1362, 1368; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, § 32(b), 62 Stat. 991; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, § 127, 63 Stat. 107; Aug. 28, 1950, ch. 809, title I, §§ 101(b)(2), 108(a)–(c), 109(b), 64 Stat. 488, 518, 523; July 18, 1952, ch. 945, § 5(b), 66 Stat. 775; Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1206, title I, § 101(a)(5), (c)(3), 68 Stat. 1052, 1054; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, title I, §§ 107(b), 111(a), 117, 70 Stat. 829, 831, 834; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 837, title IV, § 402(b), 70 Stat. 871; Pub. L. 86–507, § 1(35), June 11, 1960, 74 Stat. 202; Pub. L. 86–778, title I, §§ 102(f)(2), 103(j)(2)(E), title VII, § 702(a), Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 933, 938, 993; Pub. L. 87–293, title II, § 202(b)(3), Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 626; Pub. L. 89–97, title III, §§ 308(d)(9), (10), 330, July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 379, 401; Pub. L. 90–248, title I, § 171(a), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 876; Pub. L. 91–452, title II, § 236, Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 930; Pub. L. 92–603, title I, § 137, Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1364; Pub. L. 93–445, title III, §§ 302(a), 303, Oct. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 1358; Pub. L. 94–202, § 4, Jan. 2, 1976, 89 Stat. 1136; Pub. L. 94–455, title XII, § 1211(b), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1711; Pub. L. 95–216, title III, § 353(f)(2), Dec. 20, 1977, 91 Stat. 1554; Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, § 703(j)(14)(B), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2942; Pub. L. 96–265, title III, §§ 305(a), 307, June 9, 1980, 94 Stat. 457, 458; Pub. L. 97–455, § 4(a), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2499; Pub. L. 98–21, title III, §§ 301(d), 309(i), 336, 345(a), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 111, 117, 130, 137; Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VI, §§ 2661(h), 2663(a)(4), (j)(4), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1157, 1162, 1171; Pub. L. 98–460, § 16(a), Oct. 9, 1984, 98 Stat. 1809; Pub. L. 99–509, title IX, § 9002(c)(2)(A), (B), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1971; Pub. L. 100–485, title I, § 125(a), Oct. 13, 1988, 102 Stat. 2353; Pub. L. 100–647, title VIII, §§ 8008(a), 8009(a), 8015(a)(1), 8016(a)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3783, 3787, 3790, 3792; Pub. L. 101–239, title X, §§ 10303(a), 10304, Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2482, 2483; Pub. L. 101–508, title V, §§ 5105(a)(1)(A), (2)(A)(i), (3)(A)(i), (b)(1)(A), (c)(1), (d)(1)(A), 5107(a)(1), 5109(a)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–254, 1388–255, 1388–260, 1388–263, 1388–265, 1388–269, 1388–271; Pub. L. 101–624, title XVII, § 1735(a), (b), title XXII, § 2201(b), (c), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3791, 3792, 3951, 3952; Pub. L. 103–296, title I, § 107(a)(1), (2), (4), title II, §§ 201(a)(1)(A), (B), (2)(A)–(C), 206(a)(1), (d)(1), title III, §§ 304(a), 316(a), 318, 321(a)(7)–(11), (c)(3), (6)(B), (f)(2)(A), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1477, 1478, 1490–1493, 1509, 1514, 1520, 1531, 1533, 1536, 1538, 1541; Pub. L. 104–121, title I, § 105(a)(2), Mar. 29, 1996, 110 Stat. 852; Pub. L. 104–193, title I, § 108(a)(1), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2164; Pub. L. 105–34, title X, § 1090(b)(1), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 962; Pub. L. 106–169, title II, § 251(b)(2), Dec. 14, 1999, 113 Stat. 1854; Pub. L. 107–90, title I, § 103(i)(3), Dec. 21, 2001, 115 Stat. 882;
§ 405a.
Regulations pertaining to frequency or due dates of payments and reports under voluntary agreements covering State and local employees; effective date

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no regulation and no modification of any regulation, promulgated by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, after January 2, 1976, shall become effective prior to the end of the eighteen-month period which begins with the first day of the first calendar month which begins after the date on which such regulation or modification of a regulation is published in the Federal Register, if and insofar as such regulation or modification of a regulation pertains, directly or indirectly, to the frequency or due dates for payments and reports required under section 418(e) 1

1 See References in Text note below.
of this title.

(Pub. L. 94–202, § 7, Jan. 2, 1976, 89 Stat. 1137; Pub. L. 96–88, title V, § 509(b), Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 695.)
§ 405b.
Reducing identity fraud
(a)
Purpose

The purpose of this section is to reduce the prevalence of synthetic identity fraud, which disproportionally affects vulnerable populations, such as minors and recent immigrants, by facilitating the validation by permitted entities of fraud protection data, pursuant to electronically received consumer consent, through use of a database maintained by the Commissioner.

(b)
Definitions
In this section:
(1)
Commissioner

The term “Commissioner” means the Commissioner of the Social Security Administration.

(2)
Financial institution

The term “financial institution” has the meaning given the term in section 509 of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (15 U.S.C. 6809).

(3)
Fraud protection data
The term “fraud protection data” means a combination of the following information with respect to an individual:
(A) The name of the individual (including the first name and any family forename or surname of the individual).
(B) The social security number of the individual.
(C) The date of birth (including the month, day, and year) of the individual.
(4)
Permitted entity

The term “permitted entity” means a financial institution or a service provider, subsidiary, affiliate, agent, subcontractor, or assignee of a financial institution.

(c)
Efficiency
(1)
Reliance on existing methods
The Commissioner shall evaluate the feasibility of making modifications to any database that is in existence as of May 24, 2018, or a similar resource such that the database or resource—
(A) is reasonably designed to effectuate the purpose of this section; and
(B) meets the requirements of subsection (d).
(2)
Execution

The Commissioner shall make the modifications necessary to any database that is in existence as of May 24, 2018, or similar resource, or develop a database or similar resource, to effectuate the requirements described in paragraph (1).

(d)
Protection of vulnerable consumers
The database or similar resource described in subsection (c) shall—
(1) compare fraud protection data provided in an inquiry by a permitted entity against such information maintained by the Commissioner in order to confirm (or not confirm) the validity of the information provided;
(2) be scalable and accommodate reasonably anticipated volumes of verification requests from permitted entities with commercially reasonable uptime and availability; and
(3)
allow permitted entities to submit—
(A) 1 or more individual requests electronically for real-time machine-to-machine (or similar functionality) accurate responses; and
(B) multiple requests electronically, such as those provided in a batch format, for accurate electronic responses within a reasonable period of time from submission, not to exceed 24 hours.
(e)
Certification required
Before providing confirmation of fraud protection data to a permitted entity, the Commissioner shall ensure that the Commissioner has a certification from the permitted entity that is dated not more than 2 years before the date on which that confirmation is provided that includes the following declarations:
(1) The entity is a permitted entity.
(2) The entity is in compliance with this section.
(3) The entity is, and will remain, in compliance with its privacy and data security requirements, as described in title V of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (15 U.S.C. 6801 et seq.), with respect to information the entity receives from the Commissioner pursuant to this section.
(4)
(f)
Consumer consent
(1)
In general
Notwithstanding any other provision of law or regulation, a permitted entity may submit a request to the database or similar resource described in subsection (c) only—
(A) pursuant to the written, including electronic, consent received by a permitted entity from the individual who is the subject of the request; and
(B) in connection with a credit transaction or any circumstance described in section 1681b of title 15.
(2)
Electronic consent requirements

For a permitted entity to use the consent of an individual received electronically pursuant to paragraph (1)(A), the permitted entity must obtain the individual’s electronic signature, as defined in section 7006 of title 15.

(3)
Effectuating electronic consent

No provision of law or requirement, including section 552a of title 5, shall prevent the use of electronic consent for purposes of this subsection or for use in any other consent based verification under the discretion of the Commissioner.

(g)
Compliance and enforcement
(1)
Audits and monitoring
The Commissioner may—
(A)
conduct audits and monitoring to—
(i) ensure proper use by permitted entities of the database or similar resource described in subsection (c); and
(ii) deter fraud and misuse by permitted entities with respect to the database or similar resource described in subsection (c); and
(B) terminate services for any permitted entity that prevents or refuses to allow the Commissioner to carry out the activities described in subparagraph (A).
(2)
Enforcement
(A)
In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, including the matter preceding paragraph (1) of section 505(a) of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (15 U.S.C. 6805(a)), any violation of this section and any certification made under this section shall be enforced in accordance with paragraphs (1) through (7) of such section 505(a) by the agencies described in those paragraphs.

(B)
Relevant information

Upon discovery by the Commissioner, pursuant to an audit described in paragraph (1), of any violation of this section or any certification made under this section, the Commissioner shall forward any relevant information pertaining to that violation to the appropriate agency described in subparagraph (A) for evaluation by the agency for purposes of enforcing this section.

(h)
Recovery of costs
(1)
In general
(A)
In general

Amounts obligated to carry out this section shall be fully recovered from the users of the database or verification system by way of advances, reimbursements, user fees, or other recoveries as determined by the Commissioner. The funds recovered under this paragraph shall be deposited as an offsetting collection to the account providing appropriations for the Social Security Administration, to be used for the administration of this section without fiscal year limitation.

(B)
Prices fixed by Commissioner

The Commissioner shall establish the amount to be paid by the users under this paragraph, including the costs of any services or work performed, such as any appropriate upgrades, maintenance, and associated direct and indirect administrative costs, in support of carrying out the purposes described in this section, by reimbursement or in advance as determined by the Commissioner. The amount of such prices shall be periodically adjusted by the Commissioner to ensure that amounts collected are sufficient to fully offset the cost of the administration of this section.

(2)
Initial development

The Commissioner shall not begin development of a verification system to carry out this section until the Commissioner determines that amounts equal to at least 50 percent of program start-up costs have been collected under paragraph (1).

(3)
Existing resources

The Commissioner may use funds designated for information technology modernization to carry out this section.

(4)
Annual report

The Commissioner shall annually submit to the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate a report on the amount of indirect costs to the Social Security Administration arising as a result of the implementation of this section.

(Pub. L. 115–174, title II, § 215, May 24, 2018, 132 Stat. 1323.)
§ 406.
Representation of claimants before Commissioner
(a)
Recognition of representatives; fees for representation before Commissioner
(1) The Commissioner of Social Security may prescribe rules and regulations governing the recognition of agents or other persons, other than attorneys as hereinafter provided, representing claimants before the Commissioner of Social Security, and may require of such agents or other persons, before being recognized as representatives of claimants that they shall show that they are of good character and in good repute, possessed of the necessary qualifications to enable them to render such claimants valuable service, and otherwise competent to advise and assist such claimants in the presentation of their cases. An attorney in good standing who is admitted to practice before the highest court of the State, Territory, District, or insular possession of his residence or before the Supreme Court of the United States or the inferior Federal courts, shall be entitled to represent claimants before the Commissioner of Social Security. Notwithstanding the preceding sentences, the Commissioner, after due notice and opportunity for hearing, (A) may refuse to recognize as a representative, and may disqualify a representative already recognized, any attorney who has been disbarred or suspended from any court or bar to which he or she was previously admitted to practice or who has been disqualified from participating in or appearing before any Federal program or agency, and (B) may refuse to recognize, and may disqualify, as a non-attorney representative any attorney who has been disbarred or suspended from any court or bar to which he or she was previously admitted to practice. A representative who has been disqualified or suspended pursuant to this section from appearing before the Social Security Administration as a result of collecting or receiving a fee in excess of the amount authorized shall be barred from appearing before the Social Security Administration as a representative until full restitution is made to the claimant and, thereafter, may be considered for reinstatement only under such rules as the Commissioner may prescribe. The Commissioner of Social Security may, after due notice and opportunity for hearing, suspend or prohibit from further practice before the Commissioner any such person, agent, or attorney who refuses to comply with the Commissioner’s rules and regulations or who violates any provision of this section for which a penalty is prescribed. The Commissioner of Social Security may, by rule and regulation, prescribe the maximum fees which may be charged for services performed in connection with any claim before the Commissioner of Social Security under this subchapter, and any agreement in violation of such rules and regulations shall be void. Except as provided in paragraph (2)(A), whenever the Commissioner of Social Security, in any claim before the Commissioner for benefits under this subchapter, makes a determination favorable to the claimant, the Commissioner shall, if the claimant was represented by an attorney in connection with such claim, fix (in accordance with the regulations prescribed pursuant to the preceding sentence) a reasonable fee to compensate such attorney for the services performed by him in connection with such claim.
(2)
(A)
In the case of a claim of entitlement to past-due benefits under this subchapter, if—
(i) an agreement between the claimant and another person regarding any fee to be recovered by such person to compensate such person for services with respect to the claim is presented in writing to the Commissioner of Social Security prior to the time of the Commissioner’s determination regarding the claim,
(ii)
the fee specified in the agreement does not exceed the lesser of—
(I) 25 percent of the total amount of such past-due benefits (as determined before any applicable reduction under section 1320a–6(a) of this title), or(II) $4,000, and
(iii) the determination is favorable to the claimant,
then the Commissioner of Social Security shall approve that agreement at the time of the favorable determination, and (subject to paragraph (3)) the fee specified in the agreement shall be the maximum fee. The Commissioner of Social Security may from time to time increase the dollar amount under clause (ii)(II) to the extent that the rate of increase in such amount, as determined over the period since January 1, 1991, does not at any time exceed the rate of increase in primary insurance amounts under section 415(i) of this title since such date. The Commissioner of Social Security shall publish any such increased amount in the Federal Register.
(B) For purposes of this subsection, the term “past-due benefits” excludes any benefits with respect to which payment has been continued pursuant to subsection (g) or (h) of section 423 of this title.
(C)
In any case involving—
(i) an agreement described in subparagraph (A) with any person relating to both a claim of entitlement to past-due benefits under this subchapter and a claim of entitlement to past-due benefits under subchapter XVI, and
(ii) a favorable determination made by the Commissioner of Social Security with respect to both such claims,
the Commissioner of Social Security may approve such agreement only if the total fee or fees specified in such agreement does not exceed, in the aggregate, the dollar amount in effect under subparagraph (A)(ii)(II).
(D)
In the case of a claim with respect to which the Commissioner of Social Security has approved an agreement pursuant to subparagraph (A), the Commissioner of Social Security shall provide the claimant and the person representing the claimant a written notice of—
(i) the dollar amount of the past-due benefits (as determined before any applicable reduction under section 1320a–6(a) of this title) and the dollar amount of the past-due benefits payable to the claimant,
(ii) the dollar amount of the maximum fee which may be charged or recovered as determined under this paragraph, and
(iii) a description of the procedures for review under paragraph (3).
(3)
(A)
The Commissioner of Social Security shall provide by regulation for review of the amount which would otherwise be the maximum fee as determined under paragraph (2) if, within 15 days after receipt of the notice provided pursuant to paragraph (2)(D)—
(i) the claimant, or the administrative law judge or other adjudicator who made the favorable determination, submits a written request to the Commissioner of Social Security to reduce the maximum fee, or
(ii) the person representing the claimant submits a written request to the Commissioner of Social Security to increase the maximum fee.
Any such review shall be conducted after providing the claimant, the person representing the claimant, and the adjudicator with reasonable notice of such request and an opportunity to submit written information in favor of or in opposition to such request. The adjudicator may request the Commissioner of Social Security to reduce the maximum fee only on the basis of evidence of the failure of the person representing the claimant to represent adequately the claimant’s interest or on the basis of evidence that the fee is clearly excessive for services rendered.
(B)
(i) In the case of a request for review under subparagraph (A) by the claimant or by the person representing the claimant, such review shall be conducted by the administrative law judge who made the favorable determination or, if the Commissioner of Social Security determines that such administrative law judge is unavailable or if the determination was not made by an administrative law judge, such review shall be conducted by another person designated by the Commissioner of Social Security for such purpose.
(ii) In the case of a request by the adjudicator for review under subparagraph (A), the review shall be conducted by the Commissioner of Social Security or by an administrative law judge or other person (other than such adjudicator) who is designated by the Commissioner of Social Security.
(C) Upon completion of the review, the administrative law judge or other person conducting the review shall affirm or modify the amount which would otherwise be the maximum fee. Any such amount so affirmed or modified shall be considered the amount of the maximum fee which may be recovered under paragraph (2). The decision of the administrative law judge or other person conducting the review shall not be subject to further review.
(4) Subject to subsection (d), if the claimant is determined to be entitled to past-due benefits under this subchapter and the person representing the claimant is an attorney, the Commissioner of Social Security shall, notwithstanding section 405(i) of this title, certify for payment out of such past-due benefits (as determined before any applicable reduction under section 1320a–6(a) of this title) to such attorney an amount equal to so much of the maximum fee as does not exceed 25 percent of such past-due benefits (as determined before any applicable reduction under section 1320a–6(a) of this title).
(5) Any person who shall, with intent to defraud, in any manner willfully and knowingly deceive, mislead, or threaten any claimant or prospective claimant or beneficiary under this subchapter by word, circular, letter or advertisement, or who shall knowingly charge or collect directly or indirectly any fee in excess of the maximum fee, or make any agreement directly or indirectly to charge or collect any fee in excess of the maximum fee, prescribed by the Commissioner of Social Security shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall for each offense be punished by a fine not exceeding $500 or by imprisonment not exceeding one year, or both. The Commissioner of Social Security shall maintain in the electronic information retrieval system used by the Social Security Administration a current record, with respect to any claimant before the Commissioner of Social Security, of the identity of any person representing such claimant in accordance with this subsection.
(b)
Fees for representation before court
(1)
(A) Whenever a court renders a judgment favorable to a claimant under this subchapter who was represented before the court by an attorney, the court may determine and allow as part of its judgment a reasonable fee for such representation, not in excess of 25 percent of the total of the past-due benefits to which the claimant is entitled by reason of such judgment, and the Commissioner of Social Security may, notwithstanding the provisions of section 405(i) of this title, but subject to subsection (d) of this section, certify the amount of such fee for payment to such attorney out of, and not in addition to, the amount of such past-due benefits. In case of any such judgment, no other fee may be payable or certified for payment for such representation except as provided in this paragraph.
(B)
For purposes of this paragraph—
(i) the term “past-due benefits” excludes any benefits with respect to which payment has been continued pursuant to subsection (g) or (h) of section 423 of this title, and
(ii) amounts of past-due benefits shall be determined before any applicable reduction under section 1320a–6(a) of this title.
(2) Any attorney who charges, demands, receives, or collects for services rendered in connection with proceedings before a court to which paragraph (1) of this subsection is applicable any amount in excess of that allowed by the court thereunder shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof shall be subject to a fine of not more than $500, or imprisonment for not more than one year, or both.
(c)
Notification of options for obtaining attorneys

The Commissioner of Social Security shall notify each claimant in writing, together with the notice to such claimant of an adverse determination, of the options for obtaining attorneys to represent individuals in presenting their cases before the Commissioner of Social Security. Such notification shall also advise the claimant of the availability to qualifying claimants of legal services organizations which provide legal services free of charge.

(d)
Assessment on attorneys
(1)
In general

Whenever a fee for services is required to be certified for payment to an attorney from a claimant’s past-due benefits pursuant to subsection (a)(4) or (b)(1), the Commissioner shall impose on the attorney an assessment calculated in accordance with paragraph (2).

(2)
Amount
(A) The amount of an assessment under paragraph (1) shall be equal to the product obtained by multiplying the amount of the representative’s fee that would be required to be so certified by subsection (a)(4) or (b)(1) before the application of this subsection, by the percentage specified in subparagraph (B), except that the maximum amount of the assessment may not exceed the greater of $75 or the adjusted amount as provided pursuant to the following two sentences. In the case of any calendar year beginning after the amendments made by section 301 of the Social Security Protection Act of 2003 1
1 See References in Text note below.
(B)
The percentage specified in this subparagraph is—
(i) for calendar years before 2001, 6.3 percent, and
(ii) for calendar years after 2000, such percentage rate as the Commissioner determines is necessary in order to achieve full recovery of the costs of determining and certifying fees to attorneys from the past-due benefits of claimants, but not in excess of 6.3 percent.
(3)
Collection

The Commissioner may collect the assessment imposed on an attorney under paragraph (1) by offset from the amount of the fee otherwise required by subsection (a)(4) or (b)(1) to be certified for payment to the attorney from a claimant’s past-due benefits.

(4)
Prohibition on claimant reimbursement

An attorney subject to an assessment under paragraph (1) may not, directly or indirectly, request or otherwise obtain reimbursement for such assessment from the claimant whose claim gave rise to the assessment.

(5)
Disposition of assessments

Assessments on attorneys collected under this subsection shall be credited to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, as appropriate.

(6)
Authorization of appropriations

The assessments authorized under this section shall be collected and available for obligation only to the extent and in the amount provided in advance in appropriations Acts. Amounts so appropriated are authorized to remain available until expended, for administrative expenses in carrying out this subchapter and related laws.

(e)
Extension of fee withholding and assessment procedures to qualified non-attorney representatives
(1) The Commissioner shall provide for the extension of the fee withholding procedures and assessment procedures that apply under the preceding provisions of this section to agents and other persons, other than attorneys, who represent claimants under this subchapter before the Commissioner.
(2)
Fee-withholding procedures may be extended under paragraph (1) to any nonattorney 2
2 So in original. Probably should be “non-attorney”.
representative only if such representative meets at least the following prerequisites:
(A) The representative has been awarded a bachelor’s degree from an accredited institution of higher education, or has been determined by the Commissioner to have equivalent qualifications derived from training and work experience.
(B) The representative has passed an examination, written and administered by the Commissioner, which tests knowledge of the relevant provisions of this chapter and the most recent developments in agency and court decisions affecting this subchapter and subchapter XVI.
(C) The representative has secured professional liability insurance, or equivalent insurance, which the Commissioner has determined to be adequate to protect claimants in the event of malpractice by the representative.
(D) The representative has undergone a criminal background check to ensure the representative’s fitness to practice before the Commissioner.
(E) The representative demonstrates ongoing completion of qualified courses of continuing education, including education regarding ethics and professional conduct, which are designed to enhance professional knowledge in matters related to entitlement to, or eligibility for, benefits based on disability under this subchapter and subchapter XVI. Such continuing education, and the instructors providing such education, shall meet such standards as the Commissioner may prescribe.
(3)
(A) The Commissioner may assess representatives reasonable fees to cover the cost to the Social Security Administration of administering the prerequisites described in paragraph (2).
(B) Fees collected under subparagraph (A) shall be credited to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, or deposited as miscellaneous receipts in the general fund of the Treasury, based on such allocations as the Commissioner determines appropriate.
(C) The fees authorized under this paragraph shall be collected and available for obligation only to the extent and in the amount provided in advance in appropriations Acts. Amounts so appropriated are authorized to remain available until expended for administering the prerequisites described in paragraph (2).
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title II, § 206, 49 Stat. 624; Aug. 10, 1939, ch. 666, title II, § 201, 53 Stat. 1362, 1372; Aug. 28, 1950, ch. 809, title I, § 109(b)(1), 64 Stat. 523; Pub. L. 85–840, title III, § 309, Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 1034; Pub. L. 89–97, title III, § 332, July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 403; Pub. L. 90–248, title I, § 173, Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 877; Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VI, § 2663(l)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1171; Pub. L. 101–239, title X, § 10307(a)(1), (b)(1), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2484, 2485; Pub. L. 101–508, title V, § 5106(a)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–266; Pub. L. 103–296, title I, § 107(a)(4), title III, § 321(f)(3)(B)(i), (4), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1478, 1541, 1542; Pub. L. 106–170, title IV, § 406(a), (b), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1911, 1912; Pub. L. 108–203, title II, § 205, title III, § 301(a), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 512, 519; Pub. L. 111–142, § 3(a), Feb. 27, 2010, 124 Stat. 38.)
§ 407.
Assignment of benefits
(a)
In general

The right of any person to any future payment under this subchapter shall not be transferable or assignable, at law or in equity, and none of the moneys paid or payable or rights existing under this subchapter shall be subject to execution, levy, attachment, garnishment, or other legal process, or to the operation of any bankruptcy or insolvency law.

(b)
Amendment of section

No other provision of law, enacted before, on, or after April 20, 1983, may be construed to limit, supersede, or otherwise modify the provisions of this section except to the extent that it does so by express reference to this section.

(c)
Withholding of taxes

Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit withholding taxes from any benefit under this subchapter, if such withholding is done pursuant to a request made in accordance with section 3402(p)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 by the person entitled to such benefit or such person’s representative payee.

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title II, § 207, 49 Stat. 624; Aug. 10, 1939, ch. 666, title II, § 201, 53 Stat. 1362, 1372; Pub. L. 98–21, title III, § 335(a), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 130; Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title IV, § 4005(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–911.)
§ 408.
Penalties
(a)
In general
Whoever—
(1)
for the purpose of causing an increase in any payment authorized to be made under this subchapter, or for the purpose of causing any payment to be made where no payment is authorized under this subchapter, shall make or cause to be made any false statement or representation (including any false statement or representation in connection with any matter arising under subchapter E of chapter 1, or subchapter A or E of chapter 9 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, or chapter 2 or 21 or subtitle F of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954) as to—
(A) whether wages were paid or received for employment (as said terms are defined in this subchapter and the Internal Revenue Code), or the amount of wages or the period during which paid or the person to whom paid; or
(B) whether net earnings from self-employment (as such term is defined in this subchapter and in the Internal Revenue Code) were derived, or as to the amount of such net earnings or the period during which or the person by whom derived; or
(C) whether a person entitled to benefits under this subchapter had earnings in or for a particular period (as determined under section 403(f) of this title for purposes of deductions from benefits), or as to the amount thereof; or
(2) makes or causes to be made any false statement or representation of a material fact in any application for any payment or for a disability determination under this subchapter; or
(3) at any time makes or causes to be made any false statement or representation of a material fact for use in determining rights to payment under this subchapter; or
(4) having knowledge of the occurrence of any event affecting (1) his initial or continued right to any payment under this subchapter, or (2) the initial or continued right to any payment of any other individual in whose behalf he has applied for or is receiving such payment, conceals or fails to disclose such event with an intent fraudulently to secure payment either in a greater amount than is due or when no payment is authorized; or
(5) having made application to receive payment under this subchapter for the use and benefit of another and having received such a payment, knowingly and willfully converts such a payment, or any part thereof, to a use other than for the use and benefit of such other person; or
(6) willfully, knowingly, and with intent to deceive the Commissioner of Social Security as to his true identity (or the true identity of any other person) furnishes or causes to be furnished false information to the Commissioner of Social Security with respect to any information required by the Commissioner of Social Security in connection with the establishment and maintenance of the records provided for in section 405(c)(2) of this title; or
(7)
for the purpose of causing an increase in any payment authorized under this subchapter (or any other program financed in whole or in part from Federal funds), or for the purpose of causing a payment under this subchapter (or any such other program) to be made when no payment is authorized thereunder, or for the purpose of obtaining (for himself or any other person) any payment or any other benefit to which he (or such other person) is not entitled, or for the purpose of obtaining anything of value from any person, or for any other purpose—
(A) willfully, knowingly, and with intent to deceive, uses a social security account number, assigned by the Commissioner of Social Security (in the exercise of the Commissioner’s authority under section 405(c)(2) of this title to establish and maintain records) on the basis of false information furnished to the Commissioner of Social Security by him or by any other person; or
(B) with intent to deceive, falsely represents a number to be the social security account number assigned by the Commissioner of Social Security to him or to another person, when in fact such number is not the social security account number assigned by the Commissioner of Social Security to him or to such other person; or
(C) knowingly alters a social security card issued by the Commissioner of Social Security, buys or sells a card that is, or purports to be, a card so issued, counterfeits a social security card, or possesses a social security card or counterfeit social security card with intent to sell or alter it;
(8) discloses, uses, or compels the disclosure of the social security number of any person in violation of the laws of the United States; or
(9) conspires to commit any offense described in any of paragraphs (1) through (4),
shall be guilty of a felony and upon conviction thereof shall be fined under title 18 or imprisoned for not more than five years, or both, except that in the case of a person who receives a fee or other income for services performed in connection with any determination with respect to benefits under this subchapter (including a claimant representative, translator, or current or former employee of the Social Security Administration), or who is a physician or other health care provider who submits, or causes the submission of, medical or other evidence in connection with any such determination, such person shall be guilty of a felony and upon conviction thereof shall be fined under title 18, or imprisoned for not more than ten years, or both.
(b)
Restitution
(1) Any Federal court, when sentencing a defendant convicted of an offense under subsection (a), may order, in addition to or in lieu of any other penalty authorized by law, that the defendant make restitution to the victims of such offense specified in paragraph (4).
(2) Sections 3612, 3663, and 3664 of title 18 shall apply with respect to the issuance and enforcement of orders of restitution to victims of such offense under this subsection.
(3) If the court does not order restitution, or orders only partial restitution, under this subsection, the court shall state on the record the reasons therefor.
(4)
For purposes of paragraphs (1) and (2), the victims of an offense under subsection (a) are the following:
(A) Any individual who suffers a financial loss as a result of the defendant’s violation of subsection (a).
(B)
The Commissioner of Social Security, to the extent that the defendant’s violation of subsection (a) results in—
(i) the Commissioner of Social Security making a benefit payment that should not have been made; or
(ii) an individual suffering a financial loss due to the defendant’s violation of subsection (a) in his or her capacity as the individual’s representative payee appointed pursuant to section 405(j) of this title.
(5)
(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), funds paid to the Commissioner of Social Security as restitution pursuant to a court order shall be deposited in the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund, or the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, as appropriate.
(B) In the case of funds paid to the Commissioner of Social Security pursuant to paragraph (4)(B)(ii), the Commissioner of Social Security shall certify for payment to the individual described in such paragraph an amount equal to the lesser of the amount of the funds so paid or the individual’s outstanding financial loss, except that such amount may be reduced by the amount of any overpayments of benefits owed under this subchapter, subchapter VIII, or subchapter XVI by the individual.
(c)
Violations by certified payees

Any person or other entity who is convicted of a violation of any of the provisions of this section, if such violation is committed by such person or entity in his role as, or in applying to become, a certified payee under section 405(j) of this title on behalf of another individual (other than such person’s spouse), upon his second or any subsequent such conviction shall, in lieu of the penalty set forth in the preceding provisions of this section, be guilty of a felony and shall be fined under title 18 or imprisoned for not more than five years, or both.

(d)
Effect upon certification as payee; definitions

Any individual or entity convicted of a felony under this section or under section 1383a(b) 1

1 See References in Text note below.
of this title may not be certified as a payee under section 405(j) of this title. For the purpose of subsection (a)(7), the terms “social security number” and “social security account number” mean such numbers as are assigned by the Commissioner of Social Security under section 405(c)(2) of this title whether or not, in actual use, such numbers are called social security numbers.

(e)
Application of subsection (a)(6) and (7) to certain aliens
(1)
Except as provided in paragraph (2), an alien—
(A) whose status is adjusted to that of lawful temporary resident under section 1160 or 1255a of title 8 or under section 902 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989,
(B)
whose status is adjusted to that of permanent resident—
(i) under section 202 of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, or
(ii) pursuant to section 1259 of title 8, or
(C) who is granted special immigrant status under section 1101(a)(27)(I) of title 8,
shall not be subject to prosecution for any alleged conduct described in paragraph (6) or (7) of subsection (a) if such conduct is alleged to have occurred prior to 60 days after November 5, 1990.
(2)
Paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to conduct (described in subsection (a)(7)(C)) consisting of—
(A) selling a card that is, or purports to be, a social security card issued by the Commissioner of Social Security,
(B) possessing a social security card with intent to sell it, or
(C) counterfeiting a social security card with intent to sell it.
(3) Paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to any criminal conduct involving both the conduct described in subsection (a)(7) to which paragraph (1) applies and any other criminal conduct if such other conduct would be criminal conduct if the conduct described in subsection (a)(7) were not committed.
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title II, § 208, 49 Stat. 625; Aug. 10, 1939, ch. 666, title II, § 201, 53 Stat. 1362, 1372; Aug. 28, 1950, ch. 809, title I, § 109(c), 64 Stat. 523; Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1206, title I, § 111(b), 68 Stat. 1085; Pub. L. 85–840, title III, § 310, Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 1034; Pub. L. 86–778, title II, § 211(m), Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 958; Pub. L. 92–603, title I, § 130(a), Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1359; Pub. L. 94–455, title XII, § 1211(a), (d),
§ 409.
“Wages” defined
(a)
In general
For the purposes of this subchapter, the term “wages” means remuneration paid prior to 1951 which was wages for the purposes of this subchapter under the law applicable to the payment of such remuneration, and remuneration paid after 1950 for employment, including the cash value of all remuneration (including benefits) paid in any medium other than cash; except that, in the case of remuneration paid after 1950, such term shall not include—
(1)
(A) That part of remuneration which, after remuneration (other than remuneration referred to in the succeeding subsections of this section) equal to $3,600 with respect to employment has been paid to an individual during any calendar year prior to 1955, is paid to such individual during such calendar year;
(B) That part of remuneration which, after remuneration (other than remuneration referred to in the succeeding subsections of this section) equal to $4,200 with respect to employment has been paid to an individual during any calendar year after 1954 and prior to 1959, is paid to such individual during such calendar year;
(C) That part of remuneration which, after remuneration (other than remuneration referred to in the succeeding subsections of this section) equal to $4,800 with respect to employment has been paid to an individual during any calendar year after 1958 and prior to 1966, is paid to such individual during such calendar year;
(D) That part of remuneration which, after remuneration (other than remuneration referred to in the succeeding subsections of this section) equal to $6,600 with respect to employment has been paid to an individual during any calendar year after 1965 and prior to 1968, is paid to such individual during such calendar year;
(E) That part of remuneration which, after remuneration (other than remuneration referred to in the succeeding subsections of this section) equal to $7,800 with respect to employment has been paid to an individual during any calendar year after 1967 and prior to 1972, is paid to such individual during such calendar year;
(F) That part of remuneration which, after remuneration (other than remuneration referred to in the succeeding subsections of this section) equal to $9,000 with respect to employment has been paid to an individual during any calendar year after 1971 and prior to 1973, is paid to such individual during any such calendar year;
(G) That part of remuneration which, after remuneration (other than remuneration referred to in the succeeding subsections of this section) equal to $10,800 with respect to employment has been paid to an individual during any calendar year after 1972 and prior to 1974, is paid to such individual during such calendar year;
(H) That part of remuneration which, after remuneration (other than remuneration referred to in the succeeding subsections of this section) equal to $13,200 with respect to employment has been paid to an individual during any calendar year after 1973 and prior to 1975, is paid to such individual during such calendar year;
(I) That part of remuneration which, after remuneration (other than remuneration referred to in the succeeding subsections of this section) equal to the contribution and benefit base (determined under section 430 of this title) with respect to employment has been paid to an individual during any calendar year after 1974 with respect to which such contribution and benefit base is effective, is paid to such individual during such calendar year;
(2) The amount of any payment (including any amount paid by an employer for insurance or annuities, or into a fund, to provide for any such payment) made to, or on behalf of, an employee or any of his dependents under a plan or system established by an employer which makes provision for his employees generally (or for his employees generally and their dependents) or for a class or classes of his employees (or for a class or classes of his employees and their dependents), on account of (A) sickness or accident disability (but, in the case of payments made to an employee or any of his dependents, this clause shall exclude from the term “wages” only payments which are received under a workmen’s compensation law), or (B) medical or hospitalization expenses in connection with sickness or accident disability, or (C) death, except that this subsection does not apply to a payment for group-term life insurance to the extent that such payment is includible in the gross income of the employee under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986;
(3) Any payment on account of sickness or accident disability, or medical or hospitalization expenses in connection with sickness or accident disability, made by an employer to, or on behalf of, an employee after the expiration of six calendar months following the last calendar month in which the employee worked for such employer;
(4) Any payment made to, or on behalf of, an employee or his beneficiary (A) from or to a trust exempt from tax under section 165(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 at the time of such payment or, in the case of a payment after 1954, under sections 401 and 501(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 or the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, unless such payment is made to an employee of the trust as remuneration for services rendered as such employee and not as a beneficiary of the trust, or (B) under or to an annuity plan which, at the time of such payment, meets the requirements of section 165(a)(3), (4), (5), and (6) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 or, in the case of a payment after 1954 and prior to 1963, the requirements of section 401(a)(3), (4), (5), and (6) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, or (C) under or to an annuity plan which, at the time of any such payment after 1962, is a plan described in section 403(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or (D) under or to a bond purchase plan which, at the time of any such payment after 1962, is a qualified bond purchase plan described in section 405(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (as in effect before July 18, 1984), or (E) under or to an annuity contract described in section 403(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, other than a payment for the purchase of such contract which is made by reason of a salary reduction agreement (whether evidenced by a written instrument or otherwise), or (F) under or to an exempt governmental deferred compensation plan (as defined in section 3121(v)(3) of such Code), or (G) to supplement pension benefits under a plan or trust described in any of the foregoing provisions of this subsection to take into account some portion or all of the increase in the cost of living (as determined by the Secretary of Labor) since retirement but only if such supplemental payments are under a plan which is treated as a welfare plan under section 3(2)(B)(ii) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1002(2)(B)(ii)
(5)
The payment by an employer (without deduction from the remuneration of the employee)—
(A) of the tax imposed upon an employee under section 3101 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or
(B) of any payment required from an employee under a State unemployment compensation law,
with respect to remuneration paid to an employee for domestic service in a private home of the employer or for agricultural labor;
(6)
(A) Remuneration paid in any medium other than cash to an employee for service not in the course of the employer’s trade or business or for domestic service in a private home of the employer;
(B) Cash remuneration paid by an employer in any calendar year to an employee for domestic service in a private home of the employer (including domestic service on a farm operated for profit), if the cash remuneration paid in such year by the employer to the employee for such service is less than the applicable dollar threshold (as defined in section 3121(x) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) for such year;
(C) Cash remuneration paid by an employer in any calendar year to an employee for service not in the course of the employer’s trade or business, if the cash remuneration paid in such year by the employer to the employee for such service is less than $100. As used in this paragraph, the term “service not in the course of the employer’s trade or business” does not include domestic service in a private home of the employer and does not include service described in section 410(f)(5) of this title;
(7)
(A) Remuneration paid in any medium other than cash for agricultural labor;
(B)
Cash remuneration paid by an employer in any calendar year to an employee for agricultural labor unless—
(i) the cash remuneration paid in such year by the employer to the employee for such labor is $150 or more, or
(ii) the employer’s expenditures for agricultural labor in such year equal or exceed $2,500,
except that clause (ii) shall not apply in determining whether remuneration paid to an employee constitutes “wages” under this section if such employee (I) is employed as a hand harvest laborer and is paid on a piece rate basis in an operation which has been, and is customarily and generally recognized as having been, paid on a piece rate basis in the region of employment, (II) commutes daily from his permanent residence to the farm on which he is so employed, and (III) has been employed in agriculture less than 13 weeks during the preceding calendar year;
(8) Remuneration paid by an employer in any year to an employee for service described in section 410(j)(3)(C) of this title (relating to home workers), if the cash remuneration paid in such year by the employer to the employee for such service is less than $100;
(9) Remuneration paid to or on behalf of an employee if (and to the extent that) at the time of the payment of such remuneration it is reasonable to believe that a corresponding deduction is allowable under section 217 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (determined without regard to section 274(n) of such Code);
(10)
(A) Tips paid in any medium other than cash;
(B) Cash tips received by an employee in any calendar month in the course of his employment by an employer unless the amount of such cash tips is $20 or more;
(11)
Any payment or series of payments by an employer to an employee or any of his dependents which is paid—
(A) upon or after the termination of an employee’s employment relationship because of (A) 1
1 So in original. Probably should be designated cls. (i) and (ii), respectively.
death, or (B) 1 retirement for disability, and
(B) under a plan established by the employer which makes provision for his employees generally or a class or classes of his employees (or for such employees or class or classes of employees and their dependents),
other than any such payment or series of payments which would have been paid if the employee’s employment relationship had not been so terminated;
(12) Any payment made by an employer to a survivor or the estate of a former employee after the calendar year in which such employee died;
(13) Any payment made by an employer to an employee, if at the time such payment is made such employee is entitled to disability insurance benefits under section 423(a) of this title and such entitlement commenced prior to the calendar year in which such payment is made, and if such employee did not perform any services for such employer during the period for which such payment is made;
(14) Remuneration paid by an organization exempt from income tax under section 501 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 in any calendar year to an employee for service rendered in the employ of such organization, if the remuneration paid in such year by the organization to the employee for such service is less than $100;
(15) Any payment made, or benefit furnished, to or for the benefit of an employee if at the time of such payment or such furnishing it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such payment or benefit from income under section 127 or 129 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986;
(16) The value of any meals or lodging furnished by or on behalf of the employer if at the time of such furnishing it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such items from income under section 119 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986;
(17) Any benefit provided to or on behalf of an employee if at the time such benefit is provided it is reasonable to believe that the employee will be able to exclude such benefit from income under section 74(c), 108(f)(4), 117, or 132 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986;
(18) Remuneration consisting of income excluded from taxation under section 7873 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (relating to income derived by Indians from exercise of fishing rights);
(19)
Remuneration on account of—
(A) a transfer of a share of stock to any individual pursuant to an exercise of an incentive stock option (as defined in section 422(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) or under an employee stock purchase plan (as defined in section 423(b) of such Code), or
(B) any disposition by the individual of such stock; or
(20) Any benefit or payment which is excludable from the gross income of the employee under section 139B(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986).2
2 So in original. The closing parenthesis probably should not appear.
(b)
Regulations providing exclusions from term

Nothing in the regulations prescribed for purposes of chapter 24 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (relating to income tax withholding) which provides an exclusion from “wages” as used in such chapter shall be construed to require a similar exclusion from “wages” in the regulations prescribed for purposes of this subchapter.

(c)
Individuals performing domestic services

For purposes of this subchapter, in the case of domestic service described in subsection (a)(6)(B), any payment of cash remuneration for such service which is more or less than a whole-dollar amount shall, under such conditions and to such extent as may be prescribed by regulations made under this subchapter, be computed to the nearest dollar. For the purpose of the computation to the nearest dollar, the payment of a fractional part of a dollar shall be disregarded unless it amounts to one-half dollar or more, in which case it shall be increased to $1. The amount of any payment of cash remuneration so computed to the nearest dollar shall, in lieu of the amount actually paid, be deemed to constitute the amount of cash remuneration for purposes of subsection (a)(6)(B).

(d)
Members of uniformed services

For purposes of this subchapter, in the case of an individual performing service, as a member of a uniformed service, to which the provisions of section 410(l)(1) of this title are applicable, the term “wages” shall, subject to the provisions of subsection (a)(1) of this section, include as such individual’s remuneration for such service only (1) his basic pay as described in chapter 3 and section 1009 of title 37 in the case of an individual performing service to which subparagraph (A) of such section 410(l)(1) of this title applies, or (2) his compensation for such service as determined under section 206(a) of title 37 in the case of an individual performing service to which subparagraph (B) of such section 410(l)(1) of this title applies.

(e)
Peace Corps volunteers

For purposes of this subchapter, in the case of an individual performing service, as a volunteer or volunteer leader within the meaning of the Peace Corps Act [22 U.S.C. 2501 et seq.], to which the provisions of section 410(o) of this title are applicable, (1) the term “wages” shall, subject to the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, include as such individual’s remuneration for such service only amounts certified as payable pursuant to section 5(c) or 6(1) of the Peace Corps Act [22 U.S.C. 2504(c) or 2505(1)], and (2) any such amount shall be deemed to have been paid to such individual at the time the service, with respect to which it is paid, is performed.

(f)
Tips

For purposes of this subchapter, tips received by an employee in the course of his employment shall be considered remuneration for employment. Such remuneration shall be deemed to be paid at the time a written statement including such tips is furnished to the employer pursuant to section 6053(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 or (if no statement including such tips is so furnished) at the time received.

(g)
Members of religious orders

For purposes of this subchapter, in any case where an individual is a member of a religious order (as defined in section 3121(r)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) performing service in the exercise of duties required by such order, and an election of coverage under section 3121(r) of such Code is in effect with respect to such order or with respect to the autonomous subdivision thereof to which such member belongs, the term “wages” shall, subject to the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, include as such individual’s remuneration for such service the fair market value of any board, lodging, clothing, and other perquisites furnished to such member by such order or subdivision thereof or by any other person or organization pursuant to an agreement with such order or subdivision, except that the amount included as such individual’s remuneration under this paragraph shall not be less than $100 a month.

(h)
Retired justices and judges

For purposes of this subchapter, in the case of an individual performing service under the provisions of section 294 of title 28 (relating to assignment of retired justices and judges to active duty), the term “wages” shall not include any payment under section 371(b) of such title 28 which is received during the period of such service.

(i)
Employer contributions under sections 401(k) and 414(h)(2) of Internal Revenue Code
Nothing in any of the foregoing provisions of this section (other than subsection (a)) shall exclude from the term “wages”—
(1) Any employer contribution under a qualified cash or deferred arrangement (as defined in section 401(k) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) to the extent not included in gross income by reason of section 402(a)(8) of such Code, or
(2) Any amount which is treated as an employer contribution under section 414(h)(2) of such Code where the pickup referred to in such section is pursuant to a salary reduction agreement (whether evidenced by a written instrument or otherwise).
(j)
Amounts deferred under nonqualified deferred compensation plans

Any amount deferred under a nonqualified deferred compensation plan (within the meaning of section 3121(v)(2)(C) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) shall be taken into account for purposes of this subchapter as of the later of when the services are performed, or when there is no substantial risk of forfeiture of the rights to such amount. Any amount taken into account as wages by reason of the preceding sentence (and the income attributable thereto) shall not thereafter be treated as wages for purposes of this subchapter.

(k)
“National average wage index” and “deferred compensation amount” defined
(1) For purposes of sections 403(f)(8)(B)(ii), 413(d)(2)(B), 415(a)(1)(B)(ii), 415(a)(1)(C)(ii), 415(a)(1)(D), 415(b)(3)(A)(ii), 415(i)(1)(E), 415(i)(2)(C)(ii), 424a(f)(2)(B), and 430(b)(2) (and 430(b)(2) of this title as in effect immediately prior to the enactment of the Social Security Amendments of 1977), the term ‘national average wage index’ for any particular calendar year means, subject to regulations of the Commissioner of Social Security under paragraph (2), the average of the total wages for such particular calendar year.
(2)
The Commissioner of Social Security shall prescribe regulations under which the national average wage index for any calendar year shall be computed—
(A) on the basis of amounts reported to the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate for such year,
(B) by disregarding the limitation on wages specified in subsection (a)(1),
(C) with respect to calendar years after 1990, by incorporating deferred compensation amounts and factoring in for such years the rate of change from year to year in such amounts, in a manner consistent with the requirements of section 10208 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1989, and
(D) with respect to calendar years before 1978, in a manner consistent with the manner in which the average of the total wages for each of such calendar years was determined as provided by applicable law as in effect for such years.
(3)
For purposes of this subsection, the term “deferred compensation amount” means—
(A) any amount excluded from gross income under chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 by reason of section 402(a)(8),3
3 See References in Text note below.
402(h)(1)(B), or 457(a) of such Code or by reason of a salary reduction agreement under section 403(b) of such Code,
(B) any amount with respect to which a deduction is allowable under chapter 1 of such Code by reason of a contribution to a plan described in section 501(c)(18) of such Code, and
(C) to the extent provided in regulations of the Commissioner of Social Security, deferred compensation provided under any arrangement, agreement, or plan referred to in subsection (i) or (j).
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title II, § 209, 49 Stat. 625; Aug. 10, 1939, ch. 666, title II, § 201, 53 Stat. 1362, 1373; Mar. 24, 1943, ch. 26, § 1(b)(2), 57 Stat. 47; Apr. 4, 1944, ch. 161, § 2, 58 Stat. 188; Oct. 23, 1945, ch. 433, § 7(b), 59 Stat. 548; Dec. 29, 1945, ch. 652, title I, § 5(a), 59 Stat. 671; Aug. 10, 1946, ch. 951, title IV, §§ 407(a), 408(a), 409(a), 410, 411, 414, 60 Stat. 988, 989, 990; Apr. 20, 1948, ch. 222, § 1(a), 62 Stat. 195; Aug. 28, 1950, ch. 809, title I, § 104(a), 64 Stat. 492; Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1206, title I, §§ 101(a)(1)–(3), 104(a), 68 Stat. 1052, 1078; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, title I, § 105(a), 70 Stat. 828; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 837, title IV, § 401, 70 Stat. 869; Pub. L. 85–786, § 1, Aug. 27, 1958, 72 Stat. 938; Pub. L. 85–840, title I, § 102(a), Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 1019; Pub. L. 86–778, title I, § 103(j)(2)(C), (F), Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 937, 938; Pub. L. 87–64, title I, § 102(c)(3)(A), June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 134; Pub. L. 87–293, title II, § 202(b)(2), Sept. 22, 1961, 75 Stat. 626; Pub. L. 88–272, title II, § 220(c)(3), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 63; Pub. L. 88–650, § 4(a), Oct. 13, 1964, 78 Stat. 1077; Pub. L. 89–97, title III, §§ 313(a), 320(a)(1), July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 382, 393; Pub. L. 90–248, title I, § 108(a)(1), title V, § 504(c), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 834, 935; Pub. L. 92–5, title II, § 203(a)(1), Mar. 17, 1971, 85 Stat. 10; Pub. L. 92–336, title II, § 203(a)(1), July 1, 1972, 86 Stat. 417; Pub. L. 92–603, title I, §§ 104(g), 122(a), 123(c)(1), 138(a), Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1341, 1354, 1356, 1365; Pub. L. 93–66, title II, § 203(a)(1), July 9, 1973, 87 Stat. 153; Pub. L. 93–233, § 5(a)(1), Dec. 31, 1973, 87 Stat. 953; Pub. L. 95–216, title III, § 351(a)(1)–(3)(A), Dec. 20, 1977, 91 Stat. 1549; Pub. L. 95–472, § 3(c), Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1333; Pub. L. 95–600, title I, § 164(b)(4), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2814; Pub. L. 96–499, title XI, § 1141(a)(2), Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2693; Pub. L. 97–34, title I, § 124(e)(2)(B), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 201; Pub. L. 97–123, § 3(a), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1662; Pub. L. 98–21, title I, § 101(c)(1), title III, §§ 324(c)(1)–(3), 327(a)(2), (b)(2), 328(b), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 70, 124, 125, 127, 128; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, § 491(d)(39), title V, § 531(d)(1)(B), div. B, title VI, §§ 2661(i), 2663(a)(6), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 851, 884, 1157, 1162; Pub. L. 99–272, title XII, § 12112(a), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 288; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, § 122(e)(5)
§ 410.
Definitions relating to employment
For the purposes of this subchapter—
(a)
Employment
The term “employment” means any service performed after 1936 and prior to 1951 which was employment for the purposes of this subchapter under the law applicable to the period in which such service was performed, and any service, of whatever nature, performed after 1950 (A) by an employee for the person employing him, irrespective of the citizenship or residence of either, (i) within the United States, or (ii) on or in connection with an American vessel or American aircraft under a contract of service which is entered into within the United States or during the performance of which and while the employee is employed on the vessel or aircraft it touches at a port in the United States, if the employee is employed on and in connection with such vessel or aircraft when outside the United States, or (B) outside the United States by a citizen or resident of the United States as an employee (i) of an American employer (as defined in subsection (e) of this section), or (ii) of a foreign affiliate (as defined in section 3121(l)(6) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) of an American employer during any period for which there is in effect an agreement, entered into pursuant to section 3121(l) of such Code, with respect to such affiliate, or (C) if it is service, regardless of where or by whom performed, which is designated as employment or recognized as equivalent to employment under an agreement entered into under section 433 of this title; except that, in the case of service performed after 1950, such term shall not include—
(1) Service performed by foreign agricultural workers lawfully admitted to the United States from the Bahamas, Jamaica, and the other British West Indies, or from any other foreign country or possession thereof, on a temporary basis to perform agricultural labor;
(2) Domestic service performed in a local college club, or local chapter of a college fraternity or sorority, by a student who is enrolled and is regularly attending classes at a school, college, or university;
(3)
(A) Service performed by a child under the age of 18 in the employ of his father or mother;
(B)
Service not in the course of the employer’s trade or business, or domestic service in a private home of the employer, performed by an individual under the age of 21 in the employ of his father or mother, or performed by an individual in the employ of his spouse or son or daughter; except that the provisions of this subparagraph shall not be applicable to such domestic service performed by an individual in the employ of his son or daughter if—
(i) the employer is a surviving spouse or a divorced individual and has not remarried, or has a spouse living in the home who has a mental or physical condition which results in such spouse’s being incapable of caring for a son, daughter, stepson, or stepdaughter (referred to in clause (ii)) for at least 4 continuous weeks in the calendar quarter in which the service is rendered, and
(ii) a son, daughter, stepson, or stepdaughter of such employer is living in the home, and
(iii) the son, daughter, stepson, or stepdaughter (referred to in clause (ii)) has not attained age 18 or has a mental or physical condition which requires the personal care and supervision of an adult for at least 4 continuous weeks in the calendar quarter in which the service is rendered;
(4) Service performed by an individual on or in connection with a vessel not an American vessel, or on or in connection with an aircraft not an American aircraft, if (A) the individual is employed on and in connection with such vessel or aircraft when outside the United States and (B)(i) such individual is not a citizen of the United States or (ii) the employer is not an American employer;
(5)
Service performed in the employ of the United States or any instrumentality of the United States, if such service—
(A) would be excluded from the term “employment” for purposes of this subchapter if the provisions of paragraphs (5) and (6) of this subsection as in effect in January 1983 had remained in effect, and
(B)
is performed by an individual who—
(i)
has been continuously performing service described in subparagraph (A) since December 31, 1983, and for purposes of this clause—
(I) if an individual performing service described in subparagraph (A) returns to the performance of such service after being separated therefrom for a period of less than 366 consecutive days, regardless of whether the period began before, on, or after December 31, 1983, then such service shall be considered continuous,(II) if an individual performing service described in subparagraph (A) returns to the performance of such service after being detailed or transferred to an international organization as described under section 3343 of subchapter III of chapter 33 of title 5 or under section 3581 of chapter 35 of such title, then the service performed for that organization shall be considered service described in subparagraph (A),(III) if an individual performing service described in subparagraph (A) is reemployed or reinstated after being separated from such service for the purpose of accepting employment with the American Institute of Taiwan as provided under section 3310 of title 22, then the service performed for that Institute shall be considered service described in subparagraph (A),(IV) if an individual performing service described in subparagraph (A) returns to the performance of such service after performing service as a member of a uniformed service (including, for purposes of this clause, service in the National Guard and temporary service in the Coast Guard Reserve) and after exercising restoration or reemployment rights as provided under chapter 43 of title 38, then the service so performed as a member of a uniformed service shall be considered service described in subparagraph (A), and(V) if an individual performing service described in subparagraph (A) returns to the performance of such service after employment (by a tribal organization) to which section 5323(e)(2) of title 25 applies, then the service performed for that tribal organization shall be considered service described in subparagraph (A); or
(ii) is receiving an annuity from the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund, or benefits (for service as an employee) under another retirement system established by a law of the United States for employees of the Federal Government (other than for members of the uniformed services);
except that this paragraph shall not apply with respect to any such service performed on or after any date on which such individual performs—
(C) service performed as the President or Vice President of the United States,
(D)
service performed—
(i) in a position placed in the Executive Schedule under sections 5312 through 5317 of title 5,
(ii) as a noncareer appointee in the Senior Executive Service or a noncareer member of the Senior Foreign Service, or
(iii) in a position to which the individual is appointed by the President (or his designee) or the Vice President under section 105(a)(1), 106(a)(1), or 107(a)(1) or (b)(1) of title 3, if the maximum rate of basic pay for such position is at or above the rate for level V of the Executive Schedule,
(E) service performed as the Chief Justice of the United States, an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, a judge of a United States court of appeals, a judge of a United States district court (including the district court of a territory), a judge of the United States Court of Federal Claims, a judge of the United States Court of International Trade, a judge of the United States Tax Court, a United States magistrate judge, or a referee in bankruptcy or United States bankruptcy judge,
(F) service performed as a Member, Delegate, or Resident Commissioner of or to the Congress,
(G)
any other service in the legislative branch of the Federal Government if such service—
(i) is performed by an individual who was not subject to subchapter III of chapter 83 of title 5 or to another retirement system established by a law of the United States for employees of the Federal Government (other than for members of the uniformed services), on December 31, 1983, or
(ii) is performed by an individual who has, at any time after December 31, 1983, received a lump-sum payment under section 8342(a) of title 5 or under the corresponding provision of the law establishing the other retirement system described in clause (i), or
(iii) is performed by an individual after such individual has otherwise ceased to be subject to subchapter III of chapter 83 of title 5, (without having an application pending for coverage under such subchapter), while performing service in the legislative branch (determined without regard to the provisions of subparagraph (B) relating to continuity of employment), for any period of time after December 31, 1983,
and for purposes of this subparagraph (G) an individual is subject to such subchapter III or to any such other retirement system at any time only if (a) such individual’s pay is subject to deductions, contributions, or similar payments (concurrent with the service being performed at that time) under section 8334(a) of such title 5 or the corresponding provision of the law establishing such other system, or (in a case to which section 8332(k)(1) of such title applies) such individual is making payments of amounts equivalent to such deductions, contributions, or similar payments while on leave without pay, or (b) such individual is receiving an annuity from the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund, or is receiving benefits (for service as an employee) under another retirement system established by a law of the United States for employees of the Federal Government (other than for members of the uniformed services), or
(H)
service performed by an individual—
(i) on or after the effective date of an election by such individual, under section 301 of the Federal Employees’ Retirement System Act of 1986, section 2157 of title 50, or the Federal Employees’ Retirement System Open Enrollment Act of 1997 1
1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.
to become subject to the Federal Employees’ Retirement System provided in chapter 84 of title 5, or
(ii) on or after the effective date of an election by such individual, under regulations issued under section 860 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 [22 U.S.C. 4071i], to become subject to the Foreign Service Pension System provided in subchapter II of chapter 8 of title I of such Act [22 U.S.C. 4071 et seq.];
(6)
Service performed in the employ of the United States or any instrumentality of the United States if such service is performed—
(A) in a penal institution of the United States by an inmate thereof;
(B) by any individual as an employee included under section 5351(2) of title 5 (relating to certain interns, student nurses, and other student employees of hospitals of the Federal Government), other than as a medical or dental intern or a medical or dental resident in training; or
(C) by any individual as an employee serving on a temporary basis in case of fire, storm, earthquake, flood, or other similar emergency;
(7)
Service performed in the employ of a State, or any political subdivision thereof, or any instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing which is wholly owned thereby, except that this paragraph shall not apply in the case of—
(A) service included under an agreement under section 418 of this title,
(B) service which, under subsection (k), constitutes covered transportation service,
(C)
service in the employ of the Government of Guam or the Government of American Samoa or any political subdivision thereof, or of any instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing which is wholly owned thereby, performed by an officer or employee thereof (including a member of the legislature of any such Government or political subdivision), and, for purposes of this subchapter—
(i) any person whose service as such an officer or employee is not covered by a retirement system established by a law of the United States shall not, with respect to such service, be regarded as an officer or employee of the United States or any agency or instrumentality thereof, and
(ii) the remuneration for service described in clause (i) (including fees paid to a public official) shall be deemed to have been paid by the Government of Guam or the Government of American Samoa or by a political subdivision thereof or an instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing which is wholly owned thereby, whichever is appropriate,
(D)
service performed in the employ of the District of Columbia or any instrumentality which is wholly owned thereby, if such service is not covered by a retirement system established by a law of the United States (other than the Federal Employees Retirement System provided in chapter 84 of title 5); except that the provisions of this subparagraph shall not be applicable to service performed—
(i) in a hospital or penal institution by a patient or inmate thereof;
(ii) by any individual as an employee included under section 5351(2) of title 5 (relating to certain interns, student nurses, and other student employees of hospitals of the District of Columbia Government), other than as a medical or dental intern or as a medical or dental resident in training;
(iii) by any individual as an employee serving on a temporary basis in case of fire, storm, snow, earthquake, flood, or other similar emergency; or
(iv) by a member of a board, committee, or council of the District of Columbia, paid on a per diem, meeting, or other fee basis,
(E) service performed in the employ of the Government of Guam (or any instrumentality which is wholly owned by such Government) by an employee properly classified as a temporary or intermittent employee, if such service is not covered by a retirement system established by a law of Guam; except that (i) the provisions of this subparagraph shall not be applicable to services performed by an elected official or a member of the legislature or in a hospital or penal institution by a patient or inmate thereof, and (ii) for purposes of this subparagraph, clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (C) shall apply, or
(F)
service in the employ of a State (other than the District of Columbia, Guam, or American Samoa), of any political subdivision thereof, or of any instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing which is wholly owned thereby, by an individual who is not a member of a retirement system of such State, political subdivision, or instrumentality, except that the provisions of this subparagraph shall not be applicable to service performed—
(i) by an individual who is employed to relieve such individual from unemployment;
(ii) in a hospital, home, or other institution by a patient or inmate thereof;
(iii) by any individual as an employee serving on a temporary basis in case of fire, storm, snow, earthquake, flood, or other similar emergency;
(iv) by an election official or election worker if the remuneration paid in a calendar year for such service is less than $1,000 with respect to service performed during any calendar year commencing on or after January 1, 1995, ending on or before December 31, 1999, and the adjusted amount determined under section 418(c)(8)(B) of this title for any calendar year commencing on or after January 1, 2000, with respect to service performed during such calendar year; or
(v) by an employee in a position compensated solely on a fee basis which is treated pursuant to section 411(c)(2)(E) of this title as a trade or business for purposes of inclusion of such fees in net earnings from self employment;
for purposes of this subparagraph, except as provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, the term “retirement system” has the meaning given such term by section 418(b)(4) of this title;
(8)
(A) Service performed by a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church in the exercise of his ministry or by a member of a religious order in the exercise of duties required by such order, except that this subparagraph shall not apply to service performed by a member of such an order in the exercise of such duties, if an election of coverage under section 3121(r) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is in effect with respect to such order, or with respect to the autonomous subdivision thereof to which such member belongs;
(B) Service performed in the employ of a church or qualified church-controlled organization if such church or organization has in effect an election under section 3121(w) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, other than service in an unrelated trade or business (within the meaning of section 513(a) of such Code);
(9) Service performed by an individual as an employee or employee representative as defined in section 3231 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986;
(10)
Service performed in the employ of—
(A) a school, college, or university, or
(B) an organization described in section 509(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 if the organization is organized, and at all times thereafter is operated, exclusively for the benefit of, to perform the functions of, or to carry out the purposes of a school, college, or university and is operated, supervised, or controlled by or in connection with such school, college, or university, unless it is a school, college, or university of a State or a political subdivision thereof and the services in its employ performed by a student referred to in section 418(c)(5) of this title are covered under the agreement between the Commissioner of Social Security and such State entered into pursuant to section 418 of this title;
if such service is performed by a student who is enrolled and regularly attending classes at such school, college, or university;
(11) Service performed in the employ of a foreign government (including service as a consular or other officer or employee or a nondiplomatic representative);
(12)
Service performed in the employ of an instrumentality wholly owned by a foreign government—
(A) If the service is of a character similar to that performed in foreign countries by employees of the United States Government or of an instrumentality thereof; and
(B) If the Secretary of State shall certify to the Secretary of the Treasury that the foreign government, with respect to whose instrumentality and employees thereof exemption is claimed, grants an equivalent exemption with respect to similar service performed in the foreign country by employees of the United States Government and of instrumentalities thereof;
(13) Service performed as a student nurse in the employ of a hospital or a nurses’ training school by an individual who is enrolled and is regularly attending classes in a nurses’ training school chartered or approved pursuant to State law;
(14)
(A) Service performed by an individual under the age of eighteen in the delivery or distribution of newspapers or shopping news, not including delivery or distribution to any point for subsequent delivery or distribution;
(B) Service performed by an individual in, and at the time of, the sale of newspapers or magazines to ultimate consumers, under an arrangement under which the newspapers or magazines are to be sold by him at a fixed price, his compensation being based on the retention of the excess of such price over the amount at which the newspapers or magazines are charged to him, whether or not he is guaranteed a minimum amount of compensation for such service, or is entitled to be credited with the unsold newspapers or magazines turned back;
(15) Service performed in the employ of an international organization entitled to enjoy privileges, exemptions, and immunities as an international organization under the International Organizations Immunities Act (59 Stat. 669) [22 U.S.C. 288 et seq.], except service which constitutes “employment” under subsection (r);
(16)
Service performed by an individual under an arrangement with the owner or tenant of land pursuant to which—
(A) such individual undertakes to produce agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on such land,
(B) the agricultural or horticultural commodities produced by such individual, or the proceeds therefrom, are to be divided between such individual and such owner or tenant, and
(C) the amount of such individual’s share depends on the amount of the agricultural or horticultural commodities produced;
(17) Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(99)(C)(ii), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4052.
(18) Service performed in Guam by a resident of the Republic of the Philippines while in Guam on a temporary basis as a nonimmigrant alien admitted to Guam pursuant to section 1101(a)(15)(H)(ii) of title 8;
(19) Service which is performed by a nonresident alien individual for the period he is temporarily present in the United States as a nonimmigrant under subparagraph (F), (J), (M), or (Q) of section 1101(a)(15) of title 8, and which is performed to carry out the purpose specified in subparagraph (F), (J), (M), or (Q) as the case may be;
(20)
Service (other than service described in paragraph (3)(A)) performed by an individual on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life under an arrangement with the owner or operator of such boat pursuant to which—
(A)
such individual does not receive any additional compensation other than as provided in subparagraph (B) and other than cash remuneration—
(i) which does not exceed $100 per trip;
(ii) which is contingent on a minimum catch; and
(iii) which is paid solely for additional duties (such as mate, engineer, or cook) for which additional cash remuneration is traditional in the industry,
(B) such individual receives a share of the boat’s (or the boats’ in the case of a fishing operation involving more than one boat) catch of fish or other forms of aquatic animal life or a share of the proceeds from the sale of such catch, and
(C) the amount of such individual’s share depends on the amount of the boat’s (or boats’ in the case of a fishing operation involving more than one boat) catch of fish or other forms of aquatic animal life,
but only if the operating crew of such boat (or each boat from which the individual receives a share in the case of a fishing operation involving more than one boat) is normally made up of fewer than 10 individuals;
(21)
Domestic service in a private home of the employer which—
(A) is performed in any year by an individual under the age of 18 during any portion of such year; and
(B) is not the principal occupation of such employee; or
(22) Service performed by members of Indian tribal councils as tribal council members in the employ of an Indian tribal government, except that this paragraph shall not apply in the case of service included under an agreement under section 418a of this title.
For purposes of paragraph (20), the operating crew of a boat shall be treated as normally made up of fewer than 10 individuals if the average size of the operating crew on trips made during the preceding 4 calendar quarters consisted of fewer than 10 individuals.
(b)
Included and excluded service

If the services performed during one-half or more of any pay period by an employee for the person employing him constitute employment, all the services of such employee for such period shall be deemed to be employment; but if the services performed during more than one-half of any such pay period by an employee for the person employing him do not constitute employment, then none of the services of such employee for such period shall be deemed to be employment. As used in this subsection, the term “pay period” means a period (of not more than thirty-one consecutive days) for which a payment of remuneration is ordinarily made to the employee by the person employing him. This subsection shall not be applicable with respect to services performed in a pay period by an employee for the person employing him, where any of such service is excepted by paragraph (9) of subsection (a).

(c)
American vessel

The term “American vessel” means any vessel documented or numbered under the laws of the United States; and includes any vessel which is neither documented or numbered under the laws of the United States nor documented under the laws of any foreign country, if its crew is employed solely by one or more citizens or residents of the United States or corporations organized under the laws of the United States or of any State.

(d)
American aircraft

The term “American aircraft” means an aircraft registered under the laws of the United States.

(e)
American employer
(1) The term “American employer” means an employer which is (A) the United States or any instrumentality thereof, (B) a State or any political subdivision thereof, or any instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing, (C) an individual who is a resident of the United States, (D) a partnership, if two-thirds or more of the partners are residents of the United States, (E) a trust, if all of the trustees are residents of the United States, or (F) a corporation organized under the laws of the United States or of any State.
(2)
(A) If any employee of a foreign person is performing services in connection with a contract between the United States Government (or any instrumentality thereof) and any member of any domestically controlled group of entities which includes such foreign person, such foreign person shall be treated as an American employer with respect to such services performed by such employee.
(B)
For purposes of this paragraph—
(i) The term “domestically controlled group of entities” means a controlled group of entities the common parent of which is a domestic corporation.
(ii)
The term “controlled group of entities” means a controlled group of corporations as defined in section 1563(a)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, except that—
(I) “more than 50 percent” shall be substituted for “at least 80 percent” each place it appears therein, and(II) the determination shall be made without regard to subsections (a)(4) and (b)(2) of section 1563 of such Code.
A partnership or any other entity (other than a corporation) shall be treated as a member of a controlled group of entities if such entity is controlled (within the meaning of section 954(d)(3) of such Code) by members of such group (including any entity treated as a member of such group by reason of this sentence).
(C) Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any services to which paragraph (1) of section 3121(z) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 does not apply by reason of paragraph (4) of such section.
(f)
Agricultural labor
The term “agricultural labor” includes all service performed—
(1) On a farm, in the employ of any person, in connection with cultivating the soil, or in connection with raising or harvesting any agricultural or horticultural commodity, including the raising, shearing, feeding, caring for, training, and management of livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife.
(2) In the employ of the owner or tenant or other operator of a farm, in connection with the operation, management, conservation, improvement, or maintenance of such farm and its tools and equipment, or in salvaging timber or clearing land of brush and other debris left by a hurricane, if the major part of such service is performed on a farm.
(3) In connection with the production or harvesting of any commodity defined as an agricultural commodity in section 1141j(g) 2
2 See References in Text note below.
of title 12, or in connection with the ginning of cotton, or in connection with the operation or maintenance of ditches, canals, reservoirs, or waterways, not owned or operated for profit, used exclusively for supplying and storing water for farming purposes.
(4)
(A) In the employ of the operator of a farm in handling, planting, drying, packing, packaging, processing, freezing, grading, storing, or delivering to storage or to market or to a carrier for transportation to market, in its unmanufactured state, any agricultural or horticultural commodity; but only if such operator produced more than one-half of the commodity with respect to which such service is performed.
(B) In the employ of a group of operators of farms (other than a cooperative organization) in the performance of service described in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, but only if such operators produced all of the commodity with respect to which such service is performed. For the purposes of this subparagraph, any unincorporated group of operators shall be deemed a cooperative organization if the number of operators comprising such group is more than twenty at any time during the calendar year in which such service is performed.
(5) On a farm operated for profit if such service is not in the course of the employer’s trade or business.
The provisions of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (4) of this subsection shall not be deemed to be applicable with respect to service performed in connection with commercial canning or commercial freezing or in connection with any agricultural or horticultural commodity after its delivery to a terminal market for distribution for consumption.
(g)
Farm

The term “farm” includes stock, dairy, poultry, fruit, fur-bearing animal, and truck farms, plantations, ranches, nurseries, ranges, greenhouses or other similar structures used primarily for the raising of agricultural or horticultural commodities, and orchards.

(h)
State

The term “State” includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa.

(i)
United States

The term “United States” when used in a geographical sense means the States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa.

(j)
Employee
The term “employee” means—
(1) any officer of a corporation; or
(2) any individual who, under the usual common law rules applicable in determining the employer-employee relationship, has the status of an employee; or
(3)
any individual (other than an individual who is an employee under paragraph (1) or (2) of this subsection) who performs services for remuneration for any person—
(A) as an agent-driver or commission-driver engaged in distributing meat products, vegetable products, fruit products, bakery products, beverages (other than milk), or laundry or dry-cleaning services, for his principal;
(B) as a full-time life insurance salesman;
(C) as a home worker performing work, according to specifications furnished by the person for whom the services are performed, on materials or goods furnished by such person which are required to be returned to such person or a person designated by him; or
(D) as a traveling or city salesman, other than as an agent-driver or commission-driver, engaged upon a full-time basis in the solicitation on behalf of, and the transmission to, his principal (except for side-line sales activities on behalf of some other person) of orders from wholesalers, retailers, contractors, or operators of hotels, restaurants, or other similar establishments for merchandise for resale or supplies for use in their business operations;
if the contract of service contemplates that substantially all of such services are to be performed personally by such individual; except that an individual shall not be included in the term “employee” under the provisions of this paragraph if such individual has a substantial investment in facilities used in connection with the performance of such services (other than in facilities for transportation), or if the services are in the nature of a single transaction not part of a continuing relationship with the person for whom the services are performed.
(k)
Covered transportation service
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, all service performed in the employ of a State or political subdivision in connection with its operation of a public transportation system shall constitute covered transportation service if any part of the transportation system was acquired from private ownership after 1936 and prior to 1951.
(2)
Service performed in the employ of a State or political subdivision in connection with the operation of its public transportation system shall not constitute covered transportation service if—
(A) any part of the transportation system was acquired from private ownership after 1936 and prior to 1951, and substantially all service in connection with the operation of the transportation system is, on December 31, 1950, covered under a general retirement system providing benefits which, by reason of a provision of the State constitution dealing specifically with retirement systems of the State or political subdivisions thereof, cannot be diminished or impaired; or
(B) no part of the transportation system operated by the State or political subdivision on December 31, 1950, was acquired from private ownership after 1936 and prior to 1951;
except that if such State or political subdivision makes an acquisition after 1950 from private ownership of any part of its transportation system, then, in the case of any employee who—
(C) became an employee of such State or political subdivision in connection with and at the time of its acquisition after 1950 of such part, and
(D) prior to such acquisition rendered service in employment in connection with the operation of such part of the transportation system acquired by the State or political subdivision,
the service of such employee in connection with the operation of the transportation system shall constitute covered transportation service, commencing with the first day of the third calendar quarter following the calendar quarter in which the acquisition of such part took place, unless on such first day such service of such employee is covered by a general retirement system which does not, with respect to such employee, contain special provisions applicable only to employees described in subparagraph (C) of this paragraph.
(3) All service performed in the employ of a State or political subdivision thereof in connection with its operation of a public transportation system shall constitute covered transportation service if the transportation system was not operated by the State or political subdivision prior to 1951 and, at the time of its first acquisition (after 1950) from private ownership of any part of its transportation system, the State or political subdivision did not have a general retirement system covering substantially all service performed in connection with the operation of the transportation system.
(4)
For the purposes of this subsection—
(A) The term “general retirement system” means any pension, annuity, retirement, or similar fund or system established by a State or by a political subdivision thereof for employees of the State, political subdivision, or both; but such term shall not include such a fund or system which covers only service performed in positions connected with the operation of its public transportation system.
(B) A transportation system or a part thereof shall be considered to have been acquired by a State or political subdivision from private ownership if prior to the acquisition service performed by employees in connection with the operation of the system or part thereof acquired constituted employment under this subchapter, and some of such employees became employees of the State or political subdivision in connection with and at the time of such acquisition.
(C) The term “political subdivision” includes an instrumentality of (i) a State, (ii) one or more political subdivisions of a State, or (iii) a State and one or more of its political subdivisions.
(l)
Service in uniformed services
(1)
Except as provided in paragraph (4), the term “employment” shall, notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, include—
(A) service performed after December 1956 by an individual as a member of a uniformed service on active duty, but such term shall not include any such service which is performed while on leave without pay, and
(B) service performed after December 1987 by an individual as a member of a uniformed service on inactive duty training.
(2) The term “active duty” means “active duty” as described in paragraph (21) of section 101 of title 38, except that it shall also include “active duty for training” as described in paragraph (22) of such section.
(3) The term “inactive duty training” means “inactive duty training” as described in paragraph (23) of such section 101.
(4)
(A) Paragraph (1) of this subsection shall not apply in the case of any service, performed by an individual as a member of a uniformed service, which is creditable under section 231b(i) of title 45. The Railroad Retirement Board shall notify the Commissioner of Social Security,3
3 So in original. The comma probably should not appear.
with respect to all such service which is so creditable.
(B) In any case where benefits under this subchapter are already payable on the basis of such individual’s wages and self-employment income at the time such notification (with respect to such individual) is received by the Commissioner of Social Security, the Commissioner of Social Security shall certify no further benefits for payment under this subchapter on the basis of such individual’s wages and self-employment income, or shall recompute the amount of any further benefits payable on the basis of such wages and self-employment income, as may be required as a consequence of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph. No payment of a benefit to any person on the basis of such individual’s wages and self-employment income, certified by the Commissioner of Social Security prior to the end of the month in which the Commissioner receives such notification from the Railroad Retirement Board, shall be deemed by reason of this subparagraph to have been an erroneous payment or a payment to which such person was not entitled. The Commissioner of Social Security shall, as soon as possible after the receipt of such notification from the Railroad Retirement Board, advise such Board whether or not any such benefit will be reduced or terminated by reason of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, and if any such benefit will be so reduced or terminated, specify the first month with respect to which such reduction or termination will be effective.
(m)
Member of a uniformed service
The term “member of a uniformed service” means any person appointed, enlisted, or inducted in a component of the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard (including a reserve component as defined in section 101(27) of title 38), or in one of those services without specification of component, or as a commissioned officer of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Corps, or the Regular or Reserve Corps 4
4 See Change of Name note below.
of the Public Health Service, and any person serving in the Army or Air Force under call or conscription. The term includes—
(1) a retired member of any of those services;
(2) a member of the Fleet Reserve or Fleet Marine Corps Reserve;
(3) a cadet at the United States Military Academy, a midshipman at the United States Naval Academy, and a cadet at the United States Coast Guard Academy or United States Air Force Academy;
(4) a member of the Reserve Officers’ Training Corps, the Naval Reserve Officers’ Training Corps, or the Air Force Reserve Officers’ Training Corps, when ordered to annual training duty for fourteen days or more, and while performing authorized travel to and from that duty; and
(5)
any person while en route to or from, or at, a place for final acceptance or for entry upon active duty in the military, naval, or air service—
(A) who has been provisionally accepted for such duty; or
(B) who, under the Military Selective Service Act [50 U.S.C. 3801 et seq.], has been selected for active military, naval, or air service;
and has been ordered or directed to proceed to such place.
The term does not include a temporary member of the Coast Guard Reserve.
(n)
Crew leader

The term “crew leader” means an individual who furnishes individuals to perform agricultural labor for another person, if such individual pays (either on his own behalf or on behalf of such person) the individuals so furnished by him for the agricultural labor performed by them and if such individual has not entered into a written agreement with such person whereby such individual has been designated as an employee of such person; and such individuals furnished by the crew leader to perform agricultural labor for another person shall be deemed to be the employees of such crew leader. A crew leader shall, with respect to services performed in furnishing individuals to perform agricultural labor for another person and service performed as a member of the crew, be deemed not to be an employee of such other person.

(o)
Peace Corps volunteer service

The term “employment” shall, notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a), include service performed by an individual as a volunteer or volunteer leader within the meaning of the Peace Corps Act [22 U.S.C. 2501 et seq.].

(p)
Medicare qualified government employment
(1)
For purposes of sections 426 and 426–1 of this title, the term “medicare qualified government employment” means any service which would constitute “employment” as defined in subsection (a) of this section but for the application of the provisions of—
(A) subsection (a)(5), or
(B) subsection (a)(7), except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3).
(2)
Service shall not be treated as employment by reason of paragraph (1)(B) if the service is performed—
(A) by an individual who is employed by a State or political subdivision thereof to relieve him from unemployment,
(B) in a hospital, home, or other institution by a patient or inmate thereof as an employee of a State or political subdivision thereof or of the District of Columbia,
(C) by an individual, as an employee of a State or political subdivision thereof or of the District of Columbia, serving on a temporary basis in case of fire, storm, snow, earthquake, flood or other similar emergency,
(D) by any individual as an employee included under section 5351(2) of title 5 (relating to certain interns, student nurses, and other student employees of hospitals of the District of Columbia Government), other than as a medical or dental intern or a medical or dental resident in training, or
(E) by an election official or election worker if the remuneration paid in a calendar year for such service is less than $1,000 with respect to service performed during any calendar year commencing on or after January 1, 1995, ending on or before December 31, 1999, and the adjusted amount determined under section 418(c)(8)(B) of this title for any calendar year commencing on or after January 1, 2000, with respect to service performed during such calendar year.
As used in this paragraph, the terms “State” and “political subdivision” have the meanings given those terms in section 418(b) of this title.
(3)
Service performed for an employer shall not be treated as employment by reason of paragraph (1)(B) if—
(A) such service would be excluded from the term “employment” for purposes of this section if paragraph (1)(B) did not apply;
(B)
such service is performed by an individual—
(i) who was performing substantial and regular service for remuneration for that employer before April 1, 1986,
(ii) who is a bona fide employee of that employer on March 31, 1986, and
(iii) whose employment relationship with that employer was not entered into for purposes of meeting the requirements of this subparagraph; and
(C) the employment relationship with that employer has not been terminated after March 31, 1986.
(4)
For purposes of paragraph (3), under regulations (consistent with regulations established under section 3121(u)(2)(D) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986)—
(A) all agencies and instrumentalities of a State (as defined in section 418(b) of this title) or of the District of Columbia shall be treated as a single employer, and
(B) all agencies and instrumentalities of a political subdivision of a State (as so defined) shall be treated as a single employer and shall not be treated as described in subparagraph (A).
(q)
Treatment of real estate agents and direct sellers

Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, the rules of section 3508 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall apply for purposes of this subchapter.

(r)
Service in employ of international organizations by certain transferred Federal employees
(1)
For purposes of this subchapter, service performed in the employ of an international organization by an individual pursuant to a transfer of such individual to such international organization pursuant to section 3582 of title 5 shall constitute “employment” if—
(A) immediately before such transfer, such individual performed service with a Federal agency which constituted “employment” as defined in subsection (a), and
(B) such individual would be entitled, upon separation from such international organization and proper application, to reemployment with such Federal agency under such section 3582.
(2)
For purposes of this subsection:
(A) The term “Federal agency” means an agency, as defined in section 3581(1) of title 5.
(B) The term “international organization” has the meaning provided such term by section 3581(3) of title 5.
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title II, § 210, as added Aug. 10, 1946, ch. 951, title II, § 201, 60 Stat. 979; amended, Aug. 28, 1950, ch. 809, title I, § 104(a), 64 Stat. 492, 494; Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title V, § 506(a), formerly § 505(a), as added July 12, 1951, ch. 223, 65 Stat. 120, and renumbered Pub. L. 87–345, § 3, Oct. 3, 1961, 75 Stat. 761; Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1206, title I, § 101(a)(4), (5), (b), (c)(1), (2), (e), (f), (m), 68 Stat. 1052, 1061; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, title I, §§ 104(a), (b), (c)(1), 105(b), 121(c), 70 Stat. 824, 828, 839; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 837, title IV, § 402(a), 70 Stat. 870; Pub. L. 85–840, title III, § 311(a), 312(a), Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 1035; Pub. L. 86–70, § 32(c)(2), June 25, 1959, 73 Stat. 149; Pub. L. 86–168, title I, § 104(h), title II, § 202(a), Aug. 18, 1959, 73 Stat. 387, 389; Pub. L. 86–624, § 30(c)(2), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 420; Pub. L. 86–778, title I, §§ 103(c)–(f), (j)(2)(A), (B), 104(a), Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 936, 937, 942; Pub. L. 87–256, § 110(e)(2), Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 537; Pub. L. 87–293, title II, § 202(b)(1), Sept. 22, 1961, 75 Stat. 626; Pub. L. 89–97, title III, §§ 311(a)(3), (4), 317(a), July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 380, 381, 388; Pub. L. 90–248, title I, § 123(a), title IV, § 403(a), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 844, 931; Pub. L. 92–603, title I, §§ 123(a)(1), 128(a), 129(a)(1), Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1354, 1358, 1359; Pub. L. 93–445, title III, § 311, Oct. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 1359; Pub. L. 94–455, title XII, § 1207(e)(2)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1707; Pub. L. 94–563, § 1(a), Oct. 19, 1976, 90 Stat. 2655; Pub. L. 95–216, title III, § 351(a)(1), (3)(B), Dec. 20, 1977, 91 Stat. 1549; Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, § 703(j)(14)(C), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2942; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §§ 269(b), 278(b)(1), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 552, 560; Pub. L. 97–448, title III, § 309(b)(23), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2410; Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §§ 101(a), 102(a), title III, §§ 321(b), 322(a)(1), 323(a)(2), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 67, 70, 118, 120, 121; Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VI, §§ 2601(a), 2603(a)(1), 2661(j), 2663(a)(7), (j)(3)(A)(i), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1122, 1128, 1157, 1162, 1170; Pub. L. 99–221, § 3(b), Dec. 26, 1985, 99 Stat. 1735; Pub. L. 99–272, title XIII, §§ 13205(b)(1), 13303(c)(2), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 316, 327; Pub. L. 99–335, title III, § 304(a), June 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 606; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §§ 1883(a)(4), 1895(b)(18)(B), (19), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2916, 2935; Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, §§ 9001(a)(1), 9004(a), 9005(a), 9023(a), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–286 to 1330–288, 1330–295; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, § 1001(d)(2)(E), title VIII, §§ 8015(b)(1), (c)(1), 8016(a)(4)(B), (C), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3351, 3791–3793; Pub. L. 101–239, title X, § 10201(b)(1), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2472; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, § 11332(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–469; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, § 321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117; Pub. L. 102–572, title IX, § 902(b)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4516; Pub. L. 103–178, title II, § 204(d), Dec. 3, 1993, 107 Stat. 2033; Pub. L. 103–296, title I, § 107(a)(4), title III, §§ 303(a)(1), (b)(1), 319(b)(1), (3), 320(b), 321(a)(13), (c)(6)(C), (D), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1478, 1518, 1519, 1534–1536, 1538; Pub. L. 103–387, § 2(a)(2)(B), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4072; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, § 1116(a)(2), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1762; Pub. L. 105–61, title VI, § 642(d)(1), Oct. 10, 1997, 111 Stat. 1319; Pub. L. 105–33, title XI, § 11246(b)(2)(B), as added Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, § 101(h) [title VIII, § 802(a)(2)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–480, 2681–532; Pub. L. 108–203, title IV, § 423(c), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 536; Pub. L. 109–280, title VIII, § 854(c)(9), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1019; Pub. L. 110–245, title III, § 302(b), June 17, 2008, 122 Stat. 1648; Pub. L. 110–458, title I, § 108(k)(2), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5110; Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(99)(C)(ii), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4052; Pub. L. 115–243, § 2(b)(1), Sept. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 2895.)
§ 410a.
Transferred
§ 411.
Definitions relating to self-employment
For the purposes of this subchapter—
(a)
Net earnings from self-employment
The term “net earnings from self-employment” means the gross income, as computed under subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, derived by an individual from any trade or business carried on by such individual, less the deductions allowed under such subtitle which are attributable to such trade or business, plus his distributive share (whether or not distributed) of the ordinary net income or loss, as computed under section 702(a)(8) of such Code, from any trade or business carried on by a partnership of which he is a member; except that in computing such gross income and deductions and such distributive share of partnership ordinary net income or loss—
(1) There shall be excluded rentals from real estate and from personal property leased with the real estate (including such rentals paid in crop shares, and including payments under section 3833(2) of title 16 1
1 See References in Text note below.
to individuals receiving benefits under section 402 or 423 of this title), together with the deductions attributable thereto, unless such rentals are received in the course of a trade or business as a real estate dealer; except that the preceding provisions of this paragraph shall not apply to any income derived by the owner or tenant of land if (A) such income is derived under an arrangement, between the owner or tenant and another individual, which provides that such other individual shall produce agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on such land, and that there shall be material participation by the owner or tenant (as determined without regard to any activities of an agent of such owner or tenant) in the production or the management of the production of such agricultural or horticultural commodities, and (B) there is material participation by the owner or tenant (as determined without regard to any activities of an agent of such owner or tenant) with respect to any such agricultural or horticultural commodity;
(2) There shall be excluded dividends on any share of stock, and interest on any bond, debenture, note, or certificate, or other evidence of indebtedness, issued with interest benefits 2
2 So in original. Probably should be “coupons”. See 2008 Amendment note below.
or in registered form by any corporation (including one issued by a government or political subdivision thereof), unless such dividends and interest are received in the course of a trade or business as a dealer in stocks or securities;
(3) There shall be excluded any gain or loss (A) which is considered under subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 as gain or loss from the sale or exchange of a capital asset, (B) from the cutting of timber, or the disposal of timber, coal, or iron ore, if section 631 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 applies to such gain or loss, or (C) from the sale, exchange, involuntary conversion, or other disposition of property if such property is neither (i) stock in trade or other property of a kind which would properly be includible in inventory if on hand at the close of the taxable year, nor (ii) property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of the trade or business;
(4) The deduction for net operating losses provided in section 172 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall not be allowed;
(5)
(A) If any of the income derived from a trade or business (other than a trade or business carried on by a partnership) is community income under community property laws applicable to such income, the gross income and deductions attributable to such trade or business shall be treated as the gross income and deductions of the spouse carrying on such trade or business or, if such trade or business is jointly operated, treated as the gross income and deductions of each spouse on the basis of their respective distributive share of the gross income and deductions;
(B) If any portion of a partner’s distributive share of the ordinary net income or loss from a trade or business carried on by a partnership is community income or loss under the community property laws applicable to such share, all of such distributive share shall be included in computing the net earnings from self-employment of such partner, and no part of such share shall be taken into account in computing the net earnings from self-employment of the spouse of such partner;
(6) A resident of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico shall compute his net earnings from self-employment in the same manner as a citizen of the United States but without regard to the provisions of section 933 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986;
(7) An individual who is a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church or a member of a religious order shall compute his net earnings from self-employment derived from the performance of service described in subsection (c)(4) without regard to section 107 (relating to rental value of parsonages), section 119 (relating to meals and lodging furnished for the convenience of the employer), and section 911 (relating to earned income from sources without the United States) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, but shall not include in any such net earnings from self-employment the rental value of any parsonage or any parsonage allowance (whether or not excluded under section 107 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) provided after the individual retires, or any other retirement benefit received by such individual from a church plan (as defined in section 414(e) of such Code) after the individual retires;
(8) The exclusion from gross income provided by section 931 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall not apply;
(9)
There shall be excluded amounts received by a partner pursuant to a written plan of the partnership, which meets such requirements as are prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate, and which provides for payments on account of retirement, on a periodic basis, to partners generally or to a class or classes of partners, such payments to continue at least until such partner’s death, if—
(A) such partner rendered no services with respect to any trade or business carried on by such partnership (or its successors) during the taxable year of such partnership (or its successors), ending within or with his taxable year, in which such amounts were received, and
(B) no obligation exists (as of the close of the partnership’s taxable year referred to in subparagraph (A)) from the other partners to such partner except with respect to retirement payments under such plan, and
(C) such partner’s share, if any, of the capital of the partnership has been paid to him in full before the close of the partnership’s taxable year referred to in subparagraph (A);
(10) The exclusion from gross income provided by section 911(a)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall not apply;
(11)
In lieu of the deduction provided by section 164(f) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (relating to deduction for one-half of self-employment taxes), there shall be allowed a deduction equal to the product of—
(A) the taxpayer’s net earnings from self-employment for the taxable year (determined without regard to this paragraph), and
(B)
(12) There shall be excluded the distributive share of any item of income or loss of a limited partner, as such, other than guaranteed payments described in section 707(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to that partner for services actually rendered to or on behalf of the partnership to the extent that those payments are established to be in the nature of remuneration for those services;
(13) In the case of church employee income, the special rules of subsection (i)(1) shall apply;
(14) There shall be excluded income excluded from taxation under section 7873 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (relating to income derived by Indians from exercise of fishing rights);
(15) The deduction under section 162(l) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (relating to health insurance costs of self-employed individuals) shall not be allowed; and
(16) Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this subsection, each spouse’s share of income or loss from a qualified joint venture shall be taken into account as provided in section 761(f) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 in determining net earnings from self-employment of such spouse.
If the taxable year of a partner is different from that of the partnership, the distributive share which he is required to include in computing his net earnings from self-employment shall be based upon the ordinary net income or loss of the partnership for any taxable year of the partnership (even though beginning prior to 1951) ending within or with his taxable year. In the case of any trade or business which is carried on by an individual or by a partnership and in which, if such trade or business were carried on exclusively by employees, the major portion of the services would constitute agricultural labor as defined in section 410(f) of this title
(i) in the case of an individual, if the gross income derived by him from such trade or business is not more than the upper limit, the net earnings from self-employment derived by him from such trade or business may, at his option, be deemed to be 66⅔ percent of such gross income; or
(ii) in the case of an individual, if the gross income derived by him from such trade or business is more than the upper limit and the net earnings from self-employment derived by him from such trade or business (computed under this subsection without regard to this sentence) are less than the lower limit, the net earnings from self-employment derived by him from such trade or business may, at his option, be deemed to be the lower limit; and
(iii) in the case of a member of a partnership, if his distributive share of the gross income of the partnership derived from such trade or business (after such gross income has been reduced by the sum of all payments to which section 707(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 applies) is not more than the upper limit, his distributive share of income described in section 702(a)(8) of such Code derived from such trade or business may, at his option, be deemed to be an amount equal to 66⅔ percent of his distributive share of such gross income (after such gross income has been so reduced); or
(iv) in the case of a member of a partnership, if his distributive share of the gross income of the partnership derived from such trade or business (after such gross income has been reduced by the sum of all payments to which section 707(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 applies) is more than the upper limit and his distributive share (whether or not distributed) of income described in section 702(a)(8) of such Code derived from such trade or business (computed under this subsection without regard to this sentence) is less than the lower limit, his distributive share of income described in such section 702(a)(8) derived from such trade or business may, at his option, be deemed to be the lower limit.
For purposes of the preceding sentence, gross income means—
(v) in the case of any such trade or business in which the income is computed under a cash receipts and disbursements method, the gross receipts from such trade or business reduced by the cost or other basis of property which was purchased and sold in carrying on such trade or business, adjusted (after such reduction) in accordance with the provisions of paragraphs (1) through (6) and paragraph (8) of this subsection; and
(vi) in the case of any such trade or business in which the income is computed under an accrual method, the gross income from such trade or business, adjusted in accordance with the provisions of paragraphs (1) through (6) and paragraph (8) of this subsection;
and, for purposes of such sentence, if an individual (including a member of a partnership) derives gross income from more than one such trade or business, such gross income (including his distributive share of the gross income of any partnership derived from any such trade or business) shall be deemed to have been derived from one trade or business.
The preceding sentence and clauses (i) through (iv) of the second preceding sentence shall also apply in the case of any trade or business (other than a trade or business specified in such second preceding sentence) which is carried on by an individual who is self-employed on a regular basis as defined in subsection (g), or by a partnership of which an individual is a member on a regular basis as defined in subsection (g), but only if such individual’s net earnings from self-employment in the taxable year as determined without regard to this sentence are less than the lower limit and less than 66⅔ percent of the sum (in such taxable year) of such individual’s gross income derived from all trades or businesses carried on by him and his distributive share of the income or loss from all trades or businesses carried on by all the partnerships of which he is a member; except that this sentence shall not apply to more than 5 taxable years in the case of any individual, and in no case in which an individual elects to determine the amount of his net earnings from self-employment for a taxable year under the provisions of the two preceding sentences with respect to a trade or business to which the second preceding sentence applies and with respect to a trade or business to which this sentence applies shall such net earnings for such year exceed the lower limit.
(b)
Self-employment income
The term “self-employment income” means the net earnings from self-employment derived by an individual (other than a nonresident alien individual, except as provided by an agreement under section 433 of this title) during any taxable year beginning after 1950; except that such term shall not include—
(1)
That part of the net earnings from self-employment which is in excess of—
(A) For any taxable year ending prior to 1955, (i) $3,600, minus (ii) the amount of the wages paid to such individual during the taxable year; and
(B) For any taxable year ending after 1954 and prior to 1959, (i) $4,200, minus (ii) the amount of the wages paid to such individual during the taxable year; and
(C) For any taxable year ending after 1958 and prior to 1966, (i) $4,800, minus (ii) the amount of the wages paid to such individual during the taxable year; and
(D) For any taxable year ending after 1965 and prior to 1968, (i) $6,600, minus (ii) the amount of the wages paid to such individual during the taxable year; and
(E) For any taxable year ending after 1967 and beginning prior to 1972, (i) $7,800, minus (ii) the amount of the wages paid to such individual during the taxable year; and
(F) For any taxable year beginning after 1971 and prior to 1973, (i) $9,000, minus (ii) the amount of the wages paid to such individual during the taxable year; and
(G) For any taxable year beginning after 1972 and prior to 1974, (i) $10,800, minus (ii) the amount of the wages paid to such individual during the taxable year; and
(H) For any taxable year beginning after 1973 and prior to 1975, (i) $13,200, minus (ii) the amount of the wages paid to such individual during the taxable year; and
(I) For any taxable year beginning in any calendar year after 1974, (i) an amount equal to the contribution and benefit base (as determined under section 430 of this title) which is effective for such calendar year, minus (ii) the amount of the wages paid to such individual during such taxable year; or
(2) The net earnings from self-employment, if such net earnings for the taxable year are less than $400.
An individual who is not a citizen of the United States but who is a resident of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, or American Samoa shall not, for the purpose of this subsection, be considered to be a nonresident alien individual. In the case of church employee income, the special rules of subsection (i)(2) shall apply for purposes of paragraph (2).
(c)
Trade or business
The term “trade or business”, when used with reference to self-employment income or net earnings from self-employment, shall have the same meaning as when used in section 162 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, except that such term shall not include—
(1) The performance of the functions of a public office, other than the functions of a public office of a State or a political subdivision thereof with respect to fees received in any period in which the functions are performed in a position compensated solely on a fee basis and in which such functions are not covered under an agreement entered into by such State and the Commissioner of Social Security pursuant to section 418 of this title;
(2)
The performance of service by an individual as an employee, other than—
(A) service described in section 410(a)(14)(B) of this title performed by an individual who has attained the age of eighteen,
(B) service described in section 410(a)(16) of this title,
(C) service described in section 410(a) (11), (12), or (15) of this title performed in the United States by a citizen of the United States, except service which constitutes “employment” under section 410(r) of this title,
(D) service described in paragraph (4) of this subsection,
(E) service performed by an individual as an employee of a State or a political subdivision thereof in a position compensated solely on a fee basis with respect to fees received in any period in which such service is not covered under an agreement entered into by such State and the Commissioner of Social Security pursuant to section 418 of this title,
(F) service described in section 410(a)(20) of this title, and
(G) service described in section 410(a)(8)(B) of this title;
(3) The performance of service by an individual as an employee or employee representative as defined in section 3231 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986;
(4) The performance of service by a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church in the exercise of his ministry or by a member of a religious order in the exercise of duties required by such order;
(5) The performance of service by an individual in the exercise of his profession as a Christian Science practitioner; or
(6) The performance of service by an individual during the period for which an exemption under section 1402(g) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is effective with respect to him.
The provisions of paragraph (4) or (5) shall not apply to service (other than service performed by a member of a religious order who has taken a vow of poverty as a member of such order) performed by an individual unless an exemption under section 1402(e) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is effective with respect to him.
(d)
Partnership and partner

The term “partnership” and the term “partner” shall have the same meaning as when used in subchapter K of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

(e)
Taxable year

The term “taxable year” shall have the same meaning as when used in subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986; and the taxable year of any individual shall be a calendar year unless he has a different taxable year for the purposes of subtitle A of such Code, in which case his taxable year for the purposes of this subchapter shall be the same as his taxable year under such subtitle A.

(f)
Partner’s taxable year ending as result of death
In computing a partner’s net earnings from self-employment for his taxable year which ends as a result of his death (but only if such taxable year ends within, and not with, the taxable year of the partnership), there shall be included so much of the deceased partner’s distributive share of the partnership’s ordinary income or loss for the partnership taxable year as is not attributable to an interest in the partnership during any period beginning on or after the first day of the first calendar month following the month in which such partner died. For purposes of this subsection—
(1) in determining the portion of the distributive share which is attributable to any period specified in the preceding sentence, the ordinary income or loss of the partnership shall be treated as having been realized or sustained ratably over the partnership taxable year; and
(2) the term “deceased partner’s distributive share” includes the share of his estate or of any other person succeeding, by reason of his death, to rights with respect to his partnership interest.
(g)
Regular basis

An individual shall be deemed to be self-employed on a regular basis in a taxable year, or to be a member of a partnership on a regular basis in such year, if he had net earnings from self-employment, as defined in the first sentence of subsection (a), of not less than $400 in at least two of the three consecutive taxable years immediately preceding such taxable year from trades or businesses carried on by such individual or such partnership.

(h)
Option dealers and commodity dealers
(1)
In determining the net earnings from self-employment of any options dealer or commodities dealer—
(A) notwithstanding subsection (a)(3)(A), there shall not be excluded any gain or loss (in the normal course of the taxpayer’s activity of dealing in or trading section 1256 contracts) from section 1256 contracts or property related to such contracts, and
(B) the deduction provided by section 1202 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall not apply.
(2)
For purposes of this subsection—
(A) The term “options dealer” has the meaning given such term by section 1256(g)(8) of such Code.
(B) The term “commodities dealer” means a person who is actively engaged in trading section 1256 contracts and is registered with a domestic board of trade which is designated as a contract market by the Commodities Futures Trading Commission.
(C) The term “section 1256 contracts” has the meaning given to such term by section 1256(b) of such Code.
(i)
Church employee income
(1)
In applying subsection (a)—
(A) church employee income shall not be reduced by any deduction;
(B) church employee income and deductions attributable to such income shall not be taken into account in determining the amount of other net earnings from self-employment.
(2)
(A)
Subsection (b)(2) shall be applied separately—
(i) to church employee income, and
(ii) to other net earnings from self-employment.
(B) In applying subsection (b)(2) to church employee income, “$100” shall be substituted for “$400”.
(3) Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any amount allowable as a deduction under subsection (a)(11), and paragraph (1) shall be applied before determining the amount so allowable.
(4) For purposes of this section, the term “church employee income” means gross income for services which are described in section 410(a)(8)(B) of this title (and are not described in section 410(a)(8)(A) of this title).
(j)
Codification of treatment of certain termination payments received by former insurance salesmen
Nothing in subsection (a) shall be construed as including in the net earnings from self-employment of an individual any amount received during the taxable year from an insurance company on account of services performed by such individual as an insurance salesman for such company if—
(1) such amount is received after termination of such individual’s agreement to perform such services for such company,
(2) such individual performs no services for such company after such termination and before the close of such taxable year,
(3) such individual enters into a covenant not to compete against such company which applies to at least the 1-year period beginning on the date of such termination, and
(4)
the amount of such payment—
(A) depends primarily on policies sold by or credited to the account of such individual during the last year of such agreement or the extent to which such policies remain in force for some period after such termination, or both, and
(B) does not depend to any extent on length of service or overall earnings from services performed for such company (without regard to whether eligibility for payment depends on length of service).
(k)
Upper and lower limits
For purposes of subsection (a)—
(1) The lower limit for any taxable year is the sum of the amounts required under section 413(d) of this title for a quarter of coverage in effect with respect to each calendar quarter ending with or within such taxable year.
(2) The upper limit for any taxable year is the amount equal to 150 percent of the lower limit for such taxable year.
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title II, § 211, as added Aug. 28, 1950, ch. 809, title I, § 104(a), 64 Stat. 492, 502; amended
§ 412.
Self-employment income credited to calendar years
(a)
Taxable years prior to 1978
For the purposes of determining average monthly wage and quarters of coverage the amount of self-employment income derived during any taxable year which begins before 1978 shall—
(1) in the case of a taxable year which is a calendar year, be credited equally to each quarter of such calendar year; and
(2) in the case of any other taxable year, be credited equally to the calendar quarter in which such taxable year ends and to each of the next three or fewer preceding quarters any part of which is in such taxable year.
(b)
Taxable years after 1977
Except as provided in subsection (c), for the purposes of determining average indexed monthly earnings, average monthly wage, and quarters of coverage the amount of self-employment income derived during any taxable year which begins after 1977 shall—
(1) in the case of a taxable year which is a calendar year or which begins with or during a calendar year and ends with or during such year, be credited to such calendar year; and
(2) in the case of any other taxable year, be allocated proportionately to the two calendar years, portions of which are included within such taxable year, on the basis of the number of months in each such calendar year which are included completely within the taxable year.
For purposes of clause (2), the calendar month in which a taxable year ends shall be treated as included completely within that taxable year.
(c)
Proportional allocation

For the purpose of determining average indexed monthly earnings, average monthly wage, and quarters of coverage in the case of any individual who elects the option described in clause (ii) or (iv) in the matter following section 411(a)(16) of this title for any taxable year that does not begin with or during a particular calendar year and end with or during such year, the self-employment income of such individual deemed to be derived during such taxable year shall be allocated to the two calendar years, portions of which are included within such taxable year, in the same proportion to the total of such deemed self-employment income as the sum of the amounts applicable under section 413(d) of this title for the calendar quarters ending with or within each such calendar year bears to the lower limit for such taxable year specified in section 411(k)(1) of this title.

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title II, § 212, as added Aug. 28, 1950, ch. 809, title I, § 104(a), 64 Stat. 492, 504; amended Pub. L. 95–216, title III, § 351(b), Dec. 20, 1977, 91 Stat. 1549; Pub. L. 110–234, title XV, § 15352(b)(3), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1526; Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title XV, § 15352(b)(3), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 2288.)
§ 413.
Quarter and quarter of coverage
(a)
Definitions
For the purposes of this subchapter—
(1) The term “quarter”, and the term “calendar quarter”, mean a period of three calendar months ending on March 31, June 30, September 30, or December 31.
(2)
(A)
The term “quarter of coverage” means—
(i) for calendar years before 1978, and subject to the provisions of subparagraph (B), a quarter in which an individual has been paid $50 or more in wages (except wages for agricultural labor paid after 1954) or for which he has been credited (as determined under section 412 of this title) with $100 or more of self-employment income; and
(ii) for calendar years after 1977, and subject to the provisions of subparagraph (B), each portion of the total of the wages paid and the self-employment income credited (pursuant to section 412 of this title) to an individual in a calendar year which equals the amount required for a quarter of coverage in that calendar year (as determined under subsection (d)), with such quarter of coverage being assigned to a specific calendar quarter in such calendar year only if necessary in the case of any individual who has attained age 62 or died or is under a disability and the requirements for insured status in subsection (a) or (b) of section 414 of this title, the requirements for entitlement to a computation or recomputation of his primary insurance amount, or the requirements of paragraph (3) of section 416(i) of this title would not otherwise be met.
(B)
Notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraph (A)—
(i) no quarter after the quarter in which an individual dies shall be a quarter of coverage, and no quarter any part of which is included in a period of disability (other than the initial quarter and the last quarter of such period) shall be a quarter of coverage;
(ii) if the wages paid to an individual in any calendar year equal $3,000 in the case of a calendar year before 1951, or $3,600 in the case of a calendar year after 1950 and before 1955, or $4,200 in the case of a calendar year after 1954 and before 1959, or $4,800 in the case of a calendar year after 1958 and before 1966, or $6,600 in the case of a calendar year after 1965 and before 1968, or $7,800 in the case of a calendar year after 1967 and before 1972, or $9,000 in the case of the calendar year 1972, or $10,800 in the case of the calendar year 1973, or $13,200 in the case of the calendar year 1974, or an amount equal to the contribution and benefit base (as determined under section 430 of this title) in the case of any calendar year after 1974 and before 1978 with respect to which such contribution and benefit base is effective, each quarter of such year shall (subject to clauses (i) and (v)) be a quarter of coverage;
(iii) if an individual has self-employment income for a taxable year, and if the sum of such income and the wages paid to him during such year equals $3,600 in the case of a taxable year beginning after 1950 and ending before 1955, or $4,200 in the case of a taxable year ending after 1954 and before 1959, or $4,800 in the case of a taxable year ending after 1958 and before 1966, or $6,600 in the case of a taxable year ending after 1965 and before 1968, or $7,800 in the case of a taxable year ending after 1967 and before 1972, or $9,000 in the case of a taxable year beginning after 1971 and before 1973, or $10,800 in the case of a taxable year beginning after 1972 and before 1974, or $13,200 in the case of a taxable year beginning after 1973 and before 1975, or an amount equal to the contribution and benefit base (as determined under section 430 of this title) which is effective for the calendar year in the case of any taxable year beginning in any calendar year after 1974 and before 1978, each quarter any part of which falls in such year shall (subject to clauses (i) and (v)) be a quarter of coverage;
(iv) if an individual is paid wages for agricultural labor in a calendar year after 1954 and before 1978, then, subject to clauses (i) and (v), (I) the last quarter of such year which can be but is not otherwise a quarter of coverage shall be a quarter of coverage if such wages equal or exceed $100 but are less than $200; (II) the last two quarters of such year which can be but are not otherwise quarters of coverage shall be quarters of coverage if such wages equal or exceed $200 but are less than $300; (III) the last three quarters of such year which can be but are not otherwise quarters of coverage shall be quarters of coverage if such wages equal or exceed $300 but are less than $400; and (IV) each quarter of such year which is not otherwise a quarter of coverage shall be a quarter of coverage if such wages are $400 or more;
(v) no quarter shall be counted as a quarter of coverage prior to the beginning of such quarter;
(vi) not more than one quarter of coverage may be credited to a calendar quarter; and
(vii) no more than four quarters of coverage may be credited to any calendar year after 1977.
If in the case of an individual who has attained age 62 or died or is under a disability and who has been paid wages for agricultural labor in a calendar year after 1954 and before 1978, the requirements for insured status in subsection (a) or (b) of section 414 of this title, the requirements for entitlement to a computation or recomputation of his primary insurance amount, or the requirements of paragraph (3) of section 416(i) of this title are not met after assignment of quarters of coverage to quarters in such year as provided in clause (iv) of the preceding sentence, but would be met if such quarters of coverage were assigned to different quarters in such year, then such quarters of coverage shall instead be assigned, for purposes only of determining compliance with such requirements, to such different quarters. If, in the case of an individual who did not die prior to January 1, 1955, and who attained age 62 (if a woman) or age 65 (if a man) or died before July 1, 1957, the requirements for insured status in section 414(a)(3) of this title are not met because of his having too few quarters of coverage but would be met if his quarters of coverage in the first calendar year in which he had any covered employment had been determined on the basis of the period during which wages were earned rather than on the basis of the period during which wages were paid (any such wages paid that are reallocated on an earned basis shall not be used in determining quarters of coverage for subsequent calendar years), then upon application filed by the individual or his survivors and satisfactory proof of his record of wages earned being furnished by such individual or his survivors, the quarters of coverage in such calendar year may be determined on the basis of the periods during which wages were earned.
(b)
Crediting of wages paid in 1937

With respect to wages paid to an individual in the six-month periods commencing either January 1, 1937, or July 1, 1937; (A) if wages of not less than $100 were paid in any such period, one-half of the total amount thereof shall be deemed to have been paid in each of the calendar quarters in such period; and (B) if wages of less than $100 were paid in any such period, the total amount thereof shall be deemed to have been paid in the latter quarter of such period, except that if in any such period, the individual attained age sixty-five, all of the wages paid in such period shall be deemed to have been paid before such age was attained.

(c)
Alternative method for determining quarters of coverage with respect to wages in period from 1937 to 1950

For purposes of sections 414(a) and 415(d) of this title, an individual shall be deemed to have one quarter of coverage for each $400 of his total wages prior to 1951 (as defined in section 415(d)(1)(C) of this title), except where such individual is not a fully insured individual on the basis of the number of quarters of coverage so derived plus the number of quarters of coverage derived from the wages and self-employment income credited to such individual for periods after 1950.

(d)
Amount required for a quarter of coverage
(1) The amount of wages and self-employment income which an individual must have in order to be credited with a quarter of coverage in any year under subsection (a)(2)(A)(ii) shall be $250 in the calendar year 1978 and the amount determined under paragraph (2) of this subsection for years after 1978.
(2)
The Commissioner of Social Security shall, on or before November 1 of 1978 and of every year thereafter, determine and publish in the Federal Register the amount of wages and self-employment income which an individual must have in order to be credited with a quarter of coverage in the succeeding calendar year. The amount required for a quarter of coverage shall be the larger of—
(A) the amount in effect in the calendar year in which the determination under this subsection is made, or
(B) the product of the amount prescribed in paragraph (1) which is required for a quarter of coverage in 1978 and the ratio of the national average wage index (as defined in section 409(k)(1) of this title) for the calendar year before the year in which the determination under this paragraph is made to the national average wage index (as so defined) for 1976,
with such product, if not a multiple of $10, being rounded to the next higher multiple of $10 where such amount is a multiple of $5 but not of $10 and to the nearest multiple of $10 in any other case.
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title II, § 213, as added Aug. 28, 1950, ch. 809, title I, § 104(a), 64 Stat. 492, 504; amended July 18, 1952, ch. 945, §§ 3(a), 66 Stat. 770; Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1206, title I, §§ 104(c), 106(a), 108(b), 68 Stat. 1078, 1084; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, title I, § 105(c), 70 Stat. 828; Pub. L. 85–840, title I, § 102(c), Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 1019; Pub. L. 86–442, § 3, Apr. 22, 1960, 74 Stat. 82; Pub. L. 86–778, title II, § 206(a), Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 949; Pub. L. 87–64, title I, § 102(c)(2)(A), (3)(B), June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 134, 135; Pub. L. 89–97, title III, § 320(a)(3), July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 393; Pub. L. 90–248, title I, §§ 108(a)(3), 155(b)(1), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 834, 865; Pub. L. 92–5, title II, § 203(a)(3), Mar. 17, 1971, 85 Stat. 10; Pub. L. 92–336, title II, § 203(a)(3), July 1, 1972, 86 Stat. 418; Pub. L. 93–66, title II, § 203(a)(3), July 9, 1973, 87 Stat. 153; Pub. L. 93–233, § 5(a)(3), Dec. 31, 1973, 87 Stat. 953; Pub. L. 95–216, title III, §§ 351(c), 352(a), (b), Dec. 20, 1977, 91 Stat. 1550, 1552; Pub. L. 96–473, § 6(c), Oct. 19, 1980, 94 Stat. 2265; Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VI, § 2663(a)(9), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1164; Pub. L. 101–239, title X, § 10208(b)(2)(A), (B), (d)(2)(A)(i), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2477, 2478, 2480; Pub. L. 101–508, title V, § 5117(c)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–278; Pub. L. 103–296, title I, § 107(a)(4), title III, § 321(a)(15), (e)(2)(A), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1478, 1536, 1539.)
§ 414.
Insured status for purposes of old-age and survivors insurance benefits
For the purposes of this subchapter—
(a)
“Fully insured individual” defined
The term “fully insured individual” means any individual who had not less than—
(1) one quarter of coverage (whenever acquired) for each calendar year elapsing after 1950 (or, if later, the year in which he attained age 21) and before the year in which he died or (if earlier) the year in which he attained age 62, except that in no case shall an individual be a fully insured individual unless he has at least 6 quarters of coverage; or
(2) 40 quarters of coverage; or
(3) in the case of an individual who died before 1951, 6 quarters of coverage;
not counting as an elapsed year for purposes of paragraph (1) any year any part of which was included in a period of disability (as defined in section 416(i) of this title), and who satisfies the criterion specified in subsection (c).
(b)
“Currently insured individual” defined

The term “currently insured individual” means any individual who had not less than six quarters of coverage during the thirteen-quarter period ending with (1) the quarter in which he died, (2) the quarter in which he became entitled to old-age insurance benefits, (3) the quarter in which he became entitled to primary insurance benefits under this subchapter as in effect prior to August 28, 1950, or (4) in the case of any individual entitled to disability insurance benefits, the quarter in which he most recently became entitled to disability insurance benefits, not counting as part of such thirteen-quarter period any quarter any part of which was included in a period of disability unless such quarter was a quarter of coverage, and who satisfies the criterion specified in subsection (c).

(c)
Criterion described
For purposes of subsections (a) and (b), the criterion specified in this subsection is that the individual, if not a United States citizen or national—
(1)
(2)
at the time any such quarters of coverage are earned—
(A) is described in subparagraph (B) or (D) of section 1101(a)(15) of title 8,
(B) is lawfully admitted temporarily to the United States for business (in the case of an individual described in such subparagraph (B)) or the performance as a crewman (in the case of an individual described in such subparagraph (D)), and
(C) the business engaged in or service as a crewman performed is within the scope of the terms of such individual’s admission to the United States.
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title II, § 214, as added Aug. 28, 1950, ch. 809, title I, § 104(a), 64 Stat. 492, 505; amended July 18, 1952, ch. 945, § 3(b), 66 Stat. 770; Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1206, title I, §§ 106(b), 108(a), 68 Stat. 1079, 1083; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, title I, § 108, 70 Stat. 830; Pub. L. 85–840, title II, § 205(l), Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 1025; Pub. L. 86–778, title II, § 204(a), Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 948; Pub. L. 87–64, title I, § 103(a), June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 137; Pub. L. 92–603, title I, § 104(a), Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1340; Pub. L. 108–203, title II, § 211(a), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 518.)
§ 415.
Computation of primary insurance amount
For the purposes of this subchapter—
(a)
Primary insurance amount
(1)
(A)
The primary insurance amount of an individual shall (except as otherwise provided in this section) be equal to the sum of—
(i) 90 percent of the individual’s average indexed monthly earnings (determined under subsection (b)) to the extent that such earnings do not exceed the amount established for purposes of this clause by subparagraph (B),
(ii) 32 percent of the individual’s average indexed monthly earnings to the extent that such earnings exceed the amount established for purposes of clause (i) but do not exceed the amount established for purposes of this clause by subparagraph (B), and
(iii) 15 percent of the individual’s average indexed monthly earnings to the extent that such earnings exceed the amount established for purposes of clause (ii),
rounded, if not a multiple of $0.10, to the next lower multiple of $0.10, and thereafter increased as provided in subsection (i).
(B)
(i) For individuals who initially become eligible for old-age or disability insurance benefits, or who die (before becoming eligible for such benefits), in the calendar year 1979, the amount established for purposes of clause (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (A) shall be $180 and $1,085, respectively.
(ii)
For individuals who initially become eligible for old-age or disability insurance benefits, or who die (before becoming eligible for such benefits), in any calendar year after 1979, each of the amounts so established shall equal the product of the corresponding amount established with respect to the calendar year 1979 under clause (i) of this subparagraph and the quotient obtained by dividing—
(I) the national average wage index (as defined in section 409(k)(1) of this title) for the second calendar year preceding the calendar year for which the determination is made, by(II) the national average wage index (as so defined) for 1977.
(iii) Each amount established under clause (ii) for any calendar year shall be rounded to the nearest $1, except that any amount so established which is a multiple of $0.50 but not of $1 shall be rounded to the next higher $1.
(C)
(i) No primary insurance amount computed under subparagraph (A) may be less than an amount equal to $11.50 multiplied by the individual’s years of coverage in excess of 10, or the increased amount determined for purposes of this clause under subsection (i).
(ii) For purposes of clause (i), the term “years of coverage” with respect to any individual means the number (not exceeding 30) equal to the sum of (I) the number (not exceeding 14 and disregarding any fraction) determined by dividing (a) the total of the wages credited to such individual (including wages deemed to be paid prior to 1951 to such individual under section 417 of this title, compensation under the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 [45 U.S.C. 228a et seq.] prior to 1951 which is creditable to such individual pursuant to this subchapter, and wages deemed to be paid prior to 1951 to such individual under section 431 of this title) for years after 1936 and before 1951 by (b) $900, plus (II) the number equal to the number of years after 1950 each of which is a computation base year (within the meaning of subsection (b)(2)(B)(ii)) and in each of which he is credited with wages (including wages deemed to be paid to such individual under section 417 of this title, compensation under the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 or 1974 [45 U.S.C. 228a et seq., 231 et seq.] which is creditable to such individual pursuant to this subchapter, and wages deemed to be paid to such individual under section 429 of this title) and self-employment income of not less than 25 percent (in the case of a year after 1950 and before 1978) of the maximum amount which (pursuant to subsection (e)) may be counted for such year, or 25 percent (in the case of a year after 1977 and before 1991) or 15 percent (in the case of a year after 1990) of the maximum amount which (pursuant to subsection (e)) could be counted for such year if section 430 of this title as in effect immediately prior to December 20, 1977, had remained in effect without change (except that, for purposes of subsection (b) of such section 430 of this title as so in effect, the reference to the contribution and benefit base in paragraph (1) of such subsection (b) shall be deemed a reference to an amount equal to $45,000, each reference in paragraph (2) of such subsection (b) to the average of the wages of all employees as reported to the Secretary of the Treasury shall be deemed a reference to the national average wage index (as defined in section 409(k)(1) of this title), the reference to a preceding calendar year in paragraph (2)(A) of such subsection (b) shall be deemed a reference to the calendar year before the calendar year in which the determination under subsection (a) of such section 430 of this title is made, and the reference to a calendar year in paragraph (2)(B) of such subsection (b) shall be deemed a reference to 1992).
(D)
(2)
(A) A year shall not be counted as the year of an individual’s death or eligibility for purposes of this subsection or subsection (i) in any case where such individual was entitled to a disability insurance benefit for any of the 12 months immediately preceding the month of such death or eligibility (but there shall be counted instead the year of the individual’s eligibility for the disability insurance benefit or benefits to which he was entitled during such 12 months).
(B)
In the case of an individual who was entitled to a disability insurance benefit for any of the 12 months before the month in which he became entitled to an old-age insurance benefit, became reentitled to a disability insurance benefit, or died, the primary insurance amount for determining any benefit attributable to that entitlement, reentitlement, or death is the greater of—
(i) the primary insurance amount upon which such disability insurance benefit was based, increased by the amount of each general benefit increase (as defined in subsection (i)(3)), and each increase provided under subsection (i)(2), that would have applied to such primary insurance amount had the individual remained entitled to such disability insurance benefit until the month in which he became so entitled or reentitled or died, or
(ii) the amount computed under paragraph (1)(C).
(C) In the case of an individual who was entitled to a disability insurance benefit for any month, and with respect to whom a primary insurance amount is required to be computed at any time after the close of the period of the individual’s disability (whether because of such individual’s subsequent entitlement to old-age insurance benefits or to a disability insurance benefit based upon a subsequent period of disability, or because of such individual’s death), the primary insurance amount so computed may in no case be less than the primary insurance amount with respect to which such former disability insurance benefit was most recently determined.
(3)
(A)
Paragraph (1) applies only to an individual who was not eligible for an old-age insurance benefit prior to January 1979 and who in that or any succeeding month—
(i) becomes eligible for such a benefit,
(ii) becomes eligible for a disability insurance benefit, or
(iii) dies,
and (except for subparagraph (C)(i) thereof) it applies to every such individual except to the extent otherwise provided by paragraph (4).
(B)
For purposes of this subchapter, an individual is deemed to be eligible—
(i) for old-age insurance benefits, for months beginning with the month in which he attains age 62, or
(ii) for disability insurance benefits, for months beginning with the month in which his period of disability began as provided under section 416(i)(2)(C) of this title,
except as provided in paragraph (2)(A) in cases where fewer than 12 months have elapsed since the termination of a prior period of disability.
(4)
Paragraph (1) (except for subparagraph (C)(i) thereof) does not apply to the computation or recomputation of a primary insurance amount for—
(A) an individual who was eligible for a disability insurance benefit for a month prior to January 1979 unless, prior to the month in which occurs the event described in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of paragraph (3)(A), there occurs a period of at least 12 consecutive months for which he was not entitled to a disability insurance benefit, or
(B)
an individual who had wages or self-employment income credited for one or more years prior to 1979, and who was not eligible for an old-age or disability insurance benefit, and did not die, prior to January 1979, if in the year for which the computation or recomputation would be made the individual’s primary insurance amount would be greater if computed or recomputed—
(i) under this subsection as in effect in December 1978, for purposes of old-age insurance benefits in the case of an individual who becomes eligible for such benefits prior to 1984, or
(ii) as provided by subsection (d), in the case of an individual to whom such section applies.
In determining whether an individual’s primary insurance amount would be greater if computed or recomputed as provided in subparagraph (B), (I) the table of benefits in effect in December 1978, as modified by paragraph (6), shall be applied without regard to any increases in that table which may become effective (in accordance with subsection (i)(4)) for years after 1978 (subject to clause (iii) of subsection (i)(2)(A)) and (II) such individual’s average monthly wage shall be computed as provided by subsection (b)(4).
(5)
(A) Subject to subparagraphs (B), (C), (D) and (E), for purposes of computing the primary insurance amount (after December 1978) of an individual to whom paragraph (1) does not apply (other than an individual described in paragraph (4)(B)), this section as in effect in December 1978 shall remain in effect, except that, effective for January 1979, the dollar amount specified in paragraph (3) of this subsection shall be increased to $11.50.
(B)
(i) Subject to clauses (ii), (iii), and (iv), and notwithstanding any other provision of law, the primary insurance amount of any individual described in subparagraph (C) shall be, in lieu of the primary insurance amount as computed pursuant to any of the provisions referred to in subparagraph (D), the primary insurance amount computed under subsection (a) of this section as in effect in December 1978, without regard to subsections (b)(4) and (c) of this section as so in effect.
(ii) The computation of a primary insurance amount under this subparagraph shall be subject to section 104(j)(2) of the Social Security Amendments of 1972 (relating to the number of elapsed years under subsection (b)).
(iii) In computing a primary insurance amount under this subparagraph, the dollar amount specified in paragraph (3) of subsection (a) (as in effect in December 1978) shall be increased to $11.50.
(iv)
In the case of an individual to whom subsection (d) applies, the primary insurance amount of such individual shall be the greater of—
(I) the primary insurance amount computed under the preceding clauses of this subparagraph, or(II) the primary insurance amount computed under subsection (d).
(C)
An individual is described in this subparagraph if—
(i) paragraph (1) does not apply to such individual by reason of such individual’s eligibility for an old-age or disability insurance benefit, or the individual’s death, prior to 1979, and
(ii) such individual’s primary insurance amount computed under this section as in effect immediately before November 5, 1990, would have been computed under the provisions described in subparagraph (D).
(D)
The provisions described in this subparagraph are—
(i) the provisions of this subsection as in effect prior to July 30, 1965, if such provisions would preclude the use of wages prior to 1951 in the computation of the primary insurance amount,
(ii) the provisions of section 409 of this title as in effect prior to August 28, 1950, and
(iii) the provisions of subsection (d) as in effect prior to December 20, 1977.
(E) For purposes of this paragraph, the table for determining primary insurance amounts and maximum family benefits contained in this section in December 1978 shall be revised as provided by subsection (i) for each year after 1978.
(6)
(A) In applying the table of benefits in effect in December 1978 under this section for purposes of the last sentence of paragraph (4), such table, revised as provided by subsection (i), as applicable, shall be extended for average monthly wages of less than $76.00 and primary insurance benefits (as determined under subsection (d)) of less than $16.20.
(B) The Commissioner of Social Security shall determine and promulgate in regulations the methodology for extending the table under subparagraph (A).
(7)
(A)
In the case of an individual whose primary insurance amount would be computed under paragraph (1) of this subsection, who—
(i) attains age 62 after 1985 (except where he or she became entitled to a disability insurance benefit before 1986 and remained so entitled in any of the 12 months immediately preceding his or her attainment of age 62), or
(ii) would attain age 62 after 1985 and becomes eligible for a disability insurance benefit after 1985,
and who first becomes eligible after 1985 for a monthly periodic payment (including a payment determined under subparagraph (C), but excluding (I) a payment under the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 or 1937 [45 U.S.C. 231 et seq., 228a et seq.], (II) a payment by a social security system of a foreign country based on an agreement concluded between the United States and such foreign country pursuant to section 433 of this title, and (III) a payment based wholly on service as a member of a uniformed service (as defined in section 410(m) of this title)) which is based in whole or in part upon his or her earnings for service which did not constitute “employment” as defined in section 410 of this title for purposes of this subchapter (hereafter in this paragraph and in subsection (d)(3) referred to as “noncovered service”), the primary insurance amount of that individual during his or her concurrent entitlement to such monthly periodic payment and to old-age or disability insurance benefits shall be computed or recomputed under subparagraph (B).
(B)
(i) If paragraph (1) of this subsection would apply to such an individual (except for subparagraph (A) of this paragraph), there shall first be computed an amount equal to the individual’s primary insurance amount under paragraph (1) of this subsection, except that for purposes of such computation the percentage of the individual’s average indexed monthly earnings established by subparagraph (A)(i) of paragraph (1) shall be the percent specified in clause (ii). There shall then be computed (without regard to this paragraph) a second amount, which shall be equal to the individual’s primary insurance amount under paragraph (1) of this subsection, except that such second amount shall be reduced by an amount equal to one-half of the portion of the monthly periodic payment which is attributable to noncovered service performed after 1956 (with such attribution being based on the proportionate number of years of such noncovered service) and to which the individual is entitled (or is deemed to be entitled) for the initial month of his or her concurrent entitlement to such monthly periodic payment and old-age or disability insurance benefits. The individual’s primary insurance amount shall be the larger of the two amounts computed under this subparagraph (before the application of subsection (i)) and shall be deemed to be computed under paragraph (1) of this subsection for the purpose of applying other provisions of this subchapter.
(ii)
For purposes of clause (i), the percent specified in this clause is—
(I) 80.0 percent with respect to individuals who become eligible (as defined in paragraph (3)(B)) for old-age insurance benefits (or became eligible as so defined for disability insurance benefits before attaining age 62) in 1986;(II) 70.0 percent with respect to individuals who so become eligible in 1987;(III) 60.0 percent with respect to individuals who so become eligible in 1988;(IV) 50.0 percent with respect to individuals who so become eligible in 1989; and(V) 40.0 percent with respect to individuals who so become eligible in 1990 or thereafter.
(C)
(i) Any periodic payment which otherwise meets the requirements of subparagraph (A), but which is paid on other than a monthly basis, shall be allocated on a basis equivalent to a monthly payment (as determined by the Commissioner of Social Security), and such equivalent monthly payment shall constitute a monthly periodic payment for purposes of this paragraph.
(ii) In the case of an individual who has elected to receive a periodic payment that has been reduced so as to provide a survivor’s benefit to any other individual, the payment shall be deemed to be increased (for purposes of any computation under this paragraph or subsection (d)(3)) by the amount of such reduction.
(iii) For purposes of this paragraph, the term “periodic payment” includes a payment payable in a lump sum if it is a commutation of, or a substitute for, periodic payments.
(D) This paragraph shall not apply in the case of an individual who has 30 years or more of coverage. In the case of an individual who has more than 20 years of coverage but less than 30 years of coverage (as so defined), the percent specified in the applicable subdivision of subparagraph (B)(ii) shall (if such percent is smaller than the applicable percent specified in the following table) be deemed to be the applicable percent specified in the following table:

If the number of such individual’s years of coverage (as so defined) is:

The applicable percent is:

29

85 percent  

28

80 percent  

27

75 percent  

26

70 percent  

25

65 percent  

24

60 percent  

23

55 percent  

22

50 percent  

21

45 percent.

For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “year of coverage” shall have the meaning provided in paragraph (1)(C)(ii), except that the reference to “15 percent” therein shall be deemed to be a reference to “25 percent”.

(E)
This paragraph shall not apply in the case of an individual whose eligibility for old-age or disability insurance benefits is based on an agreement concluded pursuant to section 433 of this title or an individual who on January 1, 1984
(i) is an employee performing service to which social security coverage is extended on that date solely by reason of the amendments made by section 101 of the Social Security Amendments of 1983; or
(ii) is an employee of a nonprofit organization which (on December 31, 1983) did not have in effect a waiver certificate under section 3121(k) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 and to the employees of which social security coverage is extended on that date solely by reason of the amendments made by section 102 of that Act, unless social security coverage had previously extended to service performed by such individual as an employee of that organization under a waiver certificate which was subsequently (prior to December 31, 1983) terminated.
(b)
Average indexed monthly earnings; average monthly wage
(1)
An individual’s average indexed monthly earnings shall be equal to the quotient obtained by dividing—
(A) the total (after adjustment under paragraph (3)) of his wages paid in and self-employment income credited to his benefit computation years (determined under paragraph (2)), by
(B) the number of months in those years.
(2)
(A)
The number of an individual’s benefit computation years equals the number of elapsed years reduced—
(i) in the case of an individual who is entitled to old-age insurance benefits (except as provided in the second sentence of this subparagraph), or who has died, by 5 years, and
(ii) in the case of an individual who is entitled to disability insurance benefits, by the number of years equal to one-fifth of such individual’s elapsed years (disregarding any resulting fractional part of a year), but not by more than 5 years.
Clause (ii), once applicable with respect to any individual, shall continue to apply for purposes of determining such individual’s primary insurance amount for purposes of any subsequent eligibility for disability or old-age insurance benefits unless prior to the month in which such eligibility begins there occurs a period of at least 12 consecutive months for which he was not entitled to a disability or an old-age insurance benefit. If an individual described in clause (ii) is living with a child (of such individual or his or her spouse) under the age of 3 in any calendar year which is included in such individual’s computatio
(B)
For purposes of this subsection with respect to any individual—
(i) the term “benefit computation years” means those computation base years, equal in number to the number determined under subparagraph (A), for which the total of such individual’s wages and self-employment income, after adjustment under paragraph (3), is the largest;
(ii)
the term “computation base years” means the calendar years after 1950 and before—
(I) in the case of an individual entitled to old-age insurance benefits, the year in which occurred (whether by reason of section 402(j)(1) of this title or otherwise) the first month of that entitlement; or(II) in the case of an individual who has died (without having become entitled to old-age insurance benefits), the year succeeding the year of his death;
except that such term excludes any calendar year entirely included in a period of disability; and
(iii) the term “number of elapsed years” means (except as otherwise provided by section 104(j)(2) of the Social Security Amendments of 1972) the number of calendar years after 1950 (or, if later, the year in which the individual attained age 21) and before the year in which the individual died, or, if it occurred earlier (but after 1960), the year in which he attained age 62; except that such term excludes any calendar year any part of which is included in a period of disability.
(3)
(A)
Except as provided by subparagraph (B), the wages paid in and self-employment income credited to each of an individual’s computation base years for purposes of the selection therefrom of benefit computation years under paragraph (2) shall be deemed to be equal to the product of—
(i) the wages and self-employment income paid in or credited to such year (as determined without regard to this subparagraph), and
(ii)
the quotient obtained by dividing—
(I) the national average wage index (as defined in section 409(k)(1) of this title) for the second calendar year preceding the earliest of the year of the individual’s death, eligibility for an old-age insurance benefit, or eligibility for a disability insurance benefit (except that the year in which the individual dies, or becomes eligible, shall not be considered as such year if the individual was entitled to disability insurance benefits for any month in the 12-month period immediately preceding such death or eligibility, but there shall be counted instead the year of the individual’s eligibility for the disability insurance benefit to which he was entitled in such 12-month period), by(II) the national average wage index (as so defined) for the computation base year for which the determination is made.
(B)
Wages paid in or self-employment income credited to an individual’s computation base year which—
(i) occurs after the second calendar year specified in subparagraph (A)(ii)(I), or
(ii) is a year treated under subsection (f)(2)(C) as though it were the last year of the period specified in paragraph (2)(B)(ii),
shall be available for use in determining an individual’s benefit computation years, but without applying subparagraph (A) of this paragraph.
(4) For purposes of determining the average monthly wage of an individual whose primary insurance amount is computed (after 1978) under subsection (a) or (d) as in effect (except with respect to the table contained therein) in December 1978, by reason of subsection (a)(4)(B), this subsection as in effect in December 1978 shall remain in effect, except that paragraph (2)(C) (as then in effect) shall be deemed to provide that “computation base years” include only calendar years in the period after 1950 (or 1936, if applicable) and prior to the year in which occurred the first month for which the individual was eligible (as defined in subsection (a)(3)(B) as in effect in January 1979) for an old-age or disability insurance benefit, or, if earlier, the year in which he died. Any calendar year all of which is included in a period of disability shall not be included as a computation base year for such purposes.
(c)
Application of prior provisions in certain cases

Subject to the amendments made by section 5117 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990, this subsection as in effect in December 1978 shall remain in effect with respect to an individual to whom subsection (a)(1) does not apply by reason of the individual’s eligibility for an old-age or disability insurance benefit, or the individual’s death, prior to 1979.

(d)
Primary insurance amount under 1939 Act
(1)
For purposes of column I of the table appearing in subsection (a), as that subsection was in effect in December 1977, an individual’s primary insurance benefit shall be computed as follows:
(A) The individual’s average monthly wage shall be determined as provided in subsection (b), as in effect in December 1977 (but without regard to paragraph (4) thereof and subject to section 104(j)(2) of the Social Security Amendments of 1972), except that for purposes of paragraphs (2)(C) and (3) of that subsection (as so in effect) 1936 shall be used instead of 1950.
(B)
For purposes of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of subsection (b)(2) (as so in effect)—
(i)
the total wages prior to 1951 (as defined in subparagraph (C) of this paragraph) of an individual—
(I) shall, in the case of an individual who attained age 21 prior to 1950, be divided by the number of years (hereinafter in this subparagraph referred to as the “divisor”) elapsing after the year in which the individual attained age 20, or 1936 if later, and prior to the earlier of the year of death or 1951, except that such divisor shall not include any calendar year entirely included in a period of disability, and in no case shall the divisor be less than one, and(II) shall, in the case of an individual who died before 1950 and before attaining age 21, be divided by the number of years (hereinafter in this subparagraph referred to as the “divisor”) elapsing after the second year prior to the year of death, or 1936 if later, and prior to the year of death, and in no case shall the divisor be less than one; and
(ii) the total wages prior to 1951 (as defined in subparagraph (C) of this paragraph) of an individual who either attained age 21 after 1949 or died after 1949 before attaining age 21, shall be divided by the number of years (hereinafter in this subparagraph referred to as the “divisor”) elapsing after 1949 and prior to 1951.
The quotient so obtained shall be deemed to be the individual’s wages credited to each of the years which were used in computing the amount of the divisor, except that—
(iii) if the quotient exceeds $3,000, only $3,000 shall be deemed to be the individual’s wages for each of the years which were used in computing the amount of the divisor, and the remainder of the individual’s total wages prior to 1951 (I) if less than $3,000, shall be deemed credited to the computation base year (as defined in subsection (b)(2) as in effect in December 1977) immediately preceding the earliest year used in computing the amount of the divisor, or (II) if $3,000 or more, shall be deemed credited, in $3,000 increments, to the computation base year (as so defined) immediately preceding the earliest year used in computing the amount of the divisor and to each of the computation base years (as so defined) consecutively preceding that year, with any remainder less than $3,000 being credited to the computation base year (as so defined) immediately preceding the earliest year to which a full $3,000 increment was credited; and
(iv) no more than $42,000 may be taken into account, for purposes of this subparagraph, as total wages after 1936 and prior to 1951.
(C) For the purposes of subparagraph (B), “total wages prior to 1951” with respect to an individual means the sum of (i) remuneration credited to such individual prior to 1951 on the records of the Commissioner of Social Security, (ii) wages deemed paid prior to 1951 to such individual under section 417 of this title, (iii) compensation under the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 [45 U.S.C. 228a et seq.] prior to 1951 creditable to him pursuant to this subchapter, and (iv) wages deemed paid prior to 1951 to such individual under section 431 of this title.
(D) The individual’s primary insurance benefit shall be 40 percent of the first $50 of his average monthly wage as computed under this subsection, plus 10 percent of the next $200 of his average monthly wage, increased by 1 percent for each increment year. The number of increment years is the number, not more than 14 nor less than 4, that is equal to the individual’s total wages prior to 1951 divided by $1,650 (disregarding any fraction).
(2)
The provisions of this subsection shall be applicable only in the case of an individual—
(A) with respect to whom at least one of the quarters elapsing prior to 1951 is a quarter of coverage;
(B) who attained age 22 after 1950 and with respect to whom less than six of the quarters elapsing after 1950 are quarters of coverage, or who attained such age before 1951; and
(C)
(i) who becomes entitled to benefits under section 402(a) or 423 of this title or who dies, or
(ii) whose primary insurance amount is required to be recomputed under paragraph (2), (6), or (7) of subsection (f) or under section 431 of this title.
(3)
In the case of an individual whose primary insurance amount is not computed under paragraph (1) of subsection (a) by reason of paragraph (4)(B)(ii) of that subsection, who—
(A) attains age 62 after 1985 (except where he or she became entitled to a disability insurance benefit before 1986, and remained so entitled in any of the 12 months immediately preceding his or her attainment of age 62), or
(B) would attain age 62 after 1985 and becomes eligible for a disability insurance benefit after 1985,
and who first becomes eligible after 1985 for a monthly periodic payment (including a payment determined under subsection (a)(7)(C), but excluding (I) a payment under the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 or 1937 [45 U.S.C. 231 et seq., 228a et seq.], (II) a payment by a social security system of a foreign country based on an agreement concluded between the United States and such foreign country pursuant to section 433 of this title, and (III) a payment based wholly on service as a member of a uniformed service (as defined in section 410(m) of this title)) which is based (in whole or in part) upon his or her earnings in noncovered service, the primary insurance amount of such individual during his or her concurrent entitlement to such monthly periodic payment and to old-age or disability insurance benefits shall be the primary insurance amount computed or recomputed under this subsection (without regard to this paragraph and before the application of subsection (i)) reduced by an amount equal to the smaller of—
(i) one-half of the primary insurance amount (computed without regard to this paragraph and before the application of subsection (i)), or
(ii) one-half of the portion of the monthly periodic payment (or payment determined under subsection (a)(7)(C)) which is attributable to noncovered service performed after 1956 (with such attribution being based on the proportionate number of years of such noncovered service) and to which that individual is entitled (or is deemed to be entitled) for the initial month of such concurrent entitlement.
This paragraph shall not apply in the case of any individual to whom subsection (a)(7) would not apply by reason of subparagraph (E) or the first sentence of subparagraph (D) thereof.
(e)
Certain wages and self-employment income not to be counted
For the purposes of subsections (b) and (d)—
(1) in computing an individual’s average indexed monthly earnings or, in the case of an individual whose primary insurance amount is computed under subsection (a) as in effect prior to January 1979, average monthly wage, there shall not be counted the excess over $3,600 in the case of any calendar year after 1950 and before 1955, the excess over $4,200 in the case of any calendar year after 1954 and before 1959, the excess over $4,800 in the case of any calendar year after 1958 and before 1966, the excess over $6,600 in the case of any calendar year after 1965 and before 1968, the excess over $7,800 in the case of any calendar year after 1967 and before 1972, the excess over $9,000 in the case of any calendar year after 1971 and before 1973, the excess over $10,800 in the case of any calendar year after 1972 and before 1974, the excess over $13,200 in the case of any calendar year after 1973 and before 1975, and the excess over an amount equal to the contribution and benefit base (as determined under section 430 of this title) in the case of any calendar year after 1974 with respect to which such contribution and benefit base is effective, (before the application, in the case of average indexed monthly earnings, of subsection (b)(3)(A)) of (A) the wages paid to him in such year, plus (B) the self-employment income credited to such year (as determined under section 412 of this title); and
(2) if an individual’s average indexed monthly earnings or, in the case of an individual whose primary insurance amount is computed under subsection (a) as in effect prior to January 1979, average monthly wage, computed under subsection (b) or for the purposes of subsection (d) is not a multiple of $1, it shall be reduced to the next lower multiple of $1.
(f)
Recomputation of benefits
(1) After an individual’s primary insurance amount has been determined under this section, there shall be no recomputation of such individual’s primary insurance amount except as provided in this subsection or, in the case of a World War II veteran who died prior to July 27, 1954, as provided in section 417(b) of this title.
(2)
(A) If an individual has wages or self-employment income for a year after 1978 for any part of which he is entitled to old-age or disability insurance benefits, the Commissioner of Social Security shall, at such time or times and within such period as the Commissioner may by regulation prescribe, recompute the individual’s primary insurance amount for that year.
(B) For the purpose of applying subparagraph (A) of subsection (a)(1) to the average indexed monthly earnings of an individual to whom that subsection applies and who receives a recomputation under this paragraph, there shall be used, in lieu of the amounts established by subsection (a)(1)(B) for purposes of clauses (i) and (ii) of subsection (a)(1)(A), the amounts so established that were (or, in the case of an individual described in subsection (a)(4)(B), would have been) used in the computation of such individual’s primary insurance amount prior to the application of this subsection.
(C) A recomputation of any individual’s primary insurance amount under this paragraph shall be made as provided in subsection (a)(1) as though the year with respect to which it is made is the last year of the period specified in subsection (b)(2)(B)(ii); and subsection (b)(3)(A) shall apply with respect to any such recomputation as it applied in the computation of such individual’s primary insurance amount prior to the application of this subsection.
(D)
A recomputation under this paragraph with respect to any year shall be effective—
(i) in the case of an individual who did not die in that year, for monthly benefits beginning with benefits for January of the following year; or
(ii) in the case of an individual who died in that year, for monthly benefits beginning with benefits for the month in which he died.
(3) Repealed. Pub. L. 95–216, title II, § 201(f)(2), Dec. 20, 1977, 91 Stat. 1521.
(4) A recomputation shall be effective under this subsection only if it increases the primary insurance amount by at least $1.
(5) In the case of a man who became entitled to old-age insurance benefits and died before the month in which he attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), the Commissioner of Social Security shall recompute his primary insurance amount as provided in subsection (a) as though he became entitled to old-age insurance benefits in the month in which he died; except that (i) his computation base years referred to in subsection (b)(2) shall include the year in which he died, and (ii) his elapsed years referred to in subsection (b)(3) shall not include the year in which he died or any year thereafter. Such recomputation of such primary insurance amount shall be effective for and after the month in which he died.
(6) Upon the death after 1967 of an individual entitled to benefits under section 402(a) or section 423 of this title, if any person is entitled to monthly benefits or a lump-sum death payment, on the wages and self-employment income of such individual, the Commissioner of Social Security shall recompute the decedent’s primary insurance amount, but only if the decedent during his lifetime was paid compensation which was treated under section 405(o) of this title as remuneration for employment.
(7) This subsection as in effect in December 1978 shall continue to apply to the recomputation of a primary insurance amount computed under subsection (a) or (d) as in effect (without regard to the table in subsection (a)) in that month, and, where appropriate, under subsection (d) as in effect in December 1977, including a primary insurance amount computed under any such subsection whose operation is modified as a result of the amendments made by section 5117 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990. For purposes of recomputing a primary insurance amount determined under subsection (a) or (d) (as so in effect) in the case of an individual to whom those subsections apply by reason of subsection (a)(4)(B) as in effect after December 1978, no remuneration shall be taken into account for the year in which the individual initially became eligible for an old-age or disability insurance benefit or died, or for any year thereafter, and (effective January 1982) the recomputation shall be modified by the application of subsection (a)(6) where applicable.
(8) The Commissioner of Social Security shall recompute the primary insurance amounts applicable to beneficiaries whose benefits are based on a primary insurance amount which was computed under subsection (a)(3) effective prior to January 1979, or would have been so computed if the dollar amount specified therein were $11.50. Such recomputation shall be effective January 1979, and shall include the effect of the increase in the dollar amount provided by subsection (a)(1)(C)(i). Such primary insurance amount shall be deemed to be provided under such section for purposes of subsection (i).
(9)
(A) In the case of an individual who becomes entitled to a periodic payment determined under subsection (a)(7)(A) (including a payment determined under subsection (a)(7)(C)) in a month subsequent to the first month in which he or she becomes entitled to an old-age or disability insurance benefit, and whose primary insurance amount has been computed without regard to either such subsection or subsection (d)(3), such individual’s primary insurance amount
(B)
If an individual’s primary insurance amount has been computed under subsection (a)(7) or (d)(3), and it becomes necessary to recompute that primary insurance amount under this subsection—
(i) so as to increase the monthly benefit amount payable with respect to such primary insurance amount (except in the case of the individual’s death), such increase shall be determined as though the recomputed primary insurance amount were being computed under subsection (a)(7) or (d)(3), or
(ii) by reason of the individual’s death, such primary insurance amount shall be recomputed without regard to (and as though it had never been computed with regard to) subsection (a)(7) or (d)(3).
(g)
Rounding of benefits

The amount of any monthly benefit computed under section 402 or 423 of this title which (after any reduction under sections 403(a) and 424a of this title and any deduction under section 403(b) of this title, and after any deduction under section 1395s(a)(1) of this title) is not a multiple of $1 shall be rounded to the next lower multiple of $1.

(h)
Service of certain Public Health Service Officers
(1) Notwithstanding the provisions of subchapter III of chapter 83 of title 5, remuneration paid for service to which the provisions of section 410(l)(1) of this title are applicable and which is performed by an individual as a commissioned officer of the Reserve Corps of the Public Health Service prior to July 1, 1960, shall not be included in computing entitlement to or the amount of any monthly benefit under this subchapter, on the basis of his wages and self-employment income, for any month after June 1960 and prior to the first month with respect to which the Director of the Office of Personnel Management certifies to the Commissioner of Social Security that, by reason of a waiver filed as provided in paragraph (2), no further annuity will be paid to him, his wife, and his children, or, if he has died, to his widow and children, under subchapter III of chapter 83 of title 5 on the basis of such service.
(2) In the case of a monthly benefit for a month prior to that in which the individual, on whose wages and self-employment income such benefit is based, dies, the waiver must be filed by such individual; and such waiver shall be irrevocable and shall constitute a waiver on behalf of himself, his wife, and his children. If such individual did not file such a waiver before he died, then in the case of a benefit for the month in which he died or any month thereafter, such waiver must be filed by his widow, if any, and by or on behalf of all his children, if any; and such waivers shall be irrevocable. Such a waiver by a child shall be filed by his legal guardian or guardians, or, in the absence thereof, by the person (or persons) who has the child in his care.
(i)
Cost-of-living increases in benefits
(1)
For purposes of this subsection—
(A) the term “base quarter” means (i) the calendar quarter ending on September 30 in each year after 1982, or (ii) any other calendar quarter in which occurs the effective month of a general benefit increase under this subchapter;
(B) the term “cost-of-living computation quarter” means a base quarter, as defined in subparagraph (A)(i), with respect to which the applicable increase percentage is greater than zero; except that there shall be no cost-of-living computation quarter in any calendar year if in the year prior to such year a law has been enacted providing a general benefit increase under this subchapter or if in such prior year such a general benefit increase becomes effective;
(C)
the term “applicable increase percentage” means—
(i) with respect to a base quarter or cost-of-living computation quarter in any calendar year before 1984, or in any calendar year after 1983 and before 1989 for which the OASDI fund ratio is 15.0 percent or more, or in any calendar year after 1988 for which the OASDI fund ratio is 20.0 percent or more, the CPI increase percentage; and
(ii) with respect to a base quarter or cost-of-living computation quarter in any calendar year after 1983 and before 1989 for which the OASDI fund ratio is less than 15.0 percent, or in any calendar year after 1988 for which the OASDI fund ratio is less than 20.0 percent, the CPI increase percentage or the wage increase percentage, whichever (with respect to that quarter) is the lower;
(D) the term “CPI increase percentage”, with respect to a base quarter or cost-of-living computation quarter in any calendar year, means the percentage (rounded to the nearest one-tenth of 1 percent) by which the Consumer Price Index for that quarter (as prepared by the Department of Labor) exceeds such index for the most recent prior calendar quarter which was a base quarter under subparagraph (A)(ii) or, if later, the most recent cost-of-living computation quarter under subparagraph (B);
(E) the term “wage increase percentage”, with respect to a base quarter or cost-of-living computation quarter in any calendar year, means the percentage (rounded to the nearest one-tenth of 1 percent) by which the national average wage index (as defined in section 409(k)(1) of this title) for the year immediately preceding such calendar year exceeds such index for the year immediately preceding the most recent prior calendar year which included a base quarter under subparagraph (A)(ii) or, if later, which included a cost-of-living computation quarter;
(F)
the term “OASDI fund ratio”, with respect to any calendar year, means the ratio of—
(i) the combined balance in the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund as of the beginning of such year, including the taxes transferred under section 401(a) of this title on the first day of such year and reduced by the outstanding amount of any loan (including interest thereon) theretofore made to either such Fund from the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund under section 401(l) of this title, to
(ii) the total amount which (as estimated by the Commissioner of Social Security) will be paid from the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund during such calendar year for all purposes authorized by section 401 of this title (other than payments of interest on, or repayments of, loans from the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund under section 401(l) of this title), but excluding any transfer payments between such trust funds and reducing the amount of any transfers to the Railroad Retirement Account by the amount of any transfers into either such trust fund from that Account; 1
1 So in original. Probably should be followed by “and”.
(G) the Consumer Price Index for a base quarter, a cost-of-living computation quarter, or any other calendar quarter shall be the arithmetical mean of such index for the 3 months in such quarter.
(2)
(A)
(i) The Commissioner of Social Security shall determine each year beginning with 1975 (subject to the limitation in paragraph (1)(B)) whether the base quarter (as defined in paragraph (1)(A)(i)) in such year is a cost-of-living computation quarter.
(ii)
If the Commissioner of Social Security determines that the base quarter in any year is a cost-of-living computation quarter, the Commissioner shall, effective with the month of December of that year as provided in subparagraph (B), increase—
(I) the benefit amount to which individuals are entitled for that month under section 427 or 428 of this title,(II) the primary insurance amount of each other individual on which benefit entitlement is based under this subchapter, and(III) the amount of total monthly benefits based on any primary insurance amount which is permitted under section 403 of this title (and such total shall be increased, unless otherwise so increased under another provision of this subchapter, at the same time as such primary insurance amount) or, in the case of a primary insurance amount computed under subsection (a) as in effect (without regard to the table contained therein) prior to January 1979, the amount to which the beneficiaries may be entitled under section 403 of this title as in effect in December 1978, except as provided by section 403(a)(7) and (8) of this title as in effect after December 1978.
The increase shall be derived by multiplying each of the amounts described in subdivisions (I), (II), and (III) (including each of those amounts as previously increased under this subparagraph) by the applicable increase percentage; and any amount so increased that is not a multiple of $0.10 shall be decreased to the next lower multiple of $0.10. Any increase under this subsection in a primary insurance amount determined under subparagraph (C)(i) of subsection (a)(1) shall be applied after the initial determination of such primary insurance amount under that subparagraph (with the amount of such increase, in the case of an individual who becomes eligible for old-age or disability insurance benefits or dies in a calendar year after 1979, being determined from the range of possible primary insurance amounts published by the Commissioner of Social Security under the last sentence of subparagraph (D)).
(iii) In the case of an individual who becomes eligible for an old-age or disability insurance benefit, or who dies prior to becoming so eligible, in a year in which there occurs an increase provided under clause (ii), the individual’s primary insurance amount (without regard to the time of entitlement to that benefit) shall be increased (unless otherwise so increased under another provision of this subchapter and, with respect to a primary insurance amount determined under subsection (a)(1)(C)(i)(I) in the case of an individual to whom that subsection (as in effect in December 1981) applied, subject to the provisions of subsection (a)(1)(C)(i) and clauses (iv) and (v) of this subparagraph (as then in effect)) by the amount of that increase and subsequent applicable increases, but only with respect to benefits payable for months after November of that year.
(B) The increase provided by subparagraph (A) with respect to a particular cost-of-living computation quarter shall apply in the case of monthly benefits under this subchapter for months after November of the calendar year in which occurred such cost-of-living computation quarter, and in the case of lump-sum death payments with respect to deaths occurring after November of such calendar year.
(C)
(i) Whenever the Commissioner of Social Security determines that a base quarter in a calendar year is also a cost-of-living computation quarter, the Commissioner shall notify the House Committee on Ways and Means and the Senate Committee on Finance of such determination within 30 days after the close of such quarter, indicating the amount of the benefit increase to be provided, the Commissioner’s estimate of the extent to which the cost of such increase would be met by an increase in the contribution and benefit base under section 430 of this title and the estimated amount of the increase in such base, the actuarial estimates of the effect of such increase, and the actuarial assumptions and methodology used in preparing such estimates.
(ii) The Commissioner of Social Security shall determine and promulgate the OASDI fund ratio for the current calendar year on or before November 1 of the current calendar year, based upon the most recent data then available. The Commissioner of Social Security shall include a statement of the fund ratio and the national average wage index (as defined in section 409(k)(1) of this title) and a statement of the effect such ratio and the level of such index may have upon benefit increases under this subsection in any notification made under clause (i) and any determination published under subparagraph (D).
(D) If the Commissioner of Social Security determines that a base quarter in a calendar year is also a cost-of-living computation quarter, the Commissioner shall publish in the Federal Register within 45 days after the close of such quarter a determination that a benefit increase is resultantly required and the percentage thereof. The Commissioner shall also publish in the Federal Register at that time (i) a revision of the range of the primary insurance amounts which are possible after the application of this subsection based on the dollar amount specified in subparagraph (C)(i) of subsection (a)(1) (with such revised primary insurance amounts constituting the increased amounts determined for purposes of such subparagraph (C)(i) under this subsection), or specified in subsection (a)(3) as in effect prior to 1979, and (ii) a revision of the range of maximum family benefits which correspond to such primary insurance amounts (with such maximum benefits being effective notwithstanding section 403(a) of this title except for paragraph (3)(B) thereof (or paragraph (2) thereof as in effect prior to 1979)). Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, such revision of maximum family benefits shall be subject to paragraph (6) of section 403(a) of this title (as added by section 101(a)(3) of the Social Security Disability Amendments of 1980).
(3) As used in this subsection, the term “general benefit increase under this subchapter” means an increase (other than an increase under this subsection) in all primary insurance amounts on which monthly insurance benefits under this subchapter are based.
(4) This subsection as in effect in December 1978, and as amended by sections 111(a)(6), 111(b)(2), and 112 of the Social Security Amendments of 1983 and by section 9001 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1986, shall continue to apply to subsections (a) and (d), as then in effect and as amended by section 5117 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990, for purposes of computing the primary insurance amount of an individual to whom subsection (a), as in effect after December 1978, does not apply (including an individual to whom subsection (a) does not apply in any year by reason of paragraph (4)(B) of that subsection (but the application of this subsection in such cases shall be modified by the application of subdivision (I) in the last sentence of paragraph (4) of that subsection)), except that for this purpose, in applying paragraphs (2)(A)(ii), (2)(D)(iv), and (2)(D)(v) of this subsection as in effect in December 1978, the phrase “increased to the next higher multiple of $0.10” shall be deemed to read “decreased to the next lower multiple of $0.10”. For purposes of computing primary insurance amounts and maximum family benefits (other than primary insurance amounts and maximum family benefits for individuals to whom such paragraph (4)(B) applies), the Commissioner of Social Security shall revise the table of benefits contained in subsection (a), as in effect in December 1978, in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (2)(D) of this subsection as then in effect, except that the requirement in such paragraph (2)(D) that the Commissioner of Social Security publish such revision of the table of benefits in the Federal Register shall not apply.
(5)
(A)
If—
(i) with respect to any calendar year the “applicable increase percentage” was determined under clause (ii) of paragraph (1)(C) rather than under clause (i) of such paragraph, and the increase becoming effective under paragraph (2) in such year was accordingly determined on the basis of the wage increase percentage rather than the CPI increase percentage (or there was no such increase becoming effective under paragraph (2) in that year because there was no wage increase percentage greater than zero), and
(ii) for any subsequent calendar year in which an increase under paragraph (2) becomes effective the OASDI fund ratio is greater than 32.0 percent,
then each of the amounts described in subdivisions (I), (II), and (III) of paragraph (2)(A)(ii), as increased under paragraph (2) effective with the month of December in such subsequent calendar year, shall be further increased (effective with such month) by an additional percentage, which shall be determined under subparagraph (B) and shall apply as provided in subparagraph (C). Any amount so increased that is not a multiple of $0.10 shall be decreased to the next lower multiple of $0.10.
(B)
The applicable additional percentage by which the amounts described in subdivisions (I), (II), and (III) of paragraph (2)(A)(ii) are to be further increased under subparagraph (A) in the subsequent calendar year involved shall be the amount derived by—
(i) subtracting (I) the compounded percentage benefit increases that were actually paid under paragraph (2) and this paragraph from (II) the compounded percentage benefit increases that would have been paid if all increases under paragraph (2) had been made on the basis of the CPI increase percentage,
(ii) dividing the difference by the sum of the compounded percentage in clause (i)(I) and 100 percent, and
(iii) multiplying such quotient by 100 so as to yield such applicable additional percentage (which shall be rounded to the nearest one-tenth of 1 percent),
with the compounded increases referred to in clause (i) being measured—
(iv) in the case of amounts described in subdivision (I) of paragraph (2)(A)(ii), over the period beginning with the calendar year in which monthly benefits described in such subdivision were first increased on the basis of the wage increase percentage and ending with the year before such subsequent calendar year, and
(v) in the case of amounts described in subdivisions (II) and (III) of paragraph (2)(A)(ii), over the period beginning with the calendar year in which the individual whose primary insurance amount is increased under such subdivision (II) became eligible (as defined in subsection (a)(3)(B)) for the old-age or disability insurance benefit that is being increased under this subsection, or died before becoming so eligible, and ending with the year before such subsequent calendar year;
except that if the Commissioner of Social Security determines in any case that the application (in accordance with subparagraph (C)) of the additional percentage as computed under the preceding provisions of this subparagraph would cause the OASDI fund ratio to fall below 32.0 percent in the calendar year immediately following such subsequent year, the Commissioner shall reduce such applicable additional percentage to the extent necessary to ensure that the OASDI fund ratio will remain at or above 32.0 percent through the end of such following year.
(C) Any applicable additional percentage increase in an amount described in subdivision (I), (II), or (III) of paragraph (2)(A)(ii), made under this paragraph in any calendar year, shall thereafter be treated for all the purposes of this chapter as a part of the increase made in such amount under paragraph (2) for that year.
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title II, § 215, as added Aug. 28, 1950, ch. 809, title I, § 104(a), 64 Stat. 492, 506; amended July 18, 1952, ch. 945, §§ 2(a), (b)(1), 3(c), 6(a), (b), 66 Stat. 767, 768, 770, 771, 776; Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1206, title I, §§ 102(a)–(d), (e)(1)–(4), 104(d), 106(c), 68 Stat. 1062–1068, 1078, 1079; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, title I, §§ 103(c)(4), (5), 109(a), 115(a)–(c), 70 Stat. 818, 830, 832, 833; Pub. L. 85–840, title I, §§ 101(a)–(d), 102(d), title II, § 205(m), Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 1013–1016, 1020, 1025; Pub. L. 86–415, § 7, Apr. 8, 1960, 74 Stat. 35; Pub. L. 86–778, title I, § 103(j)(2)(C), title II, § 211(n), title III, §§ 303(a)–(e), 304(a), Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 937, 958, 960–962, 966; Pub. L. 87–64, title I, §§ 101(a), 102(d), June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 131, 135; Pub. L. 89–97, title III, §§ 301(a), (b), 302(a)–(d), 303(e), 304(k), 320(a)(4), July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 361, 363–365, 367, 370, 393; Pub. L. 90–248, title I, §§ 101(a), (c), (d), 108(a)(4), 155(a)(1)–(6), title IV, § 403(b), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 824, 827, 834, 864, 865, 931; Pub. L. 91–172, title X, § 1002(a), (c), (d), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 737, 740; Pub. L. 92–5, title II, §§ 201(a), (c), (d), 203(a)(4), Mar. 17, 1971, 85 Stat. 6, 9, 10; Pub. L. 92–336, title II, §§ 201(a), (c)–(f), 202(a)(1), (3), 203(a)(4), July 1, 1972, 86 Stat. 406, 410–412, 416, 418; Pub. L. 92–603, title I, §§ 101(a), (c)–(e), 104(b), 134, 142(b), (c), 144(a)(1), Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1333, 1334, 1340, 1362, 1368, 1369; Pub. L. 93–66, title II, § 203(a)(4), July 9, 1973, 87 Stat. 153; Pub. L. 93–233, §§ 1(h)(1), 2(a), 3(a)–(h), 5(a)(4), Dec. 31, 1973, 87 Stat. 948, 952, 953; Pub. L. 95–216, title I, § 103(d), title II, § 201, Dec. 20, 1977, 91 Stat. 1514, 1519; Pub. L. 96–265, title I, §§ 101(b)(3), (4), 102(a), June 9, 1980, 94 Stat. 442, 443; Pub. L. 96–473, § 6(d), Oct. 19, 1980, 94 Stat. 2265; Pub. L. 97–35, title XXII, §§ 2201(a), (b)(1)–(9), (c)(1)–(5), 2206(a), (b)(5)–(7), Aug. 13, 1981,
§ 416.
Additional definitions
For the purposes of this subchapter—
(a)
Spouse; surviving spouse
(1) The term “spouse” means a wife as defined in subsection (b) or a husband as defined in subsection (f).
(2) The term “surviving spouse” means a widow as defined in subsection (c) or a widower as defined in subsection (g).
(b)
Wife

The term “wife” means the wife of an individual, but only if she (1) is the mother of his son or daughter, (2) was married to him for a period of not less than one year immediately preceding the day on which her application is filed, or (3) in the month prior to the month of her marriage to him (A) was entitled to, or on application therefor and attainment of age 62 in such prior month would have been entitled to, benefits under subsection (b), (e), or (h) of section 402 of this title, (B) had attained age eighteen and was entitled to, or on application therefor would have been entitled to, benefits under subsection (d) of such section (subject, however, to section 402(s) of this title), or (C) was entitled to, or upon application therefor and attainment of the required age (if any) would have been entitled to, a widow’s, child’s (after attainment of age 18), or parent’s insurance annuity under section 231a of title 45. For purposes of clause (2), a wife shall be deemed to have been married to an individual for a period of one year throughout the month in which occurs the first anniversary of her marriage to such individual. For purposes of subparagraph (C) of section 402(b)(1) of this title, a divorced wife shall be deemed not to be married throughout the month in which she becomes divorced.

(c)
Widow
(1) The term “widow” (except when used in the first sentence of section 402(i) of this title) means the surviving wife of an individual, but only if (A) she is the mother of his son or daughter, (B) she legally adopted his son or daughter while she was married to him and while such son or daughter was under the age of eighteen, (C) he legally adopted her son or daughter while she was married to him and while such son or daughter was under the age of eighteen, (D) she was married to him at the time both of them legally adopted a child under the age of eighteen, (E) except as provided in paragraph (2), she was married to him for a period of not less than nine months immediately prior to the day on which he died, or (F) in the month prior to the month of her marriage to him (i) she was entitled to, or on application therefor and attainment of age 62 in such prior month would have been entitled to, benefits under subsection (b), (e), or (h) of section 402 of this title, (ii) she had attained age eighteen and was entitled to, or on application therefor would have been entitled to, benefits under subsection (d) of such section (subject, however, to section 402(s) of this title), or (iii) she was entitled to, or upon application therefor and attainment of the required age (if any) would have been entitled to, a widow’s, child’s (after attainment of age 18), or parent’s insurance annuity under section 231a of title 45.
(2)
The requirements of paragraph (1)(E) in connection with the surviving wife of an individual shall be treated as satisfied if—
(A) the individual had been married prior to the individual’s marriage to the surviving wife,
(B) the prior wife was institutionalized during the individual’s marriage to the prior wife due to mental incompetence or similar incapacity,
(C) during the period of the prior wife’s institutionalization, the individual would have divorced the prior wife and married the surviving wife, but the individual did not do so because such divorce would have been unlawful, by reason of the prior wife’s institutionalization, under the laws of the State in which the individual was domiciled at the time (as determined based on evidence satisfactory to the Commissioner of Social Security),
(D) the prior wife continued to remain institutionalized up to the time of her death, and
(E) the individual married the surviving wife within 60 days after the prior wife’s death.
(d)
Divorced spouses; divorce
(1) The term “divorced wife” means a woman divorced from an individual, but only if she had been married to such individual for a period of 10 years immediately before the date the divorce became effective.
(2) The term “surviving divorced wife” means a woman divorced from an individual who has died, but only if she had been married to the individual for a period of 10 years immediately before the date the divorce became effective.
(3) The term “surviving divorced mother” means a woman divorced from an individual who has died, but only if (A) she is the mother of his son or daughter, (B) she legally adopted his son or daughter while she was married to him and while such son or daughter was under the age of 18, (C) he legally adopted her son or daughter while she was married to him and while such son or daughter was under the age of 18, or (D) she was married to him at the time both of them legally adopted a child under the age of 18.
(4) The term “divorced husband” means a man divorced from an individual, but only if he had been married to such individual for a period of 10 years immediately before the date the divorce became effective.
(5) The term “surviving divorced husband” means a man divorced from an individual who has died, but only if he had been married to the individual for a period of 10 years immediately before the divorce became effective.
(6) The term “surviving divorced father” means a man divorced from an individual who has died, but only if (A) he is the father of her son or daughter, (B) he legally adopted her son or daughter while he was married to her and while such son or daughter was under the age of 18, (C) she legally adopted his son or daughter while he was married to her and while such son or daughter was under the age of 18, or (D) he was married to her at the time both of them legally adopted a child under the age of 18.
(7) The term “surviving divorced parent” means a surviving divorced mother as defined in paragraph (3) of this subsection or a surviving divorced father as defined in paragraph (6).
(8) The terms “divorce” and “divorced” refer to a divorce a vinculo matrimonii.
(e)
Child

The term “child” means (1) the child or legally adopted child of an individual, (2) a stepchild who has been such stepchild for not less than one year immediately preceding the day on which application for child’s insurance benefits is filed or (if the insured individual is deceased) not less than nine months immediately preceding the day on which such individual died, and (3) a person who is the grandchild or stepgrandchild of an individual or his spouse, but only if (A) there was no natural or adoptive parent (other than such a parent who was under a disability, as defined in section 423(d) of this title) of such person living at the time (i) such individual became entitled to old-age insurance benefits or disability insurance benefits or died, or (ii) if such individual had a period of disability which continued until such individual became entitled to old-age insurance benefits or disability insurance benefits, or died, at the time such period of disability began, or (B) such person was legally adopted after the death of such individual by such individual’s surviving spouse in an adoption that was decreed by a court of competent jurisdiction within the United States and such person’s natural or adopting parent or stepparent was not living in such individual’s household and making regular contributions toward such person’s support at the time such individual died. For purposes of clause (1), a person shall be deemed, as of the date of death of an individual, to be the legally adopted child of such individual if such person was either living with or receiving at least one-half of his support from such individual at the time of such individual’s death and was legally adopted by such individual’s surviving spouse after such individual’s death but only if (A) proceedings for the adoption of the child had been instituted by such individual before his death, or (B) such child was adopted by such individual’s surviving spouse before the end of two years after (i) the day on which such individual died or (ii) August 28, 1958. For purposes of clause (2), a person who is not the stepchild of an individual shall be deemed the stepchild of such individual if such individual was not the mother or adopting mother or the father or adopting father of such person and such individual and the mother or adopting mother, or the father or adopting father, as the case may be, of such person went through a marriage ceremony resulting in a purported marriage between them which, but for a legal impediment described in the last sentence of subsection (h)(1)(B), would have been a valid marriage. For purposes of clause (2), a child shall be deemed to have been the stepchild of an individual for a period of one year throughout the month in which occurs the expiration of such one year. For purposes of clause (3), a person shall be deemed to have no natural or adoptive parent living (other than a parent who was under a disability) throughout the most recent month in which a natural or adoptive parent (not under a disability) dies.

(f)
Husband

The term “husband” means the husband of an individual, but only if (1) he is the father of her son or daughter, (2) he was married to her for a period of not less than one year immediately preceding the day on which his application is filed, or (3) in the month prior to the month of his marriage to her (A) he was entitled to, or on application therefor and attainment of age 62 in such prior month would have been entitled to, benefits under subsection (c), (f) or (h) of section 402 of this title, (B) he had attained age eighteen and was entitled to, or on application therefor would have been entitled to, benefits under subsection (d) of such section (subject, however, to section 402(s) of this title), or (C) he was entitled to, or upon application therefor and attainment of the required age (if any) he would have been entitled to, a widower’s, child’s (after attainment of age 18), or parent’s insurance annuity under section 231a of title 45. For purposes of clause (2), a husband shall be deemed to have been married to an individual for a period of one year throughout the month in which occurs the first anniversary of his marriage to her. For purposes of subparagraph (C) of section 402(c)(1) of this title, a divorced husband shall be deemed not to be married throughout the month which he becomes divorced.

(g)
Widower
(1) The term “widower” (except when used in the first sentence of section 402(i) of this title) means the surviving husband of an individual, but only if (A) he is the father of her son or daughter, (B) he legally adopted her son or daughter while he was married to her and while such son or daughter was under the age of eighteen, (C) she legally adopted his son or daughter while he was married to her and while such son or daughter was under the age of eighteen, (D) he was married to her at the time both of them legally adopted a child under the age of eighteen, (E) except as provided in paragraph (2), he was married to her for a period of not less than nine months immediately prior to the day on which she died, or (F) in the month before the month of his marriage to her (i) he was entitled to, or on application therefor and attainment of age 62 in such prior month would have been entitled to, benefits under subsection (c), (f) or (h) of section 402 of this title, (ii) he had attained age eighteen and was entitled to, or on application therefor would have been entitled to, benefits under subsection (d) of such section (subject, however, to section 402(s) of this title), or (iii) he was entitled to, or on application therefor and attainment of the required age (if any) he would have been entitled to, a widower’s, child’s (after attainment of age 18), or parent’s insurance annuity under section 231a of title 45.
(2)
The requirements of paragraph (1)(E) in connection with the surviving husband of an individual shall be treated as satisfied if—
(A) the individual had been married prior to the individual’s marriage to the surviving husband,
(B) the prior husband was institutionalized during the individual’s marriage to the prior husband due to mental incompetence or similar incapacity,
(C) during the period of the prior husband’s institutionalization, the individual would have divorced the prior husband and married the surviving husband, but the individual did not do so because such divorce would have been unlawful, by reason of the prior husband’s institutionalization, under the laws of the State in which the individual was domiciled at the time (as determined based on evidence satisfactory to the Commissioner of Social Security),
(D) the prior husband continued to remain institutionalized up to the time of his death, and
(E) the individual married the surviving husband within 60 days after the prior husband’s death.
(h)
Determination of family status
(1)
(A)
(i) An applicant is the wife, husband, widow, or widower of a fully or currently insured individual for purposes of this subchapter if the courts of the State in which such insured individual is domiciled at the time such applicant files and application, or, if such insured individual is dead, the courts of the State in which he was domiciled at the time of death, or, if such insured individual is or was not so domiciled in any State, the courts of the District of Columbia, would find that such applicant and such insured individual were validly married at the time such applicant files such application or, if such insured individual is dead, at the time he died.
(ii) If such courts would not find that such applicant and such insured individual were validly married at such time, such applicant shall, nevertheless be deemed to be the wife, husband, widow, or widower, as the case may be, of such insured individual if such applicant would, under the laws applied by such courts in determining the devolution of intestate personal property, have the same status with respect to the taking of such property as a wife, husband, widow, or widower of such insured individual.
(B)
(i) In any case where under subparagraph (A) an applicant is not (and is not deemed to be) the wife, widow, husband, or widower of a fully or currently insured individual, or where under subsection (b), (c), (d), (f), or (g) such applicant is not the wife, divorced wife, widow, surviving divorced wife, husband, divorced husband, widower, or surviving divorced husband of such individual, but it is established to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Social Security that such applicant in good faith went through a marriage ceremony with such individual resulting in a purported marriage between them which, but for a legal impediment not known to the applicant at the time of such ceremony, would have been a valid marriage, then, for purposes of subparagraph (A) and subsections (b), (c), (d), (f), and (g), such purported marriage shall be deemed to be a valid marriage. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, in the case of any person who would be deemed under the preceding sentence a wife, widow, husband, or widower of the insured individual, such marriage shall not be deemed to be a valid marriage unless the applicant and the insured individual were living in the same household at the time of the death of the insured individual or (if the insured individual is living) at the time the applicant files the application. A marriage that is deemed to be a valid marriage by reason of the preceding sentence shall continue to be deemed a valid marriage if the insured individual and the person entitled to benefits as the wife or husband of the insured individual are no longer living in the same household at the time of the death of such insured individual.
(ii) The provisions of clause (i) shall not apply if the Commissioner of Social Security determines, on the basis of information brought to the Commissioner’s attention, that such applicant entered into such purported marriage with such insured individual with knowledge that it would not be a valid marriage.
(iii) The entitlement to a monthly benefit under subsection (b) or (c) of section 402 of this title, based on the wages and self-employment income of such insured individual, of a person who would not be deemed to be a wife or husband of such insured individual but for this subparagraph, shall end with the month before the month in which such person enters into a marriage, valid without regard to this subparagraph, with a person other than such insured individual.
(iv) For purposes of this subparagraph, a legal impediment to the validity of a purported marriage includes only an impediment (I) resulting from the lack of dissolution of a previous marriage or otherwise arising out of such previous marriage or its dissolution, or (II) resulting from a defect in the procedure followed in connection with such purported marriage.
(2)
(A) In determining whether an applicant is the child or parent of a fully or currently insured individual for purposes of this subchapter, the Commissioner of Social Security shall apply such law as would be applied in determining the devolution of intestate personal property by the courts of the State in which such insured individual is domiciled at the time such applicant files application, or, if such insured individual is dead, by the courts of the State in which he was domiciled at the time of his death, or, if such insured individual is or was not so domiciled in any State, by the courts of the District of Columbia. Applicants who according to such law would have the same status relative to taking intestate personal property as a child or parent shall be deemed such.
(B) If an applicant is a son or daughter of a fully or currently insured individual but is not (and is not deemed to be) the child of such insured individual under subparagraph (A), such applicant shall nevertheless be deemed to be the child of such insured individual if such insured individual and the mother or father, as the case may be, of such applicant went through a marriage ceremony resulting in a purported marriage between them which, but for a legal impediment described in the last sentence of paragraph (1)(B), would have been a valid marriage.
(3)
An applicant who is the son or daughter of a fully or currently insured individual, but who is not (and is not deemed to be) the child of such insured individual under paragraph (2) of this subsection, shall nevertheless be deemed to be the child of such insured individual if:
(A)
in the case of an insured individual entitled to old-age insurance benefits (who was not, in the month preceding such entitlement, entitled to disability insurance benefits)—
(i)
such insured individual—
(I) has acknowledged in writing that the applicant is his or her son or daughter,(II) has been decreed by a court to be the mother or father of the applicant, or(III) has been ordered by a court to contribute to the support of the applicant because the applicant is his or her son or daughter,
and such acknowledgment, court decree, or court order was made not less than one year before such insured individual became entitled to old-age insurance benefits or attained retirement age (as defined in subsection (l)), whichever is earlier; or
(ii) such insured individual is shown by evidence satisfactory to the Commissioner of Social Security to be the mother or father of the applicant and was living with or contributing to the support of the applicant at the time such applicant’s application for benefits was filed;
(B)
in the case of an insured individual entitled to disability insurance benefits, or who was entitled to such benefits in the month preceding the first month for which he or she was entitled to old-age insurance benefits—
(i)
such insured individual—
(I) has acknowledged in writing that the applicant is his or her son or daughter,(II) has been decreed by a court to be the mother or father of the applicant, or(III) has been ordered by a court to contribute to the support of the applicant because the applicant is his or her son or daughter,
and such acknowledgment, court decree, or court order was made before such insured individual’s most recent period of disability began; or
(ii) such insured individual is shown by evidence satisfactory to the Commissioner of Social Security to be the mother or father of the applicant and was living with or contributing to the support of that applicant at the time such applicant’s application for benefits was filed;
(C)
in the case of a deceased individual—
(i)
such insured individual—
(I) had acknowledged in writing that the applicant is his or her son or daughter,(II) had been decreed by a court to be the mother or father of the applicant, or(III) had been ordered by a court to contribute to the support of the applicant because the applicant was his or her son or daughter,
and such acknowledgment, court decree, or court order was made before the death of such insured individual, or
(ii) such insured individual is shown by evidence satisfactory to the Commissioner of Social Security to have been the mother or father of the applicant, and such insured individual was living with or contributing to the support of the applicant at the time such insured individual died.
For purposes of subparagraphs (A)(i) and (B)(i), an acknowledgement, court decree, or court order shall be deemed to have occurred on the first day of the month in which it actually occurred.
(i)
Disability; period of disability
(1) Except for purposes of sections 402(d), 402(e), 402(f), 423, and 425 of this title, the term “disability” means (A) inability to engage in any substantial gainful activity by reason of any medically determinable physical or mental impairment which can be expected to result in death or has lasted or can be expected to last for a continuous period of not less than 12 months, or (B) blindness; and the term “blindness” means central visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better eye with the use of a correcting lens. An eye which is accompanied by a limitation in the fields of vision such that the widest diameter of the visual field subtends an angle no greater than 20 degrees shall be considered for purposes of this paragraph as having a central visual acuity of 20/200 or less. The provisions of paragraphs (2)(A), (2)(B), (3), (4), (5), and (6) of section 423(d) of this title shall be applied for purposes of determining whether an individual is under a disability within the meaning of the first sentence of this paragraph in the same manner as they are applied for purposes of paragraph (1) of such section. Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed as authorizing the Commissioner of Social Security or any other officer or employee of the United States to interfere in any way with the practice of medicine or with relationships between practitioners of medicine and their patients, or to exercise any supervision or control over the administration or operation of any hospital.
(2)
(A) The term “period of disability” means a continuous period (beginning and ending as hereinafter provided in this subsection) during which an individual was under a disability (as defined in paragraph (1)), but only if such period is of not less than five full calendar months’ duration or such individual was entitled to benefits under section 423 of this title for one or more months in such period.
(B) No period of disability shall begin as to any individual unless such individual files an application for a disability determination with respect to such period; and no such period shall begin as to any individual after such individual attains retirement age (as defined in subsection (l)). In the case of a deceased individual, the requirement of an application under the preceding sentence may be satisfied by an application for a disability determination filed with respect to such individual within 3 months after the month in which he died.
(C)
A period of disability shall begin—
(i) on the day the disability began, but only if the individual satisfies the requirements of paragraph (3) on such day; or
(ii) if such individual does not satisfy the requirements of paragraph (3) on such day, then on the first day of the first quarter thereafter in which he satisfies such requirements.
(D) A period of disability shall end with the close of whichever of the following months is the earlier: (i) the month preceding the month in which the individual attains retirement age (as defined in subsection (l)), or (ii) the month preceding (I) the termination month (as defined in section 423(a)(1) of this title), or, if earlier (II) the first month for which no benefit is payable by reason of section 423(e) of this title, where no benefit is payable for any of the succeeding months during the 36-month period referred to in such section. The provisions set forth in section 423(f) of this title with respect to determinations of whether entitlement to benefits under this subchapter or subchapter XVIII based on the disability of any individual is terminated (on the basis of a finding that the physical or mental impairment on the basis of which such benefits are provided has ceased, does not exist, or is not disabling) shall apply in the same manner and to the same extent with respect to determinations of whether a period of disability has ended (on the basis of a finding that the physical or mental impairment on the basis of which the finding of disability was made has ceased, does not exist, or is not disabling).
(E) Except as is otherwise provided in subparagraph (F), no application for a disability determination which is filed more than 12 months after the month prescribed by subparagraph (D) as the month in which the period of disability ends (determined without regard to subparagraph (B) and this subparagraph) shall be accepted as an application for purposes of this paragraph.
(F)
An application for a disability determination which is filed more than 12 months after the month prescribed by subparagraph (D) as the month in which the period of disability ends (determined without regard to subparagraphs (B) and (E)) shall be accepted as an application for purposes of this paragraph if—
(i) in the case of an application filed by or on behalf of an individual with respect to a disability which ends after January 1968, such application is filed not more than 36 months after the month in which such disability ended, such individual is alive at the time the application is filed, and the Commissioner of Social Security finds in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Commissioner that the failure of such individual to file an application for a disability determination within the time specified in subparagraph (E) was attributable to a physical or mental condition of such individual which rendered him incapable of executing such an application, and
(ii)
in the case of an application filed by or on behalf of an individual with respect to a period of disability which ends in or before January 1968—
(I) such application is filed not more than 12 months after January 1968,(II) a previous application for a disability determination has been filed by or on behalf of such individual (1) in or before January 1968, and (2) not more than 36 months after the month in which his disability ended, and(III) the Commissioner of Social Security finds in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Commissioner, that the failure of such individual to file an application within the then specified time period was attributable to a physical or mental condition of such individual which rendered him incapable of executing such an application.
In making a determination under this subsection, with respect to the disability or period of disability of any individual whose application for a determination thereof is accepted solely by reason of the provisions of this subparagraph (F), the provisions of this subsection (other than the provisions of this subparagraph) shall be applied as such provisions are in effect at the time such determination is made.
(G) An application for a disability determination filed before the first day on which the applicant satisfies the requirements for a period of disability under this subsection shall be deemed a valid application (and shall be deemed to have been filed on such first day) only if the applicant satisfies the requirements for a period of disability before the Commissioner of Social Security makes a final decision on the application and no request under section 405(b) of this title for notice and opportunity for a hearing thereon is made or, if such a request is made, before a decision based upon the evidence adduced at the hearing is made (regardless of whether such decision becomes the final decision of the Commissioner of Social Security).
(3)
The requirements referred to in clauses (i) and (ii) of paragraph (2)(C) of this subsection are satisfied by an individual with respect to any quarter only if—
(A) he would have been a fully insured individual (as defined in section 414 of this title) had he attained age 62 and filed application for benefits under section 402(a) of this title on the first day of such quarter; and
(B)
(i) he had not less than 20 quarters of coverage during the 40-quarter period which ends with such quarter, or
(ii) if such quarter ends before he attains (or would attain) age 31, not less than one-half (and not less than 6) of the quarters during the period ending with such quarter and beginning after he attained the age of 21 were quarters of coverage, or (if the number of quarters in such period is less than 12) not less than 6 of the quarters in the 12-quarter period ending with such quarter were quarters of coverage, or
(iii) in the case of an individual (not otherwise insured under clause (i)) who, by reason of clause (ii), had a prior period of disability that began during a period before the quarter in which he or she attained age 31, not less than one-half of the quarters beginning after such individual attained age 21 and ending with such quarter are quarters of coverage, or (if the number of quarters in such period is less than 12) not less than 6 of the quarters in the 12-quarter period ending with such quarter are quarters of coverage;
except that the provisions of subparagraph (B) of this paragraph shall not apply in the case of an individual who is blind (within the meaning of “blindness” as defined in paragraph (1)). For purposes of subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, when the number of quarters in any period is an odd number, such number shall be reduced by one, and a quarter shall not be counted as part of any period if any part of such quarter was included in a prior period of disability unless such quarter was a quarter of coverage.
(j)
Periods of limitation ending on nonwork days

Where this subchapter, any provision of another law of the United States (other than the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) relating to or changing the effect of this subchapter, or any regulation issued by the Commissioner of Social Security pursuant thereto provides for a period within which an act is required to be done which affects eligibility for or the amount of any benefit or payment under this subchapter or is necessary to establish or protect any rights under this subchapter, and such period ends on a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday, or on any other day all or part of which is declared to be a nonwork day for Federal employees by statute or Executive order, then such act shall be considered as done within such period if it is done on the first day thereafter which is not a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday or any other day all or part of which is declared to be a nonwork day for Federal employees by statute or Executive order. For purposes of this subsection, the day on which a period ends shall include the day on which an extension of such period, as authorized by law or by the Commissioner of Social Security pursuant to law, ends. The provisions of this subsection shall not extend the period during which benefits under this subchapter may (pursuant to section 402(j)(1) or 423(b) of this title) be paid for months prior to the day application for such benefits is filed, or during which an application for benefits under this subchapter may (pursuant to section 402(j)(2) or 423(b) of this title) be accepted as such.

(k)
Waiver of nine-month requirement for widow, stepchild, or widower in case of accidental death or in case of serviceman dying in line of duty, or in case of remarriage to same individual
The requirement in clause (E) of subsection (c)(1) or clause (E) of subsection (g)(1) that the surviving spouse of an individual have been married to such individual for a period of not less than nine months immediately prior to the day on which such individual died in order to qualify as such individual’s widow or widower, and the requirement in subsection (e) that the stepchild of a deceased individual have been such stepchild for not less than nine months immediately preceding the day on which such individual died in order to qualify as such individual’s child, shall be deemed to be satisfied, where such individual dies within the applicable nine-month period, if—
(1)
his death—
(A) is accidental, or
(B) occurs in line of duty while he is a member of a uniformed service serving on active duty (as defined in section 410(l)(2) of this title),
unless the Commissioner of Social Security determines that at the time of the marriage involved the individual could not have reasonably been expected to live for nine months, or
(2)
(A) the widow or widower of such individual had been previously married to such individual and subsequently divorced and such requirement would have been satisfied at the time of such divorce if such previous marriage had been terminated by the death of such individual at such time instead of by divorce; or
(B) the stepchild of such individual had been the stepchild of such individual during a previous marriage of such stepchild’s parent to such individual which ended in divorce and such requirement would have been satisfied at the time of such divorce if such previous marriage had been terminated by the death of such individual at such time instead of by divorce;
except that paragraph (2) of this subsection shall not apply if the Commissioner of Social Security determines that at the time of the marriage involved the individual could not have reasonably been expected to live for nine months. For purposes of paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection, the death of an individual is accidental if he receives bodily injuries solely through violent, external, and accidental means and, as a direct result of the bodily injuries and independently of all other causes, loses his life not later than three months after the day on which he receives such bodily injuries.
(l)
Retirement age
(1)
The term “retirement age” means—
(A) with respect to an individual who attains early retirement age (as defined in paragraph (2)) before January 1, 2000, 65 years of age;
(B) with respect to an individual who attains early retirement age after December 31, 1999, and before January 1, 2005, 65 years of age plus the number of months in the age increase factor (as determined under paragraph (3)) for the calendar year in which such individual attains early retirement age;
(C) with respect to an individual who attains early retirement age after December 31, 2004, and before January 1, 2017, 66 years of age;
(D) with respect to an individual who attains early retirement age after December 31, 2016, and before January 1, 2022, 66 years of age plus the number of months in the age increase factor (as determined under paragraph (3)) for the calendar year in which such individual attains early retirement age; and
(E) with respect to an individual who attains early retirement age after December 31, 2021, 67 years of age.
(2) The term “early retirement age” means age 62 in the case of an old-age, wife’s, or husband’s insurance benefit, and age 60 in the case of a widow’s or widower’s insurance benefit.
(3)
The age increase factor for any individual who attains early retirement age in a calendar year within the period to which subparagraph (B) or (D) of paragraph (1) applies shall be determined as follows:
(A) With respect to an individual who attains early retirement age in the 5-year period consisting of the calendar years 2000 through 2004, the age increase factor shall be equal to two-twelfths of the number of months in the period beginning with January 2000 and ending with December of the year in which the individual attains early retirement age.
(B) With respect to an individual who attains early retirement age in the 5-year period consisting of the calendar years 2017 through 2021, the age increase factor shall be equal to two-twelfths of the number of months in the period beginning with January 2017 and ending with December of the year in which the individual attains early retirement age.
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title II, § 216, as added Aug. 28, 1950, ch. 809, title I, § 104(a), 64 Stat. 492, 510; amended July 18, 1952, ch. 945, § 3(d), 66 Stat. 771; Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1206, title I, § 106(d), 68 Stat. 1080; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, title I, §§ 102(a), (d)(12), 103(c)(6), 70 Stat. 809, 815, 818; Pub. L. 85–109, § 1, July 17, 1957, 71 Stat. 308; Pub. L. 85–238, § 3(h), Aug. 30, 1957, 71 Stat. 519; Pub. L. 85–840, title II, §§ 201, 203, 204(a), title III, §§ 301(a)(2), (b)(2), (c)(2), (d), (e), 302(a), 305(b), Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 1020, 1021, 1026–1028, 1030; Pub. L. 86–778, title II, §§ 207(a)–(c), 208(a)–(c), title IV, §§ 402(e), 403(c), title VII, § 703, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 950–952, 968, 969, 994; Pub. L. 87–64, title I, §§ 102(b)(2)(D), (c)(1), (2)(B), (3)(C), 105, June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 134, 135, 139; Pub. L. 88–650, § 1(a)–(c), Oct. 13, 1964, 78 Stat. 1075; Pub. L. 89–97, title III, §§ 303(a)(1), (b)(1), (2), 304(l), 306(c)(13), 308(c), (d)(2)(B), 328(b), 334(a)–(d), 339(a), 344(a), July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 366, 367, 370, 373, 377, 378, 400, 404, 405, 409, 412; Pub. L. 90–248, title I, §§ 104(d)(2), 105(a), 111(a), 150(a), 156(a)–(d), 158(d), 172(a), (b), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 832, 833, 837, 860, 866, 869, 877; Pub. L. 92–603, title I, §§ 104(g), 113(a), 115(b), 116(d), 117(a), 118(b), 145(a), Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1341, 1347, 1349–1351, 1370; Pub. L. 93–445, title III, § 304, Oct. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 1358; Pub. L. 95–216, title III, § 337(a), Dec. 20, 1977, 91 Stat. 1548; Pub. L. 96–265, title III, §§ 303(b)(2)(B), 306(b), June 9, 1980, 94 Stat. 453, 457; Pub. L. 96–473, § 5(a)(2), Oct. 19, 1980, 94 Stat. 2265; Pub. L. 97–35, title XXII, §§ 2202(a)(2), 2203(b)(2), (c)(2), (d)(3), (4), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 835–837; Pub. L. 98–21, title II, § 201(a), (c)(1)(D), title III, §§ 301(c), 303, 304(c), 306(c), 309(j), (k), 332(a), 333(a), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 107, 109, 111, 112, 114, 117, 129; Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VI, §§ 2661(l), 2662(c)(1), 2663(a)(11), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1158, 1159, 1164; Pub. L. 98–460, §§ 2(b), 4(a)(2), Oct. 9, 1984, 98 Stat. 1796, 1800; Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, § 9010(e)(1), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–294; Pub. L. 101–508, title V, §§ 5103(b)(1), 5104(a), 5119(a), (b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–251, 1388–254, 1388–278, 1388–279; Pub. L. 103–296, title I, § 107(a)(4), title III, § 321(c)(6)(H), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1478, 1538; Pub. L. 108–203, title IV, § 414(a)–(c), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 529, 530.)
§ 417.
Benefits for veterans
(a)
Determination of benefits
(1)
For purposes of determining entitlement to and the amount of any monthly benefit for any month after August 1950, or entitlement to and the amount of any lump-sum death payment in case of a death after such month, payable under this subchapter on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of any World War II veteran, and for purposes of section 416(i)(3) of this title, such veteran shall be deemed to have been paid wages (in addition to the wages, if any, actually paid to him) of $160 in each month during any part of which he served in the active military or naval service of the United States during World War II. This subsection shall not be applicable in the case of any monthly benefit or lump-sum death payment if—
(A) a larger such benefit or payment, as the case may be, would be payable without its application; or
(B) a benefit (other than a benefit payable in a lump sum unless it is a commutation of, or a substitute for, periodic payments) which is based, in whole or in part, upon the active military or naval service of such veteran during World War II is determined by any agency or wholly owned instrumentality of the United States (other than the Department of Veterans Affairs) to be payable by it under any other law of the United States or under a system established by such agency or instrumentality.
The provisions of clause (B) of this paragraph shall not apply in the case of any monthly benefit or lump-sum death payment under this subchapter if its application would reduce by $0.50 or less the primary insurance amount (as computed under section 415 of this title prior to any recomputation thereof pursuant to section 415(f) of this title) of the individual on whose wages and self-employment income such benefit or payment is based. The provisions of clause (B) of this paragraph shall also not apply for purposes of section 416(i)(3) of this title.
(2) Upon application for benefits or a lump-sum death payment on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of any World War II veteran, the Commissioner of Social Security shall make a decision without regard to clause (B) of paragraph (1) of this subsection unless the Commissioner has been notified by some other agency or instrumentality of the United States that, on the basis of the military or naval service of such veteran during World War II, a benefit described in clause (B) of paragraph (1) of this subsection has been determined by such agency or instrumentality to be payable by it. If the Commissioner has not been so notified, the Commissioner of Social Security shall then ascertain whether some other agency or wholly owned instrumentality of the United States has decided that a benefit described in clause (B) of paragraph (1) of this subsection is payable by it. If any such agency or instrumentality has decided, or thereafter decides, that such a benefit is payable by it, it shall so notify the Commissioner of Social Security, and the Commissioner of Social Security shall certify no further benefits for payment or shall recompute the amount of any further benefits payable, as may be required by paragraph (1) of this subsection.
(3) Any agency or wholly owned instrumentality of the United States which is authorized by any law of the United States to pay benefits, or has a system of benefits which are based, in whole or in part, on military or naval service during World War II shall, at the request of the Commissioner of Social Security, certify to the Commissioner, with respect to any veteran, such information as the Commissioner of Social Security deems necessary to carry out the Commissioner’s functions under paragraph (2) of this subsection.
(b)
Determination of insurance status
(1)
Subject to paragraph (3), any World War II veteran who died during the period of three years immediately following his separation from the active military or naval service of the United States shall be deemed to have died a fully insured individual whose primary insurance amount is the amount determined under section 415(c) of this title as in effect in December 1978. Notwithstanding section 415(d) of this title as in effect in December 1978, the primary insurance benefit (for purposes of section 415(c) of this title as in effect in December 1978) of such veteran shall be determined as provided in this subchapter as in effect prior to August 28, 1950, except that the 1 per centum addition provided for in section 409(a)(4)(B) of this title as in effect prior to August 28, 1950, shall be applicable only with respect to calendar years prior to 1951. This subsection shall not be applicable in the case of any monthly benefit or lump-sum death payment if—
(A) a larger such benefit or payment, as the case may be, would be payable without its application;
(B) any pension or compensation is determined by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs to be payable by him on the basis of the death of such veteran;
(C) the death of the veteran occurred while he was in the active military or naval service of the United States; or
(D) such veteran has been discharged or released from the active military or naval service of the United States subsequent to July 26, 1951.
(2) Upon an application for benefits or a lump-sum death payment on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of any World War II veteran, the Commissioner of Social Security shall make a decision without regard to paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection unless the Commissioner has been notified by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs that pension or compensation is determined to be payable by that Secretary by reason of the death of such veteran. The Commissioner of Social Security shall thereupon report such decision to the Secretary of Veterans Affairs. If the Secretary of Veterans Affairs in any such case has made an adjudication or thereafter makes an adjudication that any pension or compensation is payable under any law administered by it, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs shall notify the Commissioner of Social Security, and the Commissioner of Social Security shall certify no further benefits for payment, or shall recompute the amount of any further benefits payable, as may be required by paragraph (1) of this subsection. Any payments theretofore certified by the Commissioner of Social Security on the basis of paragraph (1) of this subsection to any individual, not exceeding the amount of any accrued pension or compensation payable to him by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, shall (notwithstanding the provisions of section 5301 of title 38) be deemed to have been paid to him by that Secretary on account of such accrued pension or compensation. No such payment certified by the Commissioner of Social Security, and no payment certified by the Commissioner for any month prior to the first month for which any pension or compensation is paid by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs shall be deemed by reason of this subsection to have been an erroneous payment.
(3)
(A) The preceding provisions of this subsection shall apply for purposes of determining the entitlement to benefits under section 402 of this title, based on the primary insurance amount of the deceased World War II veteran, of any surviving individual only if such surviving individual makes application for such benefits before the end of the 18-month period after November 1990.
(B) Subparagraph (A) shall not apply if any person is entitled to benefits under section 402 of this title based on the primary insurance amount of such veteran for the month preceding the month in which such application is made.
(c)
Filing proof of support

In the case of any World War II veteran to whom subsection (a) is applicable, proof of support required under section 402(h) of this title may be filed by a parent at any time prior to July 1951 or prior to the expiration of two years after the date of the death of such veteran, whichever is the later.

(d)
Definitions
For the purposes of this section—
(1) The term “World War II” means the period beginning with September 16, 1940, and ending at the close of July 24, 1947.
(2) The term “World War II veteran” means any individual who served in the active military or naval service of the United States at any time during World War II and who, if discharged or released therefrom, was so discharged or released under conditions other than dishonorable after active service of ninety days or more or by reason of a disability or injury incurred or aggravated in service in line of duty; but such term shall not include any individual who died while in the active military or naval service of the United States if his death was inflicted (other than by an enemy of the United States) as lawful punishment for a military or naval offense.
(e)
Determination based on wages and self-employment
(1)
For purposes of determining entitlement to and the amount of any monthly benefit or lump-sum death payment payable under this subchapter on the basis of wages and self-employment income of any veteran (as defined in paragraph (4) of this subsection), and for purposes of section 416(i)(3) of this title, such veteran shall be deemed to have been paid wages (in addition to the wages, if any, actually paid to him) of $160 in each month during any part of which he served in the active military or naval service of the United States on or after July 25, 1947, and prior to January 1, 1957. This subsection shall not be applicable in the case of any monthly benefit or lump-sum death payment if—
(A) a larger such benefit or payment, as the case may be, would be payable without its application; or
(B) a benefit (other than a benefit payable in a lump sum unless it is a commutation of, or a substitute for, periodic payments) which is based, in whole or in part, upon the active military or naval service of such veteran on or after July 25, 1947, and prior to January 1, 1957, is determined by any agency or wholly owned instrumentality of the United States (other than the Department of Veterans Affairs) to be payable by it under any other law of the United States or under a system established by such agency or instrumentality.
The provisions of clause (B) of this paragraph shall not apply in the case of any monthly benefit or lump-sum death payment under this subchapter if its application would reduce by $0.50 or less the primary insurance amount (as computed under section 415 of this title prior to any recomputation thereof pursuant to subsection (f) of section 415 of this title) of the individual on whose wages and self-employment income such benefit or payment is based. The provisions of clause (B) of this paragraph shall also not apply for purposes of section 416(i)(3) of this title. In the case of monthly benefits under this subchapter for months after December 1956 (and any lump-sum death payment under this subchapter with respect to a death occurring after December 1956) based on the wages and self-employment income of a veteran who performed service (as a member of a uniformed service) to which the provisions of section 410(l)(1) of this title are applicable, wages which would, but for the provisions of clause (B) of this paragraph, be deemed under this subsection to have been paid to such veteran with respect to his active military or naval service performed after December 1950 shall be deemed to have been paid to him with respect to such service notwithstanding the provisions of such clause, but only if the benefits referred to in such clause which are based (in whole or in part) on such service are payable solely by the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, Coast and Geodetic Survey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Corps, or Public Health Service.
(2) Upon application for benefits or a lump-sum death payment on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of any veteran, the Commissioner of Social Security shall make a decision without regard to clause (B) of paragraph (1) of this subsection unless the Commissioner has been notified by some other agency or instrumentality of the United States that, on the basis of the military or naval service of such veteran on or after July 25, 1947, and prior to January 1, 1957, a benefit described in clause (B) of paragraph (1) of this subsection has been determined by such agency or instrumentality to be payable by it. If the Commissioner has not been so notified, the Commissioner of Social Security shall then ascertain whether some other agency or wholly owned instrumentality of the United States has decided that a benefit described in clause (B) of paragraph (1) of this subsection is payable by it. If any such agency or instrumentality has decided, or thereafter decides, that such a benefit is payable by it, it shall so notify the Commissioner of Social Security, and the Commissioner of Social Security shall certify no further benefits for payment or shall recompute the amount of any further benefits payable, as may be required by paragraph (1) of this subsection.
(3) Any agency or wholly owned instrumentality of the United States which is authorized by any law of the United States to pay benefits, or has a system of benefits which are based, in whole or in part, on military or naval service on or after July 25, 1947, and prior to January 1, 1957, shall, at the request of the Commissioner of Social Security, certify to the Commissioner, with respect to any veteran, such information as the Commissioner of Social Security deems necessary to carry out the Commissioner’s functions under paragraph (2) of this subsection.
(4) For the purposes of this subsection, the term “veteran” means any individual who served in the active military or naval service of the United States at any time on or after July 25, 1947, and prior to January 1, 1957, and who, if discharged or released therefrom, was so discharged or released under conditions other than dishonorable after active service of ninety days or more or by reason of a disability or injury incurred or aggravated in service in line of duty; but such term shall not include any individual who died while in the active military or naval service of the United States if his death was inflicted (other than by an enemy of the United States) as lawful punishment for a military or naval offense.
(f)
Right to annuity; waiver
(1) In any case where a World War II veteran (as defined in subsection (d)(2)) or a veteran (as defined in subsection (e)(4)) has died or shall hereafter die, and his or her surviving spouse or child is entitled under subchapter III of chapter 83 of title 5 to an annuity in the computation of which his or her active military or naval service was included, clause (B) of subsection (a)(1) or clause (B) of subsection (e)(1) shall not operate (solely by reason of such annuity) to make such subsection inapplicable in the case of any monthly benefit under section 402 of this title which is based on his or her wages and self-employment income; except that no such surviving spouse or child shall be entitled under section 402 of this title to any monthly benefit in the computation of which such service is included by reason of this subsection (A) unless such surviving spouse or child after December 1956 waives his or her right to receive such annuity, or (B) for any month prior to the first month with respect to which the Director of the Office of Personnel Management certifies to the Commissioner of Social Security that (by reason of such waiver) no further annuity will be paid to such surviving spouse or child under such subchapter III on the basis of such veteran’s military or civilian service. Any such waiver shall be irrevocable.
(2) Whenever a surviving spouse waives his or her right to receive such annuity such waiver shall constitute a waiver on his or her own behalf; a waiver by a legal guardian or guardians, or, in the absence of a legal guardian, the person (or persons) who has the child in his or her care, of the child’s right to receive such annuity shall constitute a waiver on behalf of such child. Such a waiver with respect to an annuity based on a veteran’s service shall be valid only if the surviving spouse and all children, or, if there is no surviving spouse, all the children, waive their rights to receive annuities under subchapter III of chapter 83 of title 5 based on such veteran’s military or civilian service.
(g)
Appropriation to trust funds
(1)
Within thirty days after April 20, 1983, the Commissioner of Social Security shall determine the amount equal to the excess of—
(A) the actuarial present value as of April 20, 1983, of the past and future benefit payments from the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund, the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, and the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund under this subchapter and subchapter XVIII, together with associated administrative costs, resulting from the operation of this section (other than this subsection) and section 410 of this title as in effect before the enactment of the Social Security Amendments of 1950,1
1 See References in Text note below.
over
(B) any amounts previously transferred from the general fund of the Treasury to such Trust Funds pursuant to the provisions of this subsection as in effect immediately before April 20, 1983.
Such actuarial present value shall be based on the relevant actuarial assumptions set forth in the report of the Board of Trustees of each such Trust Fund for 1983 under sections 401(c) and 1395i(b) of this title. Within thirty days after April 20, 1983, the Secretary of the Treasury shall transfer the amount determined under this paragraph with respect to each such Trust Fund to such Trust Fund from amounts in the general fund of the Treasury not otherwise appropriated.
(2) The Commissioner of Social Security shall revise the amount determined under paragraph (1) with respect to each such Trust Fund in 1985 and each fifth year thereafter through 2010, as determined appropriate by the Commissioner of Social Security from data which becomes available to the Commissioner after the date of the determination under paragraph (1) on the basis of the amount of benefits and administrative expenses actually paid from such Trust Fund under this subchapter or subchapter XVIII and the relevant actuarial assumptions set forth in the report of the Board of Trustees of such Trust Fund for such year under section 401(c) or 1395i(b) of this title. The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall revise the amount determined under paragraph (1) with respect to the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund under subchapter XVIII in 2015 and each fifth year thereafter through such date, and using such data, as the Secretary determines appropriate on the basis of the amount of benefits and administrative expenses actually paid from such Trust Fund under subchapter XVIII and the relevant actuarial assumptions set forth in the report of the Board of Trustees of such Trust Fund for such year under section 1395i(b) of this title. Within 30 days after any such revision, the Secretary of the Treasury, to the extent provided in advance in appropriation Acts, shall transfer to such Trust Fund, from amounts in the general fund of the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, or from such Trust Fund to the general fund of the Treasury, such amounts as the Secretary of the Treasury determines necessary to take into account such revision.
(h)
Determination of veterans status
(1)
For the purposes of this section, any individual who the Commissioner of Social Security finds—
(A) served during World War II (as defined in subsection (d)(1)) in the active military or naval service of a country which was on September 16, 1940, at war with a country with which the United States was at war during World War II;
(B) entered into such active service on or before December 8, 1941;
(C) was a citizen of the United States throughout such period of service or lost his United States citizenship solely because of his entrance into such service;
(D) had resided in the United States for a period or periods aggregating four years during the five-year period ending on the day of, and was domiciled in the United States on the day of, such entrance into such active service; and
(E)
(i) was discharged or released from such service under conditions other than dishonorable after active service of ninety days or more or by reason of a disability or injury incurred or aggravated in service in line of duty, or
(ii) died while in such service,
shall be considered a World War II veteran (as defined in subsection (d)(2)) and such service shall be considered to have been performed in the active military or naval service of the United States.
(2) In the case of any individual to whom paragraph (1) applies, proof of support required under section 402(f) or (h) of this title may be filed at any time prior to the expiration of two years after the date of such individual’s death or August 28, 1958, whichever is the later.
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title II, § 217, as added Aug. 28, 1950, ch. 809, title I, § 105, 64 Stat. 512; amended July 18, 1952, ch. 945, § 5(a), (d)(1), 66 Stat. 773, 775; Aug. 14, 1953, ch. 483, § 1, 67 Stat. 580; Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1206, title I, § 106(e), 68 Stat. 1081; Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 685, § 1, 69 Stat. 621; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 837, title IV, §§ 404(a), (b), 406, 70 Stat. 872, 873, 875; Pub. L. 85–840, title III, § 314(a), (b), Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 1036, 1037; Pub. L. 85–857, § 13(i)(2), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1265; Pub. L. 86–778, title I, § 103(j)(2)(C), Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 937; Pub. L. 89–97, title III, § 322, July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 396; Pub. L. 90–248, title IV, § 403(c), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 932; Pub. L. 94–273, §§ 2(23), 16, Apr. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 376, 379; Pub. L. 95–216, title II, § 205(c), Dec. 20, 1977, 91 Stat. 1529; Pub. L. 97–35, title XXII, § 2201(c)(7), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 832; Pub. L. 97–123, § 2(g), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1661; Pub. L. 98–21, title I, § 151(a), title III, § 308, Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 103, 115; Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VI, § 2663(a)(12), (j)(3)(A)(ii), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1164, 1170; Pub. L. 101–239, title X, § 10208(d)(2)(A)(iv), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2481; Pub. L. 101–508, title V, § 5117(b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–277; Pub. L. 102–40, title IV, § 402(d)(2), May 7, 1991, 105 Stat. 239; Pub. L. 102–54, § 13(q)(3)(A)(i), (D), (E), June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 279; Pub. L. 103–296, title I, § 107(a)(4), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1478; Pub. L. 114–74, title VIII, § 842, Nov. 2, 2015, 129 Stat. 617.)
§ 418.
Voluntary agreements for coverage of State and local employees
(a)
Purpose of agreement
(1) The Commissioner of Social Security shall, at the request of any State, enter into an agreement with such State for the purpose of extending the insurance system established by this subchapter to services performed by individuals as employees of such State or any political subdivision thereof. Each such agreement shall contain such provisions, not inconsistent with the provisions of this section, as the State may request.
(2) Notwithstanding section 410(a) of this title, for the purposes of this subchapter the term “employment” includes any service included under an agreement entered into under this section.
(b)
Definitions
For the purposes of this section—
(1) The term “State” does not include the District of Columbia, Guam, or American Samoa.
(2) The term “political subdivision” includes an instrumentality of (A) a State, (B) one or more political subdivisions of a State, or (C) a State and one or more of its political subdivisions.
(3) The term “employee” includes an officer of a State or political subdivision.
(4) The term “retirement system” means a pension, annuity, retirement, or similar fund or system established by a State or by a political subdivision thereof.
(5) The term “coverage group” means (A) employees of the State other than those engaged in performing service in connection with a proprietary function; (B) employees of a political subdivision of a State other than those engaged in performing service in connection with a proprietary function; (C) employees of a State engaged in performing service in connection with a single proprietary function; or (D) employees of a political subdivision of a State engaged in performing service in connection with a single proprietary function. If under the preceding sentence an employee would be included in more than one coverage group by reason of the fact that he performs service in connection with two or more proprietary functions or in connection with both a proprietary function and a nonproprietary function, he shall be included in only one such coverage group. The determination of the coverage group in which such employee shall be included shall be made in such manner as may be specified in the agreement. Persons employed under section 709 of title 32, who elected under section 6 of the National Guard Technicians Act of 1968 to remain covered by an employee retirement system of, or plan sponsored by, a State or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, shall, for the purposes of this chapter, be employees of the State or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and (notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this paragraph), shall be deemed to be a separate coverage group. For purposes of this section, individuals employed pursuant to an agreement, entered into pursuant to section 1624 of title 7 or section 499n of title 7, between a State and the United States Department of Agriculture to perform services as inspectors of agricultural products may be deemed, at the option of the State, to be employees of the State and (notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this paragraph) shall be deemed to be a separate coverage group.
(c)
Services covered
(1) An agreement under this section shall be applicable to any one or more coverage groups designated by the State.
(2) In the case of each coverage group to which the agreement applies, the agreement must include all services (other than services excluded by or pursuant to subsection (d) or paragraph (3), (5), or (6) of this subsection) performed by individuals as members of such group.
(3)
Such agreement shall, if the State requests it, exclude (in the case of any coverage group) any one or more of the following:
(A) All services in any class or classes of (i) elective positions, (ii) part-time positions, or (iii) positions the compensation for which is on a fee basis;
(B) All services performed by individuals as members of a coverage group in positions covered by a retirement system on the date such agreement is made applicable to such coverage group, but only in the case of individuals who, on such date (or, if later, the date on which they first occupy such positions), are not eligible to become members of such system and whose services in such positions have not already been included under such agreement pursuant to subsection (d)(3).
(4) The Commissioner of Social Security shall, at the request of any State, modify the agreement with such State so as to (A) include any coverage group to which the agreement did not previously apply, or (B) include, in the case of any coverage group to which the agreement applies, services previously excluded from the agreement; but the agreement as so modified may not be inconsistent with the provisions of this section applicable in the case of an original agreement with a State. A modification of an agreement pursuant to clause (B) of the preceding sentence may apply to individuals to whom paragraph (3)(B) of this subsection is applicable (whether or not the previous exclusion of the service of such individuals was pursuant to such paragraph), but only if such individuals are, on the effective date specified in such modification, ineligible to be members of any retirement system or if the modification with respect to such individuals is pursuant to subsection (d)(3).
(5) Such agreement shall, if the State requests it, exclude (in the case of any coverage group) any agricultural labor, or service performed by a student, designated by the State. This paragraph shall apply only with respect to service which is excluded from employment by any provision of section 410(a) of this title other than paragraph (7) of such section and service the remuneration for which is excluded from wages by subparagraph (B) of section 409(a)(7) of this title.
(6)
Such agreement shall exclude—
(A) service performed by an individual who is employed to relieve him from unemployment,
(B) service performed in a hospital, home, or other institution by a patient or inmate thereof,
(C) covered transportation service (as determined under section 410(k) of this title),
(D) service (other than agricultural labor or service performed by a student) which is excluded from employment by any provision of section 410(a) of this title other than paragraph (7) of such section,
(E) service performed by an individual as an employee serving on a temporary basis in case of fire, storm, snow, earthquake, flood, or other similar emergency, and
(F) service described in section 410(a)(7)(F) of this title which is included as “employment” under section 410(a) of this title.
(7) No agreement may be made applicable (either in the original agreement or by any modification thereof) to service performed by any individual to whom paragraph (3)(B) of this subsection is applicable unless such agreement provides (in the case of each coverage group involved) either that the service of any individual to whom such paragraph is applicable and who is a member of such coverage group shall continue to be covered by such agreement in case he thereafter becomes eligible to be a member of a retirement system, or that such service shall cease to be so covered when he becomes eligible to be a member of such a system (but only if the agreement is not already applicable to such system pursuant to subsection (d)(3)), whichever may be desired by the State.
(8)
(A) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the agreement with any State entered into under this section may at the option of the State be modified at any time to exclude service performed by election officials or election workers if the remuneration paid in a calendar year for such service is less than $1,000 with respect to service performed during any calendar year commencing on or after January 1, 1995, ending on or before December 31, 1999, and the adjusted amount determined under subparagraph (B) for any calendar year commencing on or after January 1, 2000, with respect to service performed during such calendar year. Any modification of an agreement pursuant to this paragraph shall be effective with respect to services performed in and after the calendar year in which the modification is mailed or delivered by other means to the Commissioner of Social Security.
(B)
For each year after 1999, the Commissioner of Social Security shall adjust the amount referred to in subparagraph (A) at the same time and in the same manner as is provided under section 415(a)(1)(B)(ii) of this title with respect to the amounts referred to in section 415(a)(1)(B)(i) of this title, except that—
(i) for purposes of this subparagraph, 1997 shall be substituted for the calendar year referred to in section 415(a)(1)(B)(ii)(II) of this title, and
(ii) such amount as so adjusted, if not a multiple of $100, shall be rounded to the next higher multiple of $100 where such amount is a multiple of $50 and to the nearest multiple of $100 in any other case.
The Commissioner of Social Security shall determine and publish in the Federal Register each adjusted amount determined under this subparagraph not later than November 1 preceding the year for which the adjustment is made.
(d)
Positions covered by retirement systems
(1) No agreement with any State may be made applicable (either in the original agreement or by any modification thereof) to any service performed by employees as members of any coverage group in positions covered by a retirement system either (A) on the date such agreement is made applicable to such coverage group, or (B) on September 1, 1954 (except in the case of positions which are, by reason of action by such State or political subdivision thereof, as may be appropriate, taken prior to September 1, 1954, no longer covered by a retirement system on the date referred to in clause (A), and except in the case of positions excluded by paragraph (5)(A) of this subsection). The preceding sentence shall not be applicable to any service performed by an employee as a member of any coverage group in a position (other than a position excluded by paragraph (5)(A) of this subsection) covered by a retirement system on the date an agreement is made applicable to such coverage group if, on such date (or, if later, the date on which such individual first occupies such position), such individual is ineligible to be a member of such system.
(2) It is declared to be the policy of the Congress in enacting the succeeding paragraphs of this subsection that the protection afforded employees in positions covered by a retirement system on the date an agreement under this section is made applicable to service performed in such positions, or receiving periodic benefits under such retirement system at such time, will not be impaired as a result of making the agreement so applicable or as a result of legislative enactment in anticipation thereof.
(3)
Notwithstanding paragraph (1) of this subsection, an agreement with a State may be made applicable (either in the original agreement or by any modification thereof) to service performed by employees in positions covered by a retirement system (including positions specified in paragraph (4) of this subsection but not including positions excluded by or pursuant to paragraph (5)), if the governor of the State, or an official of the State designated by him for the purpose, certifies to the Commissioner of Social Security that the following conditions have been met:
(A) A referendum by secret written ballot was held on the question of whether service in positions covered by such retirement system should be excluded from or included under an agreement under this section;
(B) An opportunity to vote in such referendum was given (and was limited) to eligible employees;
(C) Not less than ninety days’ notice of such referendum was given to all such employees;
(D) Such referendum was conducted under the supervision of the governor or an agency or individual designated by him; and
(E) A majority of the eligible employees voted in favor of including service in such positions under an agreement under this section.
An employee shall be deemed an “eligible employee” for purposes of any referendum with respect to any retirement system if, at the time such referendum was held, he was in a position covered by such retirement system and was a member of such system, and if he was in such a position at the time notice of such referendum was given as required by clause (C) of the preceding sentence; except that he shall not be deemed an “eligible employee” if, at the time the referendum was held, he was in a position to which the State agreement already applied, or if he was in a position excluded by or pursuant to paragraph (5). No referendum with respect to a retirement system shall be valid for purposes of this paragraph unless held within the two-year period which ends on the date of execution of the agreement or modification which extends the insurance system established by this subchapter to such retirement system, nor shall any referendum with respect to a retirement system be valid for purposes of this paragraph if held less than one year after the last previous referendum held with respect to such retirement system.
(4)
For the purposes of subsection (c) of this section, the following employees shall be deemed to be a separate coverage group—
(A) all employees in positions which were covered by the same retirement system on the date the agreement was made applicable to such system (other than employees to whose services the agreement already applied on such date);
(B) all employees in positions which became covered by such system at any time after such date; and
(C) all employees in positions which were covered by such system at any time before such date and to whose services the insurance system established by this subchapter has not been extended before such date because the positions were covered by such retirement system (including employees to whose services the agreement was not applicable on such date because such services were excluded pursuant to subsection (c)(3)(B)).
(5)
(A) Nothing in paragraph (3) of this subsection shall authorize the extension of the insurance system established by this subchapter to service in any policeman’s or fireman’s position.
(B) At the request of the State, any class or classes of positions covered by a retirement system which may be excluded from the agreement pursuant to paragraph (3) or (5) of subsection (c), and to which the agreement does not already apply, may be excluded from the agreement at the time it is made applicable to such retirement system; except that, notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (3)(B) of such subsection, such exclusion may not include any services to which such paragraph (3)(B) is applicable. In the case of any such exclusion, each such class so excluded shall, for purposes of this subsection, constitute a separate retirement system in case of any modification of the agreement thereafter agreed to.
(6)
(A) If a retirement system covers positions of employees of the State and positions of employees of one or more political subdivisions of the State, or covers positions of employees of two or more political subdivisions of the State, then, for purposes of the preceding paragraphs of this subsection, there shall, if the State so desires, be deemed to be a separate retirement system with respect to any one or more of the political subdivisions concerned and, where the retirement system covers positions of employees of the State, a separate retirement system with respect to the State or with respect to the State and any one or more of the political subdivisions concerned. Where a retirement system covering positions of employees of a State and positions of employees of one or more political subdivisions of the State, or covering positions of employees of two or more political subdivisions of the State, is not divided into separate retirement systems pursuant to the preceding sentence or pursuant to subparagraph (C), then the State may, for purposes of subsection (e) only, deem the system to be a separate retirement system with respect to any one or more of the political subdivisions concerned and, where the retirement system covers positions of employees of the State, a separate retirement system with respect to the State or with respect to the State and any one or more of the political subdivisions concerned.
(B) If a retirement system covers positions of employees of one or more institutions of higher learning, then, for purposes of such preceding paragraphs there shall, if the State so desires, be deemed to be a separate retirement system for the employees of each such institution of higher learning. For the purposes of this subparagraph, the term “institutions of higher learning” includes junior colleges and teachers colleges. If a retirement system covers positions of employees of a hospital which is an integral part of a political subdivision, then, for purposes of the preceding paragraphs there shall, if the State so desires, be deemed to be a separate retirement system for the employees of such hospital.
(C) For the purposes of this subsection, any retirement system established by the State of Alaska, California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin, or Hawaii, or any political subdivision of any such State, which, on, before, or after August 1, 1956, is divided into two divisions or parts, one of which is composed of positions of members of such system who desire coverage under an agreement under this section and the other of which is composed of positions of members of such system who do not desire such coverage, shall, if the State so desires and if it is provided that there shall be included in such division or part composed of members desiring such coverage the positions of individuals who become members of such system after such coverage is extended, be deemed to be a separate retirement system with respect to each such division or part. If, in the case of a separate retirement system which is deemed to exist by reason of subparagraph (A) and which has been divided into two divisions or parts pursuant to the first sentence of this subparagraph, individuals become members of such system by reason of action taken by a political subdivision after coverage under an agreement under this section has been extended to the division or part thereof composed of positions of individuals who desire such coverage, the positions of such individuals who become members of such retirement system by reason of the action so taken shall be included in the division or part of such system composed of positions of members who do not desire such coverage if (i) such individuals, on the day before becoming such members, were in the division or part of another separate retirement system (deemed to exist by reason of subparagraph (A)) composed of positions of members of such system who do not desire coverage under an agreement under this section, and (ii) all of the positions in the separate retirement system of which such individuals so become members and all of the positions in the separate retirement system referred to in clause (i) would have been covered by a single retirement system if the State had not taken action to provide for separate retirement systems under this paragraph.
(D)
(i) The position of any individual which is covered by any retirement system to which subparagraph (C) is applicable shall, if such individual is ineligible to become a member of such system on August 1, 1956, or, if later, the day he first occupies such position, be deemed to be covered by the separate retirement system consisting of the positions of members of the division or part who do not desire coverage under the insurance system established under this subchapter.
(ii) Notwithstanding clause (i), the State may, pursuant to subsection (c)(4)(B) and subject to the conditions of continuation or termination of coverage provided for in subsection (c)(7), modify its agreement under this section to include services performed by all individuals described in clause (i) other than those individuals to whose services the agreement already applies. Such individuals shall be deemed (on and after the effective date of the modification) to be in positions covered by the separate retirement system consisting of the positions of members of the division or part who desire coverage under the insurance system established under this subchapter.
(E) An individual who is in a position covered by a retirement system to which subparagraph (C) is applicable and who is not a member of such system but is eligible to become a member thereof shall, for purposes of this subsection (other than paragraph (8) of this subsection), be regarded as a member of such system; except that, in the case of any retirement system a division or part of which is covered under the agreement (either in the original agreement or by a modification thereof), which coverage is agreed to prior to 1960, the preceding provisions of this subparagraph shall apply only if the State so requests and any such individual referred to in such preceding provisions shall, if the State so requests, be treated, after division of the retirement system pursuant to such subparagraph (C), the same as individuals in positions referred to in subparagraph (F).
(F) In the case of any retirement system divided pursuant to subparagraph (C), the position of any member of the division or part composed of positions of members who do not desire coverage may be transferred to the separate retirement system composed of positions of members who desire such coverage if it is so provided in a modification of such agreement which is mailed, or delivered by other means, to the Commissioner of Social Security prior to 1970 or, if later, the expiration of two years after the date on which such agreement, or the modification thereof making the agreement applicable to such separate retirement system, as the case may be, is agreed to, but only if, prior to such modification or such later modification, as the case may be, the individual occupying such position files with the State a written request for such transfer. Notwithstanding subsection (e)(1), any such modification or later modification, providing for the transfer of additional positions within a retirement system previously divided pursuant to subparagraph (C) to the separate retirement system composed of positions of members who desire coverage, shall be effective with respect to services performed after the same effective date as that which was specified in the case of such previous division.
(G)
For the purposes of this subsection, in the case of any retirement system of the State of Florida, Georgia, Minnesota, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, Washington, or Hawaii which covers positions of employees of such State who are compensated in whole or in part from grants made to such State under subchapter III, there shall be deemed to be, if such State so desires, a separate retirement system with respect to any of the following:
(i) the positions of such employees;
(ii) the positions of all employees of such State covered by such retirement system who are employed in the department of such State in which the employees referred to in clause (i) are employed; or
(iii) employees of such State covered by such retirement system who are employed in such department of such State in positions others than those referred to in clause (i).
(7)
The certification by the governor (or an official of the State designated by him for the purpose) required under paragraph (3) of this subsection shall be deemed to have been made, in the case of a division or part (created under subparagraph (C) of paragraph (6) of this subsection or the corresponding provision of prior law) consisting of the positions of members of a retirement system who desire coverage under the agreement under this section, if the governor (or the official so designated) certifies to the Commissioner of Social Security that—
(A) an opportunity to vote by written ballot on the question of whether they wish to be covered under an agreement under this section was given to all individuals who were members of such system at the time the vote was held;
(B) not less than ninety days’ notice of such vote was given to all individuals who were members of such system on the date the notice was issued;
(C) the vote was conducted under the supervision of the governor or an agency or individual designated by him; and
(D) such system was divided into two parts or divisions in accordance with the provisions of subparagraphs (C) and (D) of paragraph (6) of this subsection or the corresponding provision of prior law.
For purposes of this paragraph, an individual in a position to which the State agreement already applied or in a position excluded by or pursuant to paragraph (5) of this subsection shall not be considered a member of the retirement system.
(8)
(A) Notwithstanding paragraph (1) of this subsection, if under the provisions of this subsection an agreement is, after December 31, 1958, made applicable to service performed in positions covered by a retirement system, service performed by an individual in a position covered by such a system may not be excluded from the agreement because such position is also covered under another retirement system.
(B) Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to service performed by an individual in a position covered under a retirement system if such individual, on the day the agreement is made applicable to service performed in positions covered by such retirement system, is not a member of such system and is a member of another system.
(C) If an agreement is made applicable, prior to 1959, to service in positions covered by any retirement system, the preceding provisions of this paragraph shall be applicable in the case of such system if the agreement is modified to so provide.
(D) Except in the case of State agreements modified as provided in subsection (l) and agreements with interstate instrumentalities, nothing in this paragraph shall authorize the application of an agreement to service in any policeman’s or fireman’s position.
(e)
Effective date of agreement; retroactive coverage
(1) Any agreement or modification of an agreement under this section shall be effective with respect to services performed after an effective date specified in such agreement or modification; except that such date may not be earlier than the last day of the sixth calendar year preceding the year in which such agreement or modification, as the case may be, is mailed or delivered by other means to the Commissioner of Social Security.
(2)
In the case of service performed by members of any coverage group—
(A) to which an agreement under this section is made applicable, and
(B) with respect to which the agreement, or modification thereof making the agreement so applicable, specifies an effective date earlier than the date of execution of such agreement and such modification, respectively,
the agreement shall, if so requested by the State, be applicable to such services (to the extent the agreement was not already applicable) performed before such date of execution and after such effective date by any individual as a member of such coverage group if he is such a member on a date, specified by the State, which is earlier than such date of execution, except that in no case may the date so specified be earlier than the date such agreement or such modification, as the case may be, is mailed, or delivered by other means, to the Commissioner of Social Security.
(3) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (2) of this subsection, in the case of services performed by individuals as members of any coverage group to which an agreement under this section is made applicable, and with respect to which there were timely paid in good faith to the Secretary of the Treasury amounts equivalent to the sum of the taxes which would have been imposed by sections 3101 and 3111 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 had such services constituted employment for purposes of chapter 21 of such Code at the time they were performed, and with respect to which refunds were not obtained, such individuals may, if so requested by the State, be deemed to be members of such coverage group on the date designated pursuant to paragraph (2).
(f)
Duration of agreement

No agreement under this section may be terminated, either in its entirety or with respect to any coverage group, on or after April 20, 1983.

(g)
Instrumentalities of two or more States
(1) The Commissioner of Social Security may, at the request of any instrumentality of two or more States, enter into an agreement with such instrumentality for the purpose of extending the insurance system established by this subchapter to services performed by individuals as employees of such instrumentality. Such agreement, to the extent practicable, shall be governed by the provisions of this section applicable in the case of an agreement with a State.
(2)
In the case of any instrumentality of two or more States, if—
(A) employees of such instrumentality are in positions covered by a retirement system of such instrumentality or of any of such States or any of the political subdivisions thereof, and
(B) such retirement system is (on, before, or after August 30, 1957) divided into two divisions or parts, one of which is composed of positions of members of such system who are employees of such instrumentality and who desire coverage under an agreement under this section and the other of which is composed of positions of members of such system who are employees of such instrumentality and who do not desire such coverage, and
(C) it is provided that there shall be included in such division or part composed of the positions of members desiring such coverage the positions of employees of such instrumentality who become members of such system after such coverage is extended,
then such retirement system shall, if such instrumentality so desires, be deemed to be a separate retirement system with respect to each such division or part. An individual who is in a position covered by a retirement system divided pursuant to the preceding sentence and who is not a member of such system but is eligible to become a member thereof shall, for purposes of this subsection, be regarded as a member of such system. Coverage under the agreement of any such individual shall be provided under the same conditions, to the extent practicable, as are applicable in the case of the States to which the provisions of subsection (d)(6)(C) apply. The position of any employee of any such instrumentality which is covered by any retirement system to which the first sentence of this paragraph is applicable shall, if such individual is ineligible to become a member of such system on August 30, 1957, or, if later, the day he first occupies such position, be deemed to be covered by the separate retirement system consisting of the positions of members of the division or part who do not desire coverage under the insurance system established under this subchapter. Services in positions covered by a separate retirement system created pursuant to this subsection (and consisting of the positions of members who desire coverage under an agreement under this section) shall be covered under such agreement on compliance, to the extent practicable, with the same conditions as are applicable to coverage under an agreement under this section of services in positions covered by a separate retirement system created pursuant to subparagraph (C) of subsection (d)(6) or the corresponding provision of prior law (and consisting of the positions of members who desire coverage under such agreement).
(3) Any agreement with any instrumentality of two or more States entered into pursuant to this chapter may, notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (d)(5)(A) and the references thereto in subsections (d)(1) and (d)(3), apply to service performed by employees of such instrumentality in any policeman’s or fireman’s position covered by a retirement system, but only upon compliance, to the extent practicable, with the requirements of subsection (d)(3). For the purpose of the preceding sentence, a retirement system which covers positions of policemen or firemen or both, and other positions shall, if the instrumentality concerned so desires, be deemed to be a separate retirement system with respect to the positions of such policemen or firemen, or both, as the case may be.
(h)
Delegation of functions

The Commissioner of Social Security is authorized, pursuant to agreement with the head of any Federal agency, to delegate any of the Commissioner’s functions under this section to any officer or employee of such agency and otherwise to utilize the services and facilities of such agency in carrying out such functions, and payment therefor shall be in advance or by way of reimbursement, as may be provided in such agreement.

(i)
Wisconsin Retirement Fund
(1) Notwithstanding paragraph (1) of subsection (d), the agreement with the State of Wisconsin may, subject to the provisions of this subsection, be modified so as to apply to service performed by employees in positions covered by the Wisconsin retirement fund or any successor system.
(2) All employees in positions covered by the Wisconsin retirement fund at any time on or after January 1, 1951, shall, for the purposes of subsection (c) only, be deemed to be a separate coverage group; except that there shall be excluded from such separate coverage group all employees in positions to which the agreement applies without regard to this subsection.
(3) The modification pursuant to this subsection shall exclude (in the case of employees in the coverage group established by paragraph (2) of this subsection) service performed by any individual during any period before he is included under the Wisconsin retirement fund.
(4) The modification pursuant to this subsection shall, if the State of Wisconsin requests it, exclude (in the case of employees in the coverage group established by paragraph (2) of this subsection) all service performed in policemen’s positions, all service performed in firemen’s positions, or both.
(j)
Certain positions no longer covered by retirement systems

Notwithstanding subsection (d), an agreement with any State entered into under this section prior to September 1, 1954 may, prior to January 1, 1958, be modified pursuant to subsection (c)(4) so as to apply to services performed by employees, as members of any coverage group to which such agreement already applies (and to which such agreement applied on September 1, 1954), in positions (1) to which such agreement does not already apply, (2) which were covered by a retirement system on the date such agreement was made applicable to such coverage group, and (3) which, by reason of action by such State or political subdivision thereof, as may be appropriate, taken prior to September 1, 1954, are no longer covered by a retirement system on the date such agreement is made applicable to such services.

(k)
Certain employees of State of Utah

Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (d), the agreement with the State of Utah entered into pursuant to this section may be modified pursuant to subsection (c)(4) so as to apply to services performed for any of the following, the employees performing services for each of which shall constitute a separate coverage group: Weber Junior College, Carbon Junior College, Dixie Junior College, Central Utah Vocational School, Salt Lake Area Vocational School, Center for the Adult Blind, Union High School (Roosevelt, Utah), Utah High School Activities Association, State Industrial School, State Training School, State Board of Education, and Utah School Employees Retirement Board. Any modification agreed to prior to January 1, 1955, may be made effective with respect to services performed by employees as members of any of such coverage groups after an effective date specified therein, except that in no case may any such date be earlier than December 31, 1950. Coverage provided for in this subsection shall not be affected by a subsequent change in the name of a group.

(l)
Policemen and firemen in certain States

Any agreement with a State entered into pursuant to this section may, notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (d)(5)(A) and the references thereto in subsections (d)(1) and (d)(3), be modified pursuant to subsection (c)(4) to apply to service performed by employees of such State or any political subdivision thereof in any policeman’s or fireman’s position covered by a retirement system in effect on or after August 1, 1956, but only upon compliance with the requirements of subsection (d)(3). For the purposes of the preceding sentence, a retirement system which covers positions of policemen or firemen, or both, and other positions shall, if the State concerned so desires, be deemed to be a separate retirement system with respect to the positions of such policemen or firemen, or both, as the case may be.

(m)
Positions compensated solely on a fee basis
(1) Notwithstanding any other provision in this section, an agreement entered into under this section may be made applicable to service performed after 1967 in any class or classes of positions compensated solely on a fee basis to which such agreement did not apply prior to 1968 only if the State specifically requests that its agreement be made applicable to such service in such class or classes of positions.
(2) Notwithstanding any other provision in this section, an agreement entered into under this section may be modified, at the option of the State, at any time after 1967, so as to exclude services performed in any class or classes of positions compensation for which is solely on a fee basis.
(3) Any modification made under this subsection shall be effective with respect to services performed after the last day of the calendar year in which the modification is mailed or delivered by other means to the Commissioner of Social Security.
(4) If any class or classes of positions have been excluded from coverage under the State agreement by a modification agreed to under this subsection, the Commissioner of Social Security and the State may not thereafter modify such agreement so as to again make the agreement applicable with respect to such class or classes of positions.
(n)
Optional medicare coverage of current employees
(1) The Commissioner of Social Security shall, at the request of any State, enter into or modify an agreement with such State under this section for the purpose of extending the provisions of subchapter XVIII, and sections 426 and 426–1 of this title, to services performed by employees of such State or any political subdivision thereof who are described in paragraph (2).
(2)
This subsection shall apply only with respect to employees—
(A) whose services are not treated as employment as that term applies under section 410(p) of this title by reason of paragraph (3) of such section; and
(B) who are not otherwise covered under the State’s agreement under this section.
(3) For purposes of sections 426 and 426–1 of this title, services covered under an agreement pursuant to this subsection shall be treated as “medicare qualified government employment”.
(4) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the provisions of this section shall apply with respect to services covered under the agreement pursuant to this subsection.
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title II, § 218, as added Aug. 28, 1950, ch. 809, title I, § 106, 64 Stat. 514; amended June 28, 1952, ch. 483, 66 Stat. 285; Aug. 15, 1953, ch. 504, § 1, 67 Stat. 587; Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1206, title I, § 101(a)(5), (6), (h)(1)–(8), (i)(1), (2), (j), 68 Stat. 1055–1059; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, title I, §§ 103(f), (g), 104(e), (g), 70 Stat. 823, 825, 826; Pub. L. 85–226, Aug. 30, 1957, 71 Stat. 511; Pub. L. 85–227, § 1, Aug. 30, 1957, 71 Stat. 512; Pub. L. 85–229, Aug. 30, 1957, 71 Stat. 513; Pub. L. 85–787, §§ 1, 2, Aug. 27, 1958, 72 Stat. 939; Pub. L. 85–798, §§ 2, 3, Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 964, 965; Pub. L. 85–840, title III, § 315(a)–(c)(1), Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 1038–1040; Pub. L. 86–284, § 2, Sept. 16, 1959, 73 Stat. 566; Pub. L. 86–624, § 30(e), (f), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 420; Pub. L. 86–778, title I, §§ 102(a), (b)(1), (c)(1), (2), (d), (e), (f)(1), (g), (l), 103(i), (j)(2)(G), Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 928–930, 934, 936–938; Pub. L. 87–64, title I, §§ 106, 107, June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 139, 140; Pub. L. 87–878, § 2, Oct. 24, 1962, 76 Stat. 1202; Pub. L. 88–350, § 2, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 240; Pub. L. 88–382, July 23, 1964, 78 Stat. 335; Pub. L. 89–97, title I, § 108(b), title III, §§ 314, 315, July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 338, 385; Pub. L. 90–248, title I, §§ 116(a)–(b)(2), (c), (d), 117, 119(a), 120(a), 121, 122(d), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 840–844; Pub. L. 90–486, § 7, Aug. 13, 1968, 82 Stat. 759; Pub. L. 92–603, title I, § 126, Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1358; Priv. L. 93–107, § 2, Dec. 31, 1974, 88 Stat. 2386; Pub. L. 95–216, title III, §§ 319–321, 353(b), Dec. 20, 1977, 91 Stat. 1541, 1553; Pub. L. 96–265, title V, § 503(a), June 9, 1980, 94 Stat. 470; Pub. L. 98–21, title I, § 103(a), title III, §§ 325(a), 342(a), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 71, 126, 136; Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VI, § 2663(a)(13), (j)(2)(A)(ii), (3)(A)(iii), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1164, 1170; Pub. L. 99–272, title XII, § 12110(a), (b), title XIII, § 13205(c), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 287, 317; Pub. L. 99–509, title IX, § 9002(c)(1), (2)(C)–(E), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1971, 1972; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, § 1883(a)(8), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2916; Pub. L. 100–203, title IV, § 4009(j)(7), title IX, § 9023(c), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–59, 1330–296; Pub. L. 101–239, title X, § 10208(d)(2)(A)(v), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2481; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, § 11332(c), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–470; Pub. L. 103–296, title I, § 107(a)(4)
§ 418a.
Voluntary agreements for coverage of Indian tribal council members
(a)
Purpose of agreement
(1) The Commissioner of Social Security shall, at the request of any Indian tribe, enter into an agreement with such Indian tribe for the purpose of extending the insurance system established by this subchapter to services performed by individuals as members of such Indian tribe’s tribal council. Any agreement with an Indian tribe under this section applies to all members of the tribal council, and shall include all services performed by individuals in their capacity as council members.
(2) Notwithstanding section 410(a) of this title, for the purposes of this subchapter, the term “employment” includes any service included under an agreement entered into under this section.
(b)
Definitions
For the purposes of this section:
(1) The term “member” means, with respect to a tribal council, an individual appointed or elected to serve as a member or the head of the tribal council.
(2) The term “tribal council” means the appointed or elected governing body of a federally recognized Indian tribe.
(c)
Effective date of agreement
(1) Any agreement under this section shall be effective with respect to services performed after an effective date specified in such agreement, provided that such date may not be earlier than the first day of the next calendar month after the month in which the agreement is executed by both parties.
(2) At the request of the Indian tribe at the time of the agreement, such agreement may apply with respect to services performed before such effective date for which there were timely paid in good faith (and not subsequently refunded) to the Secretary of the Treasury amounts equivalent to the sum of the taxes which would have been imposed by sections 3101 and 3111 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 had such services constituted employment for purposes of chapter 21 of such Code. No agreement under this section may require payment to be made after the effective date specified in such agreement of any taxes with respect to services performed before such effective date.
(d)
Duration of agreement

No agreement under this section may be terminated on or after the effective date of the agreement.

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title II, § 218A, as added Pub. L. 115–243, § 2(a), Sept. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 2894.)
§ 419.
Repealed. Pub. L. 86–778, title I, § 103(j)(1), Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 937
§ 420.
Disability provisions inapplicable if benefit rights impaired

None of the provisions of this subchapter relating to periods of disability shall apply in any case in which their application would result in the denial of monthly benefits or a lump-sum death payment which would otherwise be payable under this subchapter; nor shall they apply in the case of any monthly benefit or lump-sum death payment under this subchapter if such benefit or payment would be greater without their application.

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title II, § 220, as added Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1206, title I, § 106(g), 68 Stat. 1081.)
§ 421.
Disability determinations
(a)
State agencies
(1)
(2)
The disability determinations described in paragraph (1) made by a State agency shall be made in accordance with the pertinent provisions of this subchapter and the standards and criteria contained in regulations or other written guidelines of the Commissioner of Social Security pertaining to matters such as disability determinations, the class or classes of individuals with respect to which a State may make disability determinations (if it does not wish to do so with respect to all individuals in the State), and the conditions under which it may choose not to make all such determinations. In addition, the Commissioner of Social Security shall promulgate regulations specifying, in such detail as the Commissioner deems appropriate, performance standards and administrative requirements and procedures to be followed in performing the disability determination function in order to assure effective and uniform administration of the disability insurance program throughout the United States. The regulations may, for example, specify matters such as—
(A) the administrative structure and the relationship between various units of the State agency responsible for disability determinations,
(B) the physical location of and relationship among agency staff units, and other individuals or organizations performing tasks for the State agency, and standards for the availability to applicants and beneficiaries of facilities for making disability determinations,
(C) State agency performance criteria, including the rate of accuracy of decisions, the time periods within which determinations must be made, the procedures for and the scope of review by the Commissioner of Social Security, and, as the Commissioner finds appropriate, by the State, of its performance in individual cases and in classes of cases, and rules governing access of appropriate Federal officials to State offices and to State records relating to its administration of the disability determination function,
(D) fiscal control procedures that the State agency may be required to adopt, and
(E) the submission of reports and other data, in such form and at such time as the Commissioner of Social Security may require, concerning the State agency’s activities relating to the disability determination.
Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize the Commissioner of Social Security to take any action except pursuant to law or to regulations promulgated pursuant to law.
(b)
Determinations by Commissioner
(1) If the Commissioner of Social Security finds, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, that a State agency is substantially failing to make disability determinations in a manner consistent with the Commissioner’s regulations and other written guidelines, the Commissioner of Social Security shall, not earlier than 180 days following the Commissioner’s finding, and after the Commissioner has complied with the requirements of paragraph (3), make the disability determinations referred to in subsection (a)(1).
(2) If a State, having notified the Commissioner of Social Security of its intent to make disability determinations under subsection (a)(1), no longer wishes to make such determinations, it shall notify the Commissioner of Social Security in writing of that fact, and, if an agency of the State is making disability determinations at the time such notice is given, it shall continue to do so for not less than 180 days, or (if later) until the Commissioner of Social Security has complied with the requirements of paragraph (3). Thereafter, the Commissioner of Social Security shall make the disability determinations referred to in subsection (a)(1).
(3)
(A) The Commissioner of Social Security shall develop and initiate all appropriate procedures to implement a plan with respect to any partial or complete assumption by the Commissioner of Social Security of the disability determination function from a State agency, as provided in this section, under which employees of the affected State agency who are capable of performing duties in the disability determination process for the Commissioner of Social Security shall, notwithstanding any other provision of law, have a preference over any other individual in filling an appropriate employment position with the Commissioner of Social Security (subject to any system established by the Commissioner of Social Security for determining hiring priority among such employees of the State agency) unless any such employee is the administrator, the deputy administrator, or assistant administrator (or his equivalent) of the State agency, in which case the Commissioner of Social Security may accord such priority to such employee.
(B) The Commissioner of Social Security shall not make such assumption of the disability determination function until such time as the Secretary of Labor determines that, with respect to employees of such State agency who will be displaced from their employment on account of such assumption by the Commissioner of Social Security and who will not be hired by the Commissioner of Social Security to perform duties in the disability determination process, the State has made fair and equitable arrangements to protect the interests of employees so displaced. Such protective arrangements shall include only those provisions which are provided under all applicable Federal, State and local statutes including, but not limited to, (i) the preservation of rights, privileges, and benefits (including continuation of pension rights and benefits) under existing collective-bargaining agreements; (ii) the continuation of collective-bargaining rights; (iii) the assignment of affected employees to other jobs or to retraining programs; (iv) the protection of individual employees against a worsening of their positions with respect to their employment; (v) the protection of health benefits and other fringe benefits; and (vi) the provision of severance pay, as may be necessary.
(c)
Review of determination by Commissioner
(1) The Commissioner of Social Security may on the Commissioner’s own motion or as required under paragraphs (2) and (3) review a determination, made by a State agency under this section, that an individual is or is not under a disability (as defined in section 416(i) or 423(d) of this title) and, as a result of such review, may modify such agency’s determination and determine that such individual either is or is not under a disability (as so defined) or that such individual’s disability began on a day earlier or later than that determined by such agency, or that such disability ceased on a day earlier or later than that determined by such agency. A review by the Commissioner of Social Security on the Commissioner’s own motion of a State agency determination under this paragraph may be made before or after any action is taken to implement such determination.
(2) The Commissioner of Social Security (in accordance with paragraph (3)) shall review determinations, made by State agencies pursuant to this section, that individuals are under disabilities (as defined in section 416(i) or 423(d) of this title). Any review by the Commissioner of Social Security of a State agency determination under this paragraph shall be made before any action is taken to implement such determination.
(3)
(A)
In carrying out the provisions of paragraph (2) with respect to the review of determinations made by State agencies pursuant to this section that individuals are under disabilities (as defined in section 416(i) or 423(d) of this title), the Commissioner of Social Security shall review—
(i) at least 50 percent of all such determinations made by State agencies on applications for benefits under this subchapter, and
(ii) other determinations made by State agencies pursuant to this section to the extent necessary to assure a high level of accuracy in such other determinations.
(B) In conducting reviews pursuant to subparagraph (A), the Commissioner of Social Security shall, to the extent feasible, select for review those determinations which the Commissioner of Social Security identifies as being the most likely to be incorrect.
(C) Not later than April 1, 1992, and annually thereafter, the Commissioner of Social Security shall submit to the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate a written report setting forth the number of reviews conducted under subparagraph (A)(ii) during the preceding fiscal year and the findings of the Commissioner of Social Security based on such reviews of the accuracy of the determinations made by State agencies pursuant to this section.
(d)
Hearings and judicial review

Any individual dissatisfied with any determination under subsection (a), (b), (c), or (g) shall be entitled to a hearing thereon by the Commissioner of Social Security to the same extent as is provided in section 405(b) of this title with respect to decisions of the Commissioner of Social Security, and to judicial review of the Commissioner’s final decision after such hearing as is provided in section 405(g) of this title.

(e)
State’s right to cost from Trust Funds

Each State which is making disability determinations under subsection (a)(1) shall be entitled to receive from the Trust Funds, in advance or by way of reimbursement, as determined by the Commissioner of Social Security, the cost to the State of making disability determinations under subsection (a)(1). The Commissioner of Social Security shall from time to time certify such amount as is necessary for this purpose to the Managing Trustee, reduced or increased, as the case may be, by any sum (for which adjustment hereunder has not previously been made) by which the amount certified for any prior period was greater or less than the amount which should have been paid to the State under this subsection for such period; and the Managing Trustee, prior to audit or settlement by the Government Accountability Office, shall make payment from the Trust Funds at the time or times fixed by the Commissioner of Social Security, in accordance with such certification. Appropriate adjustments between the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund with respect to the payments made under this subsection shall be made in accordance with paragraph (1) of subsection (g) of section 401 of this title (but taking into account any refunds under subsection (f) of this section) to insure that the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund is charged with all expenses incurred which are attributable to the administration of section 423 of this title and the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund is charged with all other expenses.

(f)
Use of funds

All money paid to a State under this section shall be used solely for the purposes for which it is paid; and any money so paid which is not used for such purposes shall be returned to the Treasury of the United States for deposit in the Trust Funds.

(g)
Regulations governing determinations in certain cases

In the case of individuals in a State which does not undertake to perform disability determinations under subsection (a)(1), or which has been found by the Commissioner of Social Security to have substantially failed to make disability determinations in a manner consistent with the Commissioner’s regulations and guidelines, in the case of individuals outside the United States, and in the case of any class or classes of individuals for whom no State undertakes to make disability determinations, the determinations referred to in subsection (a) shall be made by the Commissioner of Social Security in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Commissioner.

(h)
Evaluation of impairments by qualified medical professionals
An initial determination under subsection (a), (c), (g), or (i) shall not be made until the Commissioner of Social Security has made every reasonable effort to ensure—
(1) in any case where there is evidence which indicates the existence of a mental impairment, that a qualified psychiatrist or psychologist has completed the medical portion of the case review and any applicable residual functional capacity assessment; and
(2) in any case where there is evidence which indicates the existence of a physical impairment, that a qualified physician has completed the medical portion of the case review and any applicable residual functional capacity assessment.
(i)
Review of disability cases to determine continuing eligibility; permanent disability cases; appropriate number of cases reviewed; reporting requirements
(1) In any case where an individual is or has been determined to be under a disability, the case shall be reviewed by the applicable State agency or the Commissioner of Social Security (as may be appropriate), for purposes of continuing eligibility, at least once every 3 years, subject to paragraph (2); except that where a finding has been made that such disability is permanent, such reviews shall be made at such times as the Commissioner of Social Security determines to be appropriate. Reviews of cases under the preceding sentence shall be in addition to, and shall not be considered as a substitute for, any other reviews which are required or provided for under or in the administration of this subchapter.
(2) The requirement of paragraph (1) that cases be reviewed at least every 3 years shall not apply to the extent that the Commissioner of Social Security determines, on a State-by-State basis, that such requirement should be waived to insure that only the appropriate number of such cases are reviewed. The Commissioner of Social Security shall determine the appropriate number of cases to be reviewed in each State after consultation with the State agency performing such reviews, based upon the backlog of pending reviews, the projected number of new applications for disability insurance benefits, and the current and projected staffing levels of the State agency, but the Commissioner of Social Security shall provide for a waiver of such requirement only in the case of a State which makes a good faith effort to meet proper staffing requirements for the State agency and to process case reviews in a timely fashion. The Commissioner of Social Security shall report annually to the Committee on Finance of the Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives with respect to the determinations made by the Commissioner of Social Security under the preceding sentence.
(3) The Commissioner of Social Security shall report annually to the Committee on Finance of the Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives with respect to the number of reviews of continuing disability carried out under paragraph (1), the number of such reviews which result in an initial termination of benefits, the number of requests for reconsideration of such initial termination or for a hearing with respect to such termination under subsection (d), or both, and the number of such initial terminations which are overturned as the result of a reconsideration or hearing.
(4) In any case in which the Commissioner of Social Security initiates a review under this subsection of the case of an individual who has been determined to be under a disability, the Commissioner of Social Security shall notify such individual of the nature of the review to be carried out, the possibility that such review could result in the termination of benefits, and the right of the individual to provide medical evidence with respect to such review.
(5) For suspension of reviews under this subsection in the case of an individual using a ticket to work and self-sufficiency, see section 1320b–19(i) of this title.
(j)
Rules and regulations; consultative examinations
The Commissioner of Social Security shall prescribe regulations which set forth, in detail—
(1) the standards to be utilized by State disability determination services and Federal personnel in determining when a consultative examination should be obtained in connection with disability determinations;
(2) standards for the type of referral to be made; and
(3) procedures by which the Commissioner of Social Security will monitor both the referral processes used and the product of professionals to whom cases are referred.
Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to preclude the issuance, in accordance with section 553(b)(A) of title 5, of interpretive rules, general statements of policy, and rules of agency organization relating to consultative examinations if such rules and statements are consistent with such regulations.
(k)
Establishment of uniform standards for determination of disability
(1) The Commissioner of Social Security shall establish by regulation uniform standards which shall be applied at all levels of determination, review, and adjudication in determining whether individuals are under disabilities as defined in section 416(i) or 423(d) of this title.
(2) Regulations promulgated under paragraph (1) shall be subject to the rulemaking procedures established under section 553 of title 5.
(l)
Special notice to blind individuals with respect to hearings and other official actions
(1) In any case where an individual who is applying for or receiving benefits under this subchapter on the basis of disability by reason of blindness is entitled to receive notice from the Commissioner of Social Security of any decision or determination made or other action taken or proposed to be taken with respect to his or her rights under this subchapter, such individual shall at his or her election be entitled either (A) to receive a supplementary notice of such decision, determination, or action, by telephone, within 5 working days after the initial notice is mailed, (B) to receive the initial notice in the form of a certified letter, or (C) to receive notification by some alternative procedure established by the Commissioner of Social Security and agreed to by the individual.
(2) The election under paragraph (1) may be made at any time, but an opportunity to make such an election shall in any event be given, to every individual who is an applicant for benefits under this subchapter on the basis of disability by reason of blindness, at the time of his or her application. Such an election, once made by an individual, shall apply with respect to all notices of decisions, determinations, and actions which such individual may thereafter be entitled to receive under this subchapter until such time as it is revoked or changed.
(m)
Work activity as basis for review
(1)
In any case where an individual entitled to disability insurance benefits under section 423 of this title or to monthly insurance benefits under section 402 of this title based on such individual’s disability (as defined in section 423(d) of this title) has received such benefits for at least 24 months—
(A) no continuing disability review conducted by the Commissioner may be scheduled for the individual solely as a result of the individual’s work activity;
(B) no work activity engaged in by the individual may be used as evidence that the individual is no longer disabled; and
(C) no cessation of work activity by the individual may give rise to a presumption that the individual is unable to engage in work.
(2)
An individual to which paragraph (1) applies shall continue to be subject to—
(A) continuing disability reviews on a regularly scheduled basis that is not triggered by work; and
(B) termination of benefits under this subchapter in the event that the individual has earnings that exceed the level of earnings established by the Commissioner to represent substantial gainful activity.
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title II, § 221, as added Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1206, title I, § 106(g), 68 Stat. 1081; amended Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, title I, § 103(c)(7), (8), (h), 70 Stat. 818, 823; Pub. L. 90–248, title I, § 158(c)(3), (4), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 869; Pub. L. 96–265, title III, §§ 304(a)–(f), 311(a), June 9, 1980, 94 Stat. 453–456, 460; Pub. L. 97–455, §§ 3(a), 6, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2499, 2500;
§ 422.
Rehabilitation services
(a)
, (b) Repealed. Pub. L. 106–170, title I, § 101(b)(1)(B), (C), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1873
(c)
“Period of trial work” defined
(1) The term “period of trial work”, with respect to an individual entitled to benefits under section 423, 402(d), 402(e), or 402(f) of this title, means a period of months beginning and ending as provided in paragraphs (3) and (4).
(2) For purposes of sections 416(i) and 423 of this title, any services rendered by an individual during a period of trial work shall be deemed not to have been rendered by such individual in determining whether his disability has ceased in a month during such period. For purposes of this subsection the term “services” means activity (whether legal or illegal) which is performed for remuneration or gain or is determined by the Commissioner of Social Security to be of a type normally performed for remuneration or gain.
(3) A period of trial work for any individual shall begin with the month in which he becomes entitled to disability insurance benefits, or, in the case of an individual entitled to benefits under section 402(d) of this title who has attained the age of eighteen, with the month in which he becomes entitled to such benefits or the month in which he attains the age of eighteen, whichever is later, or, in the case of an individual entitled to widow’s or widower’s insurance benefits under section 402(e) or (f) of this title who became entitled to such benefits prior to attaining age 60, with the month in which such individual becomes so entitled. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, no period of trial work may begin for any individual prior to the beginning of the month following September 1960; and no such period may begin for an individual in a period of disability of such individual in which he had a previous period of trial work.
(4)
A period of trial work for any individual shall end with the close of whichever of the following months is the earlier:
(A) the ninth month, in any period of 60 consecutive months, in which the individual renders services (whether or not such nine months are consecutive); or
(B) the month in which his disability (as defined in section 423(d) of this title) ceases (as determined after application of paragraph (2) of this subsection).
(5)
Upon conviction by a Federal court, or the imposition of a civil monetary penalty under section 1320a–8 of this title, that an individual has fraudulently concealed work activity during a period of trial work from the Commissioner of Social Security by—
(A) providing false information to the Commissioner of Social Security as to whether the individual had earnings in or for a particular period, or as to the amount thereof;
(B) receiving disability insurance benefits under this subchapter while engaging in work activity under another identity, including under another social security account number or a number purporting to be a social security account number; or
(C) taking other actions to conceal work activity with an intent fraudulently to secure payment in a greater amount than is due or when no payment is authorized,
no benefit shall be payable to such individual under this subchapter with respect to a period of disability for any month before such conviction during which the individual rendered services during the period of trial work with respect to which the fraudulently concealed work activity occurred, and amounts otherwise due under this subchapter as restitution, penalties, assessments, fines, or other repayments shall in all cases be in addition to any amounts for which such individual is liable as overpayments by reason of such concealment.
(d)
Cost of rehabilitation services from trust funds
(1)
For purposes of making vocational rehabilitation services more readily available to disabled individuals who are—
(A) entitled to disability insurance benefits under section 423 of this title,
(B) entitled to child’s insurance benefits under section 402(d) of this title after having attained age 18 (and are under a disability),
(C) entitled to widow’s insurance benefits under section 402(e) of this title prior to attaining age 60, or
(D) entitled to widower’s insurance benefits under section 402(f) of this title prior to attaining age 60,
to the end that savings will accrue to the Trust Funds as a result of rehabilitating such individuals, there are authorized to be transferred from the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund each fiscal year such sums as may be necessary to enable the Commissioner of Social Security to reimburse the State for the reasonable and necessary costs of vocational rehabilitation services furnished such individuals (including services during their waiting periods), under a State plan for vocational rehabilitation services approved under title I of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 [29 U.S.C. 720 et seq.], (i) in cases where the furnishing of such services results in the performance by such individuals of substantial gainful activity for a continuous period of nine months, (ii) in cases where such individuals receive benefits as a result of section 425(b) of this title (except that no reimbursement under this paragraph shall be made for services furnished to any individual receiving such benefits for any period after the close of such individual’s ninth consecutive month of substantial gainful activity or the close of the month in which his or her entitlement to such benefits ceases, whichever first occurs), and (iii) in cases where such individuals, without good cause, refuse to continue to accept vocational rehabilitation services or fail to cooperate in such a manner as to preclude their successful rehabilitation. The determination that the vocational rehabilitation services contributed to the successful return of an individual to substantial gainful activity, the determination that an individual, without good cause, refused to continue to accept vocational rehabilitation services or failed to cooperate in such a manner as to preclude successful rehabilitation, and the determination of the amount of costs to be reimbursed under this subsection shall be made by the Commissioner of Social Security in accordance with criteria formulated by the Commissioner.
(2) In the case of any State which is unwilling to participate or does not have a plan which meets the requirements of paragraph (1), the Commissioner of Social Security may provide such services in such State by agreement or contract with other public or private agencies, organizations, institutions, or individuals. The provision of such services shall be subject to the same conditions as otherwise apply under paragraph (1).
(3) Payments under this subsection shall be made in advance or by way of reimbursement, with necessary adjustments for overpayments and underpayments.
(4)
Money paid from the Trust Funds under this subsection for the reimbursement of the costs of providing services to individuals who are entitled to benefits under section 423 of this title (including services during their waiting periods), or who are entitled to benefits under section 402(d) of this title on the basis of the wages and self-employment income of such individuals, shall be charged to the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, and all other money paid from the Trust Funds under this subsection shall be charged to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund. The Commissioner of Social Security shall determine according to such methods and procedures as the Commissioner may deem appropriate—
(A) the total amount to be reimbursed for the cost of services under this subsection, and
(B) subject to the provisions of the preceding sentence, the amount which should be charged to each of the Trust Funds.
(5) For purposes of this subsection the term “vocational rehabilitation services” shall have the meaning assigned to it in title I of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 [29 U.S.C. 720 et seq.], except that such services may be limited in type, scope, or amount in accordance with regulations of the Commissioner of Social Security designed to achieve the purpose of this subsection.
(e)
Treatment referrals for individuals with alcoholism or drug addiction condition

In the case of any individual whose benefits under this subchapter are paid to a representative payee pursuant to section 405(j)(1)(B) of this title, the Commissioner of Social Security shall refer such individual to the appropriate State agency administering the State plan for substance abuse treatment services approved under subpart II of part B of title XIX of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 300x–21 et seq.).

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title II, § 222, as added Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1206, title I, § 106(g) 68 Stat. 1082; amended Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, title I, § 103(b), 70 Stat. 817; Pub. L. 85–840, title II, § 205(n), title III, § 307(g), Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 1025, 1032; Pub. L. 86–778, title IV, § 403(a), Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 968; Pub. L. 89–97, title III, §§ 306(c)(14), 308(d)(11), 336, July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 373, 379, 408; Pub. L. 90–248, title I, §§ 104(d)(3), (4), 158(c)(5), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 832, 869; Pub. L. 92–603, title I, §§ 107(b)(3), (4), 131, Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1343, 1360; Pub. L. 96–265, title III, § 303(a), June 9, 1980, 94 Stat. 451; Pub. L. 97–35, title XXII, § 2209(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 840; Pub. L. 98–21, title III, § 309(l)–(n), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 117; Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VI, § 2663(a)(15), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1165; Pub. L. 98–460, § 11(a), Oct. 9, 1984, 98 Stat. 1805; Pub. L. 101–508, title V, § 5112(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–273; Pub. L. 103–296, title I, § 107(a)(4), title II, § 201(a)(4)(B), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1478, 1499; Pub. L. 104–121, title I, § 105(a)(3), Mar. 29, 1996, 110 Stat. 852; Pub. L. 106–170, title I, § 101(b)(1)(B), (C), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1873; Pub. L. 108–203, title II, § 208(a), Mar. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 513; Pub. L. 114–74, title VIII, § 813(d), Nov. 2, 2015,
§ 423.
Disability insurance benefit payments
(a)
Disability insurance benefits
(1)
Every individual who—
(A) is insured for disability insurance benefits (as determined under subsection (c)(1)),
(B) has not attained retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title),
(C)
if not a United States citizen or national—
(i) has been assigned a social security account number that was, at the time of assignment, or at any later time, consistent with the requirements of subclause (I) or (III) of section 405(c)(2)(B)(i) of this title; or
(ii)
at the time any quarters of coverage are earned—
(I) is described in subparagraph (B) or (D) of section 1101(a)(15) of title 8,(II) is lawfully admitted temporarily to the United States for business (in the case of an individual described in such subparagraph (B)) or the performance as a crewman (in the case of an individual described in such subparagraph (D)), and(III) the business engaged in or service as a crewman performed is within the scope of the terms of such individual’s admission to the United States.1
1 So in original. The period probably should be a comma.
(D) has filed application for disability insurance benefits, and
(E) is under a disability (as defined in subsection (d))
shall be entitled to a disability insurance benefit (i) for each month beginning with the first month after his waiting period (as defined in subsection (c)(2)) in which he becomes so entitled to such insurance benefits, (ii) in the case of an individual who has been medically determined to have amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, for each month beginning with the first month during all of which the individual is under a disability and in which the individual becomes entitled to such insurance benefits, or (iii) for each month beginning with the first month during all of which he is under a disability and in which he becomes so entitled to such insurance benefits, but only if he was entitled to disability insurance benefits which terminated, or had a period of disability (as defined in section 416(i) of this title) which ceased, within the 60-month period preceding the first month in which he is under such disability, and ending with the month preceding whichever of the following months is the earliest: the month in which he dies, the month in which he attains retirement age (as defined in section 416(l) of this title), or, subject to subsection (e), the termination month. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the termination month for any individual shall be the third month following the month in which his disability ceases; except that, in the case of an individual who has a period of trial work which ends as determined by application of section 422(c)(4)(A) of this title
(2)
Except as provided in section 402(q) of this title and section 415(b)(2)(A)(ii) of this title, such individual’s disability insurance benefit for any month shall be equal to his primary insurance amount for such month determined under section 415 of this title as though he had attained age 62 in—
(A) the first month of his waiting period, or
(B) in any case in which clause (ii) of paragraph (1) of this subsection is applicable, the first month for which he becomes entitled to such disability insurance benefits,
and as though he had become entitled to old-age insurance benefits in the month in which the application for disability insurance benefits was filed and he was entitled to an old-age insurance benefit for each month for which (pursuant to subsection (b)) he was entitled to a disability insurance benefit. For the purposes of the preceding sentence, in the case of an individual who attained age 62 in or before the first month referred to in subparagraph (A) or (B) of such sentence, as the case may be, the elapsed years referred to in section 415(b)(3) of this title shall not include the year in which he attained age 62, or any year thereafter.
(b)
Filing application

An application for disability insurance benefits filed before the first month in which the applicant satisfies the requirements for such benefits (as prescribed in subsection (a)(1)) shall be deemed a valid application (and shall be deemed to have been filed in such first month) only if the applicant satisfies the requirements for such benefits before the Commissioner of Social Security makes a final decision on the application and no request under section 405(b) of this title for notice and opportunity for a hearing thereon is made, or if such a request is made, before a decision based upon the evidence adduced at the hearing is made (regardless of whether such decision becomes the final decision of the Commissioner of Social Security). An individual who would