Collapse to view only § 1396a. State plans for medical assistance

§ 1396. Medicaid and CHIP Payment and Access Commission
(a) Establishment
(b) Duties
(1) Review of access policies for all States and annual reports
MACPAC shall—
(A) review policies of the Medicaid program established under this subchapter (in this section referred to as “Medicaid”) and the State Children’s Health Insurance Program established under subchapter XXI (in this section referred to as “CHIP”) affecting access to covered items and services, including topics described in paragraph (2);
(B) make recommendations to Congress, the Secretary, and States concerning such access policies;
(C) by not later than March 15 of each year (beginning with 2010), submit a report to Congress containing the results of such reviews and MACPAC’s recommendations concerning such policies; and
(D) by not later than June 15 of each year (beginning with 2010), submit a report to Congress containing an examination of issues affecting Medicaid and CHIP, including the implications of changes in health care delivery in the United States and in the market for health care services on such programs.
(2) Specific topics to be reviewed
Specifically, MACPAC shall review and assess the following:
(A) Medicaid and CHIP payment policies
Payment policies under Medicaid and CHIP, including—
(i) the factors affecting expenditures for the efficient provision of items and services in different sectors, including the process for updating payments to medical, dental, and health professionals, hospitals, residential and long-term care providers, providers of home and community based services, Federally-qualified health centers and rural health clinics, managed care entities, and providers of other covered items and services;
(ii) payment methodologies; and
(iii) the relationship of such factors and methodologies to access and quality of care for Medicaid and CHIP beneficiaries (including how such factors and methodologies enable such beneficiaries to obtain the services for which they are eligible, affect provider supply, and affect providers that serve a disproportionate share of low-income and other vulnerable populations).
(B) Eligibility policies
(C) Enrollment and retention processes
(D) Coverage policies
(E) Quality of care
(F) Interaction of Medicaid and CHIP payment policies with health care delivery generally
(G) Interactions with Medicare and Medicaid
(H) Other access policies
(3) Recommendations and reports of State-specific data
MACPAC shall—
(A) review national and State-specific Medicaid and CHIP data; and
(B) submit reports and recommendations to Congress, the Secretary, and States based on such reviews.
(4) Creation of early-warning system
(5) Comments on certain secretarial reports and regulations
(A) Certain secretarial reports
(B) Regulations
(6) Agenda and additional reviews
(A) In general
(B) Review and reports regarding Medicaid DSH
(i) In general
(ii) Required report information
Each report required under this subparagraph shall include the following:
(I) Data relating to changes in the number of uninsured individuals.(II) Data relating to the amount and sources of hospitals’ uncompensated care costs, including the amount of such costs that are the result of providing unreimbursed or under-reimbursed services, charity care, or bad debt.(III) Data identifying hospitals with high levels of uncompensated care that also provide access to essential community services for low-income, uninsured, and vulnerable populations, such as graduate medical education, and the continuum of primary through quarternary care, including the provision of trauma care and public health services.(IV) State-specific analyses regarding the relationship between the most recent State DSH allotment and the projected State DSH allotment for the succeeding year and the data reported under subclauses (I), (II), and (III) for the State.
(iii) Data
(iv) Submission deadlines
(7) Availability of reports
(8) Appropriate committee of Congress
(9) Voting and reporting requirements
(10) Examination of budget consequences
(11) Consultation and coordination with MEDPAC
(A) In general
(B) Information sharing
(12) Consultation with States
(13) Coordinate and consult with the Federal Coordinated Health Care Office
(14) Programmatic oversight vested in the Secretary
(c) Membership
(1) Number and appointment
(2) Qualifications
(A) In general
(B) Inclusion
(C) Majority nonproviders
(D) Ethical disclosure
(3) Terms
(A) In general
(B) Vacancies
(4) Compensation
(5) Chairman; Vice Chairman
(6) Meetings
(d) Director and staff; experts and consultants
Subject to such review as the Comptroller General of the United States deems necessary to assure the efficient administration of MACPAC, MACPAC may—
(1) employ and fix the compensation of an Executive Director (subject to the approval of the Comptroller General of the United States) and such other personnel as may be necessary to carry out its duties (without regard to the provisions of title 5 governing appointments in the competitive service);
(2) seek such assistance and support as may be required in the performance of its duties from appropriate Federal and State departments and agencies;
(3) enter into contracts or make other arrangements, as may be necessary for the conduct of the work of MACPAC (without regard to section 6101 of title 41);
(4) make advance, progress, and other payments which relate to the work of MACPAC;
(5) provide transportation and subsistence for persons serving without compensation; and
(6) prescribe such rules and regulations as it deems necessary with respect to the internal organization and operation of MACPAC.
(e) Powers
(1) Obtaining official data
(2) Data collection
In order to carry out its functions, MACPAC shall—
(A) utilize existing information, both published and unpublished, where possible, collected and assessed either by its own staff or under other arrangements made in accordance with this section;
(B) carry out, or award grants or contracts for, original research and experimentation, where existing information is inadequate; and
(C) adopt procedures allowing any interested party to submit information for MACPAC’s use in making reports and recommendations.
(3) Access of GAO to information
(4) Periodic audit
(f) Funding
(1) Request for appropriations
(2) Authorization
(3) Funding for fiscal year 2010
(A) In general
(B) Transfer of funds
(4) Availability
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XIX, § 1900, as added Pub. L. 111–3, title V, § 506(a), Feb. 4, 2009, 123 Stat. 91; amended Pub. L. 111–148, title II, § 2801(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 328; Pub. L. 113–93, title II, § 221(b), Apr. 1, 2014, 128 Stat. 1076; Pub. L. 117–286, § 4(c)(43), Dec. 27, 2022, 136 Stat. 4359.)
§ 1396–1. Appropriations

For the purpose of enabling each State, as far as practicable under the conditions in such State, to furnish (1) medical assistance on behalf of families with dependent children and of aged, blind, or disabled individuals, whose income and resources are insufficient to meet the costs of necessary medical services, and (2) rehabilitation and other services to help such families and individuals attain or retain capability for independence or self-care, there is hereby authorized to be appropriated for each fiscal year a sum sufficient to carry out the purposes of this subchapter. The sums made available under this section shall be used for making payments to States which have submitted, and had approved by the Secretary, State plans for medical assistance.

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XIX, § 1901, as added Pub. L. 89–97, title I, § 121(a), July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 343; amended Pub. L. 93–233, § 13(a)(1), Dec. 31, 1973, 87 Stat. 960; Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VI, § 2663(j)(3)(C), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1171.)
§ 1396a. State plans for medical assistance
(a) ContentsA State plan for medical assistance must—
(1) provide that it shall be in effect in all political subdivisions of the State, and, if administered by them, be mandatory upon them;
(2) provide for financial participation by the State equal to not less than 40 per centum of the non-Federal share of the expenditures under the plan with respect to which payments under section 1396b of this title are authorized by this subchapter; and, effective July 1, 1969, provide for financial participation by the State equal to all of such non-Federal share or provide for distribution of funds from Federal or State sources, for carrying out the State plan, on an equalization or other basis which will assure that the lack of adequate funds from local sources will not result in lowering the amount, duration, scope, or quality of care and services available under the plan;
(3) provide for granting an opportunity for a fair hearing before the State agency to any individual whose claim for medical assistance under the plan is denied or is not acted upon with reasonable promptness;
(4) provide (A) such methods of administration (including methods relating to the establishment and maintenance of personnel standards on a merit basis, except that the Secretary shall exercise no authority with respect to the selection, tenure of office, and compensation of any individual employed in accordance with such methods, including provision for utilization of professional medical personnel in the administration and, where administered locally, supervision of administration of the plan, and, subject to section 1396b(i) of this title, including a specification that the single State agency described in paragraph (5) will ensure necessary transportation for beneficiaries under the State plan to and from providers and a description of the methods that such agency will use to ensure such transportation) as are found by the Secretary to be necessary for the proper and efficient operation of the plan, (B) for the training and effective use of paid subprofessional staff, with particular emphasis on the full-time or part-time employment of recipients and other persons of low income, as community service aides, in the administration of the plan and for the use of nonpaid or partially paid volunteers in a social service volunteer program in providing services to applicants and recipients and in assisting any advisory committees established by the State agency, (C) that each State or local officer, employee, or independent contractor who is responsible for the expenditure of substantial amounts of funds under the State plan, each individual who formerly was such an officer, employee, or contractor, and each partner of such an officer, employee, or contractor shall be prohibited from committing any act, in relation to any activity under the plan, the commission of which, in connection with any activity concerning the United States Government, by an officer or employee of the United States Government, an individual who was such an officer or employee, or a partner of such an officer or employee is prohibited by section 207 or 208 of title 18, and (D) that each State or local officer, employee, or independent contractor who is responsible for selecting, awarding, or otherwise obtaining items and services under the State plan shall be subject to safeguards against conflicts of interest that are at least as stringent as the safeguards that apply under chapter 21 of title 41 to persons described in section 2102(a)(3) of title 41;
(5) either provide for the establishment or designation of a single State agency to administer or to supervise the administration of the plan; or provide for the establishment or designation of a single State agency to administer or to supervise the administration of the plan, except that the determination of eligibility for medical assistance under the plan shall be made by the State or local agency administering the State plan approved under subchapter I or XVI (insofar as it relates to the aged) if the State is eligible to participate in the State plan program established under subchapter XVI, or by the agency or agencies administering the supplemental security income program established under subchapter XVI or the State plan approved under part A of subchapter IV if the State is not eligible to participate in the State plan program established under subchapter XVI;
(6) provide that the State agency will make such reports, in such form and containing such information, as the Secretary may from time to time require, and comply with such provisions as the Secretary may from time to time find necessary to assure the correctness and verification of such reports;
(7) provide—
(A) safeguards which restrict the use or disclosure of information concerning applicants and recipients to purposes directly connected with—
(i) the administration of the plan; and
(ii) the exchange of information necessary to certify or verify the certification of eligibility of children for free or reduced price breakfasts under the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 [42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.] and free or reduced price lunches under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act [42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.], in accordance with section 9(b) of that Act [42 U.S.C. 1758(b)], using data standards and formats established by the State agency; and
(B) that, notwithstanding the Express Lane option under subsection (e)(13), the State may enter into an agreement with the State agency administering the school lunch program established under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act under which the State shall establish procedures to ensure that—
(i) a child receiving medical assistance under the State plan under this subchapter whose family income does not exceed 133 percent of the poverty line (as defined in section 9902(2) of this title, including any revision required by such section), as determined without regard to any expense, block, or other income disregard, applicable to a family of the size involved, may be certified as eligible for free lunches under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act and free breakfasts under the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 without further application; and
(ii) the State agencies responsible for administering the State plan under this subchapter, and for carrying out the school lunch program established under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.) or the school breakfast program established by section 4 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1773), cooperate in carrying out paragraphs (3)(F) and (15) of section 9(b) of that Act [42 U.S.C. 1758(b)];
(8) provide that all individuals wishing to make application for medical assistance under the plan shall have opportunity to do so, and that such assistance shall be furnished with reasonable promptness to all eligible individuals;
(9) provide—
(A) that the State health agency, or other appropriate State medical agency (whichever is utilized by the Secretary for the purpose specified in the first sentence of section 1395aa(a) of this title), shall be responsible for establishing and maintaining health standards for private or public institutions in which recipients of medical assistance under the plan may receive care or services,
(B) for the establishment or designation of a State authority or authorities which shall be responsible for establishing and maintaining standards, other than those relating to health, for such institutions,
(C) that any laboratory services paid for under such plan must be provided by a laboratory which meets the applicable requirements of section 1395x(e)(9) of this title or paragraphs (16) and (17) of section 1395x(s) of this title, or, in the case of a laboratory which is in a rural health clinic, of section 1395x(aa)(2)(G) of this title, and
(D) that the State maintain a consumer-oriented website providing useful information to consumers regarding all skilled nursing facilities and all nursing facilities in the State, including for each facility, Form 2567 State inspection reports (or a successor form), complaint investigation reports, the facility’s plan of correction, and such other information that the State or the Secretary considers useful in assisting the public to assess the quality of long term care options and the quality of care provided by individual facilities;
(10) provide—
(A) for making medical assistance available, including at least the care and services listed in paragraphs (1) through (5), (13)(B), (17), (21), (28), (29), and (30) of section 1396d(a) of this title, to—
(i) all individuals—(I) who are receiving aid or assistance under any plan of the State approved under subchapter I, X, XIV, or XVI, or part A or part E of subchapter IV (including individuals eligible under this subchapter by reason of section 602(a)(37),1
1 See References in Text note below.
606(h),1 or 673(b) of this title, or considered by the State to be receiving such aid as authorized under section 682(e)(6)1 of this title),
(II)(aa) with respect to whom supplemental security income benefits are being paid under subchapter XVI (or were being paid as of the date of the enactment of section 211(a) of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (P.L. 104–193) and would continue to be paid but for the enactment of that section), (bb) who are qualified severely impaired individuals (as defined in section 1396d(q) of this title), or (cc) who are under 21 years of age and with respect to whom supplemental security income benefits would be paid under subchapter XVI if subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 1382(c)(7) of this title were applied without regard to the phrase “the first day of the month following”,(III) who are qualified pregnant women or children as defined in section 1396d(n) of this title,(IV) who are described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (l)(1) and whose family income does not exceed the minimum income level the State is required to establish under subsection (l)(2)(A) for such a family; 2
2 So in original. The semicolon probably should be a comma.
(V) who are qualified family members as defined in section 1396d(m)(1) of this title,(VI) who are described in subparagraph (C) of subsection (l)(1) and whose family income does not exceed the income level the State is required to establish under subsection (l)(2)(B) for such a family,(VII) who are described in subparagraph (D) of subsection (l)(1) and whose family income does not exceed the income level the State is required to establish under subsection (l)(2)(C) for such a family; 2(VIII) beginning January 1, 2014, who are under 65 years of age, not pregnant, not entitled to, or enrolled for, benefits under part A of subchapter XVIII, or enrolled for benefits under part B of subchapter XVIII, and are not described in a previous subclause of this clause, and whose income (as determined under subsection (e)(14)) does not exceed 133 percent of the poverty line (as defined in section 1397jj(c)(5) of this title) applicable to a family of the size involved, subject to subsection (k); 2 or(IX) who—(aa) are under 26 years of age;(bb) are not described in and are not enrolled under any of subclauses (I) through (VII) of this clause or are described in any of such subclauses but have income that exceeds the level of income applicable under the State plan for eligibility to enroll for medical assistance under such subclause;(cc) were in foster care under the responsibility of a State on the date of attaining 18 years of age or such higher age as the State has elected under section 675(8)(B)(iii) of this title; and(dd) were enrolled in a State plan under this subchapter or under a waiver of such a plan while in such foster care; 3
3 So in original. Probably should be followed by “and”.
(ii) at the option of the State, to 4
4 So in original. The word “to” probably should not appear.
any group or groups of individuals described in section 1396d(a) of this title (or, in the case of individuals described in section 1396d(a)(i) of this title, to 4 any reasonable categories of such individuals) who are not individuals described in clause (i) of this subparagraph but—
(I) who meet the income and resources requirements of the appropriate State plan described in clause (i) or the supplemental security income program (as the case may be),(II) who would meet the income and resources requirements of the appropriate State plan described in clause (i) if their work-related child care costs were paid from their earnings rather than by a State agency as a service expenditure,(III) who would be eligible to receive aid under the appropriate State plan described in clause (i) if coverage under such plan was as broad as allowed under Federal law,(IV) with respect to whom there is being paid, or who are eligible, or would be eligible if they were not in a medical institution, to have paid with respect to them, aid or assistance under the appropriate State plan described in clause (i), supplemental security income benefits under subchapter XVI, or a State supplementary payment; 2(V) who are in a medical institution for a period of not less than 30 consecutive days (with eligibility by reason of this subclause beginning on the first day of such period), who meet the resource requirements of the appropriate State plan described in clause (i) or the supplemental security income program, and whose income does not exceed a separate income standard established by the State which is consistent with the limit established under section 1396b(f)(4)(C) of this title,(VI) who would be eligible under the State plan under this subchapter if they were in a medical institution, with respect to whom there has been a determination that but for the provision of home or community-based services described in subsection (c), (d), or (e) of section 1396n of this title they would require the level of care provided in a hospital, nursing facility or intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded the cost of which could be reimbursed under the State plan, and who will receive home or community-based services pursuant to a waiver granted by the Secretary under subsection (c), (d), or (e) of section 1396n of this title,(VII) who would be eligible under the State plan under this subchapter if they were in a medical institution, who are terminally ill, and who will receive hospice care pursuant to a voluntary election described in section 1396d(o) of this title; 2(VIII) who is a child described in section 1396d(a)(i) of this title(aa) for whom there is in effect an adoption assistance agreement (other than an agreement under part E of subchapter IV) between the State and an adoptive parent or parents,(bb) who the State agency responsible for adoption assistance has determined cannot be placed with adoptive parents without medical assistance because such child has special needs for medical or rehabilitative care, and(cc) who was eligible for medical assistance under the State plan prior to the adoption assistance agreement being entered into, or who would have been eligible for medical assistance at such time if the eligibility standards and methodologies of the State’s foster care program under part E of subchapter IV were applied rather than the eligibility standards and methodologies of the State’s aid to families with dependent children program under part A of subchapter IV; 2(IX) who are described in subsection (l)(1) and are not described in clause (i)(IV), clause (i)(VI), or clause (i)(VII); 2(X) who are described in subsection (m)(1); 2(XI) who receive only an optional State supplementary payment based on need and paid on a regular basis, equal to the difference between the individual’s countable income and the income standard used to determine eligibility for such supplementary payment (with countable income being the income remaining after deductions as established by the State pursuant to standards that may be more restrictive than the standards for supplementary security income benefits under subchapter XVI), which are available to all individuals in the State (but which may be based on different income standards by political subdivision according to cost of living differences), and which are paid by a State that does not have an agreement with the Commissioner of Social Security under section 1382e or 1383c of this title; 2(XII) who are described in subsection (z)(1) (relating to certain TB-infected individuals); 2(XIII) who are in families whose income is less than 250 percent of the income official poverty line (as defined by the Office of Management and Budget, and revised annually in accordance with section 9902(2) of this title) applicable to a family of the size involved, and who but for earnings in excess of the limit established under section 1396d(q)(2)(B) of this title, would be considered to be receiving supplemental security income (subject, notwithstanding section 1396o of this title, to payment of premiums or other cost-sharing charges (set on a sliding scale based on income) that the State may determine); 2(XIV) who are optional targeted low-income children described in section 1396d(u)(2)(B) of this title; 2(XV) who, but for earnings in excess of the limit established under section 1396d(q)(2)(B) of this title, would be considered to be receiving supplemental security income, who is at least 16, but less than 65, years of age, and whose assets, resources, and earned or unearned income (or both) do not exceed such limitations (if any) as the State may establish; 2(XVI) who are employed individuals with a medically improved disability described in section 1396d(v)(1) of this title and whose assets, resources, and earned or unearned income (or both) do not exceed such limitations (if any) as the State may establish, but only if the State provides medical assistance to individuals described in subclause (XV); 2(XVII) who are independent foster care adolescents (as defined in section 1396d(w)(1) of this title), or who are within any reasonable categories of such adolescents specified by the State; 2(XVIII) who are described in subsection (aa) (relating to certain breast or cervical cancer patients); 2(XIX) who are disabled children described in subsection (cc)(1); 2(XX) beginning January 1, 2014, who are under 65 years of age and are not described in or enrolled under a previous subclause of this clause, and whose income (as determined under subsection (e)(14)) exceeds 133 percent of the poverty line (as defined in section 1397jj(c)(5) of this title) applicable to a family of the size involved but does not exceed the highest income eligibility level established under the State plan or under a waiver of the plan, subject to subsection (hh); 2(XXI) who are described in subsection (ii) (relating to individuals who meet certain income standards); 2(XXII) who are eligible for home and community-based services under needs-based criteria established under paragraph (1)(A) of section 1396n(i) of this title, or who are eligible for home and community-based services under paragraph (6) of such section, and who will receive home and community-based services pursuant to a State plan amendment under such subsection; 2 or(XXIII) during any portion of the emergency period defined in paragraph (1)(B) of section 1320b–5(g) of this title beginning on or after March 18, 2020, who are uninsured individuals (as defined in subsection (ss));
(B) that the medical assistance made available to any individual described in subparagraph (A)—
(i) shall not be less in amount, duration, or scope than the medical assistance made available to any other such individual, and
(ii) shall not be less in amount, duration, or scope than the medical assistance made available to individuals not described in subparagraph (A);
(C) that if medical assistance is included for any group of individuals described in section 1396d(a) of this title who are not described in subparagraph (A) or (E), then—
(i) the plan must include a description of (I) the criteria for determining eligibility of individuals in the group for such medical assistance, (II) the amount, duration, and scope of medical assistance made available to individuals in the group, and (III) the single standard to be employed in determining income and resource eligibility for all such groups, and the methodology to be employed in determining such eligibility, which shall be no more restrictive than the methodology which would be employed under the supplemental security income program in the case of groups consisting of aged, blind, or disabled individuals in a State in which such program is in effect, and which shall be no more restrictive than the methodology which would be employed under the appropriate State plan (described in subparagraph (A)(i)) to which such group is most closely categorically related in the case of other groups;
(ii) the plan must make available medical assistance—(I) to individuals under the age of 18 who (but for income and resources) would be eligible for medical assistance as an individual described in subparagraph (A)(i), and(II) to pregnant women, during the course of their pregnancy, who (but for income and resources) would be eligible for medical assistance as an individual described in subparagraph (A);
(iii) such medical assistance must include (I) with respect to children under 18 and individuals entitled to institutional services, ambulatory services, and (II) with respect to pregnant women, prenatal care and delivery services; and
(iv) if such medical assistance includes services in institutions for mental diseases or in an intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded (or both) for any such group, it also must include for all groups covered at least the care and services listed in paragraphs (1) through (5), (13)(B), and (17) of section 1396d(a) of this title or the care and services listed in any 7 of the paragraphs numbered (1) through (24) of such section;
(D) for the inclusion of home health services for any individual who, under the State plan, is entitled to nursing facility services;
(E)
(i) for making medical assistance available for medicare cost-sharing (as defined in section 1396d(p)(3) of this title) for qualified medicare beneficiaries described in section 1396d(p)(1) of this title;
(ii) for making medical assistance available for payment of medicare cost-sharing described in section 1396d(p)(3)(A)(i) of this title for qualified disabled and working individuals described in section 1396d(s) of this title;
(iii) for making medical assistance available for medicare cost sharing described in section 1396d(p)(3)(A)(ii) of this title subject to section 1396d(p)(4) of this title, for individuals who would be qualified medicare beneficiaries described in section 1396d(p)(1) of this title (including such individuals enrolled under section 1395o(b) of this title) but for the fact that their income exceeds the income level established by the State under section 1396d(p)(2) of this title but is less than 110 percent in 1993 and 1994, and 120 percent in 1995 and years thereafter of the official poverty line (referred to in such section) for a family of the size involved; and
(iv) subject to sections 1396u–3 and 1396d(p)(4) of this title, for making medical assistance available for medicare cost-sharing described in section 1396d(p)(3)(A)(ii) of this title for individuals who would be qualified medicare beneficiaries described in section 1396d(p)(1) of this title (including such individuals enrolled under section 1395o(b) of this title) but for the fact that their income exceeds the income level established by the State under section 1396d(p)(2) of this title and is at least 120 percent, but less than 135 percent, of the official poverty line (referred to in such section) for a family of the size involved and who are not otherwise eligible for medical assistance under the State plan;
(F) at the option of a State, for making medical assistance available for COBRA premiums (as defined in subsection (u)(2)) for qualified COBRA continuation beneficiaries described in subsection (u)(1); and
(G) that, in applying eligibility criteria of the supplemental security income program under subchapter XVI for purposes of determining eligibility for medical assistance under the State plan of an individual who is not receiving supplemental security income, the State will disregard the provisions of subsections (c) and (e) of section 1382b of this title;
except that (I) the making available of the services described in paragraph (4), (14), or (16) of section 1396d(a) of this title to individuals meeting the age requirements prescribed therein shall not, by reason of this paragraph (10), require the making available of any such services, or the making available of such services of the same amount, duration, and scope, to individuals of any other ages, (II) the making available of supplementary medical insurance benefits under part B of subchapter XVIII to individuals eligible therefor (either pursuant to an agreement entered int
(11)
(A) provide for entering into cooperative arrangements with the State agencies responsible for administering or supervising the administration of health services and vocational rehabilitation services in the State looking toward maximum utilization of such services in the provision of medical assistance under the plan, (B) provide, to the extent prescribed by the Secretary, for entering into agreements, with any agency, institution, or organization receiving payments under (or through an allotment under) subchapter V, (i) providing for utilizing such agency, institution, or organization in furnishing care and services which are available under such subchapter or allotment and which are included in the State plan approved under this section 5 (ii) making such provision as may be appropriate for reimbursing such agency, institution, or organization for the cost of any such care and services furnished any individual for which payment would otherwise be made to the State with respect to the individual under section 1396b of this title, and (iii) providing for coordination of information and education on pediatric vaccinations and delivery of immunization services, and (C) provide for coordination of the operations under this subchapter, including the provision of information and education on pediatric vaccinations and the delivery of immunization services, with the State’s operations under the special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children under section 17 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 [42 U.S.C. 1786];
(12) provide that, in determining whether an individual is blind, there shall be an examination by a physician skilled in the diseases of the eye or by an optometrist, whichever the individual may select;
(13) provide—
(A) for a public process for determination of rates of payment under the plan for hospital services, nursing facility services, and services of intermediate care facilities for the mentally retarded under which—
(i) proposed rates, the methodologies underlying the establishment of such rates, and justifications for the proposed rates are published,
(ii) providers, beneficiaries and their representatives, and other concerned State residents are given a reasonable opportunity for review and comment on the proposed rates, methodologies, and justifications,
(iii) final rates, the methodologies underlying the establishment of such rates, and justifications for such final rates are published, and
(iv) in the case of hospitals, such rates take into account (in a manner consistent with section 1396r–4 of this title) the situation of hospitals which serve a disproportionate number of low-income patients with special needs;
(B) for payment for hospice care in amounts no lower than the amounts, using the same methodology, used under part A of subchapter XVIII and for payment of amounts under section 1396d(o)(3) of this title; except that in the case of hospice care which is furnished to an individual who is a resident of a nursing facility or intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded, and who would be eligible under the plan for nursing facility services or services in an intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded if he had not elected to receive hospice care, there shall be paid an additional amount, to take into account the room and board furnished by the facility, equal to at least 95 percent of the rate that would have been paid by the State under the plan for facility services in that facility for that individual; and
(C) payment for primary care services (as defined in subsection (jj)) furnished in 2013 and 2014 by a physician with a primary specialty designation of family medicine, general internal medicine, or pediatric medicine at a rate not less than 100 percent of the payment rate that applies to such services and physician under part B of subchapter XVIII (or, if greater, the payment rate that would be applicable under such part if the conversion factor under section 1395w–4(d) of this title for the year involved were the conversion factor under such section for 2009);
(14) provide that enrollment fees, premiums, or similar charges, and deductions, cost sharing, or similar charges, may be imposed only as provided in section 1396o of this title;
(15) provide for payment for services described in clause (B) or (C) of section 1396d(a)(2) of this title under the plan in accordance with subsection (bb);
(16) provide for inclusion, to the extent required by regulations prescribed by the Secretary, of provisions (conforming to such regulations) with respect to the furnishing of medical assistance under the plan to individuals who are residents of the State but are absent therefrom;
(17) except as provided in subsections (e)(14), (e)(15), (l)(3), (m)(3), and (m)(4), include reasonable standards (which shall be comparable for all groups and may, in accordance with standards prescribed by the Secretary, differ with respect to income levels, but only in the case of applicants or recipients of assistance under the plan who are not receiving aid or assistance under any plan of the State approved under subchapter I, X, XIV, or XVI, or part A of subchapter IV, and with respect to whom supplemental security income benefits are not being paid under subchapter XVI, based on the variations between shelter costs in urban areas and in rural areas) for determining eligibility for and the extent of medical assistance under the plan which (A) are consistent with the objectives of this subchapter, (B) provide for taking into account only such income and resources as are, as determined in accordance with standards prescribed by the Secretary, available to the applicant or recipient and (in the case of any applicant or recipient who would, except for income and resources, be eligible for aid or assistance in the form of money payments under any plan of the State approved under subchapter I, X, XIV, or XVI, or part A of subchapter IV, or to have paid with respect to him supplemental security income benefits under subchapter XVI) as would not be disregarded (or set aside for future needs) in determining his eligibility for such aid, assistance, or benefits, (C) provide for reasonable evaluation of any such income or resources, and (D) do not take into account the financial responsibility of any individual for any applicant or recipient of assistance under the plan unless such applicant or recipient is such individual’s spouse or such individual’s child who is under age 21 or (with respect to States eligible to participate in the State program established under subchapter XVI), is blind or permanently and totally disabled, or is blind or disabled as defined in section 1382c of this title (with respect to States which are not eligible to participate in such program); and provide for flexibility in the application of such standards with respect to income by taking into account, except to the extent prescribed by the Secretary, the costs (whether in the form of insurance premiums, payments made to the State under section 1396b(f)(2)(B) of this title, or otherwise and regardless of whether such costs are reimbursed under another public program of the State or political subdivision thereof) incurred for medical care or for any other type of remedial care recognized under State law;
(18) comply with the provisions of section 1396p of this title with respect to liens, adjustments and recoveries of medical assistance correctly paid,,6
6 So in original.
transfers of assets, and treatment of certain trusts;
(19) provide such safeguards as may be necessary to assure that eligibility for care and services under the plan will be determined, and such care and services will be provided, in a manner consistent with simplicity of administration and the best interests of the recipients;
(20) if the State plan includes medical assistance in behalf of individuals 65 years of age or older who are patients in institutions for mental diseases—
(A) provide for having in effect such agreements or other arrangements with State authorities concerned with mental diseases, and, where appropriate, with such institutions, as may be necessary for carrying out the State plan, including arrangements for joint planning and for development of alternate methods of care, arrangements providing assurance of immediate readmittance to institutions where needed for individuals under alternate plans of care, and arrangements providing for access to patients and facilities, for furnishing information, and for making reports;
(B) provide for an individual plan for each such patient to assure that the institutional care provided to him is in his best interests, including, to that end, assurances that there will be initial and periodic review of his medical and other needs, that he will be given appropriate medical treatment within the institution, and that there will be a periodic determination of his need for continued treatment in the institution; and
(C) provide for the development of alternate plans of care, making maximum utilization of available resources, for recipients 65 years of age or older who would otherwise need care in such institutions, including appropriate medical treatment and other aid or assistance; for services referred to in section 303(a)(4)(A)(i) and (ii) 1 or section 1383(a)(4)(A)(i) and (ii) 1 of this title which are appropriate for such recipients and for such patients; and for methods of administration necessary to assure that the responsibilities of the State agency under the State plan with respect to such recipients and such patients will be effectively carried out;
(21) if the State plan includes medical assistance in behalf of individuals 65 years of age or older who are patients in public institutions for mental diseases, show that the State is making satisfactory progress toward developing and implementing a comprehensive mental health program, including provision for utilization of community mental health centers, nursing facilities, and other alternatives to care in public institutions for mental diseases;
(22) include descriptions of (A) the kinds and numbers of professional medical personnel and supporting staff that will be used in the administration of the plan and of the responsibilities they will have, (B) the standards, for private or public institutions in which recipients of medical assistance under the plan may receive care or services, that will be utilized by the State authority or authorities responsible for establishing and maintaining such standards, (C) the cooperative arrangements with State health agencies and State vocational rehabilitation agencies entered into with a view to maximum utilization of and coordination of the provision of medical assistance with the services administered or supervised by such agencies, and (D) other standards and methods that the State will use to assure that medical or remedial care and services provided to recipients of medical assistance are of high quality;
(23) provide that (A) any individual eligible for medical assistance (including drugs) may obtain such assistance from any institution, agency, community pharmacy, or person, qualified to perform the service or services required (including an organization which provides such services, or arranges for their availability, on a prepayment basis), who undertakes to provide him such services, and (B) an enrollment of an individual eligible for medical assistance in a primary care case-management system (described in section 1396n(b)(1) of this title), a medicaid managed care organization, or a similar entity shall not restrict the choice of the qualified person from whom the individual may receive services under section 1396d(a)(4)(C) of this title, except as provided in subsection (g), in section 1396n of this title, and in section 1396u–2(a) of this title, except that this paragraph shall not apply in the case of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam, and except that nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as requiring a State to provide medical assistance for such services furnished by a person or entity convicted of a felony under Federal or State law for an offense which the State agency determines is inconsistent with the best interests of beneficiaries under the State plan or by a provider or supplier to which a moratorium under subsection (kk)(4) is applied during the period of such moratorium;
(24) effective July 1, 1969, provide for consultative services by health agencies and other appropriate agencies of the State to hospitals, nursing facilities, home health agencies, clinics, laboratories, and such other institutions as the Secretary may specify in order to assist them (A) to qualify for payments under this chapter, (B) to establish and maintain such fiscal records as may be necessary for the proper and efficient administration of this chapter, and (C) to provide information needed to determine payments due under this chapter on account of care and services furnished to individuals;
(25) provide—
(A) that the State or local agency administering such plan will take all reasonable measures to ascertain the legal liability of third parties (including health insurers, self-insured plans, group health plans (as defined in section 607(1) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1167(1)]), service benefit plans, managed care organizations, pharmacy benefit managers, or other parties that are, by statute, contract, or agreement, legally responsible for payment of a claim for a health care item or service) to pay for care and services available under the plan, including—
(i) the collection of sufficient information (as specified by the Secretary in regulations) to enable the State to pursue claims against such third parties, with such information being collected at the time of any determination or redetermination of eligibility for medical assistance, and
(ii) the submission to the Secretary of a plan (subject to approval by the Secretary) for pursuing claims against such third parties, which plan shall be integrated with, and be monitored as a part of the Secretary’s review of, the State’s mechanized claims processing and information retrieval systems required under section 1396b(r) of this title;
(B) that in any case where such a legal liability is found to exist after medical assistance has been made available on behalf of the individual and where the amount of reimbursement the State can reasonably expect to recover exceeds the costs of such recovery, the State or local agency will seek reimbursement for such assistance to the extent of such legal liability;
(C) that in the case of an individual who is entitled to medical assistance under the State plan with respect to a service for which a third party is liable for payment, the person furnishing the service may not seek to collect from the individual (or any financially responsible relative or representative of that individual) payment of an amount for that service (i) if the total of the amount of the liabilities of third parties for that service is at least equal to the amount payable for that service under the plan (disregarding section 1396o of this title), or (ii) in an amount which exceeds the lesser of (I) the amount which may be collected under section 1396o of this title, or (II) the amount by which the amount payable for that service under the plan (disregarding section 1396o of this title) exceeds the total of the amount of the liabilities of third parties for that service;
(D) that a person who furnishes services and is participating under the plan may not refuse to furnish services to an individual (who is entitled to have payment made under the plan for the services the person furnishes) because of a third party’s potential liability for payment for the service;
(E) that in the case of preventive pediatric care (including early and periodic screening and diagnosis services under section 1396d(a)(4)(B) of this title) covered under the State plan, the State shall—
(i) make payment for such service in accordance with the usual payment schedule under such plan for such services without regard to the liability of a third party for payment for such services, except that the State may, if the State determines doing so is cost-effective and will not adversely affect access to care, only make such payment if a third party so liable has not made payment within 90 days after the date the provider of such services has initially submitted a claim to such third party for payment for such services; and
(ii) seek reimbursement from such third party in accordance with subparagraph (B);
(F) that in the case of any services covered under such plan which are provided to an individual on whose behalf child support enforcement is being carried out by the State agency under part D of subchapter IV of this chapter, the State shall—
(i) make payment for such service in accordance with the usual payment schedule under such plan for such services without regard to any third-party liability for payment for such services, if such third-party liability is derived (through insurance or otherwise) from the parent whose obligation to pay support is being enforced by such agency, if payment has not been made by such third party within 100 days after the date the provider of such services has initially submitted a claim to such third party for payment for such services, except that the State may make such payment within 30 days after such date if the State determines doing so is cost-effective and necessary to ensure access to care.; 6 and
(ii) seek reimbursement from such third party in accordance with subparagraph (B);
(G) that the State prohibits any health insurer (including a group health plan, as defined in section 607(1) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1167(1)], a self-insured plan, a service benefit plan, a managed care organization, a pharmacy benefit manager, or other party that is, by statute, contract, or agreement, legally responsible for payment of a claim for a health care item or service), in enrolling an individual or in making any payments for benefits to the individual or on the individual’s behalf, from taking into account that the individual is eligible for or is provided medical assistance under a plan under this subchapter for such State, or any other State;
(H) that to the extent that payment has been made under the State plan for medical assistance in any case where a third party has a legal liability to make payment for such assistance, the State has in effect laws under which, to the extent that payment has been made under the State plan for medical assistance for health care items or services furnished to an individual, the State is considered to have acquired the rights of such individual to payment by any other party for such health care items or services; and
(I) that the State shall provide assurances satisfactory to the Secretary that the State has in effect laws requiring health insurers, including self-insured plans, group health plans (as defined in section 607(1) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1167(1)]), service benefit plans, managed care organizations, pharmacy benefit managers, or other parties that are, by statute, contract, or agreement, legally responsible for payment of a claim for a health care item or service, as a condition of doing business in the State, to—
(i) provide, with respect to individuals who are eligible (and, at State option, individuals who apply or whose eligibility for medical assistance is being evaluated in accordance with section 1396a(e)(13)(D) of this title) for, or are provided, medical assistance under a State plan (or under a waiver of the plan) under this subchapter and child health assistance under subchapter XXI, upon the request of the State, information to determine during what period the individual or their spouses or their dependents may be (or may have been) covered by a health insurer and the nature of the coverage that is or was provided by the health insurer (including the name, address, and identifying number of the plan) in a manner prescribed by the Secretary;
(ii)(I) accept the State’s right of recovery and the assignment to the State of any right of an individual or other entity to payment from the party for an item or service for which payment has been made under the State plan (or under a waiver of such plan); and(II) in the case of a responsible third party (other than the original medicare fee-for-service program under parts A and B of subchapter XVIII, a Medicare Advantage plan offered by a Medicare Advantage organization under part C of such subchapter, a reasonable cost reimbursement plan under section 1395mm of this title, a health care prepayment plan under section 1395l of this title, or a prescription drug plan offered by a PDP sponsor under part D of such subchapter) that requires prior authorization for an item or service furnished to an individual eligible to receive medical assistance under this subchapter, accept authorization provided by the State that the item or service is covered under the State plan (or waiver of such plan) for such individual, as if such authorization were the prior authorization made by the third party for such item or service;
(iii) not later than 60 days after receiving any inquiry by the State regarding a claim for payment for any health care item or service that is submitted not later than 3 years after the date of the provision of such health care item or service, respond to such inquiry; and
(iv) agree not to deny a claim submitted by the State solely on the basis of the date of submission of the claim, the type or format of the claim form, a failure to present proper documentation at the point-of-sale that is the basis of the claim, or in the case of a responsible third party (other than the original medicare fee-for-service program under parts A and B of subchapter XVIII, a Medicare Advantage plan offered by a Medicare Advantage organization under part C of such subchapter, a reasonable cost reimbursement plan under section 1395mm of this title, a health care prepayment plan under section 1395l of this title, or a prescription drug plan offered by a PDP sponsor under part D of such subchapter) a failure to obtain a prior authorization for the item or service for which the claim is being submitted, if—(I) the claim is submitted by the State within the 3-year period beginning on the date on which the item or service was furnished; and(II) any action by the State to enforce its rights with respect to such claim is commenced within 6 years of the State’s submission of such claim;
(26) if the State plan includes medical assistance for inpatient mental hospital services, provide, with respect to each patient receiving such services, for a regular program of medical review (including medical evaluation) of his need for such services, and for a written plan of care;
(27) provide for agreements with every person or institution providing services under the State plan under which such person or institution agrees (A) to keep such records as are necessary fully to disclose the extent of the services provided to individuals receiving assistance under the State plan, and (B) to furnish the State agency or the Secretary with such information, regarding any payments claimed by such person or institution for providing services under the State plan, as the State agency or the Secretary may from time to time request;
(28) provide—
(A) that any nursing facility receiving payments under such plan must satisfy all the requirements of subsections (b) through (d) of section 1396r of this title as they apply to such facilities;
(B) for including in “nursing facility services” at least the items and services specified (or deemed to be specified) by the Secretary under section 1396r(f)(7) of this title and making available upon request a description of the items and services so included;
(C) for procedures to make available to the public the data and methodology used in establishing payment rates for nursing facilities under this subchapter; and
(D) for compliance (by the date specified in the respective sections) with the requirements of—
(i)section 1396r(e) of this title;
(ii)section 1396r(g) of this title (relating to responsibility for survey and certification of nursing facilities); and
(iii) sections 1396r(h)(2)(B) and 1396r(h)(2)(D) of this title (relating to establishment and application of remedies);
(29) include a State program which meets the requirements set forth in section 1396g of this title, for the licensing of administrators of nursing homes;
(30)
(A) provide such methods and procedures relating to the utilization of, and the payment for, care and services available under the plan (including but not limited to utilization review plans as provided for in section 1396b(i)(4) of this title) as may be necessary to safeguard against unnecessary utilization of such care and services and to assure that payments are consistent with efficiency, economy, and quality of care and are sufficient to enlist enough providers so that care and services are available under the plan at least to the extent that such care and services are available to the general population in the geographic area; and
(B) provide, under the program described in subparagraph (A), that—
(i) each admission to a hospital, intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded, or hospital for mental diseases is reviewed or screened in accordance with criteria established by medical and other professional personnel who are not themselves directly responsible for the care of the patient involved, and who do not have a significant financial interest in any such institution and are not, except in the case of a hospital, employed by the institution providing the care involved, and
(ii) the information developed from such review or screening, along with the data obtained from prior reviews of the necessity for admission and continued stay of patients by such professional personnel, shall be used as the basis for establishing the size and composition of the sample of admissions to be subject to review and evaluation by such personnel, and any such sample may be of any size up to 100 percent of all admissions and must be of sufficient size to serve the purpose of (I) identifying the patterns of care being provided and the changes occurring over time in such patterns so that the need for modification may be ascertained, and (II) subjecting admissions to early or more extensive review where information indicates that such consideration is warranted to a hospital, intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded, or hospital for mental diseases;
(31) with respect to services in an intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded (where the State plan includes medical assistance for such services) provide, with respect to each patient receiving such services, for a written plan of care, prior to admission to or authorization of benefits in such facility, in accordance with regulations of the Secretary, and for a regular program of independent professional review (including medical evaluation) which shall periodically review his need for such services;
(32) provide that no payment under the plan for any care or service provided to an individual shall be made to anyone other than such individual or the person or institution providing such care or service, under an assignment or power of attorney or otherwise; except that—
(A) in the case of any care or service provided by a physician, dentist, or other individual practitioner, such payment may be made (i) to the employer of such physician, dentist, or other practitioner if such physician, dentist, or practitioner is required as a condition of his employment to turn over his fee for such care or service to his employer, or (ii) (where the care or service was provided in a hospital, clinic, or other facility) to the facility in which the care or service was provided if there is a contractual arrangement between such physician, dentist, or practitioner and such facility under which such facility submits the bill for such care or service;
(B) nothing in this paragraph shall be construed (i) to prevent the making of such a payment in accordance with an assignment from the person or institution providing the care or service involved if such assignment is made to a governmental agency or entity or is established by or pursuant to the order of a court of competent jurisdiction, or (ii) to preclude an agent of such person or institution from receiving any such payment if (but only if) such agent does so pursuant to an agency agreement under which the compensation to be paid to the agent for his services for or in connection with the billing or collection of payments due such person or institution under the plan is unrelated (directly or indirectly) to the amount of such payments or the billings therefor, and is not dependent upon the actual collection of any such payment;
(C) in the case of services furnished (during a period that does not exceed 14 continuous days in the case of an informal reciprocal arrangement or 90 continuous days (or such longer period as the Secretary may provide) in the case of an arrangement involving per diem or other fee-for-time compensation) by, or incident to the services of, one physician to the patients of another physician who submits the claim for such services, payment shall be made to the physician submitting the claim (as if the services were furnished by, or incident to, the physician’s services), but only if the claim identifies (in a manner specified by the Secretary) the physician who furnished the services; and
(D) in the case of payment for a childhood vaccine administered before October 1, 1994, to individuals entitled to medical assistance under the State plan, the State plan may make payment directly to the manufacturer of the vaccine under a voluntary replacement program agreed to by the State pursuant to which the manufacturer (i) supplies doses of the vaccine to providers administering the vaccine, (ii) periodically replaces the supply of the vaccine, and (iii) charges the State the manufacturer’s price to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for the vaccine so administered (which price includes a reasonable amount to cover shipping and the handling of returns);
(33) provide—
(A) that the State health agency, or other appropriate State medical agency, shall be responsible for establishing a plan, consistent with regulations prescribed by the Secretary, for the review by appropriate professional health personnel of the appropriateness and quality of care and services furnished to recipients of medical assistance under the plan in order to provide guidance with respect thereto in the administration of the plan to the State agency established or designated pursuant to paragraph (5) and, where applicable, to the State agency described in the second sentence of this subsection; and
(B) that, except as provided in section 1396r(g) of this title, the State or local agency utilized by the Secretary for the purpose specified in the first sentence of section 1395aa(a) of this title, or, if such agency is not the State agency which is responsible for licensing health institutions, the State agency responsible for such licensing, will perform for the State agency administering or supervising the administration of the plan approved under this subchapter the function of determining whether institutions and agencies meet the requirements for participation in the program under such plan, except that, if the Secretary has cause to question the adequacy of such determinations, the Secretary is authorized to validate State determinations and, on that basis, make independent and binding determinations concerning the extent to which individual institutions and agencies meet the requirements for participation;
(34) provide that in the case of any individual who has been determined to be eligible for medical assistance under the plan, such assistance will be made available to him for care and services included under the plan and furnished in or after the third month before the month in which he made application (or application was made on his behalf in the case of a deceased individual) for such assistance if such individual was (or upon application would have been) eligible for such assistance at the time such care and services were furnished;
(35) provide that any disclosing entity (as defined in section 1320a–3(a)(2) of this title) receiving payments under such plan complies with the requirements of section 1320a–3 of this title;
(36) provide that within 90 days following the completion of each survey of any health care facility, laboratory, agency, clinic, or organization, by the appropriate State agency described in paragraph (9), such agency shall (in accordance with regulations of the Secretary) make public in readily available form and place the pertinent findings of each such survey relating to the compliance of each such health care facility, laboratory, clinic, agency, or organization with (A) the statutory conditions of participation imposed under this subchapter, and (B) the major additional conditions which the Secretary finds necessary in the interest of health and safety of individuals who are furnished care or services by any such facility, laboratory, clinic, agency, or organization;
(37) provide for claims payment procedures which (A) ensure that 90 per centum of claims for payment (for which no further written information or substantiation is required in order to make payment) made for services covered under the plan and furnished by health care practitioners through individual or group practices or through shared health facilities are paid within 30 days of the date of receipt of such claims and that 99 per centum of such claims are paid within 90 days of the date of receipt of such claims, and (B) provide for procedures of prepayment and postpayment claims review, including review of appropriate data with respect to the recipient and provider of a service and the nature of the service for which payment is claimed, to ensure the proper and efficient payment of claims and management of the program;
(38) require that an entity (other than an individual practitioner or a group of practitioners) that furnishes, or arranges for the furnishing of, items or services under the plan, shall supply (within such period as may be specified in regulations by the Secretary or by the single State agency which administers or supervises the administration of the plan) upon request specifically addressed to such entity by the Secretary or such State agency, the information described in section 1320a–7(b)(9) of this title;
(39) provide that the State agency shall exclude any specified individual or entity from participation in the program under the State plan for the period specified by the Secretary, when required by him to do so pursuant to section 1320a–7 of this title or section 1320a–7a of this title, terminate the participation of any individual or entity in such program if (subject to such exceptions as are permitted with respect to exclusion under sections 1320a–7(c)(3)(B) and 1320a–7(d)(3)(B) of this title) participation of such individual or entity is terminated under subchapter XVIII, any other State plan under this subchapter (or waiver of the plan), or any State child health plan under subchapter XXI (or waiver of the plan) and such termination is included by the Secretary in any database or similar system developed pursuant to section 6401(b)(2) of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, and provide that no payment may be made under the plan with respect to any item or service furnished by such individual or entity during such period;
(40) require each health services facility or organization which receives payments under the plan and of a type for which a uniform reporting system has been established under section 1320a(a) of this title to make reports to the Secretary of information described in such section in accordance with the uniform reporting system (established under such section) for that type of facility or organization;
(41) provide, in accordance with subsection (kk)(8) (as applicable), that whenever a provider of services or any other person is terminated, suspended, or otherwise sanctioned or prohibited from participating under the State plan, the State agency shall promptly notify the Secretary and, in the case of a physician and notwithstanding paragraph (7), the State medical licensing board of such action;
(42) provide that—
(A) the records of any entity participating in the plan and providing services reimbursable on a cost-related basis will be audited as the Secretary determines to be necessary to insure that proper payments are made under the plan; and
(B) not later than December 31, 2010, the State shall—
(i) establish a program under which the State contracts (consistent with State law and in the same manner as the Secretary enters into contracts with recovery audit contractors under
(ii) provide assurances satisfactory to the Secretary that—(I) under such contracts, payment shall be made to such a contractor only from amounts recovered;(II) from such amounts recovered, payment—(aa) shall be made on a contingent basis for collecting overpayments; and(bb) may be made in such amounts as the State may specify for identifying underpayments;(III) the State has an adequate process for entities to appeal any adverse determination made by such contractors; and(IV) such program is carried out in accordance with such requirements as the Secretary shall specify, including—(aa) for purposes of section 1396b(a)(7) of this title, that amounts expended by the State to carry out the program shall be considered amounts expended as necessary for the proper and efficient administration of the State plan or a waiver of the plan;(bb) that section 1396b(d) of this title shall apply to amounts recovered under the program; and(cc) that the State and any such contractors under contract with the State shall coordinate such recovery audit efforts with other contractors or entities performing audits of entities receiving payments under the State plan or waiver in the State, including efforts with Federal and State law enforcement with respect to the Department of Justice, including the Federal Bureau of Investigations,7
7 So in original. Probably should be “Investigation,”.
the Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services, and the State medicaid fraud control unit; and
(43) provide for—
(A) informing all persons in the State who are under the age of 21 and who have been determined to be eligible for medical assistance including services described in section 1396d(a)(4)(B) of this title, of the availability of early and periodic screening, diagnostic, and treatment services as described in section 1396d(r) of this title and the need for age-appropriate immunizations against vaccine-preventable diseases,
(B) providing or arranging for the provision of such screening services in all cases where they are requested,
(C) arranging for (directly or through referral to appropriate agencies, organizations, or individuals) corrective treatment the need for which is disclosed by such child health screening services, and
(D) reporting to the Secretary (in a uniform form and manner established by the Secretary, by age group and by basis of eligibility for medical assistance, and by not later than April 1 after the end of each fiscal year, beginning with fiscal year 1990) the following information relating to early and periodic screening, diagnostic, and treatment services provided under the plan during each fiscal year:
(i) the number of children provided child health screening services,
(ii) the number of children referred for corrective treatment (the need for which is disclosed by such child health screening services),
(iii) the number of children receiving dental services, and other information relating to the provision of dental services to such children described in section 1397hh(e) 8
8 Probably means the subsec. (e) of section 1397hh relating to information on dental care for children.
of this title and
(iv) the State’s results in attaining the participation goals set for the State under section 1396d(r) of this title;
(44) in each case for which payment for inpatient hospital services, services in an intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded, or inpatient mental hospital services is made under the State plan—
(A) a physician (or, in the case of skilled nursing facility services or intermediate care facility services, a physician, or a nurse practitioner or clinical nurse specialist who is not an employee of the facility but is working in collaboration with a physician) certifies at the time of admission, or, if later, the time the individual applies for medical assistance under the State plan (and a physician, a physician assistant under the supervision of a physician, or, in the case of skilled nursing facility services or intermediate care facility services, a physician, or a nurse practitioner or clinical nurse specialist who is not an employee of the facility but is working in collaboration with a physician, recertifies, where such services are furnished over a period of time, in such cases, at least as often as required under section 1396b(g)(6) of this title (or, in the case of services that are services provided in an intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded, every year), and accompanied by such supporting material, appropriate to the case involved, as may be provided in regulations of the Secretary), that such services are or were required to be given on an inpatient basis because the individual needs or needed such services, and
(B) such services were furnished under a plan established and periodically reviewed and evaluated by a physician, or, in the case of skilled nursing facility services or intermediate care facility services, a physician, or a nurse practitioner or clinical nurse specialist who is not an employee of the facility but is working in collaboration with a physician;
(45) provide for mandatory assignment of rights of payment for medical support and other medical care owed to recipients, in accordance with section 1396k of this title;
(46)
(A) provide that information is requested and exchanged for purposes of income and eligibility verification in accordance with a State system which meets the requirements of section 1320b–7 of this title; and
(B) provide, with respect to an individual declaring to be a citizen or national of the United States for purposes of establishing eligibility under this subchapter, that the State shall satisfy the requirements of—
(i)section 1396b(x) of this title; or
(ii) subsection (ee);
(47) provide—
(A) at the option of the State, for making ambulatory prenatal care available to pregnant women during a presumptive eligibility period in accordance with section 1396r–1 of this title and provide for making medical assistance for items and services described in subsection (a) of section 1396r–1a of this title available to children during a presumptive eligibility period in accordance with such section and provide for making medical assistance available to individuals described in subsection (a) of section 1396r–1b of this title during a presumptive eligibility period in accordance with such section and provide for making medical assistance available to individuals described in subsection (a) of section 1396r–1c of this title during a presumptive eligibility period in accordance with such section; and
(B) that any hospital that is a participating provider under the State plan may elect to be a qualified entity for purposes of determining, on the basis of preliminary information, whether any individual is eligible for medical assistance under the State plan or under a waiver of the plan for purposes of providing the individual with medical assistance during a presumptive eligibility period, in the same manner, and subject to the same requirements, as apply to the State options with respect to populations described in section 1396r–1, 1396r–1a, 1396r–1b, or 1396r–1c of this title (but without regard to whether the State has elected to provide for a presumptive eligibility period under any such sections), subject to such guidance as the Secretary shall establish;
(48) provide a method of making cards evidencing eligibility for medical assistance available to an eligible individual who does not reside in a permanent dwelling or does not have a fixed home or mailing address;
(49) provide that the State will provide information and access to certain information respecting sanctions taken against health care practitioners and providers by State licensing authorities in accordance with section 1396r–2 of this title;
(50) provide, in accordance with subsection (q), for a monthly personal needs allowance for certain institutionalized individuals and couples;
(51) meet the requirements of section 1396r–5 of this title (relating to protection of community spouses);
(52) meet the requirements of section 1396r–6 of this title (relating to extension of eligibility for medical assistance);
(53) provide—
(A) for notifying in a timely manner all individuals in the State who are determined to be eligible for medical assistance and who are pregnant women, breastfeeding or postpartum women (as defined in section 17 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 [42 U.S.C. 1786]), or children below the age of 5, of the availability of benefits furnished by the special supplemental nutrition program under such section, and
(B) for referring any such individual to the State agency responsible for administering such program;
(54) in the case of a State plan that provides medical assistance for covered outpatient drugs (as defined in section 1396r–8(k) of this title), comply with the applicable requirements of section 1396r–8 of this title;
(55) provide for receipt and initial processing of applications of individuals for medical assistance under subsection (a)(10)(A)(i)(IV), (a)(10)(A)(i)(VI), (a)(10)(A)(i)(VII), (a)(10)(A)(ii)(IX), or (a)(10)(A)(ii)(XXIII)—
(A) at locations which are other than those used for the receipt and processing of applications for aid under part A of subchapter IV and which include facilities defined as disproportionate share hospitals under section 1396r–4(a)(1)(A) of this title and Federally-qualified health centers described in section 1396d(1)(2)(B) 9
9 So in original. Probably should be section “1396d(l)(2)(B)”.
of this title, and
(B) using applications which are other than those used for applications for aid under such part;
(56) provide, in accordance with subsection (s), for adjusted payments for certain inpatient hospital services;
(57) provide that each hospital, nursing facility, provider of home health care or personal care services, hospice program, or medicaid managed care organization (as defined in section 1396b(m)(1)(A) of this title) receiving funds under the plan shall comply with the requirements of subsection (w);
(58) provide that the State, acting through a State agency, association, or other private nonprofit entity, develop a written description of the law of the State (whether statutory or as recognized by the courts of the State) concerning advance directives that would be distributed by providers or organizations under the requirements of subsection (w);
(59) maintain a list (updated not less often than monthly, and containing each physician’s unique identifier provided under the system established under subsection (x)) of all physicians who are certified to participate under the State plan;
(60) provide that the State agency shall provide assurances satisfactory to the Secretary that the State has in effect the laws relating to medical child support required under section 1396g–1 of this title;
(61) provide that the State must demonstrate that it operates a medicaid fraud and abuse control unit described in section 1396b(q) of this title that effectively carries out the functions and requirements described in such section, as determined in accordance with standards established by the Secretary, unless the State demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the effective operation of such a unit in the State would not be cost-effective because minimal fraud exists in connection with the provision of covered services to eligible individuals under the State plan, and that beneficiaries under the plan will be protected from abuse and neglect in connection with the provision of medical assistance under the plan without the existence of such a unit;
(62) provide for a program for the distribution of pediatric vaccines to program-registered providers for the immunization of vaccine-eligible children in accordance with section 1396s of this title;
(63) provide for administration and determinations of eligibility with respect to individuals who are (or seek to be) eligible for medical assistance based on the application of section 1396u–1 of this title;
(64) provide, not later than 1 year after August 5, 1997, a mechanism to receive reports from beneficiaries and others and compile data concerning alleged instances of waste, fraud, and abuse relating to the operation of this subchapter;
(65) provide that the State shall issue provider numbers for all suppliers of medical assistance consisting of durable medical equipment, as defined in section 1395x(n) of this title, and the State shall not issue or renew such a supplier number for any such supplier unless—
(A)
(i) full and complete information as to the identity of each person with an ownership or control interest (as defined in section 1320a–3(a)(3) of this title) in the supplier or in any subcontractor (as defined by the Secretary in regulations) in which the supplier directly or indirectly has a 5 percent or more ownership interest; and
(ii) to the extent determined to be feasible under regulations of the Secretary, the name of any disclosing entity (as defined in section 1320a–3(a)(2) of this title) with respect to which a person with such an ownership or control interest in the supplier is a person with such an ownership or control interest in the disclosing entity; and
(B) a surety bond in a form specified by the Secretary under section 1395m(a)(16)(B) of this title and in an amount that is not less than $50,000 or such comparable surety bond as the Secretary may permit under the second sentence of such section;
(66) provide for making eligibility determinations under section 1396u–5(a) of this title;
(67) provide, with respect to services covered under the State plan (but not under subchapter XVIII) that are furnished to a PACE program eligible individual enrolled with a PACE provider by a provider participating under the State plan that does not have a contract or other agreement with the PACE provider that establishes payment amounts for such services, that such participating provider may not require the PACE provider to pay the participating provider an amount greater than the amount that would otherwise be payable for the service to the participating provider under the State plan for the State where the PACE provider is located (in accordance with regulations issued by the Secretary);
(68) provide that any entity that receives or makes annual payments under the State plan of at least $5,000,000, as a condition of receiving such payments, shall—
(A) establish written policies for all employees of the entity (including management), and of any contractor or agent of the entity, that provide detailed information about the False Claims Act established under sections 3729 through 3733 of title 31, administrative remedies for false claims and statements established under chapter 38 of title 31, any State laws pertaining to civil or criminal penalties for false claims and statements, and whistleblower protections under such laws, with respect to the role of such laws in preventing and detecting fraud, waste, and abuse in Federal health care programs (as defined in section 1320a–7b(f) of this title);
(B) include as part of such written policies, detailed provisions regarding the entity’s policies and procedures for detecting and preventing fraud, waste, and abuse; and
(C) include in any employee handbook for the entity, a specific discussion of the laws described in subparagraph (A), the rights of employees to be protected as whistleblowers, and the entity’s policies and procedures for detecting and preventing fraud, waste, and abuse;
(69) provide that the State must comply with any requirements determined by the Secretary to be necessary for carrying out the Medicaid Integrity Program established under section 1396u–6 of this title;
(70) at the option of the State and notwithstanding paragraphs (1), (10)(B), and (23), provide for the establishment of a non-emergency medical transportation brokerage program in order to more cost-effectively provide transportation for individuals eligible for medical assistance under the State plan who need access to medical care or services and have no other means of transportation which—
(A) may include a wheelchair van, taxi, stretcher car, bus passes and tickets, secured transportation, and such other transportation as the Secretary determines appropriate; and
(B) may be conducted under contract with a broker who—
(i) is selected through a competitive bidding process based on the State’s evaluation of the broker’s experience, performance, references, resources, qualifications, and costs;
(ii) has oversight procedures to monitor beneficiary access and complaints and ensure that transport personnel are licensed, qualified, competent, and courteous;
(iii) is subject to regular auditing and oversight by the State in order to ensure the quality of the transportation services provided and the adequacy of beneficiary access to medical care and services; and
(iv) complies with such requirements related to prohibitions on referrals and conflict of interest as the Secretary shall establish (based on the prohibitions on physician referrals under section 1395nn of this title and such other prohibitions and requirements as the Secretary determines to be appropriate);
(71) provide that the State will implement an asset verification program as required under section 1396w of this title;
(72) provide that the State will not prevent a Federally-qualified health center from entering into contractual relationships with private practice dental providers in the provision of Federally-qualified health center services;
(73) in the case of any State in which 1 or more Indian Health Programs or Urban Indian Organizations furnishes health care services, provide for a process under which the State seeks advice on a regular, ongoing basis from designees of such Indian Health Programs and Urban Indian Organizations on matters relating to the application of this subchapter that are likely to have a direct effect on such Indian Health Programs and Urban Indian Organizations and that—
(A) shall include solicitation of advice prior to submission of any plan amendments, waiver requests, and proposals for demonstration projects likely to have a direct effect on Indians, Indian Health Programs, or Urban Indian Organizations; and
(B) may include appointment of an advisory committee and of a designee of such Indian Health Programs and Urban Indian Organizations to the medical care advisory committee advising the State on its State plan under this subchapter;
(74) provide for maintenance of effort under the State plan or under any waiver of the plan in accordance with subsection (gg);
(75) provide that, beginning January 2015, and annually thereafter, the State shall submit a report to the Secretary that contains—
(A) the total number of enrolled and newly enrolled individuals in the State plan or under a waiver of the plan for the fiscal year ending on September 30 of the preceding calendar year, disaggregated by population, including children, parents, nonpregnant childless adults, disabled individuals, elderly individuals, and such other categories or sub-categories of individuals eligible for medical assistance under the State plan or under a waiver of the plan as the Secretary may require;
(B) a description, which may be specified by population, of the outreach and enrollment processes used by the State during such fiscal year; and
(C) any other data reporting determined necessary by the Secretary to monitor enrollment and retention of individuals eligible for medical assistance under the State plan or under a waiver of the plan;
(76) provide that any data collected under the State plan meets the requirements of section 3101 of the Public Health Service Act [42 U.S.C. 300kk];
(77) provide that the State shall comply with provider and supplier screening, oversight, and reporting requirements in accordance with subsection (kk);
(78) provide that, not later than January 1, 2017, in the case of a State that pursuant to its State plan or waiver of the plan for medical assistance pays for medical assistance on a fee-for-service basis, the State shall require each provider furnishing items and services to, or ordering, prescribing, referring, or certifying eligibility for, services for individuals eligible to receive medical assistance under such plan to enroll with the State agency and provide to the State agency the provider’s identifying information, including the name, specialty, date of birth, Social Security number, national provider identifier (if applicable), Federal taxpayer identification number, and the State license or certification number of the provider (if applicable);
(79) provide that any agent, clearinghouse, or other alternate payee (as defined by the Secretary) that submits claims on behalf of a health care provider must register with the State and the Secretary in a form and manner specified by the Secretary;
(80) provide that the State shall not provide any payments for items or services provided under the State plan or under a waiver to any financial institution or entity located outside of the United States;
(81) provide for implementation of the payment models specified by the Secretary under section 1315a(c) of this title for implementation on a nationwide basis unless the State demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Secretary that implementation would not be administratively feasible or appropriate to the health care delivery system of the State;
(82) provide that the State agency responsible for administering the State plan under this subchapter provides assurances to the Secretary that the State agency is in compliance with subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of section 1320a–7n(b)(2) of this title;
(83) provide that, not later than January 1, 2017, in the case of a State plan (or waiver of the plan) that provides medical assistance on a fee-for-service basis or through a primary care case-management system described in section 1396n(b)(1) of this title (other than a primary care case management entity (as defined by the Secretary)), the State shall publish (and update on at least an annual basis) on the public website of the State agency administering the State plan, a directory of the physicians described in subsection (mm) and, at State option, other providers described in such subsection that—
(A) includes—
(i) with respect to each such physician or provider—(I) the name of the physician or provider;(II) the specialty of the physician or provider;(III) the address at which the physician or provider provides services; and(IV) the telephone number of the physician or provider; and
(ii) with respect to any such physician or provider participating in such a primary care case-management system, information regarding—(I) whether the physician or provider is accepting as new patients individuals who receive medical assistance under this subchapter; and(II) the physician’s or provider’s cultural and linguistic capabilities, including the languages spoken by the physician or provider or by the skilled medical interpreter providing interpretation services at the physician’s or provider’s office; and
(B) may include, at State option, with respect to each such physician or provider—
(i) the Internet website of such physician or provider; or
(ii) whether the physician or provider is accepting as new patients individuals who receive medical assistance under this subchapter;
(84) provide that—
(A) the State shall not terminate eligibility for medical assistance under the State plan (or waiver of such plan) for an individual who is an eligible juvenile (as defined in subsection (nn)(2)) because the juvenile is an inmate of a public institution (as defined in subsection (nn)(3)), but, subject to subparagraph (D), may suspend coverage during the period the juvenile is such an inmate;
(B) in the case of an individual who is an eligible juvenile described in paragraph (2)(A) of subsection (nn), the State shall, prior to the individual’s release from such a public institution, conduct a redetermination of eligibility for such individual with respect to such medical assistance (without requiring a new application from the individual) and, if the State determines pursuant to such redetermination that the individual continues to meet the eligibility requirements for such medical assistance, the State shall restore coverage for such medical assistance to such an individual upon the individual’s release from such public institution;
(C) in the case of an individual who is an eligible juvenile described in paragraph (2)(B) of subsection (nn), the State shall process any application for medical assistance submitted by, or on behalf of, such individual such that the State makes a determination of eligibility for such individual with respect to such medical assistance upon release of such individual from such public institution; and
(D) in the case of an individual who is an eligible juvenile described in subsection (nn)(2) and is within 30 days of the date on which such eligible juvenile is scheduled to be released from a public institution following adjudication, the State shall have in place a plan, and in accordance with such plan, provide for—
(i) in the 30 days prior to the release of such eligible juvenile from such public institution (or not later than one week, or as soon as practicable, after release from the public institution), and in coordination with such institution, any screening or diagnostic service which meets reasonable standards of medical and dental practice, as determined by the State, or as indicated as medically necessary, in accordance with paragraphs (1)(A) and (5) of section 1396d(r) of this title, including a behavioral health screening or diagnostic service; and
(ii) in the 30 days prior to the release of such eligible juvenile from such public institution, and for at least 30 days following the release of such eligible juvenile from such institution, targeted case management services, including referrals for such eligible juvenile to the appropriate care and services available in the geographic region of the home or residence of such eligible juvenile (where feasible) under the State plan (or waiver of such plan);
(85) provide that the State is in compliance with the drug review and utilization requirements under subsection (oo)(1);
(86) provide, at the option of the State, for making medical assistance available on an inpatient or outpatient basis at a residential pediatric recovery center (as defined in subsection (pp)) to infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome; and
(87) provide for a mechanism, which may include attestation, that ensures that, with respect to any provider (including a transportation network company) or individual driver of nonemergency transportation to medically necessary services receiving payments under such plan (but excluding any public transit authority), at a minimum—
(A) each such provider and individual driver is not excluded from participation in any Federal health care program (as defined in section 1320a–7b(f) of this title) and is not listed on the exclusion list of the Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services;
(B) each such individual driver has a valid driver’s license;
(C) each such provider has in place a process to address any violation of a State drug law; and
(D) each such provider has in place a process to disclose to the State Medicaid program the driving history, including any traffic violations, of each such individual driver employed by such provider, including any traffic violations.
Notwithstanding paragraph (5), if on January 1, 1965, and on the date on which a State submits its plan for approval under this subchapter, the State agency which administered or supervised the administration of the plan of such State approved under subchapter X (or subchapter XVI, insofar as it relates to the blind) was different from the State agency which administered or supervised the administration of the State plan approved under subchapter I (or subchapter XVI, insofar as it relates to the aged), the State agency which administered or supervised the administration of such plan approved under subchapter X (or subchapter XVI, insofar as it relates to the blind) may be designated to administer or supervise the administration of the portion of the State plan for medical assistance which relates to blind individuals and a different State agency may be established or designated to administer or supervise the administration of the rest of the State plan for medical assistance; and in such case the part of the plan which each such agency administers, or the administration of which each such agency supervises, shall be regarded as a separate plan for purposes of this subchapter (except for purposes of paragraph (10)). The provisions of paragraphs (9)(A), (31), and (33) and of section 1396b(i)(4) of this title shall not apply to a religious nonmedical health care institution (as defined in section 1395x(ss)(1) of this title).
For purposes of paragraph (10) any individual who, for the month of August 1972, was eligible for or receiving aid or assistance under a State plan approved under subchapter I, X, XIV, or XVI, or part A of subchapter IV and who for such month was entitled to monthly insurance benefits under subchapter II shall for purposes of this subchapter only be deemed to be eligible for financial aid or assistance for any month thereafter if such individual would have been eligible for financial aid or assistance for such month had the increase in monthly insurance benefits under subchapter II resulting from enactment of Public Law 92–336 not been applicable to such individual.
The requirement of clause (A) of paragraph (37) with respect to a State plan may be waived by the Secretary if he finds that the State has exercised good faith in trying to meet such requirement. For purposes of this subchapter, any child who meets the requirements of paragraph (1) or (2) of section 673(b) of this title shall be deemed to be a dependent child as defined in section 606 of this title and shall be deemed to be a recipient of aid to families with dependent children under part A of subchapter IV in the State where such child resides. Notwithstanding paragraph (10)(B) or any other provision of this subsection, a State plan shall provide medical assistance with respect to an alien who is not lawfully admitted for permanent residence or otherwise permanently residing in the United States under color of law only in accordance with section 1396b(v) of this title.
(b) Approval by SecretaryThe Secretary shall approve any plan which fulfills the conditions specified in subsection (a), except that he shall not approve any plan which imposes, as a condition of eligibility for medical assistance under the plan—
(1) an age requirement of more than 65 years; or
(2) any residence requirement which excludes any individual who resides in the State, regardless of whether or not the residence is maintained permanently or at a fixed address; or
(3) any citizenship requirement which excludes any citizen of the United States.
(c) Lower payment levels or applying for benefits as condition of applying for, or receiving, medical assistance
(d) Performance of medical or utilization review functions
(e) Continuation and extension of eligibility of certain individuals; Express Lane option for children
(1) Beginning April 1, 1990, for provisions relating to the extension of eligibility for medical assistance for certain families who have received aid pursuant to a State plan approved under part A of subchapter IV and have earned income, see section 1396r–6 of this title.
(2)
(A) In the case of an individual who is enrolled with a medicaid managed care organization (as defined in section 1396b(m)(1)(A) of this title), with a primary care case manager (as defined in section 1396d(t) of this title), or with an eligible organization with a contract under section 1395mm of this title and who would (but for this paragraph) lose eligibility for benefits under this subchapter before the end of the minimum enrollment period (defined in subparagraph (B)), the State plan may provide, notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, that the individual shall be deemed to continue to be eligible for such benefits until the end of such minimum period, but, except for benefits furnished under section 1396d(a)(4)(C) of this title, only with respect to such benefits provided to the individual as an enrollee of such organization or entity or by or through the case manager.
(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “minimum enrollment period” means, with respect to an individual’s enrollment with an organization or entity under a State plan, a period, established by the State, of not more than six months beginning on the date the individual’s enrollment with the organization or entity becomes effective.
(3) At the option of the State, any individual who—
(A) is 18 years of age or younger and qualifies as a disabled individual under section 1382c(a) of this title;
(B) with respect to whom there has been a determination by the State that—
(i) the individual requires a level of care provided in a hospital, nursing facility, or intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded,
(ii) it is appropriate to provide such care for the individual outside such an institution, and
(iii) the estimated amount which would be expended for medical assistance for the individual for such care outside an institution is not greater than the estimated amount which would otherwise be expended for medical assistance for the individual within an appropriate institution; and
(C) if the individual were in a medical institution, would be eligible for medical assistance under the State plan under this subchapter,
shall be deemed, for purposes of this subchapter only, to be an individual with respect to whom a supplemental security income payment, or State supplemental payment, respectively, is being paid under subchapter XVI.
(4) A child born to a woman eligible for and receiving medical assistance under a State plan on the date of the child’s birth shall be deemed to have applied for medical assistance and to have been found eligible for such assistance under such plan on the date of such birth and to remain eligible for such assistance for a period of one year. During the period in which a child is deemed under the preceding sentence to be eligible for medical assistance, the medical assistance eligibility identification number of the mother shall also serve as the identification number of the child, and all claims shall be submitted and paid under such number (unless the State issues a separate identification number for the child before such period expires). Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, in the case of a child who is born in the United States to an alien mother for whom medical assistance for the delivery of the child is made available pursuant to section 1396b(v) of this title, the State immediately shall issue a separate identification number for the child upon notification by the facility at which such delivery occurred of the child’s birth.
(5) A woman who, while pregnant, is eligible for, has applied for, and has received medical assistance under the State plan, shall continue to be eligible under the plan, as though she were pregnant, for all pregnancy-related and postpartum medical assistance under the plan, through the end of the month in which the 60-day period (beginning on the last day of her pregnancy) ends.
(6) In the case of a pregnant woman described in subsection (a)(10) who, because of a change in income of the family of which she is a member, would not otherwise continue to be described in such subsection, the woman shall be deemed to continue to be an individual described in subsection (a)(10)(A)(i)(IV) and subsection (l)(1)(A) without regard to such change of income through the end of the month in which the 60-day period (beginning on the last day of her pregnancy) ends. The preceding sentence shall not apply in the case of a woman who has been provided ambulatory prenatal care pursuant to section 1396r–1 of this title during a presumptive eligibility period and is then, in accordance with such section, determined to be ineligible for medical assistance under the State plan.
(7) In the case of an infant or child described in subparagraph (B), (C), or (D) of subsection (l)(1) or paragraph (2) of section 1396d(n) of this title
(A) who is receiving inpatient services for which medical assistance is provided on the date the infant or child attains the maximum age with respect to which coverage is provided under the State plan for such individuals, and
(B) who, but for attaining such age, would remain eligible for medical assistance under such subsection,
the infant or child shall continue to be treated as an individual described in such respective provision until the end of the stay for which the inpatient services are furnished.
(8) If an individual is determined to be a qualified medicare beneficiary (as defined in section 1396d(p)(1) of this title), such determination shall apply to services furnished after the end of the month in which the determination first occurs. For purposes of payment to a State under section 1396b(a) of this title, such determination shall be considered to be valid for an individual for a period of 12 months, except that a State may provide for such determinations more frequently, but not more frequently than once every 6 months for an individual.
(9)
(A) At the option of the State, the plan may include as medical assistance respiratory care services for any individual who—
(i) is medically dependent on a ventilator for life support at least six hours per day;
(ii) has been so dependent for at least 30 consecutive days (or the maximum number of days authorized under the State plan, whichever is less) as an inpatient;
(iii) but for the availability of respiratory care services, would require respiratory care as an inpatient in a hospital, nursing facility, or intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded and would be eligible to have payment made for such inpatient care under the State plan;
(iv) has adequate social support services to be cared for at home; and
(v) wishes to be cared for at home.
(B) The requirements of subparagraph (A)(ii) may be satisfied by a continuous stay in one or more hospitals, nursing facilities, or intermediate care facilities for the mentally retarded.
(C) For purposes of this paragraph, respiratory care services means services provided on a part-time basis in the home of the individual by a respiratory therapist or other health care professional trained in respiratory therapy (as determined by the State), payment for which is not otherwise included within other items and services furnished to such individual as medical assistance under the plan.
(10)
(A) The fact that an individual, child, or pregnant woman may be denied aid under part A of subchapter IV pursuant to section 602(a)(43) 1 of this title shall not be construed as denying (or permitting a State to deny) medical assistance under this subchapter to such individual, child, or woman who is eligible for assistance under this subchapter on a basis other than the receipt of aid under such part.
(B) If an individual, child, or pregnant woman is receiving aid under part A of subchapter IV and such aid is terminated pursuant to section 602(a)(43) 1 of this title, the State may not discontinue medical assistance under this subchapter for the individual, child, or woman until the State has determined that the individual, child, or woman is not eligible for assistance under this subchapter on a basis other than the receipt of aid under such part.
(11)
(A) In the case of an individual who is enrolled with a group health plan under section 1396e of this title and who would (but for this paragraph) lose eligibility for benefits under this subchapter before the end of the minimum enrollment period (defined in subparagraph (B)), the State plan may provide, notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, that the individual shall be deemed to continue to be eligible for such benefits until the end of such minimum period, but only with respect to such benefits provided to the individual as an enrollee of such plan.
(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “minimum enrollment period” means, with respect to an individual’s enrollment with a group health plan, a period established by the State, of not more than 6 months beginning on the date the individual’s enrollment under the plan becomes effective.
(12) 1 year of continuous eligibility for children.—The State plan (or waiver of such State plan) shall provide that an individual who is under the age of 19 and who is determined to be eligible for benefits under a State plan (or waiver of such plan) approved under this subchapter under subsection (a)(10)(A) shall remain eligible for such benefits until the earlier of—
(A) the end of the 12-month period beginning on the date of such determination;
(B) the time that such individual attains the age of 19; or
(C) the date that such individual ceases to be a resident of such State.
(13)Express Lane Option.—
(A)In general.—
(i)Option to use a finding from an express lane agency.—At the option of the State, the State plan may provide that in determining eligibility under this subchapter for a child (as defined in subparagraph (G)), the State may rely on a finding made within a reasonable period (as determined by the State) from an Express Lane agency (as defined in subparagraph (F)) when it determines whether a child satisfies one or more components of eligibility for medical assistance under this subchapter. The State may rely on a finding from an Express Lane agency notwithstanding sections 1396a(a)(46)(B) and 1320b–7(d) of this title or any differences in budget unit, disregard, deeming or other methodology, if the following requirements are met:(I)Prohibition on determining children ineligible for coverage.—If a finding from an Express Lane agency would result in a determination that a child does not satisfy an eligibility requirement for medical assistance under this subchapter and for child health assistance under subchapter XXI, the State shall determine eligibility for assistance using its regular procedures.(II)Notice requirement.—For any child who is found eligible for medical assistance under the State plan under this subchapter or child health assistance under subchapter XXI and who is subject to premiums based on an Express Lane agency’s finding of such child’s income level, the State shall provide notice that the child may qualify for lower premium payments if evaluated by the State using its regular policies and of the procedures for requesting such an evaluation.(III)Compliance with screen and enroll requirement.—The State shall satisfy the requirements under subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 1397bb(b)(3) of this title (relating to screen and enroll) before enrolling a child in child health assistance under subchapter XXI. At its option, the State may fulfill such requirements in accordance with either option provided under subparagraph (C) of this paragraph.(IV)Verification of citizenship or nationality status.—The State shall satisfy the requirements of section 1396a(a)(46)(B) or 1397ee(c)(9) of this title, as applicable for verifications of citizenship or nationality status.(V)Coding.—The State meets the requirements of subparagraph (E).
(ii)Option to apply to renewals and redeterminations.—The State may apply the provisions of this paragraph when conducting initial determinations of eligibility, redeterminations of eligibility, or both, as described in the State plan.
(B)Rules of construction.—Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed—
(i) to limit or prohibit a State from taking any actions otherwise permitted under this subchapter or subchapter XXI in determining eligibility for or enrolling children into medical assistance under this subchapter or child health assistance under subchapter XXI; or
(ii) to modify the limitations in section 1396a(a)(5) of this title concerning the agencies that may make a determination of eligibility for medical assistance under this subchapter.
(C)Options for satisfying the screen and enroll requirement.—
(i)In general.—With respect to a child whose eligibility for medical assistance under this subchapter or for child health assistance under subchapter XXI has been evaluated by a State agency using an income finding from an Express Lane agency, a State may carry out its duties under subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 1397bb(b)(3) of this title (relating to screen and enroll) in accordance with either clause (ii) or clause (iii).
(ii)Establishing a screening threshold.—(I)In general.—Under this clause, the State establishes a screening threshold set as a percentage of the Federal poverty level that exceeds the highest income threshold applicable under this subchapter to the child by a minimum of 30 percentage points or, at State option, a higher number of percentage points that reflects the value (as determined by the State and described in the State plan) of any differences between income methodologies used by the program administered by the Express Lane agency and the methodologies used by the State in determining eligibility for medical assistance under this subchapter.(II)Children with income not above threshold.—If the income of a child does not exceed the screening threshold, the child is deemed to satisfy the income eligibility criteria for medical assistance under this subchapter regardless of whether such child would otherwise satisfy such criteria.(III)Children with income above threshold.—If the income of a child exceeds the screening threshold, the child shall be considered to have an income above the Medicaid applicable income level described in section 1397jj(b)(4) of this title and to satisfy the requirement under section 1397jj(b)(1)(C) of this title (relating to the requirement that CHIP matching funds be used only for children not eligible for Medicaid). If such a child is enrolled in child health assistance under subchapter XXI, the State shall provide the parent, guardian, or custodial relative with the following:(aa) Notice that the child may be eligible to receive medical assistance under the State plan under this subchapter if evaluated for such assistance under the State’s regular procedures and notice of the process through which a parent, guardian, or custodial relative can request that the State evaluate the child’s eligibility for medical assistance under this subchapter using such regular procedures.(bb) A description of differences between the medical assistance provided under this subchapter and child health assistance under subchapter XXI, including differences in cost-sharing requirements and covered benefits.
(iii)Temporary enrollment in chip pending screen and enroll.—(I)In general.—Under this clause, a State enrolls a child in child health assistance under subchapter XXI for a temporary period if the child appears eligible for such assistance based on an income finding by an Express Lane agency.(II)Determination of eligibility.—During such temporary enrollment period, the State shall determine the child’s eligibility for child health assistance under subchapter XXI or for medical assistance under this subchapter in accordance with this clause.(III)Prompt follow up.—In making such a determination, the State shall take prompt action to determine whether the child should be enrolled in medical assistance under this subchapter or child health assistance under subchapter XXI pursuant to subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 1397bb(b)(3) of this title (relating to screen and enroll).(IV)Requirement for simplified determination.—In making such a determination, the State shall use procedures that, to the maximum feasible extent, reduce the burden imposed on the individual of such determination. Such procedures may not require the child’s parent, guardian, or custodial relative to provide or verify information that already has been provided to the State agency by an Express Lane agency or another source of information unless the State agency has reason to believe the information is erroneous.(V)Availability of chip matching funds during temporary enrollment period.—Medical assistance for items and services that are provided to a child enrolled in subchapter XXI during a temporary enrollment period under this clause shall be treated as child health assistance under such subchapter.
(D)Option for automatic enrollment.—
(i)In general.—The State may initiate and determine eligibility for medical assistance under the State Medicaid plan or for child health assistance under the State CHIP plan without a program application from, or on behalf of, the child based on data obtained from sources other than the child (or the child’s family), but a child can only be automatically enrolled in the State Medicaid plan or the State CHIP plan if the child or the family affirmatively consents to being enrolled through affirmation in writing, by telephone, orally, through electronic signature, or through any other means specified by the Secretary or by signature on an Express Lane agency application, if the requirement of clause (ii) is met.
(ii)Information requirement.—The requirement of this clause is that the State informs the parent, guardian, or custodial relative of the child of the services that will be covered, appropriate methods for using such services, premium or other cost sharing charges (if any) that apply, medical support obligations (under section 1396k(a) of this title) created by enrollment (if applicable), and the actions the parent, guardian, or relative must take to maintain enrollment and renew coverage.
(E)Coding; application to enrollment error rates.—
(i)In general.—For purposes of subparagraph (A)(iv),11
11 So in original. Probably should be “subparagraph (A)(i)(V),”.
the requirement of this subparagraph for a State is that the State agrees to—
(I) assign such codes as the Secretary shall require to the children who are enrolled in the State Medicaid plan or the State CHIP plan through reliance on a finding made by an Express Lane agency for the duration of the State’s election under this paragraph;(II) annually provide the Secretary with a statistically valid sample (that is approved by Secretary) of the children enrolled in such plans through reliance on such a finding by conducting a full Medicaid eligibility review of the children identified for such sample for purposes of determining an eligibility error rate (as described in clause (iv)) with respect to the enrollment of such children (and shall not include such children in any data or samples used for purposes of complying with a Medicaid Eligibility Quality Control (MEQC) review or a payment error rate measurement (PERM) requirement);(III) submit the error rate determined under subclause (II) to the Secretary;(IV) if such error rate exceeds 3 percent for either of the first 2 fiscal years in which the State elects to apply this paragraph, demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Secretary the specific corrective actions implemented by the State to improve upon such error rate; and(V) if such error rate exceeds 3 percent for any fiscal year in which the State elects to apply this paragraph, a reduction in the amount otherwise payable to the State under section 1396b(a) of this title for quarters for that fiscal year, equal to the total amount of erroneous excess payments determined for the fiscal year only with respect to the children included in the sample for the fiscal year that are in excess of a 3 percent error rate with respect to such children.
(ii)No punitive action based on error rate.—The Secretary shall not apply the error rate derived from the sample under clause (i) to the entire population of children enrolled in the State Medicaid plan or the State CHIP plan through reliance on a finding made by an Express Lane agency, or to the population of children enrolled in such plans on the basis of the State’s regular procedures for determining eligibility, or penalize the State on the basis of such error rate in any manner other than the reduction of payments provided for under clause (i)(V).
(iii)Rule of construction.—Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as relieving a State that elects to apply this paragraph from being subject to a penalty under section 1396b(u) of this title, for payments made under the State Medicaid plan with respect to ineligible individuals and families that are determined to exceed the error rate permitted under that section (as determined without regard to the error rate determined under clause (i)(II)).
(iv)Error rate defined.—In this subparagraph, the term “error rate” means the rate of erroneous excess payments for medical assistance (as defined in section 1396b(u)(1)(D) of this title) for the period involved, except that such payments shall be limited to individuals for which eligibility determinations are made under this paragraph and except that in applying this paragraph under subchapter XXI, there shall be substituted for references to provisions of this subchapter corresponding provisions within subchapter XXI.
(F)Express lane agency.—
(i)In general.—In this paragraph, the term “Express Lane agency” means a public agency that—(I) is determined by the State Medicaid agency or the State CHIP agency (as applicable) to be capable of making the determinations of one or more eligibility requirements described in subparagraph (A)(i);(II) is identified in the State Medicaid plan or the State CHIP plan; and(III) notifies the child’s family—(aa) of the information which shall be disclosed in accordance with this paragraph;(bb) that the information disclosed will be used solely for purposes of determining eligibility for medical assistance under the State Medicaid plan or for child health assistance under the State CHIP plan; and(cc) that the family may elect to not have the information disclosed for such purposes; and(IV) enters into, or is subject to, an interagency agreement to limit the disclosure and use of the information disclosed.
(ii)Inclusion of specific public agencies and Indian tribes and tribal organizations.—Such term includes the following:(I) A public agency that determines eligibility for assistance under any of the following:(aa) The temporary assistance for needy families program funded under part A of subchapter IV.(bb) A State program funded under part D of subchapter IV.(cc) The State Medicaid plan.(dd) The State CHIP plan.(ee) The Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.).(ff) The Head Start Act [42 U.S.C. 9831 et seq.].(gg) The Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.).(hh) The Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.).(ii) The Child Care and Development Block Grant Act of 1990 [42 U.S.C. 9857 et seq.].(jj) The Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act 1 (42 U.S.C. 11301 et seq.).(kk) The United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.).(ll) The Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act of 1996 (25 U.S.C. 4101 et seq.).(II) A State-specified governmental agency that has fiscal liability or legal responsibility for the accuracy of the eligibility determination findings relied on by the State.(III) A public agency that is subject to an interagency agreement limiting the disclosure and use of the information disclosed for purposes of determining eligibility under the State Medicaid plan or the State CHIP plan.(IV) The Indian Health Service, an Indian Tribe, Tribal Organization, or Urban Indian Organization (as defined in section 1320b–9(c) of this title).
(iii)Exclusions.—Such term does not include an agency that determines eligibility for a program established under the Social Services Block Grant established under subchapter XX or a private, for-profit organization.
(iv)Rules of construction.—Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as—(I) exempting a State Medicaid agency from complying with the requirements of section 1396a(a)(4) of this title relating to merit-based personnel standards for employees of the State Medicaid agency and safeguards against conflicts of interest); 12
12 So in original. The closing parenthesis probably should not appear.
or
(II) authorizing a State Medicaid agency that elects to use Express Lane agencies under this subparagraph to use the Express Lane option to avoid complying with such requirements for purposes of making eligibility determinations under the State Medicaid plan.
(v)Additional definitions.—In this paragraph:(I)State.—The term “State” means 1 of the 50 States or the District of Columbia.(II)State chip agency.—The term “State CHIP agency” means the State agency responsible for administering the State CHIP plan.(III)State chip plan.—The term “State CHIP plan” means the State child health plan established under subchapter XXI and includes any waiver of such plan.(IV)State medicaid agency.—The term “State Medicaid agency” means the State agency responsible for administering the State Medicaid plan.(V)State medicaid plan.—The term “State Medicaid plan” means the State plan established under subchapter XIX and includes any waiver of such plan.
(G)Child defined.—For purposes of this paragraph, the term “child” means an individual under 19 years of age, or, at the option of a State, such higher age, not to exceed 21 years of age, as the State may elect.
(H)State option to rely on state income tax data or return.—At the option of the State, a finding from an Express Lane agency may include gross income or adjusted gross income shown by State income tax records or returns.
(I)Application.—This paragraph shall not apply with respect to eligibility determinations made after September 30, 2029.
(14)Income determined using modified adjusted gross income.—
(A)In general.—Notwithstanding subsection (r) or any other provision of this subchapter, except as provided in subparagraph (D), for purposes of determining income eligibility for medical assistance under the State plan or under any waiver of such plan and for any other purpose applicable under the plan or waiver for which a determination of income is required, including with respect to the imposition of premiums and cost-sharing, a State shall use the modified adjusted gross income of an individual and, in the case of an individual in a family greater than 1, the household income of such family. A State shall establish income eligibility thresholds for populations to be eligible for medical assistance under the State plan or a waiver of the plan using modified adjusted gross income and household income that are not less than the effective income eligibility levels that applied under the State plan or waiver on March 23, 2010. For purposes of complying with the maintenance of effort requirements under subsection (gg) during the transition to modified adjusted gross income and household income, a State shall, working with the Secretary, establish an equivalent income test that ensures individuals eligible for medical assistance under the State plan or under a waiver of the plan on March 23, 2010, do not lose coverage under the State plan or under a waiver of the plan. The Secretary may waive such provisions of this subchapter and subchapter XXI as are necessary to ensure that States establish income and eligibility determination systems that protect beneficiaries.
(B)No income or expense disregards.—Subject to subparagraph (I), no type of expense, block, or other income disregard shall be applied by a State to determine income eligibility for medical assistance under the State plan or under any waiver of such plan or for any other purpose applicable under the plan or waiver for which a determination of income is required.
(C)No assets test.—A State shall not apply any assets or resources test for purposes of determining eligibility for medical assistance under the State plan or under a waiver of the plan.
(D)Exceptions.—
(i)Individuals eligible because of other aid or assistance, elderly individuals, medically needy individuals, and individuals eligible for medicare cost-sharing.—Subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) shall not apply to the determination of eligibility under the State plan or under a waiver for medical assistance for the following:(I) Individuals who are eligible for medical assistance under the State plan or under a waiver of the plan on a basis that does not require a determination of income by the State agency administering the State plan or waiver, including as a result of eligibility for, or receipt of, other Federal or State aid or assistance, individuals who are eligible on the basis of receiving (or being treated as if receiving) supplemental security income benefits under subchapter XVI, and individuals who are eligible as a result of being or being deemed to be a child in foster care under the responsibility of the State.(II) Individuals who have attained age 65.(III) Individuals who qualify for medical assistance under the State plan or under any waiver of such plan on the basis of being blind or disabled (or being treated as being blind or disabled) without regard to whether the individual is eligible for supplemental security income benefits under subchapter XVI on the basis of being blind or disabled and including an individual who is eligible for medical assistance on the basis of paragraph (3).(IV) Individuals described in subsection (a)(10)(C).(V) Individuals described in any clause of subsection (a)(10)(E).
(ii)Express lane agency findings.—In the case of a State that elects the Express Lane option under paragraph (13), notwithstanding subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C), the State may rely on a finding made by an Express Lane agency in accordance with that paragraph relating to the income of an individual for purposes of determining the individual’s eligibility for medical assistance under the State plan or under a waiver of the plan.
(iii)Medicare prescription drug subsidies determinations.—Subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) shall not apply to any determinations of eligibility for premium and cost-sharing subsidies under and in accordance with section 1395w–114 of this title made by the State pursuant to section 1396u–5(a)(2) of this title.
(iv)Long-term care.—Subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) shall not apply to any determinations of eligibility of individuals for purposes of medical assistance for nursing facility services, a level of care in any institution equivalent to that of nursing facility services, home or community-based services furnished under a waiver or State plan amendment under section 1396n of this title or a waiver under section 1315 of this title, and services described in section 1396p(c)(1)(C)(ii) of this title.
(v)Grandfather of current enrollees until date of next regular redetermination.—An individual who, on January 1, 2014, is enrolled in the State plan or under a waiver of the plan and who would be determined ineligible for medical assistance solely because of the application of the modified adjusted gross income or household income standard described in subparagraph (A), shall remain eligible for medical assistance under the State plan or waiver (and subject to the same premiums and cost-sharing as applied to the individual on that date) through March 31, 2014, or the date on which the individual’s next regularly scheduled redetermination of eligibility is to occur, whichever is later.
(E)Transition planning and oversight.—Each State shall submit to the Secretary for the Secretary’s approval the income eligibility thresholds proposed to be established using modified adjusted gross income and household income, the methodologies and procedures to be used to determine income eligibility using modified adjusted gross income and household income and, if applicable, a State plan amendment establishing an optional eligibility category under subsection (a)(10)(A)(ii)(XX). To the extent practicable, the State shall use the same methodologies and procedures for purposes of making such determinations as the State used on March 23, 2010. The Secretary shall ensure that the income eligibility thresholds proposed to be established using modified adjusted gross income and household income, including under the eligibility category established under subsection (a)(10)(A)(ii)(XX), and the methodologies and procedures proposed to be used to determine income eligibility, will not result in children who would have been eligible for medical assistance under the State plan or under a waiver of the plan on March 23, 2010, no longer being eligible for such assistance.
(F)Limitation on secretarial authority.—The Secretary shall not waive compliance with the requirements of this paragraph except to the extent necessary to permit a State to coordinate eligibility requirements for dual eligible individuals (as defined in section 1396n(h)(2)(B) of this title) under the State plan or under a waiver of the plan and under subchapter XVIII and individuals who require the level of care provided in a hospital, a nursing facility, or an intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded.
(G)Definitions of modified adjusted gross income and household income.—In this paragraph, the terms “modified adjusted gross income” and “household income” have the meanings given such terms in section 36B(d)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.
(H)Continued application of medicaid rules regarding point-in-time income and sources of income.—The requirement under this paragraph for States to use modified adjusted gross income and household income to determine income eligibility for medical assistance under the State plan or under any waiver of such plan and for any other purpose applicable under the plan or waiver for which a determination of income is required shall not be construed as affecting or limiting the application of—
(i) the requirement under this subchapter and under the State plan or a waiver of the plan to determine an individual’s income as of the point in time at which an application for medical assistance under the State plan or a waiver of the plan is processed; or
(ii) any rules established under this subchapter or under the State plan or a waiver of the plan regarding sources of countable income.
(I)Treatment of portion of modified adjusted gross income.—For purposes of determining the income eligibility of an individual for medical assistance whose eligibility is determined based on the application of modified adjusted gross income under subparagraph (A), the State shall—
(i) determine the dollar equivalent of the difference between the upper income limit on eligibility for such an individual (expressed as a percentage of the poverty line) and such upper income limit increased by 5 percentage points; and
(ii) notwithstanding the requirement in subparagraph (A) with respect to use of modified adjusted gross income, utilize as the applicable income of such individual, in determining such income eligibility, an amount equal to the modified adjusted gross income applicable to such individual reduced by such dollar equivalent amount.
(J)Exclusion of parent mentor compensation from income determination.—Any nominal amount received by an individual as compensation, including a stipend, for participation as a parent mentor (as defined in paragraph (5) of section 1397mm(f) of this title) in an activity or program funded through a grant under such section shall be disregarded for purposes of determining the income eligibility of such individual for medical assistance under the State plan or any waiver of such plan.
(K)Treatment of certain lottery winnings and income received as a lump sum.—
(i)In general.—In the case of an individual who is the recipient of qualified lottery winnings (pursuant to lotteries occurring on or after January 1, 2018) or qualified lump sum income (received on or after such date) and whose eligibility for medical assistance is determined based on the application of modified adjusted gross income under subparagraph (A), a State shall, in determining such eligibility, include such winnings or income (as applicable) as income received—(I) in the month in which such winnings or income (as applicable) is received if the amount of such winnings or income is less than $80,000;(II) over a period of 2 months if the amount of such winnings or income (as applicable) is greater than or equal to $80,000 but less than $90,000;(III) over a period of 3 months if the amount of such winnings or income (as applicable) is greater than or equal to $90,000 but less than $100,000; and(IV) over a period of 3 months plus 1 additional month for each increment of $10,000 of such winnings or income (as applicable) received, not to exceed a period of 120 months (for winnings or income of $1,260,000 or more), if the amount of such winnings or income is greater than or equal to $100,000.
(ii)Counting in equal installments.—For purposes of subclauses (II), (III), and (IV) of clause (i), winnings or income to which such subclause applies shall be counted in equal monthly installments over the period of months specified under such subclause.
(iii)Hardship exemption.—An individual whose income, by application of clause (i), exceeds the applicable eligibility threshold established by the State, shall continue to be eligible for medical assistance to the extent that the State determines, under procedures established by the State (in accordance with standards specified by the Secretary), that the denial of eligibility of the individual would cause an undue medical or financial hardship as determined on the basis of criteria established by the Secretary.
(iv)Notifications and assistance required in case of loss of eligibility.—A State shall, with respect to an individual who loses eligibility for medical assistance under the State plan (or a waiver of such plan) by reason of clause (i)—(I) before the date on which the individual loses such eligibility, inform the individual—(aa) of the individual’s opportunity to enroll in a qualified health plan offered through an Exchange established under title I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act during the special enrollment period specified in section 9801(f)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (relating to loss of Medicaid or CHIP coverage); and(bb) of the date on which the individual would no longer be considered ineligible by reason of clause (i) to receive medical assistance under the State plan or under any waiver of such plan and be eligible to reapply to receive such medical assistance; and(II) provide technical assistance to the individual seeking to enroll in such a qualified health plan.
(v)Qualified lottery winnings defined.—In this subparagraph, the term “qualified lottery winnings” means winnings from a sweepstakes, lottery, or pool described in paragraph (3) of section 4402 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 or a lottery operated by a multistate or multijurisdictional lottery association, including amounts awarded as a lump sum payment.
(vi)Qualified lump sum income defined.—In this subparagraph, the term “qualified lump sum income” means income that is received as a lump sum from monetary winnings from gambling (as defined by the Secretary and including gambling activities described in section 1955(b)(4) of title 18).
(15)Exclusion of compensation for participation in a clinical trial for testing of treatments for a rare disease or condition.—The first $2,000 received by an individual (who has attained 19 years of age) as compensation for participation in a clinical trial meeting the requirements of section 1382a(b)(26) of this title shall be disregarded for purposes of determining the income eligibility of such individual for medical assistance under the State plan or any waiver of such plan.
(16)Extending certain coverage for pregnant and postpartum women.—
(A)In general.—At the option of the State, the State plan (or waiver of such State plan) may provide, that an individual who, while pregnant, is eligible for and has received medical assistance under the State plan approved under this subchapter (or a waiver of such plan) (including during a period of retroactive eligibility under subsection (a)(34)) shall, in addition to remaining eligible under paragraph (5) for all pregnancy-related and postpartum medical assistance available under the State plan (or waiver) through the last day of the month in which the 60-day period (beginning on the last day of her pregnancy) ends, remain eligible under the State plan (or waiver) for medical assistance for the period beginning on the first day occurring after the end of such 60-day period and ending on the last day of the month in which the 12-month period (beginning on the last day of her pregnancy) ends.
(B)Full benefits during pregnancy and throughout the 12-month postpartum period.—The medical assistance provided for a pregnant or postpartum individual by a State making an election under this paragraph, without regard to the basis on which the individual is eligible for medical assistance under the State plan (or waiver), shall—
(i) include all items and services covered under the State plan (or waiver) that are not less in amount, duration, or scope, or are determined by the Secretary to be substantially equivalent, to the medical assistance available for an individual described in subsection (a)(10)(A)(i); and
(ii) be provided for the individual while pregnant and during the 12-month period that begins on the last day of the individual’s pregnancy and ends on the last day of the month in which such 12-month period ends.
(C)Coverage under chip.—A State making an election under this paragraph that covers under subchapter XXI child health assistance for targeted low-income children who are pregnant or targeted low-income pregnant women, as applicable, shall also make the election under section 1397gg(e)(1)(J) of this title.
(f) Effective date of State plan as determinative of duty of State to provide medical assistance to aged, blind, or disabled individuals
(g) Reduction of aid or assistance to providers of services attempting to collect from beneficiary in violation of third-party provisions
(h) Payments for hospitals serving disproportionate number of low-income patients and for home and community care
(1) Nothing in this subchapter (including subsections (a)(13) and (a)(30) of this section) shall be construed as authorizing the Secretary to limit the amount of payment that may be made under a plan under this subchapter for home and community care, home and community-based services provided under subsection (c), (d), or (i) of section 1396n of this title or under a waiver or demonstration project under section 1315 of this title, self-directed personal assistance services provided pursuant to a written plan of care under section 1396n(j) of this title, and home and community-based attendant services and supports under section 1396n(k) of this title.
(2) Nothing in this subchapter, subchapter XVIII, or subchapter XI shall be construed as prohibiting receipt of any care or services specified in paragraph (1) in an acute care hospital that are—
(A) identified in an individual’s person-centered service plan (or comparable plan of care);
(B) provided to meet needs of the individual that are not met through the provision of hospital services;
(C) not a substitute for services that the hospital is obligated to provide through its conditions of participation or under Federal or State law, or under another applicable requirement; and
(D) designed to ensure smooth transitions between acute care settings and home and community-based settings, and to preserve the individual’s functional abilities.
(i) Termination of certification for participation of and suspension of State payments to intermediate care facilities for the mentally retarded
(1) In addition to any other authority under State law, where a State determines that a 13
13 So in original. Probably should be “an”.
intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded which is certified for participation under its plan no longer substantially meets the requirements for such a facility under this subchapter and further determines that the facility’s deficiencies—
(A) immediately jeopardize the health and safety of its patients, the State shall provide for the termination of the facility’s certification for participation under the plan and may provide, or
(B) do not immediately jeopardize the health and safety of its patients, the State may, in lieu of providing for terminating the facility’s certification for participation under the plan, establish alternative remedies if the State demonstrates to the Secretary’s satisfaction that the alternative remedies are effective in deterring noncompliance and correcting deficiencies, and may provide
that no payment will be made under the State plan with respect to any individual admitted to such facility after a date specified by the State.
(2) The State shall not make such a decision with respect to a facility until the facility has had a reasonable opportunity, following the initial determination that it no longer substantially meets the requirements for such a facility under this subchapter, to correct its deficiencies, and, following this period, has been given reasonable notice and opportunity for a hearing.
(3) The State’s decision to deny payment may be made effective only after such notice to the public and to the facility as may be provided for by the State, and its effectiveness shall terminate (A) when the State finds that the facility is in substantial compliance (or is making good faith efforts to achieve substantial compliance) with the requirements for such a facility under this subchapter, or (B) in the case described in paragraph (1)(B), with the end of the eleventh month following the month such decision is made effective, whichever occurs first. If a facility to which clause (B) of the previous sentence applies still fails to substantially meet the provisions of the respective section on the date specified in such clause, the State shall terminate such facility’s certification for participation under the plan effective with the first day of the first month following the month specified in such clause.
(j) Waiver or modification of subchapter requirements with respect to medical assistance program in American Samoa
(k) Minimum coverage for individuals with income at or below 133 percent of the poverty line
(1) The medical assistance provided to an individual described in subclause (VIII) of subsection (a)(10)(A)(i) shall consist of benchmark coverage described in section 1396u–7(b)(1) of this title or benchmark equivalent coverage described in section 1396u–7(b)(2) of this title. Such medical assistance shall be provided subject to the requirements of section 1396u–7 of this title, without regard to whether a State otherwise has elected the option to provide medical assistance through coverage under that section, unless an individual described in subclause (VIII) of subsection (a)(10)(A)(i) is also an individual for whom, under subparagraph (B) of section 1396u–7(a)(2) of this title, the State may not require enrollment in benchmark coverage described in subsection (b)(1) of section 1396u–7 of this title or benchmark equivalent coverage described in subsection (b)(2) of that section.
(2) Beginning with the first day of any fiscal year quarter that begins on or after April 1, 2010, and before January 1, 2014, a State may elect through a State plan amendment to provide medical assistance to individuals who would be described in subclause (VIII) of subsection (a)(10)(A)(i) if that subclause were effective before January 1, 2014. A State may elect to phase-in the extension of eligibility for medical assistance to such individuals based on income, so long as the State does not extend such eligibility to individuals described in such subclause with higher income before making individuals described in such subclause with lower income eligible for medical assistance.
(3) If an individual described in subclause (VIII) of subsection (a)(10)(A)(i) is the parent of a child who is under 19 years of age (or such higher age as the State may have elected) who is eligible for medical assistance under the State plan or under a waiver of such plan (under that subclause or under a State plan amendment under paragraph (2),14
14 So in original. Another closing parenthesis probably should precede the comma.
the individual may not be enrolled under the State plan unless the individual’s child is enrolled under the State plan or under a waiver of the plan or is enrolled in other health insurance coverage. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term “parent” includes an individual treated as a caretaker relative for purposes of carrying out section 1396u–1 of this title.
(l) Description of group
(1) Individuals described in this paragraph are—
(A) women during pregnancy (and during the 60-day period beginning on the last day of the pregnancy),
(B) infants under one year of age,
(C) children who have attained one year of age but have not attained 6 years of age, and
(D) children born after September 30, 1983 (or, at the option of a State, after any earlier date), who have attained 6 years of age but have not attained 19 years of age,
who are not described in any of subclauses (I) through (III) of subsection (a)(10)(A)(i) and whose family income does not exceed the income level established by the State under paragraph (2) for a family size equal to the size of the family, including the woman, infant, or child.
(2)
(A)
(i) For purposes of paragraph (1) with respect to individuals described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of that paragraph, the State shall establish an income level which is a percentage (not less than the percentage provided under clause (ii) and not more than 185 percent) of the income official poverty line (as defined by the Office of Management and Budget, and revised annually in accordance with section 9902(2) of this title) applicable to a family of the size involved.
(ii) The percentage provided under this clause, with respect to eligibility for medical assistance on or after—(I)July 1, 1989, is 75 percent, or, if greater, the percentage provided under clause (iii), and(II)April 1, 1990, 133 percent, or, if greater, the percentage provided under clause (iv).
(iii) In the case of a State which, as of July 1, 1988, has elected to provide, and provides, medical assistance to individuals described in this subsection or has enacted legislation authorizing, or appropriating funds, to provide such assistance to such individuals before July 1, 1989, the percentage provided under clause (ii)(I) shall not be less than—(I) the percentage specified by the State in an amendment to its State plan (whether approved or not) as of July 1, 1988, or(II) if no such percentage is specified as of July 1, 1988, the percentage established under the State’s authorizing legislation or provided for under the State’s appropriations;
but in no case shall this clause require the percentage provided under clause (ii)(I) to exceed 100 percent.
(iv) In the case of a State which, as of December 19, 1989, has established under clause (i), or has enacted legislation authorizing, or appropriating funds, to provide for, a percentage (of the income official poverty line) that is greater than 133 percent, the percentage provided under clause (ii) for medical assistance on or after April 1, 1990, shall not be less than—(I) the percentage specified by the State in an amendment to its State plan (whether approved or not) as of December 19, 1989, or(II) if no such percentage is specified as of December 19, 1989, the percentage established under the State’s authorizing legislation or provided for under the State’s appropriations.
(B) For purposes of paragraph (1) with respect to individuals described in subparagraph (C) of such paragraph, the State shall establish an income level which is equal to 133 percent of the income official poverty line described in subparagraph (A) applicable to a family of the size involved.
(C) For purposes of paragraph (1) with respect to individuals described in subparagraph (D) of that paragraph, the State shall establish an income level which is equal to 100 percent (or, beginning January 1, 2014, 133 percent) of the income official poverty line described in subparagraph (A) applicable to a family of the size involved.
(3) Notwithstanding subsection (a)(17), for individuals who are eligible for medical assistance because of subsection (a)(10)(A)(i)(IV), (a)(10)(A)(i)(VI), (a)(10) (A)(i)(VII), or (a)(10)(A)(ii)(IX)—
(A) application of a resource standard shall be at the option of the State;
(B) any resource standard or methodology that is applied with respect to an individual described in subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) may not be more restrictive than the resource standard or methodology that is applied under subchapter XVI;
(C) any resource standard or methodology that is applied with respect to an individual described in subparagraph (B), (C), or (D) of paragraph (1) may not be more restrictive than the corresponding methodology that is applied under the State plan under part A of subchapter IV;
(D) the income standard to be applied is the appropriate income standard established under paragraph (2); and
(E) family income shall be determined in accordance with the methodology employed under the State plan under part A or E of subchapter IV (except to the extent such methodology is inconsistent with clause (D) of subsection (a)(17)), and costs incurred for medical care or for any other type of remedial care shall not be taken into account.
Any different treatment provided under this paragraph for such individuals shall not, because of subsection (a)(17), require or permit such treatment for other individuals.
(4)
(A) In the case of any State which is providing medical assistance to its residents under a waiver granted under section 1315 of this title, the Secretary shall require the State to provide medical assistance for pregnant women and infants under age 1 described in subsection (a)(10)(A)(i)(IV) and for children described in subsection (a)(10)(A)(i)(VI) or subsection (a)(10)(A)(i)(VII) in the same manner as the State would be required to provide such assistance for such individuals if the State had in effect a plan approved under this subchapter.
(B) In the case of a State which is not one of the 50 States or the District of Columbia, the State need not meet the requirement of subsection (a)(10)(A)(i)(IV), (a)(10)(A)(i)(VI), or (a)(10)(A)(i)(VII) and, for purposes of paragraph (2)(A), the State may substitute for the percentage provided under clause (ii) of such paragraph any percentage.
(m) Description of individuals
(1) Individuals described in this paragraph are individuals—
(A) who are 65 years of age or older or are disabled individuals (as determined under section 1382c(a)(3) of this title),
(B) whose income (as determined under section 1382a of this title for purposes of the supplemental security income program, except as provided in paragraph (2)(C)) does not exceed an income level established by the State consistent with paragraph (2)(A), and
(C) whose resources (as determined under section 1382b of this title for purposes of the supplemental security income program) do not exceed (except as provided in paragraph (2)(B)) the maximum amount of resources that an individual may have and obtain benefits under that program.
(2)
(A) The income level established under paragraph (1)(B) may not exceed a percentage (not more than 100 percent) of the official poverty line (as defined by the Office of Management and Budget, and revised annually in accordance with section 9902(2) of this title) applicable to a family of the size involved.
(B) In the case of a State that provides medical assistance to individuals not described in subsection (a)(10)(A) and at the State’s option, the State may use under paragraph (1)(C) such resource level (which is higher than the level described in that paragraph) as may be applicable with respect to individuals described in paragraph (1)(A) who are not described in subsection (a)(10)(A).
(C) The provisions of section 1396d(p)(2)(D) of this title shall apply to determinations of income under this subsection in the same manner as they apply to determinations of income under section 1396d(p) of this title.
(3) Notwithstanding subsection (a)(17), for individuals described in paragraph (1) who are covered under the State plan by virtue of subsection (a)(10)(A)(ii)(X)—
(A) the income standard to be applied is the income standard described in paragraph (1)(B), and
(B) except as provided in section 1382a(b)(4)(B)(ii) of this title, costs incurred for medical care or for any other type of remedial care shall not be taken into account in determining income.
Any different treatment provided under this paragraph for such individuals shall not, because of subsection (a)(17), require or permit such treatment for other individuals.
(4) Notwithstanding subsection (a)(17), for qualified medicare beneficiaries described in section 1396d(p)(1) of this title
(A) the income standard to be applied is the income standard described in section 1396d(p)(1)(B) of this title, and
(B) except as provided in section 1382a(b)(4)(B)(ii) of this title, costs incurred for medical care or for any other type of remedial care shall not be taken into account in determining income.
Any different treatment provided under this paragraph for such individuals shall not, because of subsection (a)(17), require or permit such treatment for other individuals.
(n) Payment amounts
(1) In the case of medical assistance furnished under this subchapter for medicare cost-sharing respecting the furnishing of a service or item to a qualified medicare beneficiary, the State plan may provide payment in an amount with respect to the service or item that results in the sum of such payment amount and any amount of payment made under subchapter XVIII with respect to the service or item exceeding the amount that is otherwise payable under the State plan for the item or service for eligible individuals who are not qualified medicare beneficiaries.
(2) In carrying out paragraph (1), a State is not required to provide any payment for any expenses incurred relating to payment for deductibles, coinsurance, or copayments for medicare cost-sharing to the extent that payment under subchapter XVIII for the service would exceed the payment amount that otherwise would be made under the State plan under this subchapter for such service if provided to an eligible recipient other than a medicare beneficiary.
(3) In the case in which a State’s payment for medicare cost-sharing for a qualified medicare beneficiary with respect to an item or service is reduced or eliminated through the application of paragraph (2)—
(A) for purposes of applying any limitation under subchapter XVIII on the amount that the beneficiary may be billed or charged for the service, the amount of payment made under subchapter XVIII plus the amount of payment (if any) under the State plan shall be considered to be payment in full for the service;
(B) the beneficiary shall not have any legal liability to make payment to a provider or to an organization described in section 1396b(m)(1)(A) of this title for the service; and
(C) any lawful sanction that may be imposed upon a provider or such an organization for excess charges under this subchapter or subchapter XVIII shall apply to the imposition of any charge imposed upon the individual in such case.
This paragraph shall not be construed as preventing payment of any medicare cost-sharing by a medicare supplemental policy or an employer retiree health plan on behalf of an individual.
(o) Certain benefits disregarded for purposes of determining post-eligibility contributionsNotwithstanding any provision of subsection (a) to the contrary, a State plan under this subchapter shall provide that any supplemental security income benefits paid by reason of subparagraph (E) or (G) of section 1382(e)(1) of this title to an individual who—
(1) is eligible for medical assistance under the plan, and
(2) is in a hospital, skilled nursing facility, or intermediate care facility at the time such benefits are paid,
will be disregarded for purposes of determining the amount of any post-eligibility contribution by the individual to the cost of the care and services provided by the hospital, skilled nursing facility, or intermediate care facility.
(p) Exclusion power of State; exclusion as prerequisite for medical assistance payments; “exclude” defined
(1) In addition to any other authority, a State may exclude any individual or entity for purposes of participating under the State plan under this subchapter for any reason for which the Secretary could exclude the individual or entity from participation in a program under subchapter XVIII under section 1320a–7, 1320a–7a, or 1395cc(b)(2) of this title.
(2) In order for a State to receive payments for medical assistance under section 1396b(a) of this title, with respect to payments the State makes to a medicaid managed care organization (as defined in section 1396b(m) of this title) or to an entity furnishing services under a waiver approved under section 1396n(b)(1) of this title, the State must provide that it will exclude from participation, as such an organization or entity, any organization or entity that—
(A) could be excluded under section 1320a–7(b)(8) of this title (relating to owners and managing employees who have been convicted of certain crimes or received other sanctions),
(B) has, directly or indirectly, a substantial contractual relationship (as defined by the Secretary) with an individual or entity that is described in section 1320a–7(b)(8)(B) of this title, or
(C) employs or contracts with any individual or entity that is excluded from participation under this subchapter under section 1320a–7 or 1320a–7a of this title for the provision of health care, utilization review, medical social work, or administrative services or employs or contracts with any entity for the provision (directly or indirectly) through such an excluded individual or entity of such services.
(3) As used in this subsection, the term “exclude” includes the refusal to enter into or renew a participation agreement or the termination of such an agreement.
(q) Minimum monthly personal needs allowance deduction; “institutionalized individual or couple” defined
(1)
(A) In order to meet the requirement of subsection (a)(50), the State plan must provide that, in the case of an institutionalized individual or couple described in subparagraph (B), in determining the amount of the individual’s or couple’s income to be applied monthly to payment for the cost of care in an institution, there shall be deducted from the monthly income (in addition to other allowances otherwise provided under the State plan) a monthly personal needs allowance—
(i) which is reasonable in amount for clothing and other personal needs of the individual (or couple) while in an institution, and
(ii) which is not less (and may be greater) than the minimum monthly personal needs allowance described in paragraph (2).
(B) In this subsection, the term “institutionalized individual or couple” means an individual or married couple—
(i) who is an inpatient (or who are inpatients) in a medical institution or nursing facility for which payments are made under this subchapter throughout a month, and
(ii) who is or are determined to be eligible for medical assistance under the State plan.
(2) The minimum monthly personal needs allowance described in this paragraph 15
15 So in original. Probably should be “this subsection”.
is $30 for an institutionalized individual and $60 for an institutionalized couple (if both are aged, blind, or disabled, and their incomes are considered available to each other in determining eligibility).
(r) Disregarding payments for certain medical expenses by institutionalized individuals
(1)
(A) For purposes of sections 1396a(a)(17) and 1396r–5(d)(1)(D) of this title and for purposes of a waiver under section 1396n of this title, with respect to the post-eligibility treatment of income of individuals who are institutionalized or receiving home or community-based services under such a waiver, the treatment described in subparagraph (B) shall apply, there shall be disregarded reparation payments made by the Federal Republic of Germany, and there shall be taken into account amounts for incurred expenses for medical or remedial care that are not subject to payment by a third party, including—
(i) medicare and other health insurance premiums, deductibles, or coinsurance, and
(ii) necessary medical or remedial care recognized under State law but not covered under the State plan under this subchapter, subject to reasonable limits the State may establish on the amount of these expenses.
(B)
(i) In the case of a veteran who does not have a spouse or a child, if the veteran—(I) receives, after the veteran has been determined to be eligible for medical assistance under the State plan under this subchapter, a veteran’s pension in excess of $90 per month, and(II) resides in a State veterans home with respect to which the Secretary of Veterans Affairs makes per diem payments for nursing home care pursuant to section 1741(a) of title 38,
any such pension payment, including any payment made due to the need for aid and attendance, or for unreimbursed medical expenses, that is in excess of $90 per month shall be counted as income only for the purpose of applying such excess payment to the State veterans home’s cost of providing nursing home care to the veteran.
(ii) The provisions of clause (i) shall apply with respect to a surviving spouse of a veteran who does not have a child in the same manner as they apply to a veteran described in such clause.
(2)
(A) The methodology to be employed in determining income and resource eligibility for individuals under subsection (a)(10)(A)(i)(III), (a)(10)(A)(i)(IV), (a)(10)(A)(i)(VI), (a)(10)(A)(i)(VII), (a)(10)(A)(ii), (a)(10)(C)(i)(III), or (f) or under section 1396d(p) of this title may be less restrictive, and shall be no more restrictive, than the methodology—
(i) in the case of groups consisting of aged, blind, or disabled individuals, under the supplemental security income program under subchapter XVI, or
(ii) in the case of other groups, under the State plan most closely categorically related.
(B) For purposes of this subsection and subsection (a)(10), methodology is considered to be “no more restrictive” if, using the methodology, additional individuals may be eligible for medical assistance and no individuals who are otherwise eligible are made ineligible for such assistance.
(s) Adjustment in payment for hospital services furnished to low-income children under age of 6 yearsIn order to meet the requirements of subsection (a)(55) 16
16 So in original. Probably should be subsection “(a)(56)”.
 , the State plan must provide that payments to hospitals under the plan for inpatient hospital services furnished to infants who have not attained the age of 1 year, and to children who have not attained the age of 6 years and who receive such services in a disproportionate share hospital described in section 1396r–4(b)(1) of this title, shall—
(1) if made on a prospective basis (whether per diem, per case, or otherwise) provide for an outlier adjustment in payment amounts for medically necessary inpatient hospital services involving exceptionally high costs or exceptionally long lengths of stay,
(2) not be limited by the imposition of day limits with respect to the delivery of such services to such individuals, and
(3) not be limited by the imposition of dollar limits (other than such limits resulting from prospective payments as adjusted pursuant to paragraph (1)) with respect to the delivery of such services to any such individual who has not attained their first birthday (or in the case of such an individual who is an inpatient on his first birthday until such individual is discharged).
(t) Limitation on payments to States for expenditures attributable to taxes
(u) Qualified COBRA continuation beneficiaries
(1) Individuals described in this paragraph are individuals—
(A) who are entitled to elect COBRA continuation coverage (as defined in paragraph (3)),
(B) whose income (as determined under section 1382a of this title for purposes of the supplemental security income program) does not exceed 100 percent of the official poverty line (as defined by the Office of Management and Budget, and revised annually in accordance with section 9902(2) of this title) applicable to a family of the size involved,
(C) whose resources (as determined under section 1382b of this title for purposes of the supplemental security income program) do not exceed twice the maximum amount of resources that an individual may have and obtain benefits under that program, and
(D) with respect to whose enrollment for COBRA continuation coverage the State has determined that the savings in expenditures under this subchapter resulting from such enrollment is likely to exceed the amount of payments for COBRA premiums made.
(2) For purposes of subsection (a)(10)(F) and this subsection, the term “COBRA premiums” means the applicable premium imposed with respect to COBRA continuation coverage.
(3) In this subsection, the term “COBRA continuation coverage” means coverage under a group health plan provided by an employer with 75 or more employees provided pursuant to title XXII of the Public Health Service Act [42 U.S.C. 300bb–1 et seq.], section 4980B of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or title VI 1 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974.
(4) Notwithstanding subsection (a)(17), for individuals described in paragraph (1) who are covered under the State plan by virtue of subsection (a)(10)(A)(ii)(XI)—
(A) the income standard to be applied is the income standard described in paragraph (1)(B), and
(B) except as provided in section 1382a(b)(4)(B)(ii) of this title, costs incurred for medical care or for any other type of remedial care shall not be taken into account in determining income.
Any different treatment provided under this paragraph for such individuals shall not, because of subsection (a)(10)(B) or (a)(17), require or permit such treatment for other individuals.
(v) State agency disability and blindness determinations for medical assistance eligibility
(w) Maintenance of written policies and procedures respecting advance directives
(1) For purposes of subsection (a)(57) and sections 1396b(m)(1)(A) and 1396r(c)(2)(E) of this title, the requirement of this subsection is that a provider or organization (as the case may be) maintain written policies and procedures with respect to all adult individuals receiving medical care by or through the provider or organization—
(A) to provide written information to each such individual concerning—
(i) an individual’s rights under State law (whether statutory or as recognized by the courts of the State) to make decisions concerning such medical care, including the right to accept or refuse medical or surgical treatment and the right to formulate advance directives (as defined in paragraph (3)), and
(ii) the provider’s or organization’s written policies respecting the implementation of such rights;
(B) to document in the individual’s medical record whether or not the individual has executed an advance directive;
(C) not to condition the provision of care or otherwise discriminate against an individual based on whether or not the individual has executed an advance directive;
(D) to ensure compliance with requirements of State law (whether statutory or as recognized by the courts of the State) respecting advance directives; and
(E) to provide (individually or with others) for education for staff and the community on issues concerning advance directives.
Subparagraph (C) shall not be construed as requiring the provision of care which conflicts with an advance directive.
(2) The written information described in paragraph (1)(A) shall be provided to an adult individual—
(A) in the case of a hospital, at the time of the individual’s admission as an inpatient,
(B) in the case of a nursing facility, at the time of the individual’s admission as a resident,
(C) in the case of a provider of home health care or personal care services, in advance of the individual coming under the care of the provider,
(D) in the case of a hospice program, at the time of initial receipt of hospice care by the individual from the program, and
(E) in the case of a medicaid managed care organization, at the time of enrollment of the individual with the organization.
(3) Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the application of a State law which allows for an objection on the basis of conscience for any health care provider or any agent of such provider which as a matter of conscience cannot implement an advance directive.
(4) In this subsection, the term “advance directive” means a written instruction, such as a living will or durable power of attorney for health care, recognized under State law (whether statutory or as recognized by the courts of the State) and relating to the provision of such care when the individual is incapacitated.
(5) For construction relating to this subsection, see section 14406 of this title (relating to clarification respecting assisted suicide, euthanasia, and mercy killing).
(x) Physician identifier system; establishment
(y) Intermediate sanctions for psychiatric hospitals
(1) In addition to any other authority under State law, where a State determines that a psychiatric hospital which is certified for participation under its plan no longer meets the requirements for a psychiatric hospital (referred to in section 1396d(h) of this title) and further finds that the hospital’s deficiencies—
(A) immediately jeopardize the health and safety of its patients, the State shall terminate the hospital’s participation under the State plan; or
(B) do not immediately jeopardize the health and safety of its patients, the State may terminate the hospital’s participation under the State plan, or provide that no payment will be made under the State plan with respect to any individual admitted to such hospital after the effective date of the finding, or both.
(2) Except as provided in paragraph (3), if a psychiatric hospital described in paragraph (1)(B) has not complied with the requirements for a psychiatric hospital under this subchapter—
(A) within 3 months after the date the hospital is found to be out of compliance with such requirements, the State shall provide that no payment will be made under the State plan with respect to any individual admitted to such hospital after the end of such 3-month period, or
(B) within 6 months after the date the hospital is found to be out of compliance with such requirements, no Federal financial participation shall be provided under section 1396b(a) of this title with respect to further services provided in the hospital until the State finds that the hospital is in compliance with the requirements of this subchapter.
(3) The Secretary may continue payments, over a period of not longer than 6 months from the date the hospital is found to be out of compliance with such requirements, if—
(A) the State finds that it is more appropriate to take alternative action to assure compliance of the hospital with the requirements than to terminate the certification of the hospital,
(B) the State has submitted a plan and timetable for corrective action to the Secretary for approval and the Secretary approves the plan of corrective action, and
(C) the State agrees to repay to the Federal Government payments received under this paragraph if the corrective action is not taken in accordance with the approved plan and timetable.
(z) Optional coverage of TB-related services
(1) Individuals described in this paragraph are individuals not described in subsection (a)(10)(A)(i)—
(A) who are infected with tuberculosis;
(B) whose income (as determined under the State plan under this subchapter with respect to disabled individuals) does not exceed the maximum amount of income a disabled individual described in subsection (a)(10)(A)(i) may have and obtain medical assistance under the plan; and
(C) whose resources (as determined under the State plan under this subchapter with respect to disabled individuals) do not exceed the maximum amount of resources a disabled individual described in subsection (a)(10)(A)(i) may have and obtain medical assistance under the plan.
(2) For purposes of subsection (a)(10), the term “TB-related services” means each of the following services relating to treatment of infection with tuberculosis:
(A) Prescribed drugs.
(B) Physicians’ services and services described in section 1396d(a)(2) of this title.
(C) Laboratory and X-ray services (including services to confirm the presence of infection).
(D) Clinic services and Federally-qualified health center services.
(E) Case management services (as defined in section 1396n(g)(2) of this title).
(F) Services (other than room and board) designed to encourage completion of regimens of prescribed drugs by outpatients, including services to observe directly the intake of prescribed drugs.
(aa) Certain breast or cervical cancer patientsIndividuals described in this subsection are individuals who—
(1) are not described in subsection (a)(10)(A)(i);
(2) have not attained age 65;
(3) have been screened for breast and cervical cancer under the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention breast and cervical cancer early detection program established under title XV of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 300k et seq.) in accordance with the requirements of section 1504 of that Act (42 U.S.C. 300n) and need treatment for breast or cervical cancer; and
(4) are not otherwise covered under creditable coverage, as defined in section 2701(c) 1 of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 300gg(c)), but applied without regard to paragraph (1)(F) of such section.
(bb) Payment for services provided by Federally-qualified health centers and rural health clinics
(1) In general
(2) Fiscal year 2001
(3) Fiscal year 2002 and succeeding fiscal yearsSubject to paragraph (4), for services furnished during fiscal year 2002 or a succeeding fiscal year, the State plan shall provide for payment for such services in an amount (calculated on a per visit basis) that is equal to the amount calculated for such services under this subsection for the preceding fiscal year—
(A) increased by the percentage increase in the MEI (as defined in section 1395u(i)(3) of this title) applicable to primary care services (as defined in section 1395u(i)(4) of this title) for that fiscal year; and
(B) adjusted to take into account any increase or decrease in the scope of such services furnished by the center or clinic during that fiscal year.
(4) Establishment of initial year payment amount for new centers or clinics
(5) Administration in the case of managed care
(A) In general
(B) Payment schedule
(6) Alternative payment methodologiesNotwithstanding any other provision of this section, the State plan may provide for payment in any fiscal year to a Federally-qualified health center for services described in section 1396d(a)(2)(C) of this title or to a rural health clinic for services described in section 1396d(a)(2)(B) of this title in an amount which is determined under an alternative payment methodology that—
(A) is agreed to by the State and the center or clinic; and
(B) results in payment to the center or clinic of an amount which is at least equal to the amount otherwise required to be paid to the center or clinic under this section.
(cc) Disabled children eligible to receive medical assistance at option of State
(1) Individuals described in this paragraph are individuals—
(A) who are children who have not attained 19 years of age and are born—
(i) on or after January 1, 2001 (or, at the option of a State, on or after an earlier date), in the case of the second, third, and fourth quarters of fiscal year 2007;
(ii) on or after October 1, 1995 (or, at the option of a State, on or after an earlier date), in the case of each quarter of fiscal year 2008; and
(iii) after October 1, 1989, in the case of each quarter of fiscal year 2009 and each quarter of any fiscal year thereafter;
(B) who would be considered disabled under section 1382c(a)(3)(C) of this title (as determined under subchapter XVI for children but without regard to any income or asset eligibility requirements that apply under such subchapter with respect to children); and
(C) whose family income does not exceed such income level as the State establishes and does not exceed—
(i) 300 percent of the poverty line (as defined in section 1397jj(c)(5) of this title) applicable to a family of the size involved; or
(ii) such higher percent of such poverty line as a State may establish, except that—(I) any medical assistance provided to an individual whose family income exceeds 300 percent of such poverty line may only be provided with State funds; and(II) no Federal financial participation shall be provided under section 1396b(a) of this title for any medical assistance provided to such an individual.
(2)
(A) If an employer of a parent of an individual described in paragraph (1) offers family coverage under a group health plan (as defined in section 2791(a) of the Public Health Service Act [42 U.S.C. 300gg–91(a)]), the State shall—
(i) notwithstanding section 1396e of this title, require such parent to apply for, enroll in, and pay premiums for such coverage as a condition of such parent’s child being or remaining eligible for medical assistance under subsection (a)(10)(A)(ii)(XIX) if the parent is determined eligible for such coverage and the employer contributes at least 50 percent of the total cost of annual premiums for such coverage; and
(ii) if such coverage is obtained—(I) subject to paragraph (2) of section 1396o(h) 17
17 So in original. Probably should be section “1396o(i)”.
of this title, reduce the premium imposed by the State under that section in an amount that reasonably reflects the premium contribution made by the parent for private coverage on behalf of a child with a disability; and
(II) treat such coverage as a third party liability under subsection (a)(25).
(B) In the case of a parent to which subparagraph (A) applies, a State, notwithstanding section 1396e of this title but subject to paragraph (1)(C)(ii), may provide for payment of any portion of the annual premium for such family coverage that the parent is required to pay. Any payments made by the State under this subparagraph shall be considered, for purposes of section 1396b(a) of this title, to be payments for medical assistance.
(dd) Electronic transmission of information
(ee) Alternate State process for verification of citizenship or nationality declaration
(1) For purposes of subsection (a)(46)(B)(ii), the requirements of this subsection with respect to an individual declaring to be a citizen or national of the United States for purposes of establishing eligibility under this subchapter, are, in lieu of requiring the individual to present satisfactory documentary evidence of citizenship or nationality under section 1396b(x) of this title (if the individual is not described in paragraph (2) of that section), as follows:
(A) The State submits the name and social security number of the individual to the Commissioner of Social Security as part of the program established under paragraph (2).
(B) If the State receives notice from the Commissioner of Social Security that the name or social security number, or the declaration of citizenship or nationality, of the individual is inconsistent with information in the records maintained by the Commissioner—
(i) the State makes a reasonable effort to identify and address the causes of such inconsistency, including through typographical or other clerical errors, by contacting the individual to confirm the accuracy of the name or social security number submitted or declaration of citizenship or nationality and by taking such additional actions as the Secretary, through regulation or other guidance, or the State may identify, and continues to provide the individual with medical assistance while making such effort; and
(ii) in the case such inconsistency is not resolved under clause (i), the State—(I) notifies the individual of such fact;(II) provides the individual with a period of 90 days from the date on which the notice required under subclause (I) is received by the individual to either present satisfactory documentary evidence of citizenship or nationality (as defined in section 1396b(x)(3) of this title) or resolve the inconsistency with the Commissioner of Social Security (and continues to provide the individual with medical assistance during such 90-day period); and(III) disenrolls the individual from the State plan under this subchapter within 30 days after the end of such 90-day period if no such documentary evidence is presented or if such inconsistency is not resolved.
(2)
(A) Each State electing to satisfy the requirements of this subsection for purposes of section 1396a(a)(46)(B) of this title shall establish a program under which the State submits at least monthly to the Commissioner of Social Security for comparison of the name and social security number, of each individual newly enrolled in the State plan under this subchapter that month who is not described in section 1396b(x)(2) of this title and who declares to be a United States citizen or national, with information in records maintained by the Commissioner.
(B) In establishing the State program under this paragraph, the State may enter into an agreement with the Commissioner of Social Security—
(i) to provide, through an on-line system or otherwise, for the electronic submission of, and response to, the information submitted under subparagraph (A) for an individual enrolled in the State plan under this subchapter who declares to be 19
19 So in original. Probably should be followed by “a”.
citizen or national on at least a monthly basis; or
(ii) to provide for a determination of the consistency of the information submitted with the information maintained in the records of the Commissioner through such other method as agreed to by the State and the Commissioner and approved by the Secretary, provided that such method is no more burdensome for individuals to comply with than any burdens that may apply under a method described in clause (i).
(C) The program established under this paragraph shall provide that, in the case of any individual who is required to submit a social security number to the State under subparagraph (A) and who is unable to provide the State with such number, shall be provided with at least the reasonable opportunity to present satisfactory documentary evidence of citizenship or nationality (as defined in section 1396b(x)(3) of this title) as is provided under clauses (i) and (ii) of section 1320b–7(d)(4)(A) of this title to an individual for the submittal to the State of evidence indicating a satisfactory immigration status.
(3)
(A) The State agency implementing the plan approved under this subchapter shall, at such times and in such form as the Secretary may specify, provide information on the percentage each month that the inconsistent submissions bears to the total submissions made for comparison for such month. For purposes of this subparagraph, a name, social security number, or declaration of citizenship or nationality of an individual shall be treated as inconsistent and included in the determination of such percentage only if—
(i) the information submitted by the individual is not consistent with information in records maintained by the Commissioner of Social Security;
(ii) the inconsistency is not resolved by the State;
(iii) the individual was provided with a reasonable period of time to resolve the inconsistency with the Commissioner of Social Security or provide satisfactory documentation of citizenship status and did not successfully resolve such inconsistency; and
(iv) payment has been made for an item or service furnished to the individual under this subchapter.
(B) If, for any fiscal year, the average monthly percentage determined under subparagraph (A) is greater than 3 percent—
(i) the State shall develop and adopt a corrective plan to review its procedures for verifying the identities of individuals seeking to enroll in the State plan under this subchapter and to identify and implement changes in such procedures to improve their accuracy; and
(ii) pay to the Secretary an amount equal to the amount which bears the same ratio to the total payments under the State plan for the fiscal year for providing medical assistance to individuals who provided inconsistent information as the number of individuals with inconsistent information in excess of 3 percent of such total submitted bears to the total number of individuals with inconsistent information.
(C) The Secretary may waive, in certain limited cases, all or part of the payment under subparagraph (B)(ii) if the State is unable to reach the allowable error rate despite a good faith effort by such State.
(D) Subparagraphs (A) and (B) shall not apply to a State for a fiscal year if there is an agreement described in paragraph (2)(B) in effect as of the close of the fiscal year that provides for the submission on a real-time basis of the information described in such paragraph.
(4) Nothing in this subsection shall affect the rights of any individual under this subchapter to appeal any disenrollment from a State plan.
(ff) Disregard of certain property in determination of eligibility of IndiansNotwithstanding any other requirement of this subchapter or any other provision of Federal or State law, a State shall disregard the following property from resources for purposes of determining the eligibility of an individual who is an Indian for medical assistance under this subchapter:
(1) Property, including real property and improvements, that is held in trust, subject to Federal restrictions, or otherwise under the supervision of the Secretary of the Interior, located on a reservation, including any federally recognized Indian Tribe’s reservation, pueblo, or colony, including former reservations in Oklahoma, Alaska Native regions established by the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act [43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.], and Indian allotments on or near a reservation as designated and approved by the Bureau of Indian Affairs of the Department of the Interior.
(2) For any federally recognized Tribe not described in paragraph (1), property located within the most recent boundaries of a prior Federal reservation.
(3) Ownership interests in rents, leases, royalties, or usage rights related to natural resources (including extraction of natural resources or harvesting of timber, other plants and plant products, animals, fish, and shellfish) resulting from the exercise of federally protected rights.
(4) Ownership interests in or usage rights to items not covered by paragraphs (1) through (3) that have unique religious, spiritual, traditional, or cultural significance or rights that support subsistence or a traditional lifestyle according to applicable tribal law or custom.
(gg) Maintenance of effort
(1) General requirement to maintain eligibility standards until State exchange is fully operational
(2) Continuation of eligibility standards for children through September 30, 2029
(3) Nonapplication
(4) Determination of compliance
(A) States shall apply modified adjusted gross income
(B) States may expand eligibility or move waivered populations into coverage under the State plan
(hh) State option for coverage for individuals with income that exceeds 133 percent of the poverty line
(1) A State may elect to phase-in the extension of eligibility for medical assistance to individuals described in subclause (XX) of subsection (a)(10)(A)(ii) based on the categorical group (including nonpregnant childless adults) or income, so long as the State does not extend such eligibility to individuals described in such subclause with higher income before making individuals described in such subclause with lower income eligible for medical assistance.
(2) If an individual described in subclause (XX) of subsection (a)(10)(A)(ii) is the parent of a child who is under 19 years of age (or such higher age as the State may have elected) who is eligible for medical assistance under the State plan or under a waiver of such plan, the individual may not be enrolled under the State plan unless the individual’s child is enrolled under the State plan or under a waiver of the plan or is enrolled in other health insurance coverage. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term “parent” includes an individual treated as a caretaker relative for purposes of carrying out section 1396u–1 of this title.
(ii) State eligibility option for family planning services
(1) Individuals described in this subsection are individuals—
(A) whose income does not exceed an income eligibility level established by the State that does not exceed the highest income eligibility level established under the State plan under this subchapter (or under its State child health plan under subchapter XXI) for pregnant women; and
(B) who are not pregnant.
(2) At the option of a State, individuals described in this subsection may include individuals who, had individuals applied on or before January 1, 2007, would have been made eligible pursuant to the standards and processes imposed by that State for benefits described in clause (XVI) of the matter following subparagraph (G) of section 20
20 So in original. The word “section” probably should not appear.
subsection (a)(10) pursuant to a waiver granted under section 1315 of this title.
(3) At the option of a State, for purposes of subsection (a)(17)(B), in determining eligibility for services under this subsection, the State may consider only the income of the applicant or recipient.
(jj) Primary care services definedFor purposes of subsection (a)(13)(C), the term “primary care services” means—
(1) evaluation and management services that are procedure codes (for services covered under subchapter XVIII) for services in the category designated Evaluation and Management in the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (established by the Secretary under section 1395w–4(c)(5) of this title as of December 31, 2009, and as subsequently modified); and
(2) services related to immunization administration for vaccines and toxoids for which CPT codes 90465, 90466, 90467, 90468, 90471, 90472, 90473, or 90474 (as subsequently modified) apply under such System.
(kk) Provider and supplier screening, oversight, and reporting requirements
(1) Screening
(2) Provisional period of enhanced oversight for new providers and suppliers
(3) Disclosure requirements
(4) Temporary moratorium on enrollment of new providers or suppliers
(A) Temporary moratorium imposed by the Secretary
(i) In general
(ii) Exceptions(I) Compliance with moratorium(II) FFP available
(iii) Limitation on charges to beneficiaries
(B) Moratorium on enrollment of providers and suppliers
(5) Compliance programs
(6) Reporting of adverse provider actions
(7) Enrollment and NPI of ordering or referring providersThe State requires—
(A) all ordering or referring physicians or other professionals to be enrolled under the State plan or under a waiver of the plan as a participating provider; and
(B) the national provider identifier of any ordering or referring physician or other professional to be specified on any claim for payment that is based on an order or referral of the physician or other professional.
(8) Provider terminations
(A) In generalBeginning on July 1, 2018, in the case of a notification under subsection (a)(41) with respect to a termination for a reason specified in section 455.101 of title 42, Code of Federal Regulations (as in effect on November 1, 2015) or for any other reason specified by the Secretary, of the participation of a provider of services or any other person under the State plan (or under a waiver of the plan), the State, not later than 30 days after the effective date of such termination, submits to the Secretary with respect to any such provider or person, as appropriate—
(i) the name of such provider or person;
(ii) the provider type of such provider or person;
(iii) the specialty of such provider’s or person’s practice;
(iv) the date of birth, Social Security number, national provider identifier (if applicable), Federal taxpayer identification number, and the State license or certification number of such provider or person (if applicable);
(v) the reason for the termination;
(vi) a copy of the notice of termination sent to the provider or person;
(vii) the date on which such termination is effective, as specified in the notice; and
(viii) any other information required by the Secretary.
(B) Effective date definedFor purposes of this paragraph, the term “effective date” means, with respect to a termination described in subparagraph (A), the later of—
(i) the date on which such termination is effective, as specified in the notice of such termination; or
(ii) the date on which all appeal rights applicable to such termination have been exhausted or the timeline for any such appeal has expired.
(9) Other State oversight
(ll) Termination notification database
(mm) Directory physician or provider describedA physician or provider described in this subsection is—
(1) in the case of a physician or provider of a provider type for which the State agency, as a condition on receiving payment for items and services furnished by the physician or provider to individuals eligible to receive medical assistance under the State plan, requires the enrollment of the physician or provider with the State agency, a physician or a provider that—
(A) is enrolled with the agency as of the date on which the directory is published or updated (as applicable) under subsection (a)(83); and
(B) received payment under the State plan in the 12-month period preceding such date; and
(2) in the case of a physician or provider of a provider type for which the State agency does not require such enrollment, a physician or provider that received payment under the State plan (or a waiver of the plan) in the 12-month period preceding the date on which the directory is published or updated (as applicable) under subsection (a)(83).
(nn) Juvenile; eligible juvenile; public institutionFor purposes of subsection (a)(84) and this subsection:
(1) JuvenileThe term “juvenile” means an individual who is—
(A) under 21 years of age; or
(B) described in subsection (a)(10)(A)(i)(IX).
(2) Eligible juvenileThe term “eligible juvenile” means a juvenile who is an inmate of a public institution and who—
(A) was determined eligible for medical assistance under the State plan (or waiver of such plan) immediately before becoming an inmate of such a public institution; or
(B) is determined eligible for such medical assistance while an inmate of a public institution.
(3) Inmate of a public institution
(oo) Drug review and utilization requirements
(1) In generalFor purposes of subsection (a)(85), the drug review and utilization requirements under this subsection are, subject to paragraph (3) and beginning October 1, 2019, the following:
(A) Claims review limitations
(i) In generalThe State has in place—(I) safety edits (as specified by the State) for subsequent fills for opioids and a claims review automated process (as designed and implemented by the State) that indicates when an individual enrolled under the State plan (or under a waiver of the State plan) is prescribed a subsequent fill of opioids in excess of any limitation that may be identified by the State;(II) safety edits (as specified by the State) on the maximum daily morphine equivalent that can be prescribed to an individual enrolled under the State plan (or under a waiver of the State plan) for treatment of chronic pain and a claims review automated process (as designed and implemented by the State) that indicates when an individual enrolled under the plan (or waiver) is prescribed the morphine equivalent for such treatment in excess of any limitation that may be identified by the State; and(III) a claims review automated process (as designed and implemented by the State) that monitors when an individual enrolled under the State plan (or under a waiver of the State plan) is concurrently prescribed opioids and—(aa) benzodiazepines; or(bb) antipsychotics.
(ii) Managed care entities
(iii) Rules of construction
(B) Program to monitor antipsychotic medications by children
(C) Fraud and abuse identification
(D) Reports
(E) ClarificationNothing shall prevent a State from satisfying the requirement—
(i) described in subparagraph (A) by having safety edits or a claims review automated process described in such subparagraph that was in place before October 1, 2019;
(ii) described in subparagraph (B) by having a program described in such subparagraph that was in place before such date; or
(iii) described in subparagraph (C) by having a process described in such subparagraph that was in place before such date.
(2) Annual report by Secretary
(3) Exceptions
(A) Certain individuals exemptedThe drug review and utilization requirements under this subsection shall not apply with respect to an individual who—
(i) is receiving—(I) hospice or palliative care; or(II) treatment for cancer;
(ii) is a resident of a long-term care facility, of a facility described in section 1396d(d) of this title, or of another facility for which frequently abused drugs are dispensed for residents through a contract with a single pharmacy; or
(iii) the State elects to treat as exempted from such requirements.
(B) Exception relating to ensuring access
(pp) Residential pediatric recovery center defined
(1) In general
(2) Counseling and servicesA residential pediatric recovery center may offer counseling and other services to mothers (and other appropriate family members and caretakers) of infants receiving treatment at such centers if such services are otherwise covered under the State plan under this subchapter or under a waiver of such plan. Such other services may include the following:
(A) Counseling or referrals for services.
(B) Activities to encourage caregiver-infant bonding.
(C) Training on caring for such infants.
(qq) Application of certain data reporting and program integrity requirements to Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, and Guam
(1) In generalNot later than October 1, 2021, the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, and Guam shall—
(A) demonstrate progress in implementing methods, satisfactory to the Secretary, for the collection and reporting of reliable data to the Transformed Medicaid Statistical Information System (T–MSIS) (or a successor system); and
(B) demonstrate progress in establishing a State medicaid fraud control unit described in section 1396b(q) of this title.
(2) Determination of progress
(rr) Program integrity requirements for Puerto Rico
(1) System for tracking Federal Medicaid funding provided to Puerto Rico
(A) In generalPuerto Rico shall establish and maintain a system, which may include the use of a quarterly Form CMS–64, for tracking any amounts paid by the Federal Government to Puerto Rico with respect to the State plan of Puerto Rico (or a waiver of such plan). Under such system, Puerto Rico shall ensure that information is available, with respect to each quarter in a fiscal year (beginning with the first quarter beginning on or after the date that is 1 year after December 20, 2019), on the following:
(i) In the case of a quarter other than the first quarter of such fiscal year—(I) the total amount expended by Puerto Rico during any previous quarter of such fiscal year under the State plan of Puerto Rico (or a waiver of such plan); and(II) a description of how such amount was so expended.
(ii) The total amount that Puerto Rico expects to expend during the quarter under the State plan of Puerto Rico (or a waiver of such plan), and a description of how Puerto Rico expects to expend such amount.
(B) Report to CMS
(2) Submission of documentation on contracts upon request
(3) Reporting on Medicaid and CHIP Scorecard measures
(ss) Uninsured individual definedFor purposes of this section, the term “uninsured individual” means, notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, any individual who is—
(1) not described in subsection (a)(10)(A)(i) (excluding subclause (VIII) of such subsection if the individual is a resident of a State which does not furnish medical assistance to individuals described in such subclause); and
(2) not enrolled in a Federal health care program (as defined in section 1320a–7b(f) of this title), a group health plan, group or individual health insurance coverage offered by a health insurance issuer (as such terms are defined in section 300gg–91 of this title), or a health plan offered under chapter 89 of title 5, except that individuals who are eligible for medical assistance under subsection (a)(10)(A)(ii)(XII), subsection (a)(10)(A)(ii)(XVIII), subsection (a)(10)(A)(ii)(XXI), or subsection (a)(10)(C) (but only to the extent such an individual is considered to not have minimum essential coverage under section 5000A(f)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986), or who are described in subsection (l)(1)(A) and are eligible for medical assistance only because of subsection (a)(10)(A)(i)(IV) or (a)(10)(A)(ii)(IX) and whose eligibility for such assistance is limited by the State under clause (VII) in the matter following subsection (a)(10)(G), shall not be treated as enrolled in a Federal health care program for purposes of this paragraph.
(tt) Requirements relating to transition from Families First Coronavirus Response Act FMAP increase requirements; enforcement and corrective action
(1) Reporting requirementsFor each month occurring during the period that begins on April 1, 2023, and ends on June 30, 2024, each State shall submit to the Secretary, on a timely basis, a report, that the Secretary shall make publicly available, on the activities of the State relating to eligibility redeterminations conducted during such period, and which include, with respect to the month for which the report is submitted, the following information:
(A) The number of eligibility renewals initiated, beneficiaries renewed on a total and ex parte basis, and individuals whose coverage for medical assistance, child health assistance, or pregnancy-related assistance was terminated.
(B) The number of individuals whose coverage for medical assistance, child health assistance, or pregnancy-related assistance was so terminated for procedural reasons.
(C) Where applicable, the number of individuals who were enrolled in a State child health plan or waiver in the form described in paragraph (1) of section 1397aa(a) of this title.
(D) Unless the Administrator of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services reports such information on behalf of the State:
(i) In a State with a Federal or State American Health Benefit Exchange established under title I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in which the systems used to determine eligibility for assistance under this subchapter or subchapter XXI are not integrated with the systems used to determine eligibility for coverage under a qualified health plan with advance payment under section 1412(a) of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act [42 U.S.C. 18082(a)] of any premium tax credit allowed under section 36B of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986—(I) the number of individuals whose accounts were received via secure electronic transfer by the Federal or State American Health Benefit Exchange, or a basic health program established under section 1331 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act [42 U.S.C. 18051];(II) the number of individuals identified in subclause (I) who were determined eligible for a qualified health plan, as defined in section 1301(a)(1) of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act [42 U.S.C. 18021(a)(1)], or (if applicable) the basic health program established under section 1331 of such Act [42 U.S.C. 18051]; and(III) the number of individuals identified in subclause (II) who made a qualified health plan selection or were enrolled in a basic health program plan (if applicable).
(ii) In a State with a State American Health Benefit Exchange established under title I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in which the systems used to determine eligibility for assistance under this subchapter or subchapter XXI are integrated with the systems used to determine eligibility for coverage under a qualified health plan with advance payment under section 1412(a) of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act [42 U.S.C. 18082(a)] of any premium tax credit allowed under section 36B of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986—(I) the number of individuals who were determined eligible for a qualified health plan, as defined in section 1301(a)(1) of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act [42 U.S.C. 18021(a)(1)], or (if applicable) the basic health program established under section 1331 of such Act [42 U.S.C. 18051]; and(II) the number of individuals identified in subclause (I) who made a qualified health plan selection or were enrolled in a basic health program plan (if applicable).
(E) The total call center volume, average wait times, and average abandonment rate (as determined by the Secretary) for each call center of the State agency responsible for administering the State plan under this subchapter (or a waiver of such plan) during such month.
(F) Such other information related to eligibility redeterminations and renewals during the period described in paragraph (1), as identified by the Secretary.
(2) Enforcement and corrective action
(A) In general
(B) Corrective action plan; additional authority
(i) In general
(ii) Corrective action planA State that receives a written notice from the Secretary that the Secretary has determined that the State is not in compliance with a requirement described in clause (i) shall—(I) not later than 14 days after receiving such notice, submit a corrective action plan to the Secretary;(II) not later than 21 days after the date on which such corrective action plan is submitted to the Secretary, receive approval for the plan from the Secretary; and(III) begin implementation of such corrective action plan not later than 14 days after such approval.
(iii) Effect of failure to submit or implement a corrective action plan
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XIX, § 1902, as added Pub. L. 89–97, title I, § 121(a), July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 344; amended Pub. L. 90–248, title II, §§ 210(a)(6), 223(a), 224(a), (c)(1), 227(a), 228(a), 229(a), 231, 234(a), 235(a), 236(a), 237, 238, 241(f)(1)–(4), title III, § 302(b), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 896, 901–906, 908, 911, 917, 929; Pub. L. 91–56, § 2(c), (d), Aug. 9, 1969, 83 Stat. 99; Pub. L. 92–223, § 4(b), Dec. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 809; Pub. L. 92–603, title II, §§ 208(a), 209(a), (b)(1), 221(c)(5), 231, 232(a), 236(b), 237(a)(2), 239(a), (b), 240, 246(a), 249(a), 255(a), 268(a), 274(a), 278(a)(18)–(20), (b)(14), 298, 299A, 299D(b), Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1381, 1389, 1410, 1415–1418, 1424, 1426, 1446, 1450, 1452–1454, 1460, 1462; Pub. L. 93–233, §§ 13(a)(2)–(10), 18(o)–(q), (x)(1)–(4), Dec. 31, 1973, 87 Stat. 960–962, 971, 972; Pub. L. 93–368, § 9(a), Aug. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 422; Pub. L. 94–48, §§ 1, 2, July 1, 1975, 89 Stat. 247; Pub. L. 94–182, title I, § 111(a), Dec. 31, 1975, 89 Stat. 1054; Pub. L. 94–552, § 1, Oct. 18, 1976, 90 Stat. 2540; Pub. L. 95–142, §§ 2(a)(3), (b)(1), 3(c)(1), 7(b), (c), 9, 19(b)(2), 20(b), Oct. 25, 1977, 91 Stat. 1176, 1178, 1193, 1195, 1204, 1207; Pub. L. 95–210, § 2(c), Dec. 13, 1977, 91 Stat. 1488; Pub. L. 95–559, § 14(a)(1), Nov. 1, 1978, 92 Stat. 2140; Pub. L. 96–272, title III, § 308(c), June 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 531; Pub. L. 96–499, title IX, §§ 902(b), 903(b), 905(a), 912(b), 913(c), (d), 914(b)(1), 916(b)(1), 918(b)(1), 962(a), 965(b), Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2613, 2615, 2618–2621, 2624, 2626, 2650, 2652; Pub. L. 96–611, § 5(b), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3568; Pub. L. 97–35, title XXI, §§ 2105(c), 2113(m), 2171(a), (b), 2172(a), 2173(a), (b)(1), 2174(a), 2175(a), (d)(1), 2178(b), 2181(a)(2), 2182, 2193(c)(9), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 792, 795, 807–809, 811, 814–816, 828; Pub. L. 97–248, title I, §§ 131(a), (c), formerly (b), 132(a), (c), 134(a), 136(d), 137(a)(3), (b)(7)–(10), (e), 146(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 367, 369, 370, 373, 375–378, 381, 394; Pub. L. 97–448, title III, § 309(a)(8), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2408; Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title III, §§ 2303(g)(1), 2314(b), 2335(e), 2361(a), 2362(a), 2363(a)(1), 2367(a), 2368(a), (b), 2373(b)(1)–(10), title VI, § 2651(c), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1066, 1079, 1091, 1104, 1105, 1108, 1109, 1111, 1149; Pub. L. 98–378, § 20(c), Aug. 16, 1984, 98 Stat. 1322; Pub. L. 98–617, § 3(a)(7), (b)(10), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3295, 3296; Pub. L. 99–272, title IX, §§ 9501(b), (c), 9503(a), 9505(b), (c)(1), (d), 9506(a), 9509(a), 9510(a), 9517(b), 9529(a)(1), (b)(1), title XII, § 12305(b)(3), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 201, 202, 205, 208–212, 216, 220, 293; Pub. L. 99–509, title IX, §§ 9320(h)(3), 9401(a)–(e)(1), 9402(a), (b), 9403(a), (c), (e)–(g)(1), (4)(A), 9404(a), 9405, 9406(b), 9407(a), 9408(a), (b), (c)(2), (3), 9431(a), (b)(1), 9433(a), 9435(b)(1), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 2016, 2050–2058, 2060, 2061, 2066, 2068, 2069; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, § 1895(c)(1), (3)(B), (C), (7), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2935, 2936; Pub. L. 99–570, title XI, § 11005(b), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–169; Pub. L. 99–643, §§ 3(b), 7(b), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3575, 3579; Pub. L. 100–93, §§ 5(a), 7, 8(f), Aug. 18, 1987, 101 Stat. 689, 691, 694; Pub. L. 100–203, title IV, §§ 4072(d), 4101(a)(1), (2), (b)(1)–(2)(B), (c)(2), (e)(1)–(5), 4102(b)(1), 4104, 4113(a)(2), (b)(1), (2), (c)(1), (2), (d)(2), 4116, 4118(c)(1), (h)(1), (2), (m)(1)(B), (p)(1)–(4), (6)–(8), 4211(b)(1), (h)(1)–(5), 4212(d)(2), (3), (e)(1), 4213(b)(1), 4218(a), title IX, §§ 9115(b), 9119(d)(1), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–117, 1330–140 to 1330–143, 1330–146, 1330–147, 1330–151, 1330–152, 1330–154 to 1330–157, 1330–159, 1330–203, 1330–205, 1330–213, 1330–219, 1330–220, 1330–305, as amended Pub. L. 100–360, title IV, § 411(k)(5)(A), (7)(B)–(D), (10)(G)(ii), (iv), (l)(3)(H), (J), (8)(C), (n)(2), (4), formerly (3), July 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 791, 794, 796, 803, 805, 807, as amended Pub. L. 100–485, title VI, § 608(d)(14)(I), (15)(A), (27)(F)–(H), (28), Oct. 13, 1988, 102 Stat. 2416, 2423; Pub. L. 100–360, title II, § 204(d)(3), title III, §§ 301(a)(1), (e)(2), 302(a), (b)(1), (c)(1), (2), (d)–(e)(3), 303(d), (e), title IV, § 411(k)(5)(B), (17)(B), (l)(3)(E), (6)(C), (D), July 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 729, 748–753, 762, 763, 792, 800, 803, 804; Pub. L. 100–485, title II, § 202(c)(4), title III, § 303(a)(2), (b)(1), (d), title IV, § 401(d)(1), title VI, § 608(d)(15)(B), (16)(C), Oct. 13, 1988, 102 Stat. 2378, 2391, 2392, 2396, 2416, 2418; Pub. L. 100–647, title VIII, § 8434(b)(1), (2), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3805; Pub. L. 101–234, title II, § 201(a), Dec. 13, 1989, 103 Stat. 1981; Pub. L. 101–239, title VI, §§ 6115(c), 6401(a), 6402(a), (c)(2), 6403(b), (d)(1), 6404(c), 6405(b), 6406(a), 6408(c)(1), (d)(1), (4)(C), 6411(a)(1), (d)(3)(B), (e)(2), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2219, 2258, 2260, 2261, 2263–2265, 2268–2271; Pub. L. 101–508, title IV, §§ 4401(a)(2), 4402(a)(1), (c), (d)(1), 4501(b), (e)(2), 4601(a)(1), 4602(a), 4603(a), 4604(a), (b), 4701(b)(1), 4704(a), (e)(1), 4708(a), 4711(c)(1), (d), 4713(a), 4715(a), 4723(b), 4724(a), 4732(b)(1), 4751(a), 4752(a)(1)(A), (c)(1), 4754(a), 4755(a)(2), (c)(1), 4801(e)(1)(A), (11)(A), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–143, 1388–161, 1388–163 to 1388–173, 1388–186, 1388–187, 1388–190, 1388–192, 1388–194, 1388–195, 1388–204, 1388–206, 1388–208 to 1388–210, 1388–215, 1388–217; Pub. L. 102–234, §§ 2(b)(1), 3(a), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1799;
§ 1396b. Payment to States
(a) Computation of amountFrom the sums appropriated therefor, the Secretary (except as otherwise provided in this section) shall pay to each State which has a plan approved under this subchapter, for each quarter, beginning with the quarter commencing January 1, 1966
(1) an amount equal to the Federal medical assistance percentage (as defined in section 1396d(b) of this title, subject to subsections (g) and (j) of this section and section 1396r–4(f) of this title) of the total amount expended during such quarter as medical assistance under the State plan; plus
(2)
(A) an amount equal to 75 per centum of so much of the sums expended during such quarter (as found necessary by the Secretary for the proper and efficient administration of the State plan) as are attributable to compensation or training of skilled professional medical personnel, and staff directly supporting such personnel, of the State agency or any other public agency; plus
(B) notwithstanding paragraph (1) or subparagraph (A), with respect to amounts expended for nursing aide training and competency evaluation programs, and competency evaluation programs, described in section 1396r(e)(1) of this title (including the costs for nurse aides to complete such competency evaluation programs), regardless of whether the programs are provided in or outside nursing facilities or of the skill of the personnel involved in such programs, an amount equal to 50 percent (or, for calendar quarters beginning on or after July 1, 1988, and before October 1, 1990, the lesser of 90 percent or the Federal medical assistance percentage plus 25 percentage points) of so much of the sums expended during such quarter (as found necessary by the Secretary for the proper and efficient administration of the State plan) as are attributable to such programs; plus
(C) an amount equal to 75 percent of so much of the sums expended during such quarter (as found necessary by the Secretary for the proper and efficient administration of the State plan) as are attributable to preadmission screening and resident review activities conducted by the State under section 1396r(e)(7) of this title; plus
(D) for each calendar quarter during—
(i) fiscal year 1991, an amount equal to 90 percent,
(ii) fiscal year 1992, an amount equal to 85 percent,
(iii) fiscal year 1993, an amount equal to 80 percent, and
(iv) fiscal year 1994 and thereafter, an amount equal to 75 percent,
of so much of the sums expended during such quarter (as found necessary by the Secretary for the proper and efficient administration of the State plan) as are attributable to State activities under section 1396r(g) of this title; plus
(E) an amount equal to 75 percent of so much of the sums expended during such quarter (as found necessary by the Secretary for the proper and efficient administration of the State plan) as are attributable to translation or interpretation services in connection with the enrollment of, retention of, and use of services under this subchapter by, children of families for whom English is not the primary language; plus
(3) an amount equal to—
(A)
(i) 90 per centum of so much of the sums expended during such quarter as are attributable to the design, development, or installation of such mechanized claims processing and information retrieval systems as the Secretary determines are likely to provide more efficient, economical, and effective administration of the plan and to be compatible with the claims processing and information retrieval systems utilized in the administration of subchapter XVIII, including the State’s share of the cost of installing such a system to be used jointly in the administration of such State’s plan and the plan of any other State approved under this subchapter,
(ii) 90 per centum of so much of the sums expended during any such quarter in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1972, or the fiscal year ending June 30, 1973, as are attributable to the design, development, or installation of cost determination systems for State-owned general hospitals (except that the total amount paid to all States under this clause for either such fiscal year shall not exceed $150,000), and
(iii) an amount equal to the Federal medical assistance percentage (as defined in section 1396d(b) of this title) of so much of the sums expended during such quarter (as found necessary by the Secretary for the proper and efficient administration of the State plan) as are attributable to such developments or modifications of systems of the type described in clause (i) as are necessary for the efficient collection and reporting on child health measures; and
(B) 75 per centum of so much of the sums expended during such quarter as are attributable to the operation of systems (whether such systems are operated directly by the State or by another person under a contract with the State) of the type described in subparagraph (A)(i) (whether or not designed, developed, or installed with assistance under such subparagraph) which are approved by the Secretary and which include provision for prompt written notice to each individual who is furnished services covered by the plan, or to each individual in a sample group of individuals who are furnished such services, of the specific services (other than confidential services) so covered, the name of the person or persons furnishing the services, the date or dates on which the services were furnished, and the amount of the payment or payments made under the plan on account of the services; and
(C)
(i) 75 per centum of the sums expended with respect to costs incurred during such quarter (as found necessary by the Secretary for the proper and efficient administration of the State plan) as are attributable to the performance of medical and utilization review by a utilization and quality control peer review organization 1
1 So in original. Probably should be “a quality improvement organization”.
or by an entity which meets the requirements of section 1320c–1 of this title, as determined by the Secretary, under a contract entered into under section 1396a(d) of this title; and
(ii) 75 percent of the sums expended with respect to costs incurred during such quarter (as found necessary by the Secretary for the proper and efficient administration of the State plan) as are attributable to the performance of independent external reviews conducted under section 1396u–2(c)(2) of this title; and
(D) 75 percent of so much of the sums expended by the State plan during a quarter in 1991, 1992, or 1993, as the Secretary determines is attributable to the statewide adoption of a drug use review program which conforms to the requirements of section 1396r–8(g) of this title;
(E) 50 percent of the sums expended with respect to costs incurred during such quarter as are attributable to providing—
(i) services to identify and educate individuals who are likely to be eligible for medical assistance under this subchapter and who have Sickle Cell Disease or who are carriers of the sickle cell gene, including education regarding how to identify such individuals; or
(ii) education regarding the risks of stroke and other complications, as well as the prevention of stroke and other complications, in individuals who are likely to be eligible for medical assistance under this subchapter and who have Sickle Cell Disease; and
(F)
(i) 100 percent of so much of the sums expended during such quarter as are attributable to payments to Medicaid providers described in subsection (t)(1) to encourage the adoption and use of certified EHR technology; and
(ii) 90 percent of so much of the sums expended during such quarter as are attributable to payments for reasonable administrative expenses related to the administration of payments described in clause (i) if the State meets the condition described in subsection (t)(9); plus
(H)
(i)2
2 So in original. There is no subpar. (G).
90 percent of the sums expended during the quarter as are attributable to the design, development, or installation of such mechanized verification and information retrieval systems as the Secretary determines are necessary to implement section 1396a(ee) of this title (including a system described in paragraph (2)(B) thereof), 3
3 So in original. The comma probably should be a semicolon.
and
(ii) 75 percent of the sums expended during the quarter as are attributable to the operation of systems to which clause (i) applies,3 plus
(4) an amount equal to 100 percent of the sums expended during the quarter which are attributable to the costs of the implementation and operation of the immigration status verification system described in section 1320b–7(d) of this title; plus
(5) an amount equal to 90 per centum of the sums expended during such quarter which are attributable to the offering, arranging, and furnishing (directly or on a contract basis) of family planning services and supplies;
(6) subject to subsection (b)(3), an amount equal to—
(A) 90 per centum of the sums expended during such a quarter within the twelve-quarter period beginning with the first quarter in which a payment is made to the State pursuant to this paragraph, and
(B) 75 per centum of the sums expended during each succeeding calendar quarter,
with respect to costs incurred during such quarter which are attributable to the establishment and operation of (including the training of personnel employed by) a State medicaid fraud control unit (described in subsection (q)); plus
(7) subject to section 1396r(g)(3)(B) of this title, an amount equal to 50 per centum of the remainder of the amounts expended during such quarter as found necessary by the Secretary for the proper and efficient administration of the State plan.
(b) Quarterly expenditures beginning after December 31, 1969
(1) Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this section, the amount determined under subsection (a)(1) for any State for any quarter beginning after December 31, 1969, shall not take into account any amounts expended as medical assistance with respect to individuals aged 65 or over and disabled individuals entitled to hospital insurance benefits under subchapter XVIII which would not have been so expended if the individuals involved had been enrolled in the insurance program established by part B of subchapter XVIII, other than amounts expended under provisions of the plan of such State required by section 1396a(a)(34) of this title.
(2) For limitation on Federal participation for capital expenditures which are out of conformity with a comprehensive plan of a State or areawide planning agency, see section 1320a–1 of this title.
(3) The amount of funds which the Secretary is otherwise obligated to pay a State during a quarter under subsection (a)(6) may not exceed the higher of—
(A) $125,000, or
(B) one-quarter of 1 per centum of the sums expended by the Federal, State, and local governments during the previous quarter in carrying out the State’s plan under this subchapter.
(4) Amounts expended by a State for the use of an enrollment broker in marketing medicaid managed care organizations and other managed care entities to eligible individuals under this subchapter shall be considered, for purposes of subsection (a)(7), to be necessary for the proper and efficient administration of the State plan but only if the following conditions are met with respect to the broker:
(A) The broker is independent of any such entity and of any health care providers (whether or not any such provider participates in the State plan under this subchapter) that provide coverage of services in the same State in which the broker is conducting enrollment activities.
(B) No person who is an owner, employee, consultant, or has a contract with the broker either has any direct or indirect financial interest with such an entity or health care provider or has been excluded from participation in the program under this subchapter or subchapter XVIII or debarred by any Federal agency, or subject to a civil money penalty under this chapter.
(5) Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this section, the amount determined under subsection (a)(1) for any State shall be decreased in a quarter by the amount of any health care related taxes (described in subsection (w)(3)(A)) 4
4 See References in Text note below.
that are imposed on a hospital described in subsection (w)(3)(F) in that quarter.
(c) Treatment of educationally-related services
(d) Estimates of State entitlement; installments; adjustments to reflect overpayments or underpayments; time for recovery or adjustment; uncollectable or discharged debts; obligated appropriations; disputed claims
(1) Prior to the beginning of each quarter, the Secretary shall estimate the amount to which a State will be entitled under subsections (a) and (b) for such quarter, such estimates to be based on (A) a report filed by the State containing its estimate of the total sum to be expended in such quarter in accordance with the provisions of such subsections, and stating the amount appropriated or made available by the State and its political subdivisions for such expenditures in such quarter, and if such amount is less than the State’s proportionate share of the total sum of such estimated expenditures, the source or sources from which the difference is expected to be derived, and (B) such other investigation as the Secretary may find necessary.
(2)
(A) The Secretary shall then pay to the State, in such installments as he may determine, the amount so estimated, reduced or increased to the extent of any overpayment or underpayment which the Secretary determines was made under this section to such State for any prior quarter and with respect to which adjustment has not already been made under this subsection.
(B) Expenditures for which payments were made to the State under subsection (a) shall be treated as an overpayment to the extent that the State or local agency administering such plan has been reimbursed for such expenditures by a third party pursuant to the provisions of its plan in compliance with
(C) For purposes of this subsection, when an overpayment is discovered, which was made by a State to a person or other entity, the State shall have a period of 1 year in which to recover or attempt to recover such overpayment before adjustment is made in the Federal payment to such State on account of such overpayment. Except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (D), the adjustment in the Federal payment shall be made at the end of the 1-year period, whether or not recovery was made.
(D)
(i) In any case where the State is unable to recover a debt which represents an overpayment (or any portion thereof) made to a person or other entity on account of such debt having been discharged in bankruptcy or otherwise being uncollectable, no adjustment shall be made in the Federal payment to such State on account of such overpayment (or portion thereof).
(ii) In any case where the State is unable to recover a debt which represents an overpayment (or any portion thereof) made to a person or other entity due to fraud within 1 year of discovery because there is not a final determination of the amount of the overpayment under an administrative or judicial process (as applicable), including as a result of a judgment being under appeal, no adjustment shall be made in the Federal payment to such State on account of such overpayment (or portion thereof) before the date that is 30 days after the date on which a final judgment (including, if applicable, a final determination on an appeal) is made.
(3)
(A) The pro rata share to which the United States is equitably entitled, as determined by the Secretary, of the net amount recovered during any quarter by the State or any political subdivision thereof with respect to medical assistance furnished under the State plan shall be considered an overpayment to be adjusted under this subsection.
(B)
(i) Subparagraph (A) and paragraph (2)(B) shall not apply to any amount recovered or paid to a State as part of the comprehensive settlement of November 1998 between manufacturers of tobacco products, as defined in section 5702(d) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, and State Attorneys General, or as part of any individual State settlement or judgment reached in litigation initiated or pursued by a State against one or more such manufacturers.
(ii) Except as provided in subsection (i)(19), a State may use amounts recovered or paid to the State as part of a comprehensive or individual settlement, or a judgment, described in clause (i) for any expenditures determined appropriate by the State.
(4) Upon the making of any estimate by the Secretary under this subsection, any appropriations available for payments under this section shall be deemed obligated.
(5) In any case in which the Secretary estimates that there has been an overpayment under this section to a State on the basis of a claim by such State that has been disallowed by the Secretary under section 1316(d) of this title, and such State disputes such disallowance, the amount of the Federal payment in controversy shall, at the option of the State, be retained by such State or recovered by the Secretary pending a final determination with respect to such payment amount. If such final determination is to the effect that any amount was properly disallowed, and the State chose to retain payment of the amount in controversy, the Secretary shall offset, from any subsequent payments made to such State under this subchapter, an amount equal to the proper amount of the disallowance plus interest on such amount disallowed for the period beginning on the date such amount was disallowed and ending on the date of such final determination at a rate (determined by the Secretary) based on the average of the bond equivalent of the weekly 90-day treasury bill auction rates during such period.
(6)
(A) Each State (as defined in subsection (w)(7)(D)) shall include, in the first report submitted under paragraph (1) after the end of each fiscal year, information related to—
(i) provider-related donations made to the State or units of local government during such fiscal year, and
(ii) health care related taxes collected by the State or such units during such fiscal year.
(B) Each State shall include, in the first report submitted under paragraph (1) after the end of each fiscal year, information related to the total amount of payment adjustments made, and the amount of payment adjustments made to individual providers (by provider), under section 1396r–4(c) of this title during such fiscal year.
(e) Transition costs of closures or conversions permitted
(f) Limitation on Federal participation in medical assistance
(1)
(A) Except as provided in paragraph (4), payment under the preceding provisions of this section shall not be made with respect to any amount expended as medical assistance in a calendar quarter, in any State, for any member of a family the annual income of which exceeds the applicable income limitation determined under this paragraph.
(B)
(i) Except as provided in clause (ii) of this subparagraph, the applicable income limitation with respect to any family is the amount determined, in accordance with standards prescribed by the Secretary, to be equivalent to 133⅓ percent of the highest amount which would ordinarily be paid to a family of the same size without any income or resources, in the form of money payments, under the plan of the State approved under part A of subchapter IV of this chapter.
(ii) If the Secretary finds that the operation of a uniform maximum limits payments to families of more than one size, he may adjust the amount otherwise determined under clause (i) to take account of families of different sizes.
(C) The total amount of any applicable income limitation determined under subparagraph (B) shall, if it is not a multiple of $100 or such other amount as the Secretary may prescribe, be rounded to the next higher multiple of $100 or such other amount, as the case may be.
(2)
(A) In computing a family’s income for purposes of paragraph (1), there shall be excluded any costs (whether in the form of insurance premiums or otherwise and regardless of whether such costs are reimbursed under another public program of the State or political subdivision thereof) incurred by such family for medical care or for any other type of remedial care recognized under State law or, (B) notwithstanding section 1396o of this title at State option, an amount paid by such family, at the family’s option, to the State, provided that the amount, when combined with costs incurred in prior months, is sufficient when excluded from the family’s income to reduce such family’s income below the applicable income limitation described in paragraph (1). The amount of State expenditures for which medical assistance is available under subsection (a)(1) will be reduced by amounts paid to the State pursuant to this subparagraph.
(3) For purposes of paragraph (1)(B), in the case of a family consisting of only one individual, the “highest amount which would ordinarily be paid” to such family under the State’s plan approved under part A of subchapter IV of this chapter shall be the amount determined by the State agency (on the basis of reasonable relationship to the amounts payable under such plan to families consisting of two or more persons) to be the amount of the aid which would ordinarily be payable under such plan to a family (without any income or resources) consisting of one person if such plan provided for aid to such a family.
(4) The limitations on payment imposed by the preceding provisions of this subsection shall not apply with respect to any amount expended by a State as medical assistance for any individual described in section 1396a(a)(10)(A)(i)(III), 1396a(a)(10)(A)(i)(IV), 1396a(a)(10)(A)(i)(V), 1396a(a)(10)(A)(i)(VI), 1396a(a)(10)(A)(i)(VII), 1396a(a)(10)(A)(i)(VIII), 1396a(a)(10)(A)(i)(IX), 1396a(a)(10)(A)(ii)(IX), 1396a(a)(10)(A)(ii)(X), 1396a(a)(10)(A)(ii)(XIII), 1396a(a)(10)(A)(ii)(XIV), or 5
5 So in original. The word “or” probably should precede “1396d(p)(1)”.
1396a(a)(10)(A)(ii)(XV), 1396a(a)(10)(A)(ii)(XVI), 1396a(a)(10)(A)(ii)(XVII), 1396a(a)(10)(A)(ii)(XVIII), 1396a(a)(10)(A)(ii)(XIX), 1396a(a)(10)(A)(ii)(XX), 1396a(a)(10)(A)(ii)(XXI), 1396a(a)(10)(A)(ii)(XXII), 1396d(p)(1) of this title or for any individual—
(A) who is receiving aid or assistance under any plan of the State approved under subchapter I, X, XIV or XVI, or part A of subchapter IV, or with respect to whom supplemental security income benefits are being paid under subchapter XVI, or
(B) who is not receiving such aid or assistance, and with respect to whom such benefits are not being paid, but (i) is eligible to receive such aid or assistance, or to have such benefits paid with respect to him, or (ii) would be eligible to receive such aid or assistance, or to have such benefits paid with respect to him if he were not in a medical institution, or
(C) with respect to whom there is being paid, or who is eligible, or would be eligible if he were not in a medical institution, to have paid with respect to him, a State supplementary payment and is eligible for medical assistance equal in amount, duration, and scope to the medical assistance made available to individuals described in section 1396a(a)(10)(A) of this title, or who is a PACE program eligible individual enrolled in a PACE program under section 1396u–4 of this title, but only if the income of such individual (as determined under section 1382a of this title, but without regard to subsection (b) thereof) does not exceed 300 percent of the supplemental security income benefit rate established by section 1382(b)(1) of this title,
at the time of the provision of the medical assistance giving rise to such expenditure.
(g) Decrease in Federal medical assistance percentage of amounts paid for services furnished under State plan after June 30, 1973
(1) Subject to paragraph (3), with respect to amounts paid for the following services furnished under the State plan after June 30, 1973 (other than services furnished pursuant to a contract with a health maintenance organization as defined in section 1395mm of this title or which is a qualified health maintenance organization (as defined in section 300e–9(d) 4 of this title)), the Federal medical assistance percentage shall be decreased as follows: After an individual has received inpatient hospital services or services in an intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded for 60 days or inpatient mental hospital services for 90 days (whether or not such days are consecutive), during any fiscal year, the Federal medical assistance percentage with respect to amounts paid for any such care furnished thereafter to such individual shall be decreased by a per centum thereof (determined under paragraph (5)) unless the State agency responsible for the administration of the plan makes a showing satisfactory to the Secretary that, with respect to each calendar quarter for which the State submits a request for payment at the full Federal medical assistance percentage for amounts paid for inpatient hospital services or services in an intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded furnished beyond 60 days (or inpatient mental hospital services furnished beyond 90 days), such State has an effective program of medical review of the care of patients in mental hospitals and intermediate care facilities for the mentally retarded pursuant to paragraphs (26) and (31) of section 1396a(a) of this title whereby the professional management of each case is reviewed and evaluated at least annually by independent professional review teams. In determining the number of days on which an individual has received services described in this subsection, there shall not be counted any days with respect to which such individual is entitled to have payments made (in whole or in part) on his behalf under section 1395d of this title.
(2) The Secretary shall, as part of his validation procedures under this subsection, conduct timely sample onsite surveys of private and public institutions in which recipients of medical assistance may receive care and services under a State plan approved under this subchapter, and his findings with respect to such surveys (as well as the showings of the State agency required under this subsection) shall be made available for public inspection.
(3)
(A) No reduction in the Federal medical assistance percentage of a State otherwise required to be imposed under this subsection shall take effect—
(i) if such reduction is due to the State’s unsatisfactory or invalid showing made with respect to a calendar quarter beginning before January 1, 1977;
(ii) before January 1, 1978;
(iii) unless a notice of such reduction has been provided to the State at least 30 days before the date such reduction takes effect; or
(iv) due to the State’s unsatisfactory or invalid showing made with respect to a calendar quarter beginning after September 30, 1977, unless notice of such reduction has been provided to the State no later than the first day of the fourth calendar quarter following the calendar quarter with respect to which such showing was made.
(B) The Secretary shall waive application of any reduction in the Federal medical assistance percentage of a State otherwise required to be imposed under paragraph (1) because a showing by the State, made under such paragraph with respect to a calendar quarter ending after January 1, 1977, and before January 1, 1978, is determined to be either unsatisfactory under such paragraph or invalid under paragraph (2), if the Secretary determines that the State’s showing made under paragraph (1) with respect to any calendar quarter ending on or before December 31, 1978, is satisfactory under such paragraph and is valid under paragraph (2).
(4)
(A) The Secretary may not find the showing of a State, with respect to a calendar quarter under paragraph (1), to be satisfactory if the showing is submitted to the Secretary later than the 30th day after the last day of the calendar quarter, unless the State demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Secretary good cause for not meeting such deadline.
(B) The Secretary shall find a showing of a State, with respect to a calendar quarter under paragraph (1), to be satisfactory under such paragraph with respect to the requirement that the State conduct annual onsite inspections in mental hospitals and intermediate care facilities for the mentally retarded under paragraphs (26) and (31) of section 1396a(a) of this title, if the showing demonstrates that the State has conducted such an onsite inspection during the 12-month period ending on the last date of the calendar quarter—
(i) in each of not less than 98 per centum of the number of such hospitals and facilities requiring such inspection, and
(ii) in every such hospital or facility which has 200 or more beds,
and that, with respect to such hospitals and facilities not inspected within such period, the State has exercised good faith and due diligence in attempting to conduct such inspection, or if the State demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Secretary that it would have made such a showing but for failings of a technical nature only.
(5) In the case of a State’s unsatisfactory or invalid showing made with respect to a type of facility or institutional services in a calendar quarter, the per centum amount of the reduction of the State’s Federal medical assistance percentage for that type of services under paragraph (1) is equal to 33⅓ per centum multiplied by a fraction, the denominator of which is equal to the total number of patients receiving that type of services in that quarter under the State plan in facilities or institutions for which a showing was required to be made under this subsection, and the numerator of which is equal to the number of such patients receiving such type of services in that quarter in those facilities or institutions for which a satisfactory and valid showing was not made for that calendar quarter.
(6)
(A) Recertifications required under section 1396a(a)(44) of this title shall be conducted at least every 60 days in the case of inpatient hospital services.
(B) Such recertifications in the case of services in an intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded shall be conducted at least—
(i) 60 days after the date of the initial certification,
(ii) 180 days after the date of the initial certification,
(iii) 12 months after the date of the initial certification,
(iv) 18 months after the date of the initial certification,
(v) 24 months after the date of the initial certification, and
(vi) every 12 months thereafter.
(C) For purposes of determining compliance with the schedule established by this paragraph, a recertification shall be considered to have been done on a timely basis if it was performed not later than 10 days after the date the recertification was otherwise required and the State establishes good cause why the physician or other person making such recertification did not meet such schedule.
(h) Repealed. Pub. L. 100–203, title IV, § 4211(g)(1), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–205
(i) Payment for organ transplants; item or service furnished by excluded individual, entity, or physician; other restrictionsPayment under the preceding provisions of this section shall not be made—
(1) for organ transplant procedures unless the State plan provides for written standards respecting the coverage of such procedures and unless such standards provide that—
(A) similarly situated individuals are treated alike; and
(B) any restriction, on the facilities or practitioners which may provide such procedures, is consistent with the accessibility of high quality care to individuals eligible for the procedures under the State plan; or
(2) with respect to any amount expended for an item or service (other than an emergency item or service, not including items or services furnished in an emergency room of a hospital) furnished—
(A) under the plan by any individual or entity during any period when the individual or entity is excluded from participation under subchapter V, XVIII, or XX or under this subchapter pursuant to section 1320a–7, 1320a–7a, 1320c–5, or 1395u(j)(2) of this title;
(B) at the medical direction or on the prescription of a physician, during the period when such physician is excluded from participation under subchapter V, XVIII, or XX or under this subchapter pursuant to section 1320a–7, 1320a–7a, 1320c–5, or 1395u(j)(2) of this title and when the person furnishing such item or service knew or had reason to know of the exclusion (after a reasonable time period after reasonable notice has been furnished to the person);
(C) by any individual or entity to whom the State has failed to suspend payments under the plan during any period when there is pending an investigation of a credible allegation of fraud against the individual or entity, as determined by the State in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Secretary for purposes of section 1395y(
(D) beginning on July 1, 2018, under the plan by any provider of services or person whose participation in the State plan is terminated (as described in section 1396a(kk)(8) of this title) after the date that is 60 days after the date on which such termination is included in the database or other system under section 1396a(ll) of this title; or
(E) with respect to any amount expended for such an item or service furnished during calendar quarters beginning on or after October 1, 2017, subject to section 1396a(kk)(4)(A)(ii)(II) of this title, within a geographic area that is subject to a moratorium imposed under section 1395cc(j)(7) of this title by a provider or supplier that meets the requirements specified in subparagraph (C)(iii) of such section, during the period of such moratorium; or
(3) with respect to any amount expended for inpatient hospital services furnished under the plan (other than amounts attributable to the special situation of a hospital which serves a disproportionate number of low income patients with special needs) to the extent that such amount exceeds the hospital’s customary charges with respect to such services or (if such services are furnished under the plan by a public institution free of charge or at nominal charges to the public) exceeds an amount determined on the basis of those items (specified in regulations prescribed by the Secretary) included in the determination of such payment which the Secretary finds will provide fair compensation to such institution for such services; or
(4) with respect to any amount expended for care or services furnished under the plan by a hospital unless such hospital has in effect a utilization review plan which meets the requirements imposed by section 1395x(k) of this title for purposes of subchapter XVIII; and if such hospital has in effect such a utilization review plan for purposes of subchapter XVIII, such plan shall serve as the plan required by this subsection (with the same standards and procedures and the same review committee or group) as a condition of payment under this subchapter; the Secretary is authorized to waive the requirements of this paragraph if the State agency demonstrates to his satisfaction that it has in operation utilization review procedures which are superior in their effectiveness to the procedures required under section 1395x(k) of this title; or
(5) with respect to any amount expended for any drug product for which payment may not be made under part B of subchapter XVIII because of section 1395y(c) of this title; or
(6) with respect to any amount expended for inpatient hospital tests (other than in emergency situations) not specifically ordered by the attending physician or other responsible practitioner; or
(7) with respect to any amount expended for clinical diagnostic laboratory tests performed by a physician, independent laboratory, or hospital, to the extent such amount exceeds the amount that would be recognized under section 1395l(h) of this title for such tests performed for an individual enrolled under part B of subchapter XVIII; or
(8) with respect to any amount expended for medical assistance (A) for nursing facility services to reimburse (or otherwise compensate) a nursing facility for payment of a civil money penalty imposed under section 1396r(h) of this title or (B) for home and community care to reimburse (or otherwise compensate) a provider of such care for payment of a civil money penalty imposed under this subchapter or subchapter XI or for legal expenses in defense of an exclusion or civil money penalty under this subchapter or subchapter XI if there is no reasonable legal ground for the provider’s case; or
(9) with respect to any amount expended for non-emergency transportation authorized under section 1396a(a)(4) of this title, unless the State plan provides for the methods and procedures required under section 1396a(a)(30)(A) of this title; or
(10)
(A) with respect to covered outpatient drugs unless there is a rebate agreement in effect under section 1396r–8 of this title with respect to such drugs or unless section 1396r–8(a)(3) of this title applies,3
(B) with respect to any amount expended for an innovator multiple source drug (as defined in section 1396r–8(k) of this title) dispensed on or after July 1, 1991, if, under applicable State law, a less expensive multiple source drug could have been dispensed, but only to the extent that such amount exceeds the upper payment limit for such multiple source drug;
(C) with respect to covered outpatient drugs described in section 1396r–8(a)(7) of this title, unless information respecting utilization data and coding on such drugs that is required to be submitted under such section is submitted in accordance with such section;
(D) with respect to any amount expended for reimbursement to a pharmacy under this subchapter for the ingredient cost of a covered outpatient drug for which the pharmacy has already received payment under this subchapter (other than with respect to a reasonable restocking fee for such drug); and
(E) with respect to any amount expended for a covered outpatient drug for which a suspension under section 1396r–8(c)(4)(B)(ii)(II) of this title is in effect; or
(11) with respect to any amount expended for physicians’ services furnished on or after the first day of the first quarter beginning more than 60 days after the date of establishment of the physician identifier system under section 1396a(x) of this title, unless the claim for the services includes the unique physician identifier provided under such system; or
(12) with respect to any amounts expended for—
(A) a vacuum erection system that is not medically necessary; or
(B) the insertion, repair, or removal and replacement of a penile prosthetic implant (unless such insertion, repair, or removal and replacement is medically necessary); or
(13) with respect to any amount expended to reimburse (or otherwise compensate) a nursing facility for payment of legal expenses associated with any action initiated by the facility that is dismissed on the basis that no reasonable legal ground existed for the institution of such action; or
(14) with respect to any amount expended on administrative costs to carry out the program under section 1396s of this title; or
(15) with respect to any amount expended for a single-antigen vaccine and its administration in any case in which the administration of a combined-antigen vaccine was medically appropriate (as determined by the Secretary); or
(16) with respect to any amount expended for which funds may not be used under the Assisted Suicide Funding Restriction Act of 1997 [42 U.S.C. 14401 et seq.]; or
(17) with respect to any amount expended for roads, bridges, stadiums, or any other item or service not covered under a State plan under this subchapter; or
(18) with respect to any amount expended for home health care services provided by an agency or organization unless the agency or organization provides the State agency on a continuing basis a surety bond in a form specified by the Secretary under paragraph (7) of section 1395x(o) of this title and in an amount that is not less than $50,000 or such comparable surety bond as the Secretary may permit under the last sentence of such section; or
(19) with respect to any amount expended on administrative costs to initiate or pursue litigation described in subsection (d)(3)(B);
(20) with respect to amounts expended for medical assistance provided to an individual described in subclause (XV) or (XVI) of section 1396a(a)(10)(A)(ii) of this title for a fiscal year unless the State demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the level of State funds expended for such fiscal year for programs to enable working individuals with disabilities to work (other than for such medical assistance) is not less than the level expended for such programs during the most recent State fiscal year ending before December 17, 1999;
(21) with respect to amounts expended for covered outpatient drugs described in section 1396r–8(d)(2)(C) of this title (relating to drugs when used for cosmetic purposes or hair growth), except where medically necessary, and section 1396r–8(d)(2)(K) of this title (relating to drugs when used for treatment of sexual or erectile dysfunction);
(22) with respect to amounts expended for medical assistance for an individual who declares under section 1320b–7(d)(1)(A) of this title to be a citizen or national of the United States for purposes of establishing eligibility for benefits under this subchapter, unless the requirement of section 1396a(a)(46)(B) of this title is met;
(23) with respect to amounts expended for medical assistance for covered outpatient drugs (as defined in section 1396r–8(k)(2) of this title) for which the prescription was executed in written (and non-electronic) form unless the prescription was executed on a tamper-resistant pad;
(24) if a State is required to implement an asset verification program under section 1396w of this title and fails to implement such program in accordance with such section, with respect to amounts expended by such State for medical assistance for individuals subject to asset verification under such section, unless—
(A) the State demonstrates to the Secretary’s satisfaction that the State made a good faith effort to comply;
(B) not later than 60 days after the date of a finding that the State is in noncompliance, the State submits to the Secretary (and the Secretary approves) a corrective action plan to remedy such noncompliance; and
(C) not later than 12 months after the date of such submission (and approval), the State fulfills the terms of such corrective action plan;
(25) with respect to any amounts expended for medical assistance for individuals for whom the State does not report enrollee encounter data (as defined by the Secretary) to the Medicaid Statistical Information System (MSIS) in a timely manner (as determined by the Secretary);
(26) with respect to any amounts expended for medical assistance for individuals described in subclause (VIII) of subsection (a)(10)(A)(i) 6
6 Probably means subclause (VIII) of subsection (a)(10)(A)(i) of section 1396a of this title.
other than medical assistance provided through benchmark coverage described in section 1396u–7(b)(1) of this title or benchmark equivalent coverage described in section 1396u–7(b)(2) of this title; or
(27) with respect to any amounts expended by the State on the basis of a fee schedule for items described in section 1395x(n) of this title and furnished on or after January 1, 2018, as determined in the aggregate with respect to each class of such items as defined by the Secretary, in excess of the aggregate amount, if any, that would be paid for such items within such class on a fee-for-service basis under the program under part B of subchapter XVIII, including, as applicable, under a competitive acquisition program under section 1395w–3 of this title in an area of the State.
Nothing in paragraph (1) shall be construed as permitting a State to provide services under its plan under this subchapter that are not reasonable in amount, duration, and scope to achieve their purpose. Paragraphs (1), (2), (16), (17), and (18) shall apply with respect to items or services furnished and amounts expended by or through a managed care entity (as defined in section 1396u–2(a)(1)(B) of this title) in the same manner as such paragraphs apply to items or services furnished and amounts expended directly by the State.
(j) Adjustment of amount
(k) Technical assistance to States
(l) Electronic visit verification system for personal care services and home health care services
(1) Subject to paragraphs (3) and (4), with respect to any amount expended for personal care services or home health care services requiring an in-home visit by a provider that are provided under a State plan under this subchapter (or under a waiver of the plan) and furnished in a calendar quarter beginning on or after January 1, 2020 (or, in the case of home health care services, on or after January 1, 2023), unless a State requires the use of an electronic visit verification system for such services furnished in such quarter under the plan or such waiver, the Federal medical assistance percentage shall be reduced—
(A) in the case of personal care services—
(i) for calendar quarters in 2020, by .25 percentage points;
(ii) for calendar quarters in 2021, by .5 percentage points;
(iii) for calendar quarters in 2022, by .75 percentage points; and
(iv) for calendar quarters in 2023 and each year thereafter, by 1 percentage point; and
(B) in the case of home health care services—
(i) for calendar quarters in 2023 and 2024, by .25 percentage points;
(ii) for calendar quarters in 2025, by .5 percentage points;
(iii) for calendar quarters in 2026, by .75 percentage points; and
(iv) for calendar quarters in 2027 and each year thereafter, by 1 percentage point.
(2) Subject to paragraphs (3) and (4), in implementing the requirement for the use of an electronic visit verification system under paragraph (1), a State shall—
(A) consult with agencies and entities that provide personal care services, home health care services, or both under the State plan (or under a waiver of the plan) to ensure that such system—
(i) is minimally burdensome;
(ii) takes into account existing best practices and electronic visit verification systems in use in the State; and
(iii) is conducted in accordance with the requirements of HIPAA privacy and security law (as defined in section 300jj–19 of this title);
(B) take into account a stakeholder process that includes input from beneficiaries, family caregivers, individuals who furnish personal care services or home health care services, and other stakeholders, as determined by the State in accordance with guidance from the Secretary; and
(C) ensure that individuals who furnish personal care services, home health care services, or both under the State plan (or under a waiver of the plan) are provided the opportunity for training on the use of such system.
(3) Paragraphs (1) and (2) shall not apply in the case of a State that, as of December 13, 2016, requires the use of any system for the electronic verification of visits conducted as part of both personal care services and home health care services, so long as the State continues to require the use of such system with respect to the electronic verification of such visits.
(4)
(A) In the case of a State described in subparagraph (B), the reduction under paragraph (1) shall not apply—
(i) in the case of personal care services, for calendar quarters in 2020; and
(ii) in the case of home health care services, for calendar quarters in 2023.
(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), a State described in this subparagraph is a State that demonstrates to the Secretary that the State—
(i) has made a good faith effort to comply with the requirements of paragraphs (1) and (2) (including by taking steps to adopt the technology used for an electronic visit verification system); and
(ii) in implementing such a system, has encountered unavoidable system delays.
(5) In this subsection:
(A) The term “electronic visit verification system” means, with respect to personal care services or home health care services, a system under which visits conducted as part of such services are electronically verified with respect to—
(i) the type of service performed;
(ii) the individual receiving the service;
(iii) the date of the service;
(iv) the location of service delivery;
(v) the individual providing the service; and
(vi) the time the service begins and ends.
(B) The term “home health care services” means services described in section 1396d(a)(7) of this title provided under a State plan under this subchapter (or under a waiver of the plan).
(C) The term “personal care services” means personal care services provided under a State plan under this subchapter (or under a waiver of the plan), including services provided under section 1396d(a)(24), 1396n(c), 1396n(i), 1396n(j), or 1396n(k) of this title or under a wavier 7
7 So in original. Probably should be “waiver”.
under section 1315 of this title.
(6)
(A) In the case in which a State requires personal care service and home health care service providers to utilize an electronic visit verification system operated by the State or a contractor on behalf of the State, the Secretary shall pay to the State, for each quarter, an amount equal to 90 per centum of so much of the sums expended during such quarter as are attributable to the design, development, or installation of such system, and 75 per centum of so much of the sums for the operation and maintenance of such system.
(B) Subparagraph (A) shall not apply in the case in which a State requires personal care service and home health care service providers to utilize an electronic visit verification system that is not operated by the State or a contractor on behalf of the State.
(m) “Medicaid managed care organization” defined; duties and functions of Secretary; payments to States; reporting requirements; remedies
(1)
(A) The term “medicaid managed care organization” means a health maintenance organization, an eligible organization with a contract under section 1395mm of this title or a Medicare+Choice organization with a contract under part C of subchapter XVIII, a provider sponsored organization, or any other public or private organization, which meets the requirement of section 1396a(w) of this title and—
(i) makes services it provides to individuals eligible for benefits under this subchapter accessible to such individuals, within the area served by the organization, to the same extent as such services are made accessible to individuals (eligible for medical assistance under the State plan) not enrolled with the organization, and
(ii) has made adequate provision against the risk of insolvency, which provision is satisfactory to the State, meets the requirements of subparagraph (C)(i) (if applicable), and which assures that individuals eligible for benefits under this subchapter are in no case held liable for debts of the organization in case of the organization’s insolvency.
An organization that is a qualified health maintenance organization (as defined in section 300e–9(d) 4 of this title) is deemed to meet the requirements of clauses (i) and (ii).
(B) The duties and functions of the Secretary, insofar as they involve making determinations as to whether an organization is a medicaid managed care organization within the meaning of subparagraph (A), shall be integrated with the administration of section 300e–11(a) and (b) of this title.
(C)
(i) Subject to clause (ii), a provision meets the requirements of this subparagraph for an organization if the organization meets solvency standards established by the State for private health maintenance organizations or is licensed or certified by the State as a risk-bearing entity.
(ii) Clause (i) shall not apply to an organization if—(I) the organization is not responsible for the provision (directly or through arrangements with providers of services) of inpatient hospital services and physicians’ services;(II) the organization is a public entity;(III) the solvency of the organization is guaranteed by the State; or(IV) the organization is (or is controlled by) one or more Federally-qualified health centers and meets solvency standards established by the State for such an organization.
For purposes of subclause (IV), the term “control” means the possession, whether direct or indirect, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of the organization through membership, board representation, or an ownership interest equal to or greater than 50.1 percent.
(2)
(A) Except as provided in subparagraphs (B), (C), and (G), no payment shall be made under this subchapter to a State with respect to expenditures incurred by it for payment (determined under a prepaid capitation basis or under any other risk basis) for services provided by any entity (including a health insuring organization) which is responsible for the provision (directly or through arrangements with providers of services) of inpatient hospital services and any other service described in paragraph (2), (3), (4), (5), or (7) of section 1396d(a) of this title or for the provision of any three or more of the services described in such paragraphs unless—
(i) the Secretary has determined that the entity is a medicaid managed care organization as defined in paragraph (1);
(ii) Repealed. Pub. L. 105–33, title IV, § 4703(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 495.
(iii) such services are provided for the benefit of individuals eligible for benefits under this subchapter in accordance with a contract between the State and the entity under which prepaid payments to the entity are made on an actuarially sound basis and under which the Secretary must provide prior approval for contracts providing for expenditures in excess of $1,000,000 for 1998 and, for a subsequent year, the amount established under this clause for the previous year increased by the percentage increase in the consumer price index for all urban consumers over the previous year;
(iv) such contract provides that the Secretary and the State (or any person or organization designated by either) shall have the right to audit and inspect any books and rec­ords of the entity (and of any subcontractor) that pertain (I) to the ability of the entity to bear the risk of potential financial losses, or (II) to services performed or determinations of amounts payable under the contract;
(v) such contract provides that in the entity’s enrollment, reenrollment, or disenrollment of individuals who are eligible for benefits under this subchapter and eligible to enroll, reenroll, or disenroll with the entity pursuant to the contract, the entity will not discriminate among such individuals on the basis of their health status or requirements for health care services;
(vi) such contract (I) permits individuals who have elected under the plan to enroll with the entity for provision of such benefits to terminate such enrollment in accordance with section 1396u–2(a)(4) of this title, and (II) provides for notification in accordance with such section of each such individual, at the time of the individual’s enrollment, of such right to terminate such enrollment;
(vii) such contract provides that, in the case of medically necessary services which were provided (I) to an individual enrolled with the entity under the contract and entitled to benefits with respect to such services under the State’s plan and (II) other than through the organization because the services were immediately required due to an unforeseen illness, injury, or condition, either the entity or the State provides for reimbursement with respect to those services,3
(viii) such contract provides for disclosure of information in accordance with section 1320a–3 of this title and paragraph (4) of this subsection;
(ix) such contract provides, in the case of an entity that has entered into a contract for the provision of services with a Federally-qualified health center or a rural health clinic, that the entity shall provide payment that is not less than the level and amount of payment which the entity would make for the services if the services were furnished by a provider which is not a Federally-qualified health center or a rural health clinic;
(x) any physician incentive plan that it operates meets the requirements described in section 1395mm(i)(8) of this title;
(xi) such contract provides for maintenance of sufficient patient encounter data to identify the physician who delivers services to patients and for the provision of such data to the State at a frequency and level of detail to be specified by the Secretary;
(xii) such contract, and the entity complies with the applicable requirements of section 1396u–2 of this title; and
(xiii) such contract provides that (I) covered outpatient drugs dispensed to individuals eligible for medical assistance who are enrolled with the entity shall be subject to the same rebate required by the agreement entered into under section 1396r–8 of this title as the State is subject to and that the State shall collect such rebates from manufacturers, (II) capitation rates paid to the entity shall be based on actual cost experience related to rebates and subject to the Federal regulations requiring actuarially sound rates, and (III) the entity shall report to the State, on such timely and periodic basis as specified by the Secretary in order to include in the information submitted by the State to a manufacturer and the Secretary under section 1396r–8(b)(2)(A) of this title, information on the total number of units of each dosage form and strength and package size by National Drug Code of each covered outpatient drug dispensed to individuals eligible for medical assistance who are enrolled with the entity and for which the entity is responsible for coverage of such drug under this subsection (other than covered outpatient drugs that under subsection (j)(1) of section 1396r–8 of this title are not subject to the requirements of that section) and such other data as the Secretary determines necessary to carry out this subsection.
(B) Subparagraph (A) 8
8 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.
except with respect to clause (ix) of subparagraph (A), does not apply with respect to payments under this subchapter to a State with respect to expenditures incurred by it for payment for services provided by an entity which—
(i)(I) received a grant of at least $100,000 in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1976, under section 254b(d)(1)(A) or 254c(d)(1) of this title,4 and for the period beginning July 1, 1976, and ending on the expiration of the period for which payments are to be made under this subchapter has been the recipient of a grant under either such section; and(II) provides to its enrollees, on a prepaid capitation risk basis or on any other risk basis, all of the services and benefits described in paragraphs (1), (2), (3), (4)(C), and (5) of section 1396d(a) of this title and, to the extent required by section 1396a(a)(10)(D) of this title to be provided under a State plan for medical assistance, the services and benefits described in paragraph (7) of section 1396d(a) of this title; or
(ii) is a nonprofit primary health care entity located in a rural area (as defined by the Appalachian Regional Commission)—(I) which received in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1976, at least $100,000 (by grant, subgrant, or subcontract) under the Appalachian Regional Development Act of 1965,4 and(II) for the period beginning July 1, 1976, and ending on the expiration of the period for which payments are to be made under this subchapter either has been the recipient of a grant, subgrant, or subcontract under such Act or has provided services under a contract (initially entered into during a year in which the entity was the recipient of such a grant, subgrant, or subcontract) with a State agency under this subchapter on a prepaid capitation risk basis or on any other risk basis; or
(iii) which has contracted with the single State agency for the provision of services (but not including inpatient hospital services) to persons eligible under this subchapter on a prepaid risk basis prior to 1970.
(C) to (E) Repealed. Pub. L. 105–33, title IV, § 4703(b)(1)(A), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 495.
(F) Repealed. Pub. L. 105–33, title IV, § 4701(d)(2)(B), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 494.
(G) In the case of an entity which is receiving (and has received during the previous two years) a grant of at least $100,000 under section 254b(d)(1)(A) or 254c(d)(1) of this title 4 or is receiving (and has received during the previous two years) at least $100,000 (by grant, subgrant, or subcontract) under the Appalachian Regional Development Act of 1965,4 clause (i) of subparagraph (A) shall not apply.
(H) In the case of an individual who—
(i) in a month is eligible for benefits under this subchapter and enrolled with a medicaid managed care organization with a contract under this paragraph or with a primary care case manager with a contract described in section 1396d(t)(3) of this title,
(ii) in the next month (or in the next 2 months) is not eligible for such benefits, but
(iii) in the succeeding month is again eligible for such benefits,
the State plan, subject to subparagraph (A)(vi), may enroll the individual for that succeeding month with the organization described in clause (i) if the organization continues to have a contract under this paragraph with the State or with the manager described in such clause if the manager continues to have a contract described in section 1396d(t)(3) of this title with the State.
(3) No payment shall be made under this subchapter to a State with respect to expenditures incurred by the State for payment for services provided by a managed care entity (as defined under section 1396u–2(a)(1) of this title) under the State plan under this subchapter (or under a waiver of the plan) unless the State—
(A) beginning on July 1, 2018, has a contract with such entity that complies with the requirement specified in section 1396u–2(d)(5) of this title; and
(B) beginning on January 1, 2018, complies with the requirement specified in section 1396u–2(d)(6)(A) of this title.
(4)
(A) Each medicaid managed care organization which is not a qualified health maintenance organization (as defined in section 300e–9(d) 4 of this title) must report to the State and, upon request, to the Secretary, the Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services, and the Comptroller General a description of transactions between the organization and a party in interest (as defined in section 300e–17(b) of this title), including the following transactions:
(i) Any sale or exchange, or leasing of any property between the organization and such a party.
(ii) Any furnishing for consideration of goods, services (including management services), or facilities between the organization and such a party, but not including salaries paid to employees for services provided in the normal course of their employment.
(iii) Any lending of money or other extension of credit between the organization and such a party.
The State or Secretary may require that information reported respecting an organization which controls, or is controlled by, or is under common control with, another entity be in the form of a consolidated financial statement for the organization and such entity.
(B) Each organization shall make the information reported pursuant to subparagraph (A) available to its enrollees upon reasonable request.
(5)
(A) If the Secretary determines that an entity with a contract under this subsection—
(i) fails substantially to provide medically necessary items and services that are required (under law or under the contract) to be provided to an individual covered under the contract, if the failure has adversely affected (or has substantial likelihood of adversely affecting) the individual;
(ii) imposes premiums on individuals enrolled under this subsection in excess of the premiums permitted under this subchapter;
(iii) acts to discriminate among individuals in violation of the provision of paragraph (2)(A)(v), including expulsion or refusal to re-enroll an individual or engaging in any practice that would reasonably be expected to have the effect of denying or discouraging enrollment (except as permitted by this subsection) by eligible individuals with the organization whose medical condition or history indicates a need for substantial future medical services;
(iv) misrepresents or falsifies information that is furnished—(I) to the Secretary or the State under this subsection, or(II) to an individual or to any other entity under this subsection,3 or
(v) fails to comply with the requirements of section 1395mm(i)(8) of this title,
the Secretary may provide, in addition to any other remedies available under law, for any of the remedies described in subparagraph (B).
(B) The remedies described in this subparagraph are—
(i) civil money penalties of not more than $25,000 for each determination under subparagraph (A), or, with respect to a determination under clause (iii) or (iv)(I) of such subparagraph, of not more than $100,000 for each such determination, plus, with respect to a determination under subparagraph (A)(ii), double the excess amount charged in violation of such subparagraph (and the excess amount charged shall be deducted from the penalty and returned to the individual concerned), and plus, with respect to a determination under subparagraph (A)(iii), $15,000 for each individual not enrolled as a result of a practice described in such subparagraph, or
(ii) denial of payment to the State for medical assistance furnished under the contract under this subsection for individuals enrolled after the date the Secretary notifies the organization of a determination under subparagraph (A) and until the Secretary is satisfied that the basis for such determination has been corrected and is not likely to recur.
The provisions of section 1320a–7a of this title (other than subsections (a) and (b)) shall apply to a civil money penalty under clause (i) in the same manner as such provisions apply to a penalty or proceeding under section 1320a–7a(a) of this title.
(6)
(A) For purposes of this subsection and section 1396a(e)(2)(A) of this title, in the case of the State of New Jersey, the term “contract” shall be deemed to include an undertaking by the State agency, in the State plan under this subchapter, to operate a program meeting all requirements of this subsection.
(B) The undertaking described in subparagraph (A) must provide—
(i) for the establishment of a separate entity responsible for the operation of a program meeting the requirements of this subsection, which entity may be a subdivision of the State agency administering the State plan under this subchapter;
(ii) for separate accounting for the funds used to operate such program; and
(iii) for setting the capitation rates and any other payment rates for services provided in accordance with this subsection using a methodology satisfactory to the Secretary designed to ensure that total Federal matching payments under this subchapter for such services will be lower than the matching payments that would be made for the same services, if provided under the State plan on a fee for service basis to an actuarially equivalent population.
(C) The undertaking described in subparagraph (A) shall be subject to approval (and annual re-approval) by the Secretary in the same manner as a contract under this subsection.
(D) The undertaking described in subparagraph (A) shall not be eligible for a waiver under section 1396n(b) of this title.
(7) Payment shall be made under this subchapter to a State for expenditures for capitation payments described in section 438.6(e) of title 42, Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulation).
(8)
(A) The State agency administering the State plan under this subchapter may have reasonable access, as determined by the State, to 1 or more prescription drug monitoring program databases administered or accessed by the State to the extent the State agency is permitted to access such databases under State law.
(B) Such State agency may facilitate reasonable access, as determined by the State, to 1 or more prescription drug monitoring program databases administered or accessed by the State, to same extent that the State agency is permitted under State law to access such databases, for—
(i) any provider enrolled under the State plan to provide services to Medicaid beneficiaries; and
(ii) any managed care entity (as defined under section 1396u–2(a)(1)(B) of this title) that has a contract with the State under this subsection or under section 1396d(t)(3) of this title.
(C) Such State agency may share information in such databases, to the same extent that the State agency is permitted under State law to share information in such databases, with—
(i) any provider enrolled under the State plan to provide services to Medicaid beneficiaries; and
(ii) any managed care entity (as defined under section 1396u–2(a)(1)(B) of this title) that has a contract with the State under this subsection or under section 1396d(t)(3) of this title.
(9)
(A) With respect to expenditures described in subparagraph (B) that are incurred by a State for any fiscal year after fiscal year 2020, in determining the pro rata share to which the United States is equitably entitled under subsection (d)(3), the Secretary shall substitute the Federal medical assistance percentage that applies for such fiscal year to the State under section 1396d(b) of this title (without regard to any adjustments to such percentage applicable under such section or any other provision of law) for the percentage that applies to such expenditures under section 1396d(y) of this title.
(B) Expenditures described in this subparagraph, with respect to a fiscal year to which subparagraph (A) applies, are expenditures incurred by a State for payment for medical assistance provided to individuals described in subclause (VIII) of section 1396a(a)(10)(A)(i) of this title by a managed care entity, or other specified entity (as defined in subparagraph (D)(iii)), that are treated as remittances because the State—
(i) has satisfied the requirement of section 438.8 of title 42, Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulation), by electing—(I) in the case of a State described in subparagraph (C), to apply a minimum medical loss ratio (as defined in subparagraph (D)(ii)) that is at least 85 percent but not greater than the minimum medical loss ratio (as so defined) that such State applied as of May 31, 2018; or(II) in the case of a State not described in subparagraph (C), to apply a minimum medical loss ratio that is equal to 85 percent; and
(ii) recovered all or a portion of the expenditures as a result of the entity’s failure to meet such ratio.
(C) For purposes of subparagraph (B), a State described in this subparagraph is a State that as of May 31, 2018, applied a minimum medical loss ratio (as calculated under subsection (d) of section 438.8 of title 42, Code of Federal Regulations (as in effect on June 1, 2018)) for payment for services provided by entities described in such subparagraph under the State plan under this subchapter (or a waiver of the plan) that is equal to or greater than 85 percent.
(D) For purposes of this paragraph:
(i) The term “managed care entity” means a medicaid managed care organization described in section 1396u–2(a)(1)(B)(i) of this title.
(ii) The term “minimum medical loss ratio” means, with respect to a State, a minimum medical loss ratio (as calculated under subsection (d) of section 438.8 of title 42, Code of Federal Regulations (as in effect on June 1, 2018)) for payment for services provided by entities described in subparagraph (B) under the State plan under this subchapter (or a waiver of the plan).
(iii) The term “other specified entity” means—(I) a prepaid inpatient health plan, as defined in section 438.2 of title 42, Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulation); and(II) a prepaid ambulatory health plan, as defined in such section (or any successor regulation).
(n) Repealed. Pub. L. 100–93, § 8(h)(1), Aug. 18, 1987, 101 Stat. 694
(o) Restrictions on authorized payments to States
(p) Assignment of rights of payment; incentive payments for enforcement and collection
(1) When a political subdivision of a State makes, for the State of which it is a political subdivision, or one State makes, for another State, the enforcement and collection of rights of support or payment assigned under section 1396k of this title, pursuant to a cooperative arrangement under such section (either within or outside of such State), there shall be paid to such political subdivision or such other State from amounts which would otherwise represent the Federal share of payments for medical assistance provided to the eligible individuals on whose behalf such enforcement and collection was made, an amount equal to 15 percent of any amount collected which is attributable to such rights of support or payment.
(2) Where more than one jurisdiction is involved in such enforcement or collection, the amount of the incentive payment determined under paragraph (1) shall be allocated among the jurisdictions in a manner to be prescribed by the Secretary.
(q) “State medicaid fraud control unit” definedFor the purposes of this section, the term “State medicaid fraud control unit” means a single identifiable entity of the State government which the Secretary certifies (and annually recertifies) as meeting the following requirements:
(1) The entity (A) is a unit of the office of the State Attorney General or of another department of State government which possesses statewide authority to prosecute individuals for criminal violations, (B) is in a State the constitution of which does not provide for the criminal prosecution of individuals by a statewide authority and has formal procedures, approved by the Secretary, that (i) assure its referral of suspected criminal violations relating to the program under this subchapter to the appropriate authority or authorities in the State for prosecution and (ii) assure its assistance of, and coordination with, such authority or authorities in such prosecutions, or (C) has a formal working relationship with the office of the State Attorney General and has formal procedures (including procedures for its referral of suspected criminal violations to such office) which are approved by the Secretary and which provide effective coordination of activities between the entity and such office with respect to the detection, investigation, and prosecution of suspected criminal violations relating to the program under this subchapter.
(2) The entity is separate and distinct from the single State agency that administers or supervises the administration of the State plan under this subchapter.
(3) The entity’s function is conducting a statewide program for the investigation and prosecution of violations of all applicable State laws regarding any and all aspects of fraud in connection with (A) any aspect of the provision of medical assistance and the activities of providers of such assistance under the State plan under this subchapter; and (B) upon the approval of the Inspector General of the relevant Federal agency, any aspect of the provision of health care services and activities of providers of such services under any Federal health care program (as defined in section 1320a–7b(f)(1) of this title), if the suspected fraud or violation of law in such case or investigation is primarily related to the State plan under this subchapter.
(4)
(A) The entity has—
(i) procedures for reviewing complaints of abuse or neglect of patients in health care facilities which receive payments under the State plan under this subchapter;
(ii) at the option of the entity, procedures for reviewing complaints of abuse or neglect of patients residing in board and care facilities and of patients (who are receiving medical assistance under the State plan under this subchapter (or waiver of such plan)) in a noninstitutional or other setting; and
(iii) procedures for acting upon such complaints under the criminal laws of the State or for referring such complaints to other State agencies for action.
(B) For purposes of this paragraph, the term “board and care facility” means a residential setting which receives payment (regardless of whether such payment is made under the State plan under this subchapter) from or on behalf of two or more unrelated adults who reside in such facility, and for whom one or both of the following is provided:
(i) Nursing care services provided by, or under the supervision of, a registered nurse, licensed practical nurse, or licensed nursing assistant.
(ii) A substantial amount of personal care services that assist residents with the activities of daily living, including personal hygiene, dressing, bathing, eating, toileting, ambulation, transfer, positioning, self-medication, body care, travel to medical services, essential shopping, meal preparation, laundry, and housework.
(5) The entity provides for the collection, or referral for collection to a single State agency, of overpayments that are made under the State plan or under any Federal health care program (as so defined) to health care facilities and that are discovered by the entity in carrying out its activities. All funds collected in accordance with this paragraph shall be credited exclusively to, and available for expenditure under, the Federal health care program (including the State plan under this subchapter) that was subject to the activity that was the basis for the collection.
(6) The entity employs such auditors, attorneys, investigators, and other necessary personnel and is organized in such a manner as is necessary to promote the effective and efficient conduct of the entity’s activities.
(7) The entity submits to the Secretary an application and annual reports containing such information as the Secretary determines, by regulation, to be necessary to determine whether the entity meets the other requirements of this subsection.
(r) Mechanized claims processing and information retrieval systems; operational, etc., requirements
(1) In order to receive payments under subsection (a) for use of automated data systems in administration of the State plan under this subchapter, a State must, in addition to meeting the requirements of paragraph (3), have in operation mechanized claims processing and information retrieval systems that meet the requirements of this subsection and that the Secretary has found—
(A) are adequate to provide efficient, economical, and effective administration of such State plan;
(B) are compatible with the claims processing and information retrieval systems used in the administration of subchapter XVIII, and for this purpose—
(i) have a uniform identification coding system for providers, other payees, and beneficiaries under this subchapter or subchapter XVIII;
(ii) provide liaison between States and carriers and intermediaries with agreements under subchapter XVIII to facilitate timely exchange of appropriate data;
(iii) provide for exchange of data between the States and the Secretary with respect to persons sanctioned under this subchapter or subchapter XVIII; and
(iv) effective for claims filed on or after October 1, 2010, incorporate compatible methodologies of the National Correct Coding Initiative administered by the Secretary (or any successor initiative to promote correct coding and to control improper coding leading to inappropriate payment) and such other methodologies of that Initiative (or such other national correct coding methodologies) as the Secretary identifies in accordance with paragraph (4);
(C) are capable of providing accurate and timely data;
(D) are complying with the applicable provisions of part C of subchapter XI;
(E) are designed to receive provider claims in standard formats to the extent specified by the Secretary; and
(F) effective for claims filed on or after January 1, 1999, provide for electronic transmission of claims data in the format specified by the Secretary and consistent with the Medicaid Statistical Information System (MSIS) (including detailed individual enrollee encounter data and other information that the Secretary may find necessary and including, for data submitted to the Secretary on or after January 1, 2010, data elements from the automated data system that the Secretary determines to be necessary for program integrity, program oversight, and administration, at such frequency as the Secretary shall determine).
(2) In order to meet the requirements of this paragraph, mechanized claims processing and information retrieval systems must meet the following requirements:
(A) The systems must be capable of developing provider, physician, and patient profiles which are sufficient to provide specific information as to the use of covered types of services and items, including prescribed drugs.
(B) The State must provide that information on probable fraud or abuse which is obtained from, or developed by, the systems, is made available to the State’s medicaid fraud control unit (if any) certified under subsection (q) of this section.
(C) The systems must meet all performance standards and other requirements for initial approval developed by the Secretary.
(3) In order to meet the requirements of this paragraph, a State must have in operation an eligibility determination system which provides for data matching through the Public Assistance Reporting Information System (PARIS) facilitated by the Secretary (or any successor system), including matching with medical assistance programs operated by other States.
(4) For purposes of paragraph (1)(B)(iv), the Secretary shall do the following:
(A) Not later than September 1, 2010:
(i) Identify those methodologies of the National Correct Coding Initiative administered by the Secretary (or any successor initiative to promote correct coding and to control improper coding leading to inappropriate payment) which are compatible to claims filed under this subchapter.
(ii) Identify those methodologies of such Initiative (or such other national correct coding methodologies) that should be incorporated into claims filed under this subchapter with respect to items or services for which States provide medical assistance under this subchapter and no national correct coding methodologies have been established under such Initiative with respect to subchapter XVIII.
(iii) Notify States of—(I) the methodologies identified under subparagraphs (A) and (B) (and of any other national correct coding methodologies identified under subparagraph (B)); and(II) how States are to incorporate such methodologies into claims filed under this subchapter.
(B) Not later than March 1, 2011, submit a report to Congress that includes the notice to States under clause (iii) of subparagraph (A) and an analysis supporting the identification of the methodologies made under clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (A).
(s) Limitations on certain physician referrals
(t) Payments to encourage adoption and use of certified EHR technology
(1) For purposes of subsection (a)(3)(F), the payments described in this paragraph to encourage the adoption and use of certified EHR technology are payments made by the State in accordance with this subsection—
(A) to Medicaid providers described in paragraph (2)(A) not in excess of 85 percent of net average allowable costs (as defined in paragraph (3)(E)) for certified EHR technology (and support services including maintenance and training that is for, or is necessary for the adoption and operation of, such technology) with respect to such providers; and
(B) to Medicaid providers described in paragraph (2)(B) not in excess of the maximum amount permitted under paragraph (5) for the provider involved.
(2) In this subsection and subsection (a)(3)(F), the term “Medicaid provider” means—
(A) an eligible professional (as defined in paragraph (3)(B))—
(i) who is not hospital-based and has at least 30 percent of the professional’s patient volume (as estimated in accordance with a methodology established by the Secretary) attributable to individuals who are receiving medical assistance under this subchapter;
(ii) who is not described in clause (i), who is a pediatrician, who is not hospital-based, and who has at least 20 percent of the professional’s patient volume (as estimated in accordance with a methodology established by the Secretary) attributable to individuals who are receiving medical assistance under this subchapter; and
(iii) who practices predominantly in a Federally qualified health center or rural health clinic and has at least 30 percent of the professional’s patient volume (as estimated in accordance with a methodology established by the Secretary) attributable to needy individuals (as defined in paragraph (3)(F)); and
(B)
(i) a children’s hospital, or
(ii) an acute-care hospital that is not described in clause (i) and that has at least 10 percent of the hospital’s patient volume (as estimated in accordance with a methodology established by the Secretary) attributable to individuals who are receiving medical assistance under this subchapter.
An eligible professional shall not qualify as a Medicaid provider under this subsection unless any right to payment under sections 1395w–4(o) and 1395w–23(l) of this title with respect to the eligible professional has been waived in a manner specified by the Secretary. For purposes of calculating patient volume under subparagraph (A)(iii), insofar as it is related to uncompensated care, the Secretary may require the adjustment of such uncompensated care data so that it would be an appropriate proxy for charity care, including a downward adjustment to eliminate bad debt data from uncompensated care. In applying subparagraphs (A) and (B)(ii), the methodology established by the Secretary for patient volume shall include individuals enrolled in a Medicaid managed care plan (under subsection (m) or section 1396u–2 of this title).
(3) In this subsection and subsection (a)(3)(F):
(A) The term “certified EHR technology” means a qualified electronic health record (as defined in 9
9 So in original. The word “section” probably should appear.
300jj(13) of this title) that is certified pursuant to section 300jj–11(c)(5) of this title as meeting standards adopted under section 300jj–14 of this title that are applicable to the type of record involved (as determined by the Secretary, such as an ambulatory electronic health record for office-based physicians or an inpatient hospital electronic health record for hospitals).
(B) The term “eligible professional” means a—
(i) physician;
(ii) dentist;
(iii) certified nurse mid-wife;
(iv) nurse practitioner; and
(v) physician assistant insofar as the assistant is practicing in a rural health clinic that is led by a physician assistant or is practicing in a Federally qualified health center that is so led.
(C) The term “average allowable costs” means, with respect to certified EHR technology of Medicaid providers described in paragraph (2)(A) for—
(i) the first year of payment with respect to such a provider, the average costs for the purchase and initial implementation or upgrade of such technology (and support services including training that is for, or is necessary for the adoption and initial operation of, such technology) for such providers, as determined by the Secretary based upon studies conducted under paragraph (4)(C); and
(ii) a subsequent year of payment with respect to such a provider, the average costs not described in clause (i) relating to the operation, maintenance, and use of such technology for such providers, as determined by the Secretary based upon studies conducted under paragraph (4)(C).
(D) The term “hospital-based” means, with respect to an eligible professional, a professional (such as a pathologist, anesthesiologist, or emergency physician) who furnishes substantially all of the individual’s professional services in a hospital inpatient or emergency room setting and through the use of the facilities and equipment, including qualified electronic health records, of the hospital. The determination of whether an eligible professional is a hospital-based eligible professional shall be made on the basis of the site of service (as defined by the Secretary) and without regard to any employment or billing arrangement between the eligible professional and any other provider.
(E) The term “net average allowable costs” means, with respect to a Medicaid provider described in paragraph (2)(A), average allowable costs reduced by the average payment the Secretary estimates will be made to such Medicaid providers (determined on a percentage or other basis for such classes or types of providers as the Secretary may specify) from other sources (other than under this subsection, or by the Federal government or a State or local government) that is directly attributable to payment for certified EHR technology or support services described in subparagraph (C).
(F) The term “needy individual” means, with respect to a Medicaid provider, an individual—
(i) who is receiving assistance under this subchapter;
(ii) who is receiving assistance under subchapter XXI;
(iii) who is furnished uncompensated care by the provider; or
(iv) for whom charges are reduced by the provider on a sliding scale basis based on an individual’s ability to pay.
(4)
(A) With respect to a Medicaid provider described in paragraph (2)(A), subject to subparagraph (B), in no case shall—
(i) the net average allowable costs under this subsection for the first year of payment (which may not be later than 2016), which is intended to cover the costs described in paragraph (3)(C)(i), exceed $25,000 (or such lesser amount as the Secretary determines based on studies conducted under subparagraph (C));
(ii) the net average allowable costs under this subsection for a subsequent year of payment, which is intended to cover costs described in paragraph (3)(C)(ii), exceed $10,000; and
(iii) payments be made for costs described in clause (ii) after 2021 or over a period of longer than 5 years.
(B) In the case of Medicaid 10
10 So in original. Probably should be preceded by “a”.
provider described in paragraph (2)(A)(ii), the dollar amounts specified in subparagraph (A) shall be ⅔ of the dollar amounts otherwise specified.
(C) For the purposes of determining average allowable costs under this subsection, the Secretary shall study the average costs to Medicaid providers described in paragraph (2)(A) of purchase and initial implementation and upgrade of certified EHR technology described in paragraph (3)(C)(i) and the average costs to such providers of operations, maintenance, and use of such technology described in paragraph (3)(C)(ii). In determining such costs for such providers, the Secretary may utilize studies of such amounts submitted by States.
(5)
(A) In no case shall the payments described in paragraph (1)(B) with respect to a Medicaid provider described in paragraph (2)(B) exceed—
(i) in the aggregate the product of—(I) the overall hospital EHR amount for the provider computed under subparagraph (B); and(II) the Medicaid share for such provider computed under subparagraph (C);
(ii) in any year 50 percent of the product described in clause (i); and
(iii) in any 2-year period 90 percent of such product.
(B) For purposes of this paragraph, the overall hospital EHR amount, with respect to a Medicaid provider, is the sum of the applicable amounts specified in section 1395ww(n)(2)(A) of this title for such provider for the first 4 payment years (as estimated by the Secretary) determined as if the Medicare share specified in clause (ii) of such section were 1. The Secretary shall establish, in consultation with the State, the overall hospital EHR amount for each such Medicaid provider eligible for payments under paragraph (1)(B). For purposes of this subparagraph in computing the amounts under section 1395ww(n)(2)(C) of this title for payment years after the first payment year, the Secretary shall assume that in subsequent payment years discharges increase at the average annual rate of growth of the most recent 3 years for which discharge data are available per year.
(C) The Medicaid share computed under this subparagraph, for a Medicaid provider for a period specified by the Secretary, shall be calculated in the same manner as the Medicare share under section 1395ww(n)(2)(D) of this title for such a hospital and period, except that there shall be substituted for the numerator under clause (i) of such section the amount that is equal to the number of inpatient-bed-days (as established by the Secretary) which are attributable to individuals who are receiving medical assistance under this subchapter and who are not described in section 1395ww(n)(2)(D)(i) of this title. In computing inpatient-bed-days under the previous sentence, the Secretary shall take into account inpatient-bed-days attributable to inpatient-bed-days that are paid for individuals enrolled in a Medicaid managed care plan (under subsection (m) or section 1396u–2 of this title).
(D) In no case may the payments described in paragraph (1)(B) with respect to a Medicaid provider described in paragraph (2)(B) be paid—
(i) for any year beginning after 2016 unless the provider has been provided payment under paragraph (1)(B) for the previous year; and
(ii) over a period of more than 6 years of payment.
(6) Payments described in paragraph (1) are not in accordance with this subsection unless the following requirements are met:
(A)
(i) The State provides assurances satisfactory to the Secretary that amounts received under subsection (a)(3)(F) with respect to payments to a Medicaid provider are paid, subject to clause (ii), directly to such provider (or to an employer or facility to which such provider has assigned payments) without any deduction or rebate.
(ii) Amounts described in clause (i) may also be paid to an entity promoting the adoption of certified EHR technology, as designated by the State, if participation in such a payment arrangement is voluntary for the eligible professional involved and if such entity does not retain more than 5 percent of such payments for costs not related to certified EHR technology (and support services including maintenance and training) that is for, or is necessary for the operation of, such technology.
(B) A Medicaid provider described in paragraph (2)(A) is responsible for payment of the remaining 15 percent of the net average allowable cost and shall be determined to have met such responsibility to the extent that the payment to the Medicaid provider is not in excess of 85 percent of the net average allowable cost.
(C)
(i) Subject to clause (ii), with respect to payments to a Medicaid provider—(I) for the first year of payment to the Medicaid provider under this subsection, the Medicaid provider demonstrates that it is engaged in efforts to adopt, implement, or upgrade certified EHR technology; and(II) for a year of payment, other than the first year of payment to the Medicaid provider under this subsection, the Medicaid provider demonstrates meaningful use of certified EHR technology through a means that is approved by the State and acceptable to the Secretary, and that may be based upon the methodologies applied under section 1395w–4(o) or 1395ww(n) of this title.
(ii) In the case of a Medicaid provider who has completed adopting, implementing, or upgrading such technology prior to the first year of payment to the Medicaid provider under this subsection, clause (i)(I) shall not apply and clause (i)(II) shall apply to each year of payment to the Medicaid provider under this subsection, including the first year of payment.
(D) To the extent specified by the Secretary, the certified EHR technology is compatible with State or Federal administrative management systems.
For purposes of subparagraph (B), a Medicaid provider described in paragraph (2)(A) may accept payments for the costs described in such subparagraph from a State or local government. For purposes of subparagraph (C), in establishing the means described in such subparagraph, which may include clinical quality reporting to the State, the State shall ensure that populations with unique needs, such as children, are appropriately addressed.
(7) With respect to Medicaid providers described in paragraph (2)(A), the Secretary shall ensure coordination of payment with respect to such providers under sections 1395w–4(o) and 1395w–23(l) of this title and under this subsection to assure no duplication of funding. Such coordination shall include, to the extent practicable, a data matching process between State Medicaid agencies and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services using national provider identifiers. For such purposes, the Secretary may require the submission of such data relating to payments to such Medicaid providers as the Secretary may specify.
(8) In carrying out paragraph (6)(C), the State and Secretary shall seek, to the maximum extent practicable, to avoid duplicative requirements from Federal and State governments to demonstrate meaningful use of certified EHR technology under this subchapter and subchapter XVIII. In doing so, the Secretary may deem satisfaction of requirements for such meaningful use for a payment year under subchapter XVIII to be sufficient to qualify as meaningful use under this subsection. The Secretary may also specify the reporting periods under this subsection in order to carry out this paragraph.
(9) In order to be provided Federal financial participation under subsection (a)(3)(F)(ii), a State must demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Secretary, that the State—
(A) is using the funds provided for the purposes of administering payments under this subsection, including tracking of meaningful use by Medicaid providers;
(B) is conducting adequate oversight of the program under this subsection, including routine tracking of meaningful use attestations and reporting mechanisms; and
(C) is pursuing initiatives to encourage the adoption of certified EHR technology to promote health care quality and the exchange of health care information under this subchapter, subject to applicable laws and regulations governing such exchange.
(10) The Secretary shall periodically submit reports to the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate on status, progress, and oversight of payments described in paragraph (1), including steps taken to carry out paragraph (7). Such reports shall also describe the extent of adoption of certified EHR technology among Medicaid providers resulting from the provisions of this subsection and any improvements in health outcomes, clinical quality, or efficiency resulting from such adoption.
(u) Limitation of Federal financial participation in erroneous medical assistance expenditures
(1)
(A) Notwithstanding subsection (a)(1), if the ratio of a State’s erroneous excess payments for medical assistance (as defined in subparagraph (D)) to its total expenditures for medical assistance under the State plan approved under this subchapter exceeds 0.03, for the period consisting of the third and fourth quarters of fiscal year 1983, or for any full fiscal year thereafter, then the Secretary shall make no payment for such period or fiscal year with respect to so much of such erroneous excess payments as exceeds such allowable error rate of 0.03.
(B) The Secretary may waive, in certain limited cases, all or part of the reduction required under subparagraph (A) with respect to any State if such State is unable to reach the allowable error rate for a period or fiscal year despite a good faith effort by such State.
(C) In estimating the amount to be paid to a State under subsection (d), the Secretary shall take into consideration the limitation on Federal financial participation imposed by subparagraph (A) and shall reduce the estimate he makes under subsection (d)(1), for purposes of payment to the State under subsection (d)(3), in light of any expected erroneous excess payments for medical assistance (estimated in accordance with such criteria, including sampling procedures, as he may prescribe and subject to subsequent adjustment, if necessary, under subsection (d)(2)).
(D)
(i) For purposes of this subsection, the term “erroneous excess payments for medical assistance” means the total of—(I) payments under the State plan with respect to ineligible individuals and families, and(II) overpayments on behalf of eligible individuals and families by reason of error in determining the amount of expenditures for medical care required of an individual or family as a condition of eligibility.
(ii) In determining the amount of erroneous excess payments for medical assistance to an ineligible individual or family under clause (i)(I), if such ineligibility is the result of an error in determining the amount of the resources of such individual or family, the amount of the erroneous excess payment shall be the smaller of (I) the amount of the payment with respect to such individual or family, or (II) the difference between the actual amount of such resources and the allowable resource level established under the State plan.
(iii) In determining the amount of erroneous excess payments for medical assistance to an individual or family under clause (i)(II), the amount of the erroneous excess payment shall be the smaller of (I) the amount of the payment on behalf of the individual or family, or (II) the difference between the actual amount incurred for medical care by the individual or family and the amount which should have been incurred in order to establish eligibility for medical assistance.
(iv) In determining the amount of erroneous excess payments, there shall not be included any error resulting from a failure of an individual to cooperate or give correct information with respect to third-party liability as required under section 1396k(a)(1)(C) or 602(a)(26)(C) 4 of this title or with respect to payments made in violation of section 1396e of this title.
(v) In determining the amount of erroneous excess payments, there shall not be included any erroneous payments made for ambulatory prenatal care provided during a presumptive eligibility period (as defined in section 1396r–1(b)(1) of this title), for items and services described in subsection (a) of section 1396r–1a of this title provided to a child during a presumptive eligibility period under such section, for medical assistance provided to an individual described in subsection (a) of section 1396r–1b of this title during a presumptive eligibility period under such section, or 11
11 So in original. The word “or” probably should not appear.
for medical assistance provided to an individual described in subsection (a) of section 1396r–1c of this title during a presumptive eligibility period under such section, or for medical assistance provided to an individual during a presumptive eligibility period resulting from a determination of presumptive eligibility made by a hospital that elects under section 1396a(a)(47)(B) of this title to be a qualified entity for such purpose.
(E) For purposes of subparagraph (D), there shall be excluded, in determining both erroneous excess payments for medical assistance and total expenditures for medical assistance—
(i) payments with respect to any individual whose eligibility therefor was determined exclusively by the Secretary under an agreement pursuant to section 1383c of this title and such other classes of individuals as the Secretary may by regulation prescribe whose eligibility was determined in part under such an agreement; and
(ii) payments made as the result of a technical error.
(2) The State agency administering the plan approved under this subchapter shall, at such times and in such form as the Secretary may specify, provide information on the rates of erroneous excess payments made (or expected, with respect to future periods specified by the Secretary) in connection with its administration of such plan, together with any other data he requests that are reasonably necessary for him to carry out the provisions of this subsection.
(3)
(A) If a State fails to cooperate with the Secretary in providing information necessary to carry out this subsection, the Secretary, directly or through contractual or such other arrangements as he may find appropriate, shall establish the error rates for that State on the basis of the best data reasonably available to him and in accordance with such techniques for sampling and estimating as he finds appropriate.
(B) In any case in which it is necessary for the Secretary to exercise his authority under subparagraph (A) to determine a State’s error rates for a fiscal year, the amount that would otherwise be payable to such State under this subchapter for quarters in such year shall be reduced by the costs incurred by the Secretary in making (directly or otherwise) such determination.
(4) This subsection shall not apply with respect to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, or American Samoa.
(v) Medical assistance to aliens not lawfully admitted for permanent residence
(1) Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this section, except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (4), no payment may be made to a State under this section for medical assistance furnished to an alien who is not lawfully admitted for permanent residence or otherwise permanently residing in the United States under color of law.
(2) Payment shall be made under this section for care and services that are furnished to an alien described in paragraph (1) only if—
(A) such care and services are necessary for the treatment of an emergency medical condition of the alien,
(B) such alien otherwise meets the eligibility requirements for medical assistance under the State plan approved under this subchapter (other than the requirement of the receipt of aid or assistance under subchapter IV, supplemental security income benefits under subchapter XVI, or a State supplementary payment), and
(C) such care and services are not related to an organ transplant procedure.
(3) For purposes of this subsection, the term “emergency medical condition” means a medical condition (including emergency labor and delivery) manifesting itself by acute symptoms of sufficient severity (including severe pain) such that the absence of immediate medical attention could reasonably be expected to result in—
(A) placing the patient’s health in serious jeopardy,
(B) serious impairment to bodily functions, or
(C) serious dysfunction of any bodily organ or part.
(4)
(A) A State may elect (in a plan amendment under this subchapter) to provide medical assistance under this subchapter, notwithstanding sections 1611(a), 1612(b), 1613, and 1631 of title 8, to children and pregnant women who are lawfully residing in the United States (including battered individuals described in section 1641(c) of title 8) and who are otherwise eligible for such assistance, within either or both of the following eligibility categories:
(i) Pregnant women
(ii) Children
(B) In the case of a State that has elected to provide medical assistance to a category of aliens under subparagraph (A), no debt shall accrue under an affidavit of support against any sponsor of such an alien on the basis of provision of assistance to such category and the cost of such assistance shall not be considered as an unreimbursed cost.
(C) As part of the State’s ongoing eligibility redetermination requirements and procedures for an individual provided medical assistance as a result of an election by the State under subparagraph (A), a State shall verify that the individual continues to lawfully reside in the United States using the documentation presented to the State by the individual on initial enrollment. If the State cannot successfully verify that the individual is lawfully residing in the United States in this manner, it shall require that the individual provide the State with further documentation or other evidence to verify that the individual is lawfully residing in the United States.
(w) Prohibition on use of voluntary contributions, and limitation on use of provider-specific taxes to obtain Federal financial participation under medicaid
(1)
(A) Notwithstanding the previous provisions of this section, for purposes of determining the amount to be paid to a State (as defined in paragraph (7)(D)) under subsection (a)(1) for quarters in any fiscal year, the total amount expended during such fiscal year as medical assistance under the State plan (as determined without regard to this subsection) shall be reduced by the sum of any revenues received by the State (or by a unit of local government in the State) during the fiscal year—
(i) from provider-related donations (as defined in paragraph (2)(A)), other than—(I) bona fide provider-related donations (as defined in paragraph (2)(B)), and(II) donations described in paragraph (2)(C);
(ii) from health care related taxes (as defined in paragraph (3)(A)), other than broad-based health care related taxes (as defined in paragraph (3)(B));
(iii) from a broad-based health care related tax, if there is in effect a hold harmless provision (described in paragraph (4)) with respect to the tax; or
(iv) only with respect to State fiscal years (or portions thereof) occurring on or after January 1, 1992, and before October 1, 1995, from broad-based health care related taxes to the extent the amount of such taxes collected exceeds the limit established under paragraph (5).
(B) Notwithstanding the previous provisions of this section, for purposes of determining the amount to be paid to a State under subsection (a)(7) for all quarters in a Federal fiscal year (beginning with fiscal year 1993), the total amount expended during the fiscal year for administrative expenditures under the State plan (as determined without regard to this subsection) shall be reduced by the sum of any revenues received by the State (or by a unit of local government in the State) during such quarters from donations described in paragraph (2)(C), to the extent the amount of such donations exceeds 10 percent of the amounts expended under the State plan under this subchapter during the fiscal year for purposes described in paragraphs (2), (3), (4), (6), and (7) of subsection (a).
(C)
(i) Except as otherwise provided in clause (ii), subparagraph (A)(i) shall apply to donations received on or after January 1, 1992.
(ii) Subject to the limits described in clause (iii) and subparagraph (E), subparagraph (A)(i) shall not apply to donations received before the effective date specified in subparagraph (F) if such donations are received under programs in effect or as described in State plan amendments or related documents submitted to the Secretary by September 30, 1991, and applicable to State fiscal year 1992, as demonstrated by State plan amendments, written agreements, State budget documentation, or other documentary evidence in existence on that date.
(iii) In applying clause (ii) in the case of donations received in State fiscal year 1993, the maximum amount of such donations to which such clause may be applied may not exceed the total amount of such donations received in the corresponding period in State fiscal year 1992 (or not later than 5 days after the last day of the corresponding period).
(D)
(i) Except as otherwise provided in clause (ii), subparagraphs (A)(ii) and (A)(iii) shall apply to taxes received on or after January 1, 1992.
(ii) Subparagraphs (A)(ii) and (A)(iii) shall not apply to impermissible taxes (as defined in clause (iii)) received before the effective date specified in subparagraph (F) to the extent the taxes (including the tax rate or base) were in effect, or the legislation or regulations imposing such taxes were enacted or adopted, as of November 22, 1991.
(iii) In this subparagraph and subparagraph (E), the term “impermissible tax” means a health care related tax for which a reduction may be made under clause (ii) or (iii) of subparagraph (A).
(E)
(i) In no case may the total amount of donations and taxes permitted under the exception provided in subparagraphs (C)(ii) and (D)(ii) for the portion of State fiscal year 1992 occurring during calendar year 1992 exceed the limit under paragraph (5) minus the total amount of broad-based health care related taxes received in the portion of that fiscal year.
(ii) In no case may the total amount of donations and taxes permitted under the exception provided in subparagraphs (C)(ii) and (D)(ii) for State fiscal year 1993 exceed the limit under paragraph (5) minus the total amount of broad-based health care related taxes received in that fiscal year.
(F) In this paragraph in the case of a State—
(i) except as provided in clause (iii), with a State fiscal year beginning on or before July 1, the effective date is October 1, 1992,
(ii) except as provided in clause (iii), with a State fiscal year that begins after July 1, the effective date is January 1, 1993, or
(iii) with a State legislature which is not scheduled to have a regular legislative session in 1992, with a State legislature which is not scheduled to have a regular legislative session in 1993, or with a provider-specific tax enacted on November 4, 1991, the effective date is July 1, 1993.
(2)
(A) In this subsection (except as provided in paragraph (6)), the term “provider-related donation” means any donation or other voluntary payment (whether in cash or in kind) made (directly or indirectly) to a State or unit of local government by—
(i) a health care provider (as defined in paragraph (7)(B)),
(ii) an entity related to a health care provider (as defined in paragraph (7)(C)), or
(iii) an entity providing goods or services under the State plan for which payment is made to the State under paragraph (2), (3), (4), (6), or (7) of subsection (a).
(B) For purposes of paragraph (1)(A)(i)(I), the term “bona fide provider-related donation” means a provider-related donation that has no direct or indirect relationship (as determined by the Secretary) to payments made under this subchapter to that provider, to providers furnishing the same class of items and services as that provider, or to any related entity, as established by the State to the satisfaction of the Secretary. The Secretary may by regulation specify types of provider-related donations described in the previous sentence that will be considered to be bona fide provider-related donations.
(C) For purposes of paragraph (1)(A)(i)(II), donations described in this subparagraph are funds expended by a hospital, clinic, or similar entity for the direct cost (including costs of training and of preparing and distributing outreach materials) of State or local agency personnel who are stationed at the hospital, clinic, or entity to determine the eligibility of individuals for medical assistance under this subchapter and to provide outreach services to eligible or potentially eligible individuals.
(3)
(A) In this subsection (except as provided in paragraph (6)), the term “health care related tax” means a tax (as defined in paragraph (7)(F)) that—
(i) is related to health care items or services, or to the provision of, the authority to provide, or payment for, such items or services, or
(ii) is not limited to such items or services but provides for treatment of individuals or entities that are providing or paying for such items or services that is different from the treatment provided to other individuals or entities.
In applying clause (i), a tax is considered to relate to health care items or services if at least 85 percent of the burden of such tax falls on health care providers.
(B) In this subsection, the term “broad-based health care related tax” means a health care related tax which is imposed with respect to a class of health care items or services (as described in paragraph (7)(A)) or with respect to providers of such items or services and which, except as provided in subparagraphs (D), (E), and (F)—
(i) is imposed at least with respect to all items or services in the class furnished by all non-Federal, nonpublic providers in the State (or, in the case of a tax imposed by a unit of local government, the area over which the unit has jurisdiction) or is imposed with respect to all non-Federal, nonpublic providers in the class; and
(ii) is imposed uniformly (in accordance with subparagraph (C)).
(C)
(i) Subject to clause (ii), for purposes of subparagraph (B)(ii), a tax is considered to be imposed uniformly if—(I) in the case of a tax consisting of a licensing fee or similar tax on a class of health care items or services (or providers of such items or services), the amount of the tax imposed is the same for every provider providing items or services within the class;(II) in the case of a tax consisting of a licensing fee or similar tax imposed on a class of health care items or services (or providers of such services) on the basis of the number of beds (licensed or otherwise) of the provider, the amount of the tax is the same for each bed of each provider of such items or services in the class;(III) in the case of a tax based on revenues or receipts with respect to a class of items or services (or providers of items or services) the tax is imposed at a uniform rate for all items and services (or providers of such items or services) in the class on all the gross revenues or receipts, or net operating revenues, relating to the provision of all such items or services (or all such providers) in the State (or, in the case of a tax imposed by a unit of local government within the State, in the area over which the unit has jurisdiction); or(IV) in the case of any other tax, the State establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the tax is imposed uniformly.
(ii) Subject to subparagraphs (D) and (E), a tax imposed with respect to a class of health care items and services is not considered to be imposed uniformly if the tax provides for any credits, exclusions, or deductions which have as their purpose or effect the return to providers of all or a portion of the tax paid in a manner that is inconsistent with subclauses (I) and (II) of subparagraph (E)(ii) or provides for a hold harmless provision described in paragraph (4).
(D) A tax imposed with respect to a class of health care items and services is considered to be imposed uniformly—
(i) notwithstanding that the tax is not imposed with respect to items or services (or the providers thereof) for which payment is made under a State plan under this subchapter or subchapter XVIII, or
(ii) in the case of a tax described in subparagraph (C)(i)(III), notwithstanding that the tax provides for exclusion (in whole or in part) of revenues or receipts from a State plan under this subchapter or subchapter XVIII.
(E)
(i) A State may submit an application to the Secretary requesting that the Secretary treat a tax as a broad-based health care related tax, notwithstanding that the tax does not apply to all health care items or services in class (or all providers of such items and services), provides for a credit, deduction, or exclusion, is not applied uniformly, or otherwise does not meet the requirements of subparagraph (B) or (C). Permissible waivers may include exemptions for rural or sole-community providers.
(ii) The Secretary shall approve such an application if the State establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary that—(I) the net impact of the tax and associated expenditures under this subchapter as proposed by the State is generally redistributive in nature, and(II) the amount of the tax is not directly correlated to payments under this subchapter for items or services with respect to which the tax is imposed.
The Secretary shall by regulation specify types of credits, exclusions, and deductions that will be considered to meet the requirements of this subparagraph.
(F) In no case shall a tax not qualify as a broad-based health care related tax under this paragraph because it does not apply to a hospital that is described in section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of such Code and that does not accept payment under the State plan under this subchapter or under subchapter XVIII.
(4) For purposes of paragraph (1)(A)(iii), there is in effect a hold harmless provision with respect to a broad-based health care related tax imposed with respect to a class of items or services if the Secretary determines that any of the following applies:
(A) The State or other unit of government imposing the tax provides (directly or indirectly) for a payment (other than under this subchapter) to taxpayers and the amount of such payment is positively correlated either to the amount of such tax or to the difference between the amount of the tax and the amount of payment under the State plan.
(B) All or any portion of the payment made under this subchapter to the taxpayer varies based only upon the amount of the total tax paid.
(C)
(i) The State or other unit of government imposing the tax provides (directly or indirectly) for any payment, offset, or waiver that guarantees to hold taxpayers harmless for any portion of the costs of the tax.
(ii) For purposes of clause (i), a determination of the existence of an indirect guarantee shall be made under paragraph (3)(i) of section 433.68(f) of title 42, Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on November 1, 2006, except that for portions of fiscal years beginning on or after January 1, 2008, and before October 1, 2011, “5.5 percent” shall be substituted for “6 percent” each place it appears.
The provisions of this paragraph shall not prevent use of the tax to reimburse health care providers in a class for expenditures under this subchapter nor preclude States from relying on such reimbursement to justify or explain the tax in the legislative process.
(5)
(A) For purposes of this subsection, the limit under this subparagraph with respect to a State is an amount equal to 25 percent (or, if greater, the State base percentage, as defined in subparagraph (B)) of the non-Federal share of the total amount expended under the State plan during a State fiscal year (or portion thereof), as it would be determined pursuant to paragraph (1)(A) without regard to paragraph (1)(A)(iv).
(B)
(i) In subparagraph (A), the term “State base percentage” means, with respect to a State, an amount (expressed as a percentage) equal to—(I) the total of the amount of health care related taxes (whether or not broad-based) and the amount of provider-related donations (whether or not bona fide) projected to be collected (in accordance with clause (ii)) during State fiscal year 1992, divided by(II) the non-Federal share of the total amount estimated to be expended under the State plan during such State fiscal year.
(ii) For purposes of clause (i)(I), in the case of a tax that is not in effect throughout State fiscal year 1992 or the rate (or base) of which is increased during such fiscal year, the Secretary shall project the amount to be collected during such fiscal year as if the tax (or increase) were in effect during the entire State fiscal year.
(C)
(i) The total amount of health care related taxes under subparagraph (B)(i)(I) shall be determined by the Secretary based on only those taxes (including the tax rate or base) which were in effect, or for which legislation or regulations imposing such taxes were enacted or adopted, as of November 22, 1991.
(ii) The amount of provider-related donations under subparagraph (B)(i)(I) shall be determined by the Secretary based on programs in effect on September 30, 1991, and applicable to State fiscal year 1992, as demonstrated by State plan amendments, written agreements, State budget documentation, or other documentary evidence in existence on that date.
(iii) The amount of expenditures described in subparagraph (B)(i)(II) shall be determined by the Secretary based on the best data available as of December 12, 1991.
(6)
(A) Notwithstanding the provisions of this subsection, the Secretary may not restrict States’ use of funds where such funds are derived from State or local taxes (or funds appropriated to State university teaching hospitals) transferred from or certified by units of government within a State as the non-Federal share of expenditures under this subchapter, regardless of whether the unit of government is also a health care provider, except as provided in section 1396a(a)(2) of this title, unless the transferred funds are derived by the unit of government from donations or taxes that would not otherwise be recognized as the non-Federal share under this section.
(B) For purposes of this subsection, funds the use of which the Secretary may not restrict under subparagraph (A) shall not be considered to be a provider-related donation or a health care related tax.
(7) For purposes of this subsection:
(A) Each of the following shall be considered a separate class of health care items and services:
(i) Inpatient hospital services.
(ii) Outpatient hospital services.
(iii) Nursing facility services (other than services of intermediate care facilities for the mentally retarded).
(iv) Services of intermediate care facilities for the mentally retarded.
(v) Physicians’ services.
(vi) Home health care services.
(vii) Outpatient prescription drugs.
(viii) Services of managed care organizations (including health maintenance organizations, preferred provider organizations, and such other similar organizations as the Secretary may specify by regulation).
(ix) Such other classification of health care items and services consistent with this subparagraph as the Secretary may establish by regulation.
(B) The term “health care provider” means an individual or person that receives payments for the provision of health care items or services.
(C) An entity is considered to be “related” to a health care provider if the entity—
(i) is an organization, association, corporation or partnership formed by or on behalf of health care providers;
(ii) is a person with an ownership or control interest (as defined in section 1320a–3(a)(3) of this title) in the provider;
(iii) is the employee, spouse, parent, child, or sibling of the provider (or of a person described in clause (ii)); or
(iv) has a similar, close relationship (as defined in regulations) to the provider.
(D) The term “State” means only the 50 States and the District of Columbia but does not include any State whose entire program under this subchapter is operated under a waiver granted under section 1315 of this title.
(E) The “State fiscal year” means, with respect to a specified year, a State fiscal year ending in that specified year.
(F) The term “tax” includes any licensing fee, assessment, or other mandatory payment, but does not include payment of a criminal or civil fine or penalty (other than a fine or penalty imposed in lieu of or instead of a fee, assessment, or other mandatory payment).
(G) The term “unit of local government” means, with respect to a State, a city, county, special purpose district, or other governmental unit in the State.
(x) Satisfactory documentary evidence of citizenship or nationality by individual declaring to be citizen or national of United States
(1) For purposes of section 1396a(a)(46)(B)(i) of this title, the requirement of this subsection is, with respect to an individual declaring to be a citizen or national of the United States, that, subject to paragraph (2), there is presented satisfactory documentary evidence of citizenship or nationality (as defined in paragraph (3)) of the individual.
(2) The requirement of paragraph (1) shall not apply to an individual declaring to be a citizen or national of the United States who is eligible for medical assistance under this subchapter—
(A) and is entitled to or enrolled for benefits under any part of subchapter XVIII;
(B) and is receiving—
(i) disability insurance benefits under section 423 of this title or monthly insurance benefits under section 402 of this title based on such individual’s disability (as defined in section 423(d) of this title); or
(ii) supplemental security income benefits under subchapter XVI;
(C) and with respect to whom—
(i) child welfare services are made available under part B of subchapter IV on the basis of being a child in foster care; or
(ii) adoption or foster care assistance is made available under part E of subchapter IV;
(D) pursuant to the application of section 1396a(e)(4) of this title (and, in the case of an individual who is eligible for medical assistance on such basis, the individual shall be deemed to have provided satisfactory documentary evidence of citizenship or nationality and shall not be required to provide further documentary evidence on any date that occurs during or after the period in which the individual is eligible for medical assistance on such basis); or
(E) on such basis as the Secretary may specify under which satisfactory documentary evidence of citizenship or nationality has been previously presented.
(3)
(A) For purposes of this subsection, the term “satisfactory documentary evidence of citizenship or nationality” means—
(i) any document described in subparagraph (B); or
(ii) a document described in subparagraph (C) and a document described in subparagraph (D).
(B) The following are documents described in this subparagraph:
(i) A United States passport.
(ii) Form N–550 or N–570 (Certificate of Naturalization).
(iii) Form N–560 or N–561 (Certificate of United States Citizenship).
(iv) A valid State-issued driver’s license or other identity document described in section 1324a(b)(1)(D) of title 8, but only if the State issuing the license or such document requires proof of United States citizenship before issuance of such license or document or obtains a social security number from the applicant and verifies before certification that such number is valid and assigned to the applicant who is a citizen.
(v)(I) Except as provided in subclause (II), a document issued by a federally recognized Indian tribe evidencing membership or enrollment in, or affiliation with, such tribe (such as a tribal enrollment card or certificate of degree of Indian blood).(II) With respect to those federally recognized Indian tribes located within States having an international border whose membership includes individuals who are not citizens of the United States, the Secretary shall, after consulting with such tribes, issue regulations authorizing the presentation of such other forms of documentation (including tribal documentation, if appropriate) that the Secretary determines to be satisfactory documentary evidence of citizenship or nationality for purposes of satisfying the requirement of this subsection.
(vi) Such other document as the Secretary may specify, by regulation, that provides proof of United States citizenship or nationality and that provides a reliable means of documentation of personal identity.
(C) The following are documents described in this subparagraph:
(i) A certificate of birth in the United States.
(ii) Form FS–545 or Form DS–1350 (Certification of Birth Abroad).
(iii) Form I–197 (United States Citizen Identification Card).
(iv) Form FS–240 (Report of Birth Abroad of a Citizen of the United States).
(v) Such other document (not described in subparagraph (B)(iv)) as the Secretary may specify that provides proof of United States citizenship or nationality.
(D) The following are documents described in this subparagraph:
(i) Any identity document described in section 1324a(b)(1)(D) of title 8.
(ii) Any other documentation of personal identity of such other type as the Secretary finds, by regulation, provides a reliable means of identification.
(E) A reference in this paragraph to a form includes a reference to any successor form.
(4) In the case of an individual declaring to be a citizen or national of the United States with respect to whom a State requires the presentation of satisfactory documentary evidence of citizenship or nationality under section 1396a(a)(46)(B)(i) of this title, the individual shall be provided at least the reasonable opportunity to present satisfactory documentary evidence of citizenship or nationality under this subsection as is provided under clauses (i) and (ii) of section 1320b–7(d)(4)(A) of this title to an individual for the submittal to the State of evidence indicating a satisfactory immigration status.
(5) Nothing in subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 1396a(a)(46) of this title, the preceding paragraphs of this subsection, or the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005, including section 6036 of such Act, shall be construed as changing the requirement of section 1396a(e)(4) of this title that a child born in the United States to an alien mother for whom medical assistance for the delivery of such child is available as treatment of an emergency medical condition pursuant to subsection (v) shall be deemed eligible for medical assistance during the first year of such child’s life.
(y) Payments for establishment of alternate non-emergency services providers
(1) Payments
(2) Limitation
(3) PreferenceIn providing for payments to States under this subsection, the Secretary shall provide preference to States that establish, or provide for, alternate non-emergency services providers or networks of such providers that—
(A) serve rural or underserved areas where beneficiaries under this subchapter may not have regular access to providers of primary care services; or
(B) are in partnership with local community hospitals.
(4) Form and manner of payment
(z) Medicaid transformation payments
(1) In general
(2) Permissible uses of fundsThe following are examples of innovative methods for which funds provided under this subsection may be used:
(A) Methods for reducing patient error rates through the implementation and use of electronic health records, electronic clinical decision support tools, or e-prescribing programs.
(B) Methods for improving rates of collection from estates of amounts owed under this subchapter.
(C) Methods for reducing waste, fraud, and abuse under the program under this subchapter, such as reducing improper payment rates as measured by annual payment error rate measurement (PERM) project rates.
(D) Implementation of a medication risk management program as part of a drug use review program under section 1396r–8(g) of this title.
(E) Methods in reducing, in clinically appropriate ways, expenditures under this subchapter for covered outpatient drugs, particularly in the categories of greatest drug utilization, by increasing the utilization of generic drugs through the use of education programs and other incentives to promote greater use of generic drugs.
(F) Methods for improving access to primary and specialty physician care for the uninsured using integrated university-based hospital and clinic systems.
(3) Application; terms and conditions
(A) In general
(B) Terms and conditions
(C) Annual reportPayment to a State under this subsection is conditioned on the State submitting to the Secretary an annual report on the programs supported by such payment. Such report shall include information on—
(i) the specific uses of such payment;
(ii) an assessment of quality improvements and clinical outcomes under such programs; and
(iii) estimates of cost savings resulting from such programs.
(4) Funding
(A) Limitation on fundsThe total amount of payments under this subsection shall be equal to, and shall not exceed—
(i) $75,000,000 for fiscal year 2007; and
(ii) $75,000,000 for fiscal year 2008.
This subsection constitutes budget authority in advance of appropriations Acts and represents the obligation of the Secretary to provide for the payment of amounts provided under this subsection.
(B) Allocation of funds
(C) Form and manner of payment
(5) Medication risk management program
(A) In general
(B) ElementsSuch program may include the following elements:
(i) The use of established principles and standards for drug utilization review and best practices to analyze prescription drug claims of targeted beneficiaries and identify outlier physicians.
(ii) On an ongoing basis provide outlier physicians—(I) a comprehensive pharmacy claims history for each targeted beneficiary under their care;(II) information regarding the frequency and cost of relapses and hospitalizations of targeted beneficiaries under the physician’s care; and(III) applicable best practice guidelines and empirical references.
(iii) Monitor outlier physician’s prescribing, such as failure to refill, dosage strengths, and provide incentives and information to encourage the adoption of best clinical practices.
(C) Targeted beneficiaries
(aa) Demonstration project to increase substance use provider capacity
(1) In generalNot later than the date that is 180 days after October 24, 2018, the Secretary shall, in consultation, as appropriate, with the Director of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the Assistant Secretary for Mental Health and Substance Use, conduct a 54-month demonstration project for the purpose described in paragraph (2) under which the Secretary shall—
(A) for the first 18-month period of such project, award planning grants described in paragraph (3); and
(B) for the remaining 36-month period of such project, provide to each State selected under paragraph (4) payments in accordance with paragraph (5).
(2) PurposeThe purpose described in this paragraph is for each State selected under paragraph (4) to increase the treatment capacity of providers participating under the State plan (or a waiver of such plan) to provide substance use disorder treatment or recovery services under such plan (or waiver) through the following activities:
(A) For the purpose described in paragraph (3)(C)(i), activities that support an ongoing assessment of the behavioral health treatment needs of the State, taking into account the matters described in subclauses (I) through (IV) of such paragraph.
(B) Activities that, taking into account the results of the assessment described in subparagraph (A), support the recruitment, training, and provision of technical assistance for providers participating under the State plan (or a waiver of such plan) that offer substance use disorder treatment or recovery services.
(C) Improved reimbursement for and expansion of, through the provision of education, training, and technical assistance, the number or treatment capacity of providers participating under the State plan (or waiver) that—
(i) are authorized to dispense drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration for individuals with a substance use disorder who need withdrawal management or maintenance treatment for such disorder; and
(ii) are qualified under applicable State law to provide substance use disorder treatment or recovery services.
(D) Improved reimbursement for and expansion of, through the provision of education, training, and technical assistance, the number or treatment capacity of providers participating under the State plan (or waiver) that have the qualifications to address the treatment or recovery needs of—
(i) individuals enrolled under the State plan (or a waiver of such plan) who have neonatal abstinence syndrome, in accordance with guidelines issued by the American Academy of Pediatrics and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists relating to maternal care and infant care with respect to neonatal abstinence syndrome;
(ii) pregnant women, postpartum women, and infants, particularly the concurrent treatment, as appropriate, and comprehensive case management of pregnant women, postpartum women and infants, enrolled under the State plan (or a waiver of such plan);
(iii) adolescents and young adults between the ages of 12 and 21 enrolled under the State plan (or a waiver of such plan); or
(iv) American Indian and Alaska Native individuals enrolled under the State plan (or a waiver of such plan).
(3) Planning grants
(A) In general
(B) SelectionIn selecting States for purposes of this paragraph, the Secretary shall—
(i) select States that have a State plan (or waiver of the State plan) approved under this subchapter;
(ii) select States in a manner that ensures geographic diversity; and
(iii) give preference to States with a prevalence of substance use disorders (in particular opioid use disorders) that is comparable to or higher than the national average prevalence, as measured by aggregate per capita drug overdoses, or any other measure that the Secretary deems appropriate.
(C) Activities describedActivities described in this subparagraph are, with respect to a State, each of the following:
(i) Activities that support the development of an initial assessment of the behavioral health treatment needs of the State to determine the extent to which providers are needed (including the types of such providers and geographic area of need) to improve the network of providers that treat substance use disorders under the State plan (or waiver), including the following:(I) An estimate of the number of individuals enrolled under the State plan (or a waiver of such plan) who have a substance use disorder.(II) Information on the capacity of providers to provide substance use disorder treatment or recovery services to individuals enrolled under the State plan (or waiver), including information on providers who provide such services and their participation under the State plan (or waiver).(III) Information on the gap in substance use disorder treatment or recovery services under the State plan (or waiver) based on the information described in subclauses (I) and (II).(IV) Projections regarding the extent to which the State participating under the demonstration project would increase the number of providers offering substance use disorder treatment or recovery services under the State plan (or waiver) during the period of the demonstration project.
(ii) Activities that, taking into account the results of the assessment described in clause (i), support the development of State infrastructure to, with respect to the provision of substance use disorder treatment or recovery services under the State plan (or a waiver of such plan), recruit prospective providers and provide training and technical assistance to such providers.
(D) Funding
(4) Post-planning states
(A) In general
(B) SelectionIn selecting States for purposes of this paragraph, the Secretary shall—
(i) select States that received a planning grant under paragraph (3);
(ii) select States that submit to the Secretary an application in accordance with the requirements in subparagraph (C), taking into consideration the quality of each such application;
(iii) select States in a manner that ensures geographic diversity; and
(iv) give preference to States with a prevalence of substance use disorders (in particular opioid use disorders) that is comparable to or higher than the national average prevalence, as measured by aggregate per capita drug overdoses, or any other measure that the Secretary deems appropriate.
(C) Applications
(i) In generalA State seeking to be selected for purposes of this paragraph shall submit to the Secretary, at such time and in such form and manner as the Secretary requires, an application that includes such information, provisions, and assurances, as the Secretary may require, in addition to the following:(I) A proposed process for carrying out the ongoing assessment described in paragraph (2)(A), taking into account the results of the initial assessment described in paragraph (3)(C)(i).(II) A review of reimbursement methodologies and other policies related to substance use disorder treatment or recovery services under the State plan (or waiver) that may create barriers to increasing the number of providers delivering such services.(III) The development of a plan, taking into account activities carried out under paragraph (3)(C)(ii), that will result in long-term and sustainable provider networks under the State plan (or waiver) that will offer a continuum of care for substance use disorders. Such plan shall include the following:(aa) Specific activities to increase the number of providers (including providers that specialize in providing substance use disorder treatment or recovery services, hospitals, health care systems, Federally qualified health centers, and, as applicable, certified community behavioral health clinics) that offer substance use disorder treatment, recovery, or support services, including short-term detoxification services, outpatient substance use disorder services, and evidence-based peer recovery services.(bb) Strategies that will incentivize providers described in subparagraphs (C) and (D) of paragraph (2) to obtain the necessary training, education, and support to deliver substance use disorder treatment or recovery services in the State.(cc) Milestones and timeliness for implementing activities set forth in the plan.(dd) Specific measurable targets for increasing the substance use disorder treatment and recovery provider network under the State plan (or a waiver of such plan).(IV) A proposed process for reporting the information required under paragraph (6)(A), including information to assess the effectiveness of the efforts of the State to expand the capacity of providers to deliver substance use disorder treatment or recovery services during the period of the demonstration project under this subsection.(V) The expected financial impact of the demonstration project under this subsection on the State.(VI) A description of all funding sources available to the State to provide substance use disorder treatment or recovery services in the State.(VII) A preliminary plan for how the State will sustain any increase in the capacity of providers to deliver substance use disorder treatment or recovery services resulting from the demonstration project under this subsection after the termination of such demonstration project.(VIII) A description of how the State will coordinate the goals of the demonstration project with any waiver granted (or submitted by the State and pending) pursuant to section 1315 of this title for the delivery of substance use services under the State plan, as applicable.
(ii) Consultation
(5) Payment
(A) In general
(B) Qualified sums defined
(C) Non-duplication of payment
(6) Reports
(A) State reportsA State receiving payments under paragraph (5) shall, for the period of the demonstration project under this subsection, submit to the Secretary a quarterly report, with respect to expenditures for substance use disorder treatment or recovery services for which payment is made to the State under this subsection, on the following:
(i) The specific activities with respect to which payment under this subsection was provided.
(ii) The number of providers that delivered substance use disorder treatment or recovery services in the State under the demonstration project compared to the estimated number of providers that would have otherwise delivered such services in the absence of such demonstration project.
(iii) The number of individuals enrolled under the State plan (or a waiver of such plan) who received substance use disorder treatment or recovery services under the demonstration project compared to the estimated number of such individuals who would have otherwise received such services in the absence of such demonstration project.
(iv) Other matters as determined by the Secretary.
(B) CMS reports
(i) Initial reportNot later than October 1, 2020, the Administrator of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services shall, in consultation with the Director of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the Assistant Secretary for Mental Health and Substance Use, submit to Congress an initial report on—(I) the States awarded planning grants under paragraph (3);(II) the criteria used in such selection; and(III) the activities carried out by such States under such planning grants.
(ii) Interim reportNot later than October 1, 2022, the Administrator of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services shall, in consultation with the Director of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the Assistant Secretary for Mental Health and Substance Use, submit to Congress an interim report—(I) on activities carried out under the demonstration project under this subsection;(II) on the extent to which States selected under paragraph (4) have achieved the stated goals submitted in their applications under subparagraph (C) of such paragraph;(III) with a description of the strengths and limitations of such demonstration project; and(IV) with a plan for the sustainability of such project.
(iii) Final reportNot later than October 1, 2024, the Administrator of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services shall, in consultation with the Director of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the Assistant Secretary for Mental Health and Substance Use, submit to Congress a final report—(I) providing updates on the matters reported in the interim report under clause (ii);(II) including a description of any changes made with respect to the demonstration project under this subsection after the submission of such interim report; and(III) evaluating such demonstration project.
(C) AHRQ report
(7) Data sharing and best practices
(8) CMS funding
(bb) Supplemental payment reporting requirements
(1) Collection and availability of supplemental payment data
(A) In general
(B) RequirementsEach report submitted by a State in accordance with the requirement established under subparagraph (A) shall include the following:
(i) An explanation of how supplemental payments made under the State plan or a State plan amendment will result in payments that are consistent with section 1396a(a)(30)(A) of this title, including standards with respect to efficiency, economy, quality of care, and access, along with the stated purpose and intended effects of the supplemental payment.
(ii) The criteria used to determine which providers are eligible to receive the supplemental payment.
(iii) A comprehensive description of the methodology used to calculate the amount of, and distribute, the supplemental payment to each eligible provider, including—(I) data on the amount of the supplemental payment made to each eligible provider, if known, or, if the total amount is distributed using a formula based on data from 1 or more fiscal years, data on the total amount of the supplemental payments for the fiscal year or years available to all providers eligible to receive a supplemental payment;(II) if applicable, the specific criteria with respect to Medicaid service, utilization, or cost data to be used as the basis for calculations regarding the amount or distribution of the supplemental payment; and(III) the timing of the supplemental payment made to each eligible provider.
(iv) An assurance that the total Medicaid payments made to an inpatient hospital provider, including the supplemental payment, will not exceed upper payment limits.
(v) If not already submitted, an upper payment limit demonstration under section 447.272 of title 42, Code of Federal Regulations (as such section is in effect as of December 27, 2020).
(C) Public availability
(2) Supplemental payment defined
(A) In general
(B) DSH payments excluded
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XIX, § 1903, as added Pub. L. 89–97, title I, § 121(a), July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 349; amended Pub. L. 90–248, title II, §§ 220(a), 222(c), (d), 225(a), 229(c), 241(f)(5), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 898, 901, 902, 904, 917; Pub. L. 90–364, title III, § 303(a)(1), June 28, 1968, 82 Stat. 274; Pub. L. 91–56, § 2(a), Aug. 9, 1969, 83 Stat. 99; Pub. L. 92–603, title II, §§ 207(a), 221(c)(6), 224(c), 225, 226(e), 229(c), 230, 233(c), 235(a), 237(a)(1), 249B, 278(b)(1), (5), (7), (16), 290, 295, 299E(a), Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1379, 1389, 1395, 1396, 1404, 1410, 1411, 1414, 1415, 1428, 1453, 1454, 1457, 1459, 1462; Pub. L. 93–66, title II, § 234(a), July 9, 1973, 87 Stat. 160; Pub. L. 93–233, §§ 13(a)(11), (12), 18(r)–(v), (x)(5), (6), (y)(1), Dec. 31, 1973, 87 Stat. 963, 971–973; Pub. L. 94–182, title I, §§ 110(a), 111(b), Dec. 31, 1975, 89 Stat. 1054; Pub. L. 94–460, title II, § 202(a), Oct. 8, 1976, 90 Stat. 1957; Pub. L. 94–552, § 1, Oct. 18, 1976, 90 Stat. 2540; Pub. L. 95–83, title I, § 105(a)(1), (2), Aug. 1, 1977, 91 Stat. 384; Pub. L. 95–142, §§ 3(c)(2), 8(c), 10(a), 11(a), 17(a)–(c), 20(a), Oct. 25, 1977, 91 Stat. 1179, 1195, 1196, 1201, 1205; Pub. L. 95–559, § 14(c), Nov. 1, 1978, 92 Stat. 2141; Pub. L. 95–626, title I, § 102(b)(3), Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3551; Pub. L. 96–79, title I, § 128, Oct. 4, 1979, 93 Stat. 629; Pub. L. 96–398, title IX, § 901, Oct. 7, 1980, 94 Stat. 1609; Pub. L. 96–499, title IX, §§ 905(b), (c), 961(a), 963, 964, Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2618, 2650, 2651; Pub. L. 97–35, title XXI, §§ 2101(a)(2), 2103(b)(1), 2106(b)(3), 2113(n), 2161, 2163, 2164(a), 2174(b), 2178(a), 2183(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 786, 788, 792, 795, 803–806, 809, 813, 816; Pub. L. 97–248, title I, §§ 133(a), 137(a)(1), (2), (b)(11)–(16), (27), (g), 146(b), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 373, 376, 378, 379, 381, 394; Pub. L. 97–448, title III, § 309(b)(16), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2409; Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title III, §§ 2303(g)(2), 2363(a)(2), (4), (b), 2364, 2373(b)(11)–(14), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1066, 1106, 1107, 1111, 1112; Pub. L. 98–617, § 3(a)(6), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3295; Pub. L. 99–272, title IX, §§ 9503(b), (f), 9507(a), 9512(a), 9517(a), (c)(1), 9518(a), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 206, 207, 210, 212, 215, 216; Pub. L. 99–509, title IX, §§ 9401(e)(2), 9403(g)(2), 9406(a), 9407(c), 9431(b)(2), 9434(a)(1), (2), (b), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 2052, 2055, 2057, 2060, 2066, 2068, 2069; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, § 1895(c)(2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2935; Pub. L. 99–603, title I, § 121(b)(2), Nov. 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 3390; Pub. L. 100–93, § 8(g), (h)(1), Aug. 18, 1987, 101 Stat. 694; Pub. L. 100–203, title IV, §§ 4112(b), 4113(a)(1), (b)(3), (d)(1), 4118(d)(1), (e)(11), (h)(1), (p)(5), 4211(d)(1), (g), (i), 4212(c)(1), (2), (d)(1), (e)(2), 4213(b)(2), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–149, 1330–150, 1330–152, 1330–155, 1330–159, 1330–204, 1330–205, 1330–207, 1330–212, 1330–213, 1330–219, as amended Pub. L. 100–360, title IV, § 411(a)(3)(A), (B)(iii), (k)(6)(B)(x), (7)(A), (D), (10)(D), (G)(ii), July 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 768, 794, 796; Pub. L. 100–360, title II, § 202(h)(2), title III, §§ 301(f), 302(c)(3), (e)(4), title IV, § 411(k)(12)(A), (13)(A), July 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 718, 750, 752, 753, 797, 798; Pub. L. 100–485, title VI, § 608(d)(26)(K)(ii), (f)(4), Oct. 13, 1988, 102 Stat. 2422, 2424; Pub. L. 101–234, title II, § 201(a), Dec. 13, 1989, 103 Stat. 1981; Pub. L. 101–239, title VI, §§ 6401(b), 6411(d)(2), 6901(b)(5)(A), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2259, 2271, 2299; Pub. L. 101–508, title IV, §§ 4401(a)(1), (b)(1), 4402(b), (d)(3), 4601(a)(3)(A), 4701(b)(2), 4704(b)(1), (2), 4711(c)(2), 4723(a), 4731(a), (b)(2), 4732(a), (b)(2), (c), (d), 4751(b)(1), 4752(a)(2), (b)(1), (e), 4801(a)(8), (e)(16)(A), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–143, 1388–159, 1388–163, 1388–164, 1388–166, 1388–170, 1388–172, 1388–187, 1388–194 to 1388–196, 1388–205 to 1388–207, 1388–212, 1388–218; Pub. L. 102–119, § 26(i)(1), Oct. 7, 1991, 105 Stat. 607; Pub. L. 102–234, §§ 2(a), (b)(2), 3(b)(2)(B), 4(a), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1793, 1799, 1803, 1804; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §§ 13602(b), 13604(a), 13622(a)(2), 13624(a), 13631(c), (h)(1), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 619, 621, 632, 636, 643, 645; Pub. L. 104–193, title I, § 114(d)(2), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2180; Pub. L. 104–248, § 1(b)(1), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3148; Pub. L. 105–12, § 9(b)(1), Apr. 30, 1997, 111 Stat. 26; Pub. L. 105–33, title IV, §§ 4701(b)(1), (2)(A)(v)–(viii), (B), (C), (c), (d)(2), 4702(b)(1), 4703(a), (b)(1), 4705(b), 4706, 4707(b), 4708(a), (d), 4712(b)(2), (c)(2), 4722(a), (b), 4724(a), (b)(1), 4742(a), 4753(a), 4802(b)(2), 4912(b)(2), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 492, 493, 495, 500, 501, 505, 506, 509, 514–516, 523, 525, 549, 573; Pub. L. 105–100, title I, § 162(4), Nov. 19, 1997, 111 Stat. 2189; Pub. L. 106–31, title III, § 3031(a), (b), May 21, 1999, 113 Stat. 103, 104; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, § 1000(a)(6) [title VI, §§ 604(a)(2)(B), (b)(2), 608(e)–(k), (aa)(2)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A–395, 1501A–397, 1501A–398; Pub. L. 106–170, title II, § 201(a)(4), (b), title IV, § 407(a)–(c), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1893, 1913; Pub. L. 106–354, § 2(b)(2)(B), Oct. 24, 2000, 114 Stat. 1383;
§ 1396b–1. Payment adjustment for health care-acquired conditions
(a) In general
(b) Health care-acquired condition
(c) Medicare provisions
(Pub. L. 111–148, title II, § 2702, Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 318.)
§ 1396c. Operation of State plans
If the Secretary, after reasonable notice and opportunity for hearing to the State agency administering or supervising the administration of the State plan approved under this subchapter, finds—
(1) that the plan has been so changed that it no longer complies with the provisions of section 1396a of this title; or
(2) that in the administration of the plan there is a failure to comply substantially with any such provision;
the Secretary shall notify such State agency that further payments will not be made to the State (or, in his discretion, that payments will be limited to categories under or parts of the State plan not affected by such failure), until the Secretary is satisfied that there will no longer be any such failure to comply. Until he is so satisfied he shall make no further payments to such State (or shall limit payments to categories under or parts of the State plan not affected by such failure).
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XIX, § 1904, as added Pub. L. 89–97, title I, § 121(a), July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 351.)
§ 1396d. DefinitionsFor purposes of this subchapter—
(a) Medical assistanceThe term “medical assistance” means payment of part or all of the cost of the following care and services or the care and services themselves, or both (if provided in or after the third month before the month in which the recipient makes application for assistance or, in the case of medicare cost-sharing with respect to a qualified medicare beneficiary described in subsection (p)(1), if provided after the month in which the individual becomes such a beneficiary) for individuals, and, with respect to physicians’ or dentists’ services, at the option of the State, to individuals (other than individuals with respect to whom there is being paid, or who are eligible, or would be eligible if they were not in a medical institution, to have paid with respect to them a State supplementary payment and are eligible for medical assistance equal in amount, duration, and scope to the medical assistance made available to individuals described in section 1396a(a)(10)(A) of this title) not receiving aid or assistance under any plan of the State approved under subchapter I, X, XIV, or XVI, or part A of subchapter IV, and with respect to whom supplemental security income benefits are not being paid under subchapter XVI, who are—
(i) under the age of 21, or, at the option of the State, under the age of 20, 19, or 18 as the State may choose,
(ii) relatives specified in section 606(b)(1) 1
1 See References in Text note below.
of this title with whom a child is living if such child is (or would, if needy, be) a dependent child under part A of subchapter IV,
(iii) 65 years of age or older,
(iv) blind, with respect to States eligible to participate in the State plan program established under subchapter XVI,
(v) 18 years of age or older and permanently and totally disabled, with respect to States eligible to participate in the State plan program established under subchapter XVI,
(vi) persons essential (as described in the second sentence of this subsection) to individuals receiving aid or assistance under State plans approved under subchapter I, X, XIV, or XVI,
(vii) blind or disabled as defined in section 1382c of this title, with respect to States not eligible to participate in the State plan program established under subchapter XVI,
(viii) pregnant women,
(ix) individuals provided extended benefits under section 1396r–6 of this title,
(x) individuals described in section 1396a(u)(1) of this title,
(xi) individuals described in section 1396a(z)(1) of this title,
(xii) employed individuals with a medically improved disability (as defined in subsection (v)),
(xiii) individuals described in section 1396a(aa) of this title,
(xiv) individuals described in section 1396a(a)(10)(A)(i)(VIII) or 1396a(a)(10)(A)(i)(IX) of this title,
(xv) individuals described in section 1396a(a)(10)(A)(ii)(XX) of this title,
(xvi) individuals described in section 1396a(ii) of this title, or
(xvii) individuals who are eligible for home and community-based services under needs-based criteria established under paragraph (1)(A) of section 1396n(i) of this title, or who are eligible for home and community-based services under paragraph (6) of such section, and who will receive home and community-based services pursuant to a State plan amendment under such subsection,
but whose income and resources are insufficient to meet all of such cost—
(1) inpatient hospital services (other than services in an institution for mental diseases);
(2)
(A) outpatient hospital services, (B) consistent with State law permitting such services, rural health clinic services (as defined in subsection (l)(1)) and any other ambulatory services which are offered by a rural health clinic (as defined in subsection (l)(1)) and which are otherwise included in the plan, and (C) Federally-qualified health center services (as defined in subsection (l)(2)) and any other ambulatory services offered by a Federally-qualified health center and which are otherwise included in the plan;
(3)
(A) other laboratory and X-ray services; and
(B) in vitro diagnostic products (as defined in section 809.3(a) of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations) administered during any portion of the emergency period defined in paragraph (1)(B) of section 1320b–5(g) of this title beginning on or after March 18, 2020, for the detection of SARS–CoV–2 or the diagnosis of the virus that causes COVID–19, and the administration of such in vitro diagnostic products;
(4)
(A) nursing facility services (other than services in an institution for mental diseases) for individuals 21 years of age or older; (B) early and periodic screening, diagnostic, and treatment services (as defined in subsection (r)) for individuals who are eligible under the plan and are under the age of 21; (C) family planning services and supplies furnished (directly or under arrangements with others) to individuals of child-bearing age (including minors who can be considered to be sexually active) who are eligible under the State plan and who desire such services and supplies; and 2
2 So in original. The word “and” probably should not appear.
(D) counseling and pharmacotherapy for cessation of tobacco use by pregnant women (as defined in subsection (bb)); and 2 (E) during the period beginning on March 11, 2021, and ending on the last day of the first calendar quarter that begins one year after the last day of the emergency period described in section 1320b–5(g)(1)(B) of this title, a COVID–19 vaccine and administration of the vaccine; and (F) during the period beginning on March 11, 2021, and ending on the last day of the first calendar quarter that begins one year after the last day of the emergency period described in section 1320b–5(g)(1)(B) of this title, testing and treatments for COVID–19, including specialized equipment and therapies (including preventive therapies), and, without regard to the requirements of section 1396a(a)(10)(B) of this title (relating to comparability), in the case of an individual who is diagnosed with or presumed to have COVID–19, during the period such individual has (or is presumed to have) COVID–19, the treatment of a condition that may seriously complicate the treatment of COVID–19, if otherwise covered under the State plan (or waiver of such plan);
(5)
(A) physicians’ services furnished by a physician (as defined in section 1395x(r)(1) of this title), whether furnished in the office, the patient’s home, a hospital, or a nursing facility, or elsewhere, and (B) medical and surgical services furnished by a dentist (described in section 1395x(r)(2) of this title) to the extent such services may be performed under State law either by a doctor of medicine or by a doctor of dental surgery or dental medicine and would be described in clause (A) if furnished by a physician (as defined in section 1395x(r)(1) of this title);
(6) medical care, or any other type of remedial care recognized under State law, furnished by licensed practitioners within the scope of their practice as defined by State law;
(7) home health care services;
(8) private duty nursing services;
(9) clinic services furnished by or under the direction of a physician, without regard to whether the clinic itself is administered by a physician, including such services furnished outside the clinic by clinic personnel to an eligible individual who does not reside in a permanent dwelling or does not have a fixed home or mailing address;
(10) dental services;
(11) physical therapy and related services;
(12) prescribed drugs, dentures, and prosthetic devices; and eyeglasses prescribed by a physician skilled in diseases of the eye or by an optometrist, whichever the individual may select;
(13) other diagnostic, screening, preventive, and rehabilitative services, including—
(A) any clinical preventive services that are assigned a grade of A or B by the United States Preventive Services Task Force;
(B) with respect to an adult individual, approved vaccines recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (an advisory committee established by the Secretary, acting through the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and their administration; and
(C) any medical or remedial services (provided in a facility, a home, or other setting) recommended by a physician or other licensed practitioner of the healing arts within the scope of their practice under State law, for the maximum reduction of physical or mental disability and restoration of an individual to the best possible functional level;
(14) inpatient hospital services and nursing facility services for individuals 65 years of age or over in an institution for mental diseases;
(15) services in an intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded (other than in an institution for mental diseases) for individuals who are determined, in accordance with section 1396a(a)(31) of this title, to be in need of such care;
(16)
(A) effective January 1, 1973, inpatient psychiatric hospital services for individuals under age 21, as defined in subsection (h), and, (B) for individuals receiving services described in subparagraph (A), early and periodic screening, diagnostic, and treatment services (as defined in subsection (r)), whether or not such screening, diagnostic, and treatment services are furnished by the provider of the services described in such subparagraph;
(17) services furnished by a nurse-midwife (as defined in section 1395x(gg) of this title) which the nurse-midwife is legally authorized to perform under State law (or the State regulatory mechanism provided by State law), whether or not the nurse-midwife is under the supervision of, or associated with, a physician or other health care provider, and without regard to whether or not the services are performed in the area of management of the care of mothers and babies throughout the maternity cycle;
(18) hospice care (as defined in subsection (o));
(19) case management services (as defined in section 1396n(g)(2) of this title) and TB-related services described in section 1396a(z)(2)(F) of this title;
(20) respiratory care services (as defined in section 1396a(e)(9)(C) of this title);
(21) services furnished by a certified pediatric nurse practitioner or certified family nurse practitioner (as defined by the Secretary) which the certified pediatric nurse practitioner or certified family nurse practitioner is legally authorized to perform under State law (or the State regulatory mechanism provided by State law), whether or not the certified pediatric nurse practitioner or certified family nurse practitioner is under the supervision of, or associated with, a physician or other health care provider;
(22) home and community care (to the extent allowed and as defined in section 1396t of this title) for functionally disabled elderly individuals;
(23) community supported living arrangements services (to the extent allowed and as defined in section 1396u of this title);
(24) personal care services furnished to an individual who is not an inpatient or resident of a hospital, nursing facility, intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded, or institution for mental disease that are (A) authorized for the individual by a physician in accordance with a plan of treatment or (at the option of the State) otherwise authorized for the individual in accordance with a service plan approved by the State, (B) provided by an individual who is qualified to provide such services and who is not a member of the individual’s family, and (C) furnished in a home or other location;
(25) primary care case management services (as defined in subsection (t));
(26) services furnished under a PACE program under section 1396u–4 of this title to PACE program eligible individuals enrolled under the program under such section;
(27) subject to subsection (x), primary and secondary medical strategies and treatment and services for individuals who have Sickle Cell Disease;
(28) freestanding birth center services (as defined in subsection (l)(3)(A)) and other ambulatory services that are offered by a freestanding birth center (as defined in subsection (l)(3)(B)) and that are otherwise included in the plan;
(29) subject to paragraphs (2) and (3) of subsection (ee), beginning on October 1, 2020, medication-assisted treatment (as defined in paragraph (1) of such subsection);
(30) subject to subsection (gg), routine patient costs for items and services furnished in connection with participation in a qualifying clinical trial (as defined in such subsection);
(31) certified community behavioral health clinic services, as defined in subsection (jj); and
(32) any other medical care, and any other type of remedial care recognized under State law, specified by the Secretary,
except as otherwise provided in paragraph (16), such term does not include—
(A) any such payments with respect to care or services for any individual who is an inmate of a public institution (except as a patient in a medical institution, or in the case of an eligible juvenile described in section 1396a(a)(84)(D) of this title with respect to the screenings, diagnostic services, referrals, and targeted case management services required under such section); or
(B) any such payments with respect to care or services for any individual who has not attained 65 years of age and who is a patient in an institution for mental diseases (except in the case of services provided under a State plan amendment described in section 1396n(l) of this title).
For purposes of clause (vi) of the preceding sentence, a person shall be considered essential to another individual if such person is the spouse of and is living with such individual, the needs of such person are taken into account in determining the amount of aid or assistance furnished to such individual (under a State plan approved under subchapter I, X, XIV, or XVI), and such person is determined, under such a State plan, to be essential to the well-being of such individual. The payment described in the first sentence may include expenditures for medicare cost-sharing and for premiums under part B of subchapter XVIII for individuals who are eligible for medical assistance under the plan and (A) are receiving aid or assistance under any plan of the State approved under subchapter I, X, XIV, or XVI, or part A of subchapter IV, or with respect to whom supplemental security income benefits are being paid under subchapter XVI, or (B) with respect to whom there is being paid a State supplementary payment and are eligible for medical assistance equal in amount, duration, and scope to the medical assistance made available to individuals described in section 1396a(a)(10)(A) of this title, and, except in the case of individuals 65 years of age or older and disabled individuals entitled to health insurance benefits under subchapter XVIII who are not enrolled under part B of subchapter XVIII, other insurance premiums for medical or any other type of remedial care or the cost thereof. No service (including counseling) shall be excluded from the definition of “medical assistance” solely because it is provided as a treatment service for alcoholism or drug dependency. In the case of a woman who is eligible for medical assistance on the basis of being pregnant (including through the end of the month in which the 60-day period beginning on the last day of her pregnancy ends), who is a patient in an institution for mental diseases for purposes of receiving treatment for a substance use disorder, and who was enrolled for medical assistance under the State plan immediately before becoming a patient in an institution for mental diseases or who becomes eligible to enroll for such medical assistance while such a patient, the exclusion from the definition of “medical assistance” set forth in the subdivision (B) following the last numbered paragraph of the first sentence of this subsection shall not be construed as prohibiting Federal financial participation for medical assistance for items or services that are provided to the woman outside of the institution.
(b) Federal medical assistance percentage; State percentage; Indian health care percentage
(c) Nursing facility
(d) Intermediate care facility for mentally retardedThe term “intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded” means an institution (or distinct part thereof) for the mentally retarded or persons with related conditions if—
(1) the primary purpose of such institution (or distinct part thereof) is to provide health or rehabilitative services for mentally retarded individuals and the institution meets such standards as may be prescribed by the Secretary;
(2) the mentally retarded individual with respect to whom a request for payment is made under a plan approved under this subchapter is receiving active treatment under such a program; and
(3) in the case of a public institution, the State or political subdivision responsible for the operation of such institution has agreed that the non-Federal expenditures in any calendar quarter prior to
(e) Physicians’ servicesIn the case of any State the State plan of which (as approved under this subchapter)—
(1) does not provide for the payment of services (other than services covered under section 1396a(a)(12) of this title) provided by an optometrist; but
(2) at a prior period did provide for the payment of services referred to in paragraph (1);
the term “physicians’ services” (as used in subsection (a)(5)) shall include services of the type which an optometrist is legally authorized to perform where the State plan specifically provides that the term “physicians’ services”, as employed in such plan, includes services of the type which an optometrist is legally authorized to perform, and shall be reimbursed whether furnished by a physician or an optometrist.
(f) Nursing facility services
(g) Chiropractors’ servicesIf the State plan includes provision of chiropractors’ services, such services include only—
(1) services provided by a chiropractor (A) who is licensed as such by the State and (B) who meets uniform minimum standards promulgated by the Secretary under section 1395x(r)(5) of this title; and
(2) services which consist of treatment by means of manual manipulation of the spine which the chiropractor is legally authorized to perform by the State.
(h) Inpatient psychiatric hospital services for individuals under age 21
(1) For purposes of paragraph (16) of subsection (a), the term “inpatient psychiatric hospital services for individuals under age 21” includes only—
(A) inpatient services which are provided in an institution (or distinct part thereof) which is a psychiatric hospital as defined in section 1395x(f) of this title or in another inpatient setting that the Secretary has specified in regulations;
(B) inpatient services which, in the case of any individual (i) involve active treatment which meets such standards as may be prescribed in regulations by the Secretary, and (ii) a team, consisting of physicians and other personnel qualified to make determinations with respect to mental health conditions and the treatment thereof, has determined are necessary on an inpatient basis and can reasonably be expected to improve the condition, by reason of which such services are necessary, to the extent that eventually such services will no longer be necessary; and
(C) inpatient services which, in the case of any individual, are provided prior to (i) the date such individual attains age 21, or (ii) in the case of an individual who was receiving such services in the period immediately preceding the date on which he attained age 21, (I) the date such individual no longer requires such services, or (II) if earlier, the date such individual attains age 22;
(2) Such term does not include services provided during any calendar quarter under the State plan of any State if the total amount of the funds expended, during such quarter, by the State (and the political subdivisions thereof) from non-Federal funds for inpatient services included under paragraph (1), and for active psychiatric care and treatment provided on an outpatient basis for eligible mentally ill children, is less than the average quarterly amount of the funds expended, during the 4-quarter period ending December 31, 1971, by the State (and the political subdivisions thereof) from non-Federal funds for such services.
(i) Institution for mental diseases
(j) State supplementary payment
(k) Supplemental security income benefits
(l) Rural health clinics
(1) The terms “rural health clinic services” and “rural health clinic” have the meanings given such terms in section 1395x(aa) of this title, except that (A) clause (ii) of section 1395x(aa)(2) of this title shall not apply to such terms, and (B) the physician arrangement required under section 1395x(aa)(2)(B) of this title shall only apply with respect to rural health clinic services and, with respect to other ambulatory care services, the physician arrangement required shall be only such as may be required under the State plan for those services.
(2)
(A) The term “Federally-qualified health center services” means services of the type described in subparagraphs (A) through (C) of section 1395x(aa)(1) of this title when furnished to an individual as an 3
3 So in original. Probably should be “a”.
patient of a Federally-qualified health center and, for this purpose, any reference to a rural health clinic or a physician described in section 1395x(aa)(2)(B) of this title is deemed a reference to a Federally-qualified health center or a physician at the center, respectively.
(B) The term “Federally-qualified health center” means an entity which—
(i) is receiving a grant under section 254b of this title,
(ii)(I) is receiving funding from such a grant under a contract with the recipient of such a grant, and(II) meets the requirements to receive a grant under section 254b of this title,
(iii) based on the recommendation of the Health Resources and Services Administration within the Public Health Service, is determined by the Secretary to meet the requirements for receiving such a grant, including requirements of the Secretary that an entity may not be owned, controlled, or operated by another entity, or
(iv) was treated by the Secretary, for purposes of part B of subchapter XVIII, as a comprehensive Federally funded health center as of January 1, 1990;
and includes an outpatient health program or facility operated by a tribe or tribal organization under the Indian Self-Determination Act (Public Law 93–638) [25 U.S.C. 5321 et seq.] or by an urban Indian organization receiving funds under title V of the Indian Health Care Improvement Act [25 U.S.C. 1651 et seq.] for the provision of primary health services. In applying clause (ii),4
4 So in original. Probably should be clause “(iii),”. See References in Text note below.
the Secretary may waive any requirement referred to in such clause for up to 2 years for good cause shown.
(3)
(A) The term “freestanding birth center services” means services furnished to an individual at a freestanding birth center (as defined in subparagraph (B)) at such center.
(B) The term “freestanding birth center” means a health facility—
(i) that is not a hospital;
(ii) where childbirth is planned to occur away from the pregnant woman’s residence;
(iii) that is licensed or otherwise approved by the State to provide prenatal labor and delivery or postpartum care and other ambulatory services that are included in the plan; and
(iv) that complies with such other requirements relating to the health and safety of individuals furnished services by the facility as the State shall establish.
(C) A State shall provide separate payments to providers administering prenatal labor and delivery or postpartum care in a freestanding birth center (as defined in subparagraph (B)), such as nurse midwives and other providers of services such as birth attendants recognized under State law, as determined appropriate by the Secretary. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term “birth attendant” means an individual who is recognized or registered by the State involved to provide health care at childbirth and who provides such care within the scope of practice under which the individual is legally authorized to perform such care under State law (or the State regulatory mechanism provided by State law), regardless of whether the individual is under the supervision of, or associated with, a physician or other health care provider. Nothing in this subparagraph shall be construed as changing State law requirements applicable to a birth attendant.
(m) Qualified family member
(1) Subject to paragraph (2), the term “qualified family member” means an individual (other than a qualified pregnant woman or child, as defined in subsection (n)) who is a member of a family that would be receiving aid under the State plan under part A of subchapter IV pursuant to section 607 1 of this title if the State had not exercised the option under section 607(b)(2)(B)(i) 1 of this title.
(2) No individual shall be a qualified family member for any period after September 30, 1998.
(n) “Qualified pregnant woman or child” definedThe term “qualified pregnant woman or child” means—
(1) a pregnant woman who—
(A) would be eligible for aid to families with dependent children under part A of subchapter IV (or would be eligible for such aid if coverage under the State plan under part A of subchapter IV included aid to families with dependent children of unemployed parents pursuant to section 607 of this title) if her child had been born and was living with her in the month such aid would be paid, and such pregnancy has been medically verified;
(B) is a member of a family which would be eligible for aid under the State plan under part A of subchapter IV pursuant to section 607 of this title if the plan required the payment of aid pursuant to such section; or
(C) otherwise meets the income and resources requirements of a State plan under part A of subchapter IV; and
(2) a child who has not attained the age of 19, who was born after September 30, 1983 (or such earlier date as the State may designate), and who meets the income and resources requirements of the State plan under part A of subchapter IV.
(o) Optional hospice benefits
(1)
(A) Subject to subparagraphs (B) and (C), the term “hospice care” means the care described in section 1395x(dd)(1) of this title furnished by a hospice program (as defined in section 1395x(dd)(2) of this title) to a terminally ill individual who has voluntarily elected (in accordance with paragraph (2)) to have payment made for hospice care instead of having payment made for certain benefits described in section 1395d(d)(2)(A) of this title and for which payment may otherwise be made under subchapter XVIII and intermediate care facility services under the plan. For purposes of such election, hospice care may be provided to an individual while such individual is a resident of a skilled nursing facility or intermediate care facility, but the only payment made under the State plan shall be for the hospice care.
(B) For purposes of this subchapter, with respect to the definition of hospice program under section 1395x(dd)(2) of this title, the Secretary may allow an agency or organization to make the assurance under subparagraph (A)(iii) of such section without taking into account any individual who is afflicted with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
(C) A voluntary election to have payment made for hospice care for a child (as defined by the State) shall not constitute a waiver of any rights of the child to be provided with, or to have payment made under this subchapter for, services that are related to the treatment of the child’s condition for which a diagnosis of terminal illness has been made.
(2) An individual’s voluntary election under this subsection—
(A) shall be made in accordance with procedures that are established by the State and that are consistent with the procedures established under section 1395d(d)(2) of this title;
(B) shall be for such a period or periods (which need not be the same periods described in section 1395d(d)(1) of this title) as the State may establish; and
(C) may be revoked at any time without a showing of cause and may be modified so as to change the hospice program with respect to which a previous election was made.
(3) In the case of an individual—
(A) who is residing in a nursing facility or intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded and is receiving medical assistance for services in such facility under the plan,
(B) who is entitled to benefits under part A of subchapter XVIII and has elected, under section 1395d(d) of this title, to receive hospice care under such part, and
(C) with respect to whom the hospice program under such subchapter and the nursing facility or intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded have entered into a written agreement under which the program takes full responsibility for the professional management of the individual’s hospice care and the facility agrees to provide room and board to the individual,
instead of any payment otherwise made under the plan with respect to the facility’s services, the State shall provide for payment to the hospice program of an amount equal to the additional amount determined in section 1396a(a)(13)(B) of this title and, if the individual is an individual described in section 1396a(a)(10)(A) of this title, shall provide for payment of any coinsurance amounts imposed under section 1395e(a)(4) of this title.
(p) Qualified medicare beneficiary; medicare cost-sharing
(1) The term “qualified medicare beneficiary” means an individual—
(A) who is entitled to hospital insurance benefits under part A of subchapter XVIII (including an individual entitled to such benefits pursuant to an enrollment under section 1395i–2 of this title, but not including an individual entitled to such benefits only pursuant to an enrollment under section 1395i–2a of this title) or who is enrolled under part B for the purpose of coverage of immunosuppressive drugs under section 1395o(b) of this title,
(B) whose income (as determined under section 1382a of this title for purposes of the supplemental security income program, except as provided in paragraph (2)(D)) does not exceed an income level established by the State consistent with paragraph (2), and
(C) whose resources (as determined under section 1382b of this title for purposes of the supplemental security income program) do not exceed twice the maximum amount of resources that an individual may have and obtain benefits under that program or, effective beginning with January 1, 2010, whose resources (as so determined) do not exceed the maximum resource level applied for the year under subparagraph (D) of section 1395w–114(a)(3) of this title (determined without regard to the life insurance policy exclusion provided under subparagraph (G) of such section) applicable to an individual or to the individual and the individual’s spouse (as the case may be).
(2)
(A) The income level established under paragraph (1)(B) shall be at least the percent provided under subparagraph (B) (but not more than 100 percent) of the official poverty line (as defined by the Office of Management and Budget, and revised annually in accordance with section 9902(2) of this title) applicable to a family of the size involved.
(B) Except as provided in subparagraph (C), the percent provided under this clause, with respect to eligibility for medical assistance on or after—
(i)January 1, 1989, is 85 percent,
(ii)January 1, 1990, is 90 percent, and
(iii)January 1, 1991, is 100 percent.
(C) In the case of a State which has elected treatment under section 1396a(f) of this title and which, as of January 1, 1987
(i)January 1, 1989, is 80 percent,
(ii)January 1, 1990, is 85 percent,
(iii)January 1, 1991, is 95 percent, and
(iv)January 1, 1992, is 100 percent.
(D)
(i) In determining under this subsection the income of an individual who is entitled to monthly insurance benefits under subchapter II for a transition month (as defined in clause (ii)) in a year, such income shall not include any amounts attributable to an increase in the level of monthly insurance benefits payable under such subchapter which have occurred pursuant to section 415(i) of this title for benefits payable for months beginning with December of the previous year.
(ii) For purposes of clause (i), the term “transition month” means each month in a year through the month following the month in which the annual revision of the official poverty line, referred to in subparagraph (A), is published.
(3) The term “medicare cost-sharing” means (subject to section 1396a(n)(2) of this title) the following costs incurred with respect to a qualified medicare beneficiary, without regard to whether the costs incurred were for items and services for which medical assistance is otherwise available under the plan:
(A)
(i) premiums under section 1395i–2 or 1395i–2a of this title, and
(ii) premiums under section 1395r of this title,5
5 So in original. The comma probably should be a period.
(B) Coinsurance under subchapter XVIII (including coinsurance described in section 1395e of this title).
(C) Deductibles established under subchapter XVIII (including those described in section 1395e of this title and section 1395l(b) of this title).
(D) The difference between the amount that is paid under section 1395l(a) of this title and the amount that would be paid under such section if any reference to “80 percent” therein were deemed a reference to “100 percent”.
Such term also may include, at the option of a State, premiums for enrollment of a qualified medicare beneficiary with an eligible organization under section 1395mm of this title.
(4) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, in the case of a State (other than the 50 States and the District of Columbia)—
(A) the requirement stated in section 1396a(a)(10)(E) of this title shall be optional, and
(B) for purposes of paragraph (2), the State may substitute for the percent provided under subparagraph (B) 6
6 So in original. The words “of such paragraph” probably should follow “subparagraph (B)”.
or 7
7 So in original. Probably should be “or section”.
1396a(a)(10)(E)(iii) of this title of such paragraph 6 any percent.
In the case of any State which is providing medical assistance to its residents under a waiver granted under section 1315 of this title, the Secretary shall require the State to meet the requirement of section 1396a(a)(10)(E) of this title in the same manner as the State would be required to meet such requirement if the State had in effect a plan approved under this subchapter.
(5)
(A) The Secretary shall develop and distribute to States a simplified application form for use by individuals (including both qualified medicare beneficiaries and specified low-income medicare beneficiaries) in applying for medical assistance for medicare cost-sharing under this subchapter in the States which elect to use such form. Such form shall be easily readable by applicants and uniform nationally. The Secretary shall provide for the translation of such application form into at least the 10 languages (other than English) that are most often used by individuals applying for hospital insurance benefits under section 426 or 426–1 of this title and shall make the translated forms available to the States and to the Commissioner of Social Security.
(B) In developing such form, the Secretary shall consult with beneficiary groups and the States.
(6) For provisions relating to outreach efforts to increase awareness of the availability of medicare cost-sharing, see section 1320b–14 of this title.
(q) Qualified severely impaired individualThe term “qualified severely impaired individual” means an individual under age 65—
(1) who for the month preceding the first month to which this subsection applies to such individual—
(A) received (i) a payment of supplemental security income benefits under section 1382(b) of this title on the basis of blindness or disability, (ii) a supplementary payment under section 1382e of this title or under section 212 of Public Law 93–66 on such basis, (iii) a payment of monthly benefits under section 1382h(a) of this title, or (iv) a supplementary payment under section 1382e(c)(3), and
(B) was eligible for medical assistance under the State plan approved under this subchapter; and
(2) with respect to whom the Commissioner of Social Security determines that—
(A) the individual continues to be blind or continues to have the disabling physical or mental impairment on the basis of which he was found to be under a disability and, except for his earnings, continues to meet all non-disability-related requirements for eligibility for benefits under subchapter XVI,
(B) the income of such individual would not, except for his earnings, be equal to or in excess of the amount which would cause him to be ineligible for payments under section 1382(b) of this title (if he were otherwise eligible for such payments),
(C) the lack of eligibility for benefits under this subchapter would seriously inhibit his ability to continue or obtain employment, and
(D) the individual’s earnings are not sufficient to allow him to provide for himself a reasonable equivalent of the benefits under subchapter XVI (including any federally administered State supplementary payments), this subchapter, and publicly funded attendant care services (including personal care assistance) that would be available to him in the absence of such earnings.
In the case of an individual who is eligible for medical assistance pursuant to section 1382h(b) of this title in June, 1987, the individual shall be a qualified severely impaired individual for so long as such individual meets the requirements of paragraph (2).
(r) Early and periodic screening, diagnostic, and treatment servicesThe term “early and periodic screening, diagnostic, and treatment services” means the following items and services:
(1) Screening services—
(A) which are provided—
(i) at intervals which meet reasonable standards of medical and dental practice, as determined by the State after consultation with recognized medical and dental organizations involved in child health care and, with respect to immunizations under subparagraph (B)(iii), in accordance with the schedule referred to in section 1396s(c)(2)(B)(i) of this title for pediatric vaccines, and
(ii) at such other intervals, indicated as medically necessary, to determine the existence of certain physical or mental illnesses or conditions; and
(B) which shall at a minimum include—
(i) a comprehensive health and developmental history (including assessment of both physical and mental health development),
(ii) a comprehensive unclothed physical exam,
(iii) appropriate immunizations (according to the schedule referred to in section 1396s(c)(2)(B)(i) of this title for pediatric vaccines) according to age and health history,
(iv) laboratory tests (including lead blood level assessment appropriate for age and risk factors), and
(v) health education (including anticipatory guidance).
(2) Vision services—
(A) which are provided—
(i) at intervals which meet reasonable standards of medical practice, as determined by the State after consultation with recognized medical organizations involved in child health care, and
(ii) at such other intervals, indicated as medically necessary, to determine the existence of a suspected illness or condition; and
(B) which shall at a minimum include diagnosis and treatment for defects in vision, including eyeglasses.
(3) Dental services—
(A) which are provided—
(i) at intervals which meet reasonable standards of dental practice, as determined by the State after consultation with recognized dental organizations involved in child health care, and
(ii) at such other intervals, indicated as medically necessary, to determine the existence of a suspected illness or condition; and
(B) which shall at a minimum include relief of pain and infections, restoration of teeth, and maintenance of dental health.
(4) Hearing services—
(A) which are provided—
(i) at intervals which meet reasonable standards of medical practice, as determined by the State after consultation with recognized medical organizations involved in child health care, and
(ii) at such other intervals, indicated as medically necessary, to determine the existence of a suspected illness or condition; and
(B) which shall at a minimum include diagnosis and treatment for defects in hearing, including hearing aids.
(5) Such other necessary health care, diagnostic services, treatment, and other measures described in subsection (a) to correct or ameliorate defects and physical and mental illnesses and conditions discovered by the screening services, whether or not such services are covered under the State plan.
Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed as limiting providers of early and periodic screening, diagnostic, and treatment services to providers who are qualified to provide all of the items and services described in the previous sentence or as preventing a provider that is qualified under the plan to furnish one or more (but not all) of such items or services from being qualified to provide such items and services as part of early and periodic screening, diagnostic, and treatment services. The Secretary shall, not later than July 1, 1990, and every 12 months thereafter, develop and set annual participation goals for each State for participation of individuals who are covered under the State plan under this subchapter in early and periodic screening, diagnostic, and treatment services.
(s) Qualified disabled and working individualThe term “qualified disabled and working individual” means an individual—
(1) who is entitled to enroll for hospital insurance benefits under part A of subchapter XVIII under section 1395i–2a of this title;
(2) whose income (as determined under section 1382a of this title for purposes of the supplemental security income program) does not exceed 200 percent of the official poverty line (as defined by the Office of Management and Budget and revised annually in accordance with section 9902(2) of this title) applicable to a family of the size involved;
(3) whose resources (as determined under section 1382b of this title for purposes of the supplemental security income program) do not exceed twice the maximum amount of resources that an individual or a couple (in the case of an individual with a spouse) may have and obtain benefits for supplemental security income benefits under subchapter XVI; and
(4) who is not otherwise eligible for medical assistance under this subchapter.
(t) Primary care case management services; primary care case manager; primary care case management contract; and primary care
(1) The term “primary care case management services” means case-management related services (including locating, coordinating, and monitoring of health care services) provided by a primary care case manager under a primary care case management contract.
(2) The term “primary care case manager” means any of the following that provides services of the type described in paragraph (1) under a contract referred to in such paragraph:
(A) A physician, a physician group practice, or an entity employing or having other arrangements with physicians to provide such services.
(B) At State option—
(i) a nurse practitioner (as described in subsection (a)(21));
(ii) a certified nurse-midwife (as defined in section 1395x(gg) of this title); or
(iii) a physician assistant (as defined in section 1395x(aa)(5) of this title).
(3) The term “primary care case management contract” means a contract between a primary care case manager and a State under which the manager undertakes to locate, coordinate, and monitor covered primary care (and such other covered services as may be specified under the contract) to all individuals enrolled with the manager, and which—
(A) provides for reasonable and adequate hours of operation, including 24-hour availability of information, referral, and treatment with respect to medical emergencies;
(B) restricts enrollment to individuals residing sufficiently near a service delivery site of the manager to be able to reach that site within a reasonable time using available and affordable modes of transportation;
(C) provides for arrangements with, or referrals to, sufficient numbers of physicians and other appropriate health care professionals to ensure that services under the contract can be furnished to enrollees promptly and without compromise to quality of care;
(D) prohibits discrimination on the basis of health status or requirements for health care services in enrollment, disenrollment, or reenrollment of individuals eligible for medical assistance under this subchapter;
(E) provides for a right for an enrollee to terminate enrollment in accordance with section 1396u–2(a)(4) of this title; and
(F) complies with the other applicable provisions of section 1396u–2 of this title.
(4) For purposes of this subsection, the term “primary care” includes all health care services customarily provided in accordance with State licensure and certification laws and regulations, and all laboratory services customarily provided by or through, a general practitioner, family medicine physician, internal medicine physician, obstetrician/gynecologist, or pediatrician.
(u) Conditions for State plans
(1) The conditions described in this paragraph for a State plan are as follows:
(A) The State is complying with the requirement of section 1397ee(d)(1) of this title.
(B) The plan provides for such reporting of information about expenditures and payments attributable to the operation of this subsection as the Secretary deems necessary in order to carry out the fourth sentence of subsection (b).
(2)
(A) For purposes of subsection (b), the expenditures described in this subparagraph are expenditures for medical assistance for optional targeted low-income children described in subparagraph (B).
(B) For purposes of this paragraph, the term “optional targeted low-income child” means a targeted low-income child as defined in section 1397jj(b)(1) of this title (determined without regard to that portion of subparagraph (C) of such section concerning eligibility for medical assistance under this subchapter) who would not qualify for medical assistance under the State plan under this subchapter as in effect on
(3) For purposes of subsection (b), the expenditures described in this paragraph are expenditures for medical assistance for children who are born before October 1, 1983, and who would be described in section 1396a(l)(1)(D) of this title if they had been born on or after such date, and who are not eligible for such assistance under the State plan under this subchapter based on such State plan as in effect as of March 31, 1997.
(4) The limitations on payment under subsections (f) and (g) of section 1308 of this title shall not apply to Federal payments made under section 1396b(a)(1) of this title based on an enhanced FMAP described in section 1397ee(b) of this title.
(v) Employed individual with a medically improved disability
(1) The term “employed individual with a medically improved disability” means an individual who—
(A) is at least 16, but less than 65, years of age;
(B) is employed (as defined in paragraph (2));
(C) ceases to be eligible for medical assistance under section 1396a(a)(10)(A)(ii)(XV) of this title because the individual, by reason of medical improvement, is determined at the time of a regularly scheduled continuing disability review to no longer be eligible for benefits under section 423(d) or 1382c(a)(3) of this title; and
(D) continues to have a severe medically determinable impairment, as determined under regulations of the Secretary.
(2) For purposes of paragraph (1), an individual is considered to be “employed” if the individual—
(A) is earning at least the applicable minimum wage requirement under section 206 of title 29 and working at least 40 hours per month; or
(B) is engaged in a work effort that meets substantial and reasonable threshold criteria for hours of work, wages, or other measures, as defined by the State and approved by the Secretary.
(w) Independent foster care adolescent
(1) For purposes of this subchapter, the term “independent foster care adolescent” means an individual—
(A) who is under 21 years of age;
(B) who, on the individual’s 18th birthday, was in foster care under the responsibility of a State; and
(C) whose assets, resources, and income do not exceed such levels (if any) as the State may establish consistent with paragraph (2).
(2) The levels established by a State under paragraph (1)(C) may not be less than the corresponding levels applied by the State under section 1396u–1(b) of this title.
(3) A State may limit the eligibility of independent foster care adolescents under section 1396a(a)(10)(A)(ii)(XVII) of this title to those individuals with respect to whom foster care maintenance payments or independent living services were furnished under a program funded under part E of subchapter IV before the date the individuals attained 18 years of age.
(x) Strategies, treatment, and servicesFor purposes of subsection (a)(27), the strategies, treatment, and services described in that subsection include the following:
(1) Chronic blood transfusion (with deferoxamine chelation) to prevent stroke in individuals with Sickle Cell Disease who have been identified as being at high risk for stroke.
(2) Genetic counseling and testing for individuals with Sickle Cell Disease or the sickle cell trait to allow health care professionals to treat such individuals and to prevent symptoms of Sickle Cell Disease.
(3) Other treatment and services to prevent individuals who have Sickle Cell Disease and who have had a stroke from having another stroke.
(y) Increased FMAP for medical assistance for newly eligible mandatory individuals
(1) Amount of increaseNotwithstanding subsection (b), the Federal medical assistance percentage for a State that is one of the 50 States or the District of Columbia, with respect to amounts expended by such State for medical assistance for newly eligible individuals described in subclause (VIII) of section 1396a(a)(10)(A)(i) of this title, shall be equal to—
(A) 100 percent for calendar quarters in 2014, 2015, and 2016;
(B) 95 percent for calendar quarters in 2017;
(C) 94 percent for calendar quarters in 2018;
(D) 93 percent for calendar quarters in 2019; and
(E) 90 percent for calendar quarters in 2020 and each year thereafter.
(2) DefinitionsIn this subsection:
(A) Newly eligible
(B) Full benefits
(z) Equitable support for certain States
(1)
(A) During the period that begins on January 1, 2014, and ends on December 31, 2015, notwithstanding subsection (b), the Federal medical assistance percentage otherwise determined under subsection (b) with respect to a fiscal year occurring during that period shall be increased by 2.2 percentage points for any State described in subparagraph (B) for amounts expended for medical assistance for individuals who are not newly eligible (as defined in subsection (y)(2)) individuals described in subclause (VIII) of section 1396a(a)(10)(A)(i) of this title.
(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), a State described in this subparagraph is a State that—
(i) is an expansion State described in paragraph (3);
(ii) the Secretary determines will not receive any payments under this subchapter on the basis of an increased Federal medical assistance percentage under subsection (y) for expenditures for medical assistance for newly eligible individuals (as so defined); and
(iii) has not been approved by the Secretary to divert a portion of the DSH allotment for a State to the costs of providing medical assistance or other health benefits coverage under a waiver that is in effect on July 2009.8
8 So in original.
(2)
(A) For calendar quarters in 2014 and each year thereafter, the Federal medical assistance percentage otherwise determined under subsection (b) for an expansion State described in paragraph (3) with respect to medical assistance for individuals described in section 1396a(a)(10)(A)(i)(VIII) of this title who are nonpregnant childless adults with respect to whom the State may require enrollment in benchmark coverage under section 1396u–7 of this title shall be equal to the percent specified in subparagraph (B)(i) for such year.
(B)
(i) The percent specified in this subparagraph for a State for a year is equal to the Federal medical assistance percentage (as defined in the first sentence of subsection (b)) for the State increased by a number of percentage points equal to the transition percentage (specified in clause (ii) for the year) of the number of percentage points by which—(I) such Federal medical assistance percentage for the State, is less than(II) the percent specified in subsection (y)(1) for the year.
(ii) The transition percentage specified in this clause for—(I) 2014 is 50 percent;(II) 2015 is 60 percent;(III) 2016 is 70 percent;(IV) 2017 is 80 percent;(V) 2018 is 90 percent; and(VI) 2019 and each subsequent year is 100 percent.
(3) A State is an expansion State if, on March 23, 2010, the State offers health benefits coverage statewide to parents and nonpregnant, childless adults whose income is at least 100 percent of the poverty line, that includes inpatient hospital services, is not dependent on access to employer coverage, employer contribution, or employment and is not limited to premium assistance, hospital-only benefits, a high deductible health plan, or alternative benefits under a demonstration program authorized under section 1396u–8 of this title. A State that offers health benefits coverage to only parents or only nonpregnant childless adults described in the preceding sentence shall not be considered to be an expansion State.
(aa) Special adjustment to FMAP determination for certain States recovering from a major disaster
(1) Notwithstanding subsection (b), beginning January 1, 2011, the Federal medical assistance percentage for a fiscal year for a disaster-recovery FMAP adjustment State shall be equal to the following:
(A) In the case of the first fiscal year (or part of a fiscal year) for which this subsection applies to the State, the State’s regular FMAP shall be increased by 50 percent of the number of percentage points by which the State’s regular FMAP for such fiscal year is less than the Federal medical assistance percentage determined for the State for the preceding fiscal year after the application of only subsection (a) of section 5001 of Public Law 111–5 (if applicable to the preceding fiscal year) and without regard to this subsection, subsections (y) and (z), and subsections (b) and (c) of section 5001 of Public Law 111–5.
(B) In the case of the second or any succeeding fiscal year for which this subsection applies to the State, the State’s regular FMAP for such fiscal year shall be increased by 25 percent (or 50 percent in the case of fiscal year 2013) of the number of percentage points by which the State’s regular FMAP for such fiscal year is less than the Federal medical assistance percentage received by the State during the preceding fiscal year.
(2) In this subsection, the term “disaster-recovery FMAP adjustment State” means a State that is one of the 50 States or the District of Columbia, for which, at any time during the preceding 7 fiscal years, the President has declared a major disaster under section 401 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act [42 U.S.C. 5170] and determined as a result of such disaster that every county or parish in the State warrant individual and public assistance or public assistance from the Federal Government under such Act [42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.] and for which—
(A) in the case of the first fiscal year (or part of a fiscal year) for which this subsection applies to the State, the State’s regular FMAP for the fiscal year is less than the Federal medical assistance percentage determined for the State for the preceding fiscal year after the application of only subsection (a) of section 5001 of Public Law 111–5 (if applicable to the preceding fiscal year) and without regard to this subsection, subsections (y) and (z), and subsections (b) and (c) of section 5001 of Public Law 111–5, by at least 3 percentage points; and
(B) in the case of the second or any succeeding fiscal year for which this subsection applies to the State, the State’s regular FMAP for the fiscal year is less than the Federal medical assistance percentage determined for the State for the preceding fiscal year under this subsection by at least 3 percentage points.
(3) In this subsection, the term “regular FMAP” means, for each fiscal year for which this subsection applies to a State, the Federal medical assistance percentage that would otherwise apply to the State for the fiscal year, as determined under subsection (b) and without regard to this subsection, subsections (y) and (z), and section 10202 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.
(4) The Federal medical assistance percentage determined for a disaster-recovery FMAP adjustment State under paragraph (1) shall apply for purposes of this subchapter (other than with respect to disproportionate share hospital payments described in section 1396r–4 of this title and payments under this subchapter that are based on the enhanced FMAP described in 1397ee(b) 9
9 So in original. Probably should be preceded by “section”.
of this title) and shall not apply with respect to payments under subchapter IV (other than under part E of subchapter IV) or payments under subchapter XXI.
(bb) Counseling and pharmacotherapy for cessation of tobacco use by pregnant women
(1) For purposes of this subchapter, the term “counseling and pharmacotherapy for cessation of tobacco use by pregnant women” means diagnostic, therapy, and counseling services and pharmacotherapy (including the coverage of prescription and nonprescription tobacco cessation agents approved by the Food and Drug Administration) for cessation of tobacco use by pregnant women who use tobacco products or who are being treated for tobacco use that is furnished—
(A) by or under the supervision of a physician; or
(B) by any other health care professional who—
(i) is legally authorized to furnish such services under State law (or the State regulatory mechanism provided by State law) of the State in which the services are furnished; and
(ii) is authorized to receive payment for other services under this subchapter or is designated by the Secretary for this purpose.
(2) Subject to paragraph (3), such term is limited to—
(A) services recommended with respect to pregnant women in “Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update: A Clinical Practice Guideline”, published by the Public Health Service in May 2008, or any subsequent modification of such Guideline; and
(B) such other services that the Secretary recognizes to be effective for cessation of tobacco use by pregnant women.
(3) Such term shall not include coverage for drugs or biologicals that are not otherwise covered under this subchapter.
(cc) Requirement for certain States
(dd) Increased FMAP for additional expenditures for primary care services
(ee) Medication-assisted treatment
(1) DefinitionFor purposes of subsection (a)(29), the term “medication-assisted treatment”—
(A) means all drugs approved under section 355 of title 21, including methadone, and all biological products licensed under section 262 of this title to treat opioid use disorders; and
(B) includes, with respect to the provision of such drugs and biological products, counseling services and behavioral therapy.
(2) Exception
(3) Application of rebate requirementsThe requirements of section 1396r–8 of this title shall apply to any drug or biological product described in paragraph (1)(A) that is—
(A) furnished as medical assistance in accordance with subsection (a)(29) and section 1396a(a)(10)(A) of this title; and
(B) a covered outpatient drug (as defined in section 1396r–8(k) of this title, except that, in applying paragraph (2)(A) of such section to a drug described in paragraph (1)(A), such drug shall be deemed a prescribed drug for purposes of subsection (a)(12)).
(ff) Increase in FMAP for territories for certain fiscal yearsNotwithstanding subsection (b) or (z)(2), subject to subsections (hh) and (ii)—
(1) for the period beginning October 1, 2019, and ending December 20, 2019, the Federal medical assistance percentage for Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa shall be equal to 100 percent;
(2) for the period beginning December 21, 2019, and ending December 3, 2021, and for the period beginning January 1, 2022, and ending September 30, 2027, the Federal medical assistance percentage for Puerto Rico shall be equal to 76 percent; and
(3) subject to section 1308(g)(8)(B) of this title, beginning December 21, 2019, the Federal medical assistance percentage for the Virgin Islands, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa shall be equal to 83 percent.
(gg)
(1) Routine patient costsFor purposes of subsection (a)(30), with respect to a State and an individual enrolled under the State plan (or a waiver of such plan) who participates in a qualifying clinical trial, routine patient costs—
(A) include any item or service provided to the individual under the qualifying clinical trial, including—
(i) any item or service provided to prevent, diagnose, monitor, or treat complications resulting from such participation, to the extent that the provision of such an item or service to the individual outside the course of such participation would otherwise be covered under the State plan or waiver; and
(ii) any item or service required solely for the provision of the investigational item or service that is the subject of such trial, including the administration of such investigational item or service; and
(B) does not include—
(i) an item or service that is the investigational item or service that is—(I) the subject of the qualifying clinical trial; and(II) not otherwise covered outside of the clinical trial under the State plan or waiver; or
(ii) an item or service that is—(I) provided to the individual solely to satisfy data collection and analysis needs for the qualifying clinical trial and is not used in the direct clinical management of the individual; and(II) not otherwise covered under the State plan or waiver.
(2) Qualifying clinical trial defined
(A) In generalFor purposes of this subsection and subsection (a)(30), the term “qualifying clinical trial” means a clinical trial (in any clinical phase of development) that is conducted in relation to the prevention, detection, or treatment of any serious or life-threatening disease or condition and is described in any of the following clauses:
(i) The study or investigation is approved, conducted, or supported (which may include funding through in-kind contributions) by one or more of the following:(I) The National Institutes of Health.(II) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.(III) The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.(IV) The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services.(V) A cooperative group or center of any of the entities described in subclauses (I) through (IV) or the Department of Defense or the Department of Veterans Affairs.(VI) A qualified non-governmental research entity identified in the guidelines issued by the National Institutes of Health for center support grants.(VII) Any of the following if the conditions described in subparagraph (B) are met:(aa) The Department of Veterans Affairs.(bb) The Department of Defense.(cc) The Department of Energy.
(ii) The clinical trial is conducted pursuant to an investigational new drug exemption under section 355(i) of title 21 or an exemption for a biological product undergoing investigation under section 262(a)(3) of this title.
(iii) The clinical trial is a drug trial that is exempt from being required to have an exemption described in clause (ii).
(B) ConditionsFor purposes of subparagraph (A)(i)(VII), the conditions described in this subparagraph, with respect to a clinical trial approved or funded by an entity described in such subparagraph (A)(i)(VII), are that the clinical trial has been reviewed and approved through a system of peer review that the Secretary determines—
(i) to be comparable to the system of peer review of studies and investigations used by the National Institutes of Health; and
(ii) assures unbiased review of the highest scientific standards by qualified individuals with no interest in the outcome of the review.
(3) Coverage determination requirementsA determination with respect to coverage under subsection (a)(30) for an individual participating in a qualifying clinical trial—
(A) shall be expedited and completed within 72 hours;
(B) shall be made without limitation on the geographic location or network affiliation of the health care provider treating such individual or the principal investigator of the qualifying clinical trial;
(C) shall be based on attestation regarding the appropriateness of the qualifying clinical trial by the health care provider and principal investigator described in subparagraph (B), which shall be made using a streamlined, uniform form developed for State use by the Secretary and that includes the option to reference information regarding the qualifying clinical trial that is publicly available on a website maintained by the Secretary, such as clinicaltrials.gov (or a successor website); and
(D) shall not require submission of the protocols of the qualifying clinical trial, or any other documentation that may be proprietary or determined by the Secretary to be burdensome to provide.
(hh) Temporary increased FMAP for medical assistance for coverage and administration of COVID–19 vaccines
(1) In general
(2) Period describedThe period described in this paragraph is the period that—
(A) begins on the first day of the first quarter beginning after March 11, 2021; and
(B) ends on the last day of the first quarter that begins one year after the last day of the emergency period described in section 1320b–5(g)(1)(B) of this title.
(3) Exclusion of expenditures from territorial caps
(ii) Temporary increase in FMAP for medical assistance under State medicaid plans which begin to expend amounts for certain mandatory individuals
(1) In general
(2) Special application rulesAny increase described in paragraph (1) (or payment made for expenditures on medical assistance that are subject to such increase)—
(A) shall not apply with respect to disproportionate share hospital payments described in section 1396r–4 of this title;
(B) shall not be taken into account in calculating the enhanced FMAP of a State under section 1397ee of this title;
(C) shall not be taken into account for purposes of part A, D, or E of subchapter IV; and
(D) shall not be taken into account for purposes of applying payment limits under subsections (f) and (g) of section 1308 of this title.
(3) Definition
(jj) Certified community behavioral health clinic services
(1) In generalThe term “certified community behavioral health services” means any of the following services when furnished to an individual as a patient of a certified community behavioral health clinic (as defined in paragraph (2)), in a manner reflecting person-centered care and which, if not available directly through a certified community behavioral health clinic, may be provided or referred through formal relationships with other providers:
(A) Crisis mental health services, including 24-hour mobile crisis teams, emergency crisis intervention services, and crisis stabilization.
(B) Screening, assessment, and diagnosis, including risk assessment.
(C) Patient-centered treatment planning or similar processes, including risk assessment and crisis planning.
(D) Outpatient mental health and substance use services.
(E) Outpatient clinic primary care screening and monitoring of key health indicators and health risk.
(F) Intensive case management services.
(G) Psychiatric rehabilitation services.
(H) Peer support and counselor services and family supports.
(I) Intensive, community-based mental health care for members of the armed forces and veterans who are eligible for medical assistance, particularly such members and veterans located in rural areas, provided the care is consistent with minimum clinical mental health guidelines promulgated by the Veterans Health Administration, including clinical guidelines contained in the Uniform Mental Health Services Handbook of such Administration.
(2) Certified community behavioral health clinicThe term “certified community behavioral health clinic” means an organization that—
(A) has been certified by a State as meeting the criteria established by the Secretary pursuant to subsection (a) of section 223 of the Protecting Access to Medicare Act 1 as of January 1, 2024, and any subsequent updates to such criteria, regardless of whether the State is carrying out a demonstration program under this subchapter under subsection (d) of such section;
(B) is engaged in furnishing all of the services described in paragraph (1); and
(C) agrees, as a condition of the certification described in subparagraph (A), to furnish to the State or Secretary any data required as part of ongoing monitoring of the organization’s provision of services, including encounter data, clinical outcomes data, quality data, and such other data as the State or Secretary may require.
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XIX, § 1905, as added Pub. L. 89–97, title I, § 121(a), July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 351; amended Pub. L. 90–248, title II, §§ 230, 233, 241(f)(6), 248(e), title III, § 302(a), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 905, 917, 919, 929; Pub. L. 92–223, § 4(a), Dec. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 809; Pub. L. 92–603, title II, §§ 212(a), 247(b), 275(a), 278(a)(21)–(23), 280, 297(a), 299, 299B, 299E(b), 299L, Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1384, 1425, 1452–1454, 1459–1462, 1464; Pub. L. 93–233, §§ 13(a)(13)–(18), 18(w), (x)(7)–(10), (y)(2), Dec. 31, 1973, 87 Stat. 963, 964, 972, 973; Pub. L. 94–437, title IV, § 402(e), Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1410; Pub. L. 95–210, § 2(a), (b), Dec. 13, 1977, 91 Stat. 1488; Pub. L. 95–292, § 8(a), (b), June 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 316; Pub. L. 96–473, § 6(k), Oct. 19, 1980, 94 Stat. 2266; Pub. L. 96–499, title IX, § 965(a), Dec. 5, 1980,
§ 1396e. Enrollment of individuals under group health plans
(a) Requirements of each State plan; guidelinesEach State plan—
(1) may implement guidelines established by the Secretary, consistent with subsection (b), to identify those cases in which enrollment of an individual otherwise entitled to medical assistance under this subchapter in a group health plan (in which the individual is otherwise eligible to be enrolled) is cost-effective (as defined in subsection (e)(2));
(2) may require, in case of an individual so identified and as a condition of the individual being or remaining eligible for medical assistance under this subchapter and subject to subsection (b)(2), notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, that the individual (or in the case of a child, the child’s parent) apply for enrollment in the group health plan; and
(3) in the case of such enrollment (except as provided in subsection (c)(1)(B)), shall provide for payment of all enrollee premiums for such enrollment and all deductibles, coinsurance, and other cost-sharing obligations for items and services otherwise covered under the State plan under this subchapter (exceeding the amount otherwise permitted under section 1396o of this title), and shall treat coverage under the group health plan as a third party liability (under section 1396a(a)(25) of this title).
(b) Timing of enrollment; failure to enroll
(1) In establishing guidelines under subsection (a)(1), the Secretary shall take into account that an individual may only be eligible to enroll in group health plans at limited times and only if other individuals (not entitled to medical assistance under the plan) are also enrolled in the plan simultaneously.
(2) If a parent of a child fails to enroll the child in a group health plan in accordance with subsection (a)(2), such failure shall not affect the child’s eligibility for benefits under this subchapter.
(c) Premiums considered payments for medical assistance; eligibility
(1)
(A) In the case of payments of premiums, deductibles, coinsurance, and other cost-sharing obligations under this section shall be considered, for purposes of section 1396b(a) of this title, to be payments for medical assistance.
(B) If all members of a family are not eligible for medical assistance under this subchapter and enrollment of the members so eligible in a group health plan is not possible without also enrolling members not so eligible—
(i) payment of premiums for enrollment of such other members shall be treated as payments for medical assistance for eligible individuals, if it would be cost-effective (taking into account payment of all such premiums), but
(ii) payment of deductibles, coinsurance, and other cost-sharing obligations for such other members shall not be treated as payments for medical assistance for eligible individuals.
(2) The fact that an individual is enrolled in a group health plan under this section shall not change the individual’s eligibility for benefits under the State plan, except insofar as section 1396a(a)(25) of this title provides that payment for such benefits shall first be made by such plan.
(d) Repealed. Pub. L. 105–33, title IV, § 4741(b)(2), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 523
(e) DefinitionsIn this section:
(1) The term “group health plan” has the meaning given such term in section 5000(b)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, and includes the provision of continuation coverage by such a plan pursuant to title XXII of the Public Health Service Act [42 U.S.C. 300bb–1 et seq.], section 4980B of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or title VI 1
1 See References in Text note below.
of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974.
(2) The term “cost-effective” has the meaning given that term in section 1397ee(c)(3)(A) of this title.
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XIX, § 1906, as added Pub. L. 101–508, title IV, § 4402(a)(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–161; amended Pub. L. 105–33, title IV, § 4741(b), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 523; Pub. L. 111–148, title X, § 10203(b)(1), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 927.)
§ 1396e–1. Premium assistance
(a) In general
(b) Qualified employer-sponsored coverage
(1) In general
Subject to paragraph (2)),1
1 So in original. The second closing parenthesis probably should not appear.
in this paragraph, the term “qualified employer-sponsored coverage” means a group health plan or health insurance coverage offered through an employer—
(A) that qualifies as creditable coverage as a group health plan under section 2701(c)(1) of the Public Health Service Act; 2
2 See References in Text note below.
(B) for which the employer contribution toward any premium for such coverage is at least 40 percent; and
(C) that is offered to all individuals in a manner that would be considered a nondiscriminatory eligibility classification for purposes of paragraph (3)(A)(ii) of section 105(h) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (but determined without regard to clause (i) of subparagraph (B) of such paragraph).
(2) Exception
Such term does not include coverage consisting of—
(A) benefits provided under a health flexible spending arrangement (as defined in section 106(c)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986); or
(B) a high deductible health plan (as defined in section 223(c)(2) of such Code), without regard to whether the plan is purchased in conjunction with a health savings account (as defined under section 223(d) of such Code).
(3) Treatment as third party liability
(c) Premium assistance subsidy
(d) Voluntary participation
(1) Employers
(2) Beneficiaries
(3) Opt-out permitted for any month
(e) Requirement to pay premiums and cost-sharing and provide supplemental coverage
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XIX, § 1906A, as added Pub. L. 111–3, title III, § 301(b), Feb. 4, 2009, 123 Stat. 61; amended Pub. L. 111–148, title II, § 2003(a), (b), title X, § 10203(b)(2), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 282, 283, 927.)
§ 1396f. Observance of religious beliefs

Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed to require any State which has a plan approved under this subchapter to compel any person to undergo any medical screening, examination, diagnosis, or treatment or to accept any other health care or services provided under such plan for any purpose (other than for the purpose of discovering and preventing the spread of infection or contagious disease or for the purpose of protecting environmental health), if such person objects (or, in case such person is a child, his parent or guardian objects) thereto on religious grounds.

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XIX, § 1907, as added Pub. L. 90–248, title II, § 232, Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 905.)
§ 1396g. State programs for licensing of administrators of nursing homes
(a) Nature of State program
(b) Licensing by State agency or board representative of concerned professions and institutions
(c) Functions and duties of State agency or board
It shall be the function and duty of such agency or board to—
(1) develop, impose, and enforce standards which must be met by individuals in order to receive a license as a nursing home administrator, which standards shall be designed to insure that nursing home administrators will be individuals who are of good character and are otherwise suitable, and who, by training or experience in the field of institutional administration, are qualified to serve as nursing home administrators;
(2) develop and apply appropriate techniques, including examinations and investigations, for determining whether an individual meets such standards;
(3) issue licenses to individuals determined, after the application of such techniques, to meet such standards, and revoke or suspend licenses previously issued by the board in any case where the individual holding any such license is determined substantially to have failed to conform to the requirements of such standards;
(4) establish and carry out procedures designed to insure that individuals licensed as nursing home administrators will, during any period that they serve as such, comply with the requirements of such standards;
(5) receive, investigate, and take appropriate action with respect to, any charge or complaint filed with the board to the effect that any individual licensed as a nursing home administrator has failed to comply with the requirements of such standards; and
(6) conduct a continuing study and investigation of nursing homes and administrators of nursing homes within the State with a view to the improvement of the standards imposed for the licensing of such administrators and of procedures and methods for the enforcement of such standards with respect to administrators of nursing homes who have been licensed as such.
(d) Waiver of standards other than good character or suitability standards
(e) “Nursing home” and “nursing home administrator” defined
As used in this section, the term—
(1) “nursing home” means any institution or facility defined as such for licensing purposes under State law, or, if State law does not employ the term nursing home, the equivalent term or terms as determined by the Secretary, but does not include a religious nonmedical health care institution (as defined in section 1395x(ss)(1) of this title).1
1 So in original. The period probably should be “; and”.
(2) “nursing home administrator” means any individual who is charged with the general administration of a nursing home whether or not such individual has an ownership interest in such home and whether or not his functions and duties are shared with one or more other individuals.
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XIX, § 1908, as added Pub. L. 90–248, title II, § 236(b), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 908; amended Pub. L. 92–603, title II, §§ 268(b), 269, 274(b), Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1451, 1452; Pub. L. 93–233, § 18(y)(3), Dec. 31, 1973, 87 Stat. 973; Pub. L. 104–193, title IX, § 913, Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2354; Pub. L. 105–33, title IV, § 4454(b)(2), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 431.)
§ 1396g–1. Required laws relating to medical child support
(a) In generalThe laws relating to medical child support, which a State is required to have in effect under section 1396a(a)(60) of this title, are as follows:
(1) A law that prohibits an insurer from denying enrollment of a child under the health coverage of the child’s parent on the ground that—
(A) the child was born out of wedlock,
(B) the child is not claimed as a dependent on the parent’s Federal income tax return, or
(C) the child does not reside with the parent or in the insurer’s service area.
(2) In any case in which a parent is required by a court or administrative order to provide health coverage for a child and the parent is eligible for family health coverage through an insurer, a law that requires such insurer—
(A) to permit such parent to enroll under such family coverage any such child who is otherwise eligible for such coverage (without regard to any enrollment season restrictions);
(B) if such a parent is enrolled but fails to make application to obtain coverage of such child, to enroll such child under such family coverage upon application by the child’s other parent or by the State agency administering the program under this subchapter or part D of subchapter IV; and
(C) not to disenroll (or eliminate coverage of) such a child unless the insurer is provided satisfactory written evidence that—
(i) such court or administrative order is no longer in effect, or
(ii) the child is or will be enrolled in comparable health coverage through another insurer which will take effect not later than the effective date of such disenrollment.
(3) In any case in which a parent is required by a court or administrative order to provide health coverage for a child and the parent is eligible for family health coverage through an employer doing business in the State, a law that requires such employer—
(A) to permit such parent to enroll under such family coverage any such child who is otherwise eligible for such coverage (without regard to any enrollment season restrictions);
(B) if such a parent is enrolled but fails to make application to obtain coverage of such child, to enroll such child under such family coverage upon application by the child’s other parent or by the State agency administering the program under this subchapter or part D of subchapter IV; and
(C) not to disenroll (or eliminate coverage of) any such child unless—
(i) the employer is provided satisfactory written evidence that—(I) such court or administrative order is no longer in effect, or(II) the child is or will be enrolled in comparable health coverage which will take effect not later than the effective date of such disenrollment, or
(ii) the employer has eliminated family health coverage for all of its employees; and
(D) to withhold from such employee’s compensation the employee’s share (if any) of premiums for health coverage (except that the amount so withheld may not exceed the maximum amount permitted to be withheld under section 1673(b) of title 15), and to pay such share of premiums to the insurer, except that the Secretary may provide by regulation for appropriate circumstances under which an employer may withhold less than such employee’s share of such premiums.
(4) A law that prohibits an insurer from imposing requirements on a State agency, which has been assigned the rights of an individual eligible for medical assistance under this subchapter and covered for health benefits from the insurer, that are different from requirements applicable to an agent or assignee of any other individual so covered.
(5) A law that requires an insurer, in any case in which a child has health coverage through the insurer of a noncustodial parent—
(A) to provide such information to the custodial parent as may be necessary for the child to obtain benefits through such coverage;
(B) to permit the custodial parent (or provider, with the custodial parent’s approval) to submit claims for covered services without the approval of the noncustodial parent; and
(C) to make payment on claims submitted in accordance with subparagraph (B) directly to such custodial parent, the provider, or the State agency.
(6) A law that permits the State agency under this subchapter to garnish the wages, salary, or other employment income of, and requires withholding amounts from State tax refunds to, any person who—
(A) is required by court or administrative order to provide coverage of the costs of health services to a child who is eligible for medical assistance under this subchapter,
(B) has received payment from a third party for the costs of such services to such child, but
(C) has not used such payments to reimburse, as appropriate, either the other parent or guardian of such child or the provider of such services,
to the extent necessary to reimburse the State agency for expenditures for such costs under its plan under this subchapter, but any claims for current or past-due child support shall take priority over any such claims for the costs of such services.
(b) “Insurer” defined
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XIX, § 1908A, formerly § 1908, as added Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, § 13623(b), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 633, renumbered § 1908A, Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, § 1000(a)(6) [title VI, § 608(y)(1)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A–398.)
§ 1396h. State false claims act requirements for increased State share of recoveries
(a) In general
(b) Requirements
For purposes of subsection (a), the requirements of this subsection are that the Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services, in consultation with the Attorney General, determines that the State has in effect a law that meets the following requirements:
(1) The law establishes liability to the State for false or fraudulent claims described in section 3729 of title 31 with respect to any expenditure described in section 1396b(a) of this title.
(2) The law contains provisions that are at least as effective in rewarding and facilitating qui tam actions for false or fraudulent claims as those described in sections 3730 through 3732 of title 31.
(3) The law contains a requirement for filing an action under seal for 60 days with review by the State Attorney General.
(4) The law contains a civil penalty that is not less than the amount of the civil penalty authorized under section 3729 of title 31.
(c) Deemed compliance
(d) No preclusion of broader laws
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XIX, § 1909, as added Pub. L. 109–171, title VI, § 6031(a), Feb. 8, 2006, 120 Stat. 72.)
§ 1396i. Certification and approval of rural health clinics and intermediate care facilities for mentally retarded
(a)
(1) Whenever the Secretary certifies a facility in a State to be qualified as a rural health clinic under subchapter XVIII, such facility shall be deemed to meet the standards for certification as a rural health clinic for purposes of providing rural health clinic services under this subchapter.
(2) The Secretary shall notify the State agency administering the medical assistance plan of his approval or disapproval of any facility in that State which has applied for certification by him as a qualified rural health clinic.
(b)
(1) The Secretary may cancel approval of any intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded at any time if he finds on the basis of a determination made by him as provided in section 1396a(a)(33)(B) of this title that a facility fails to meet the requirements contained in section 1396a(a)(31) of this title or section 1396d(d) of this title, or if he finds grounds for termination of his agreement with the facility pursuant to section 1395cc(b) of this title. In that event the Secretary shall notify the State agency and the intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded that approval of eligibility of the facility to participate in the programs established by this subchapter and subchapter XVIII shall be terminated at a time specified by the Secretary. The approval of eligibility of any such facility to participate in such programs may not be reinstated unless the Secretary finds that the reason for termination has been removed and there is reasonable assurance that it will not recur.
(2) Any intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded which is dissatisfied with a determination by the Secretary that it no longer qualifies as a 1
1 So in original. Probably should be “an”.
intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded for purposes of this subchapter, shall be entitled to a hearing by the Secretary to the same extent as is provided in section 405(b) of this title and to judicial review of the Secretary’s final decision after such hearing as is provided in section 405(g) of this title, except that, in so applying such sections and in applying section 405(l) of this title thereto, any reference therein to the Commissioner of Social Security or the Social Security Administration shall be considered a reference to the Secretary or the Department of Health and Human Services, respectively. Any agreement between such facility and the State agency shall remain in effect until the period for filing a request for a hearing has expired or, if a request has been filed, until a decision has been made by the Secretary; except that the agreement shall not be extended if the Secretary makes a written determination, specifying the reasons therefor, that the continuation of provider status constitutes an immediate and serious threat to the health and safety of patients, and the Secretary certifies that the facility has been notified of its deficiencies and has failed to correct them.
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XIX, § 1910, as added and amended Pub. L. 92–603, title II, §§ 249A(a), 278(b)(12), Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1426, 1454; Pub. L. 95–210, § 2(d), Dec. 13, 1977, 91 Stat. 1489; Pub. L. 96–499, title IX, § 916(b)(2), Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2624; Pub. L. 100–203, title IV, § 4212(e)(3), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–213; Pub. L. 100–360, title IV, § 411(l)(6)(F), July 1, 1988, as added Pub. L. 100–485, title VI, § 608(d)(27)(J), Oct. 13, 1988, 102 Stat. 2423; Pub. L. 101–239, title VI, § 6901(d)(5), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2301; Pub. L. 103–296, title I, § 108(d)(4), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1486; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, § 1000(a)(6) [title VI, § 608(n)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A–397.)
§ 1396j. Indian Health Service facilities
(a) Eligibility for reimbursement for medical assistance
(b) Facilities deemed to meet requirements upon submission of acceptable plan for achieving compliance
(c) Agreement to reimburse State agency for providing care and services
(d) Cross reference
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XIX, § 1911, as added Pub. L. 94–437, title IV, § 402(a), Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1409; amended Pub. L. 100–203, title IV, §§ 4118(f)(1), 4211(h)(8), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–155, 1330–206; Pub. L. 100–360, title IV, § 411(k)(10)(E), July 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 796; Pub. L. 106–417, § 3(b)(2), Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1815.)
§ 1396k. Assignment, enforcement, and collection of rights of payments for medical care; establishment of procedures pursuant to State plan; amounts retained by State
(a) For the purpose of assisting in the collection of medical support payments and other payments for medical care owed to recipients of medical assistance under the State plan approved under this subchapter, a State plan for medical assistance shall—
(1) provide that, as a condition of eligibility for medical assistance under the State plan to an individual who has the legal capacity to execute an assignment for himself, the individual is required—
(A) to assign the State any rights, of the individual or of any other person who is eligible for medical assistance under this subchapter and on whose behalf the individual has the legal authority to execute an assignment of such rights, to support (specified as support for the purpose of medical care by a court or administrative order) and to payment for medical care from any third party;
(B) to cooperate with the State (i) in establishing the paternity of such person (referred to in subparagraph (A)) if the person is a child born out of wedlock, and (ii) in obtaining support and payments (described in subparagraph (A)) for himself and for such person, unless (in either case) the individual is described in section 1396a(l)(1)(A) of this title or the individual is found to have good cause for refusing to cooperate as determined by the State agency in accordance with standards prescribed by the Secretary, which standards shall take into consideration the best interests of the individuals involved; and
(C) to cooperate with the State in identifying, and providing information to assist the State in pursuing, any third party who may be liable to pay for care and services available under the plan, unless such individual has good cause for refusing to cooperate as determined by the State agency in accordance with standards prescribed by the Secretary, which standards shall take into consideration the best interests of the individuals involved; and
(2) provide for entering into cooperative arrangements (including financial arrangements), with any appropriate agency of any State (including, with respect to the enforcement and collection of rights of payment for medical care by or through a parent, with a State’s agency established or designated under section 654(3) of this title) and with appropriate courts and law enforcement officials, to assist the agency or agencies administering the State plan with respect to (A) the enforcement and collection of rights to support or payment assigned under this section and (B) any other matters of common concern.
(b) Such part of any amount collected by the State under an assignment made under the provisions of this section shall be retained by the State as is necessary to reimburse it for medical assistance payments made on behalf of an individual with respect to whom such assignment was executed (with appropriate reimbursement of the Federal Government to the extent of its participation in the financing of such medical assistance), and the remainder of such amount collected shall be paid to such individual.
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XIX, § 1912, as added Pub. L. 95–142, § 11(b), Oct. 25, 1977, 91 Stat. 1196; amended Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title III, § 2367(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1109; Pub. L. 99–272, title IX, § 9503(e), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 207; Pub. L. 101–508, title IV, § 4606(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–170; Pub. L. 113–67, div. A, title II, § 202(b)(2), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 1177; Pub. L. 115–123, div. E, title XII, § 53102(b)(1), Feb. 9, 2018, 132 Stat. 298.)
§ 1396l. Hospital providers of nursing facility services
(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, payment may be made, in accordance with this section, under a State plan approved under this subchapter for nursing facility services furnished by a hospital which has in effect an agreement under section 1395tt of this title and which, with respect to the provision of such services, meets the requirements of subsections (b) through (d) of section 1396r of this title.
(b)
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (3), payment to any such hospital, for any nursing facility services furnished pursuant to subsection (a), shall be at a rate equal to the average rate per patient-day paid for routine services during the previous calendar year under the State plan to nursing facilities, respectively,1
1 So in original, “, respectively,” probably should not appear.
located in the State in which the hospital is located. The reasonable cost of ancillary services shall be determined in the same manner as the reasonable cost of ancillary services provided for inpatient hospital services.
(2) With respect to any period for which a hospital has an agreement under section 1395tt of this title, in order to allocate routine costs between hospital and long-term care services, the total reimbursement for routine services due from all classes of long-term care patients (including subchapter XVIII, this subchapter, and private pay patients) shall be subtracted from the hospital total routine costs before calculations are made to determine reimbursement for routine hospital services under the State plan.
(3) Payment to all such hospitals, for any nursing facility services furnished pursuant to subsection (a), may be made at a payment rate established by the State in accordance with the requirements of section 1396a(a)(13)(A) of this title.
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XIX, § 1913, as added Pub. L. 96–499, title IX, § 904(b), Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2617; amended Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title III, § 2369(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1110; Pub. L. 100–203, title IV, § 4211(h)(9), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–206.)
§ 1396m. Withholding of Federal share of payments for certain medicare providers
(a) Adjustment of Federal matching payments
The Secretary may adjust, in accordance with this section, the Federal matching payment to a State with respect to expenditures for medical assistance for care or services furnished in any quarter by—
(1) an institution (A) which has or previously had in effect an agreement with the Secretary under section 1395cc of this title; and (B)(i) from which the Secretary has been unable to recover overpayments made under subchapter XVIII, or (ii) from which the Secretary has been unable to collect the information necessary to enable him to determine the amount (if any) of the overpayments made to such institution under subchapter XVIII; and
(2) any person (A) who (i) has previously accepted payment on the basis of an assignment under section 1395u(b)(3)(B)(ii) of this title, and (ii) during the annual period immediately preceding such quarter submitted no claims for payment under subchapter XVIII, or submitted claims for payment under subchapter XVIII which aggregated less than the amount of overpayments made to him, and (B)(i) from whom the Secretary has been unable to recover overpayments received in violation of the terms of such assignment, or (ii) from whom the Secretary has been unable to collect the information necessary to enable him to determine the amount (if any) of the overpayments made to such person under subchapter XVIII.
(b) Reductions in payments to and by States
(c) Notice
(d) Regulations
(e) Restoration to trust funds of recovered amounts
(f) Liability of States for withheld payments
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XIX, § 1914, as added Pub. L. 96–499, title IX, § 905(d), Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2618.)
§ 1396n. Compliance with State plan and payment provisions
(a) Activities deemed as complianceA State shall not be deemed to be out of compliance with the requirements of paragraphs (1), (10), or (23) of section 1396a(a) of this title solely by reason of the fact that the State (or any political subdivision thereof)—
(1) has entered into—
(A) a contract with an organization which has agreed to provide care and services in addition to those offered under the State plan to individuals eligible for medical assistance who reside in the geographic area served by such organization and who elect to obtain such care and services from such organization, or by reason of the fact that the plan provides for payment for rural health clinic services only if those services are provided by a rural health clinic; or
(B) arrangements through a competitive bidding process or otherwise for the purchase of laboratory services referred to in section 1396d(a)(3) of this title or medical devices if the Secretary has found that—
(i) adequate services or devices will be available under such arrangements, and
(ii) any such laboratory services will be provided only through laboratories—(I) which meet the applicable requirements of section 1395x(e)(9) of this title or paragraphs (16) and (17) of section 1395x(s) of this title, and such additional requirements as the Secretary may require, and(II) no more than 75 percent of whose charges for such services are for services provided to individuals who are entitled to benefits under this subchapter or under part A or part B of subchapter XVIII; or
(2) restricts for a reasonable period of time the provider or providers from which an individual (eligible for medical assistance for items or services under the State plan) can receive such items or services, if—
(A) the State has found, after notice and opportunity for a hearing (in accordance with procedures established by the State), that the individual has utilized such items or services at a frequency or amount not medically necessary (as determined in accordance with utilization guidelines established by the State), and
(B) under such restriction, individuals eligible for medical assistance for such services have reasonable access (taking into account geographic location and reasonable travel time) to such services of adequate quality.
(b) Waivers to promote cost-effectiveness and efficiencyThe Secretary, to the extent he finds it to be cost-effective and efficient and not inconsistent with the purposes of this subchapter, may waive such requirements of section 1396a of this title (other than subsection (s)) (other than sections 1396a(a)(15), 1396a(bb), and 1396a(a)(10)(A) of this title insofar as it requires provision of the care and services described in section 1396d(a)(2)(C) of this title) as may be necessary for a State—
(1) to implement a primary care case-management system or a specialty physician services arrangement which restricts the provider from (or through) whom an individual (eligible for medical assistance under this subchapter) can obtain medical care services (other than in emergency circumstances), if such restriction does not substantially impair access to such services of adequate quality where medically necessary,
(2) to allow a locality to act as a central broker in assisting individuals (eligible for medical assistance under this subchapter) in selecting among competing health care plans, if such restriction does not substantially impair access to services of adequate quality where medically necessary,
(3) to share (through provision of additional services) with recipients of medical assistance under the State plan cost savings resulting from use by the recipient of more cost-effective medical care, and
(4) to restrict the provider from (or through) whom an individual (eligible for medical assistance under this subchapter) can obtain services (other than in emergency circumstances) to providers or practitioners who undertake to provide such services and who meet, accept, and comply with the reimbursement, quality, and utilization standards under the State plan, which standards shall be consistent with the requirements of section 1396r–4 of this title and are consistent with access, quality, and efficient and economic provision of covered care and services, if such restriction does not discriminate among classes of providers on grounds unrelated to their demonstrated effectiveness and efficiency in providing those services and if providers under such restriction are paid on a timely basis in the same manner as health care practitioners must be paid under section 1396a(a)(37)(A) of this title.
No waiver under this subsection may restrict the choice of the individual in receiving services under section 1396d(a)(4)(C) of this title. Subsection (h)(2) shall apply to a waiver under this subsection.
(c) Waiver respecting medical assistance requirement in State plan; scope, etc.; “habilitation services” defined; imposition of certain regulatory limits prohibited; computation of expenditures for certain disabled patients; coordinated services; substitution of participants
(1) The Secretary may by waiver provide that a State plan approved under this subchapter may include as “medical assistance” under such plan payment for part or all of the cost of home or community-based services (other than room and board) approved by the Secretary which are provided pursuant to a written plan of care to individuals with respect to whom there has been a determination that but for the provision of such services the individuals would require the level of care provided in a hospital or a nursing facility or intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded the cost of which could be reimbursed under the State plan. For purposes of this subsection, the term “room and board” shall not include an amount established under a method determined by the State to reflect the portion of costs of rent and food attributable to an unrelated personal caregiver who is residing in the same household with an individual who, but for the assistance of such caregiver, would require admission to a hospital, nursing facility, or intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded.
(2) A waiver shall not be granted under this subsection unless the State provides assurances satisfactory to the Secretary that—
(A) necessary safeguards (including adequate standards for provider participation) have been taken to protect the health and welfare of individuals provided services under the waiver and to assure financial accountability for funds expended with respect to such services;
(B) the State will provide, with respect to individuals who—
(i) are entitled to medical assistance for inpatient hospital services, nursing facility services, or services in an intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded under the State plan,
(ii) may require such services, and
(iii) may be eligible for such home or community-based care under such waiver,
for an evaluation of the need for inpatient hospital services, nursing facility services, or services in an intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded;
(C) such individuals who are determined to be likely to require the level of care provided in a hospital, nursing facility, or intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded are informed of the feasible alternatives, if available under the waiver, at the choice of such individuals, to the provision of inpatient hospital services, nursing facility services, or services in an intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded;
(D) under such waiver the average per capita expenditure estimated by the State in any fiscal year for medical assistance provided with respect to such individuals does not exceed 100 percent of the average per capita expenditure that the State reasonably estimates would have been made in that fiscal year for expenditures under the State plan for such individuals if the waiver had not been granted; and
(E) the State will provide to the Secretary annually, consistent with a data collection plan designed by the Secretary, information on the impact of the waiver granted under this subsection on the type and amount of medical assistance provided under the State plan and on the health and welfare of recipients.
(3) A waiver granted under this subsection may include a waiver of the requirements of section 1396a(a)(1) of this title (relating to statewideness), section 1396a(a)(10)(B) of this title (relating to comparability), and section 1396a(a)(10)(C)(i)(III) of this title (relating to income and resource rules applicable in the community). A waiver under this subsection (other than a waiver described in subsection (h)(2)) shall be for an initial term of three years and, upon the request of a State, shall be extended for additional five-year periods unless the Secretary determines that for the previous waiver period the assurances provided under paragraph (2) have not been met. A waiver may provide, with respect to post-eligibility treatment of income of all individuals receiving services under that waiver, that the maximum amount of the individual’s income which may be disregarded for any month for the maintenance needs of the individual may be an amount greater than the maximum allowed for that purpose under regulations in effect on July 1, 1985.
(4) A waiver granted under this subsection may, consistent with paragraph (2)—
(A) limit the individuals provided benefits under such waiver to individuals with respect to whom the State has determined that there is a reasonable expectation that the amount of medical assistance provided with respect to the individual under such waiver will not exceed the amount of such medical assistance provided for such individual if the waiver did not apply, and
(B) provide medical assistance to individuals (to the extent consistent with written plans of care, which are subject to the approval of the State) for case management services, homemaker/home health aide services and personal care services, adult day health services, habilitation services, respite care, and such other services requested by the State as the Secretary may approve and for day treatment or other partial hospitalization services, psychosocial rehabilitation services, and clinic services (whether or not furnished in a facility) for individuals with chronic mental illness.
Except as provided under paragraph (2)(D), the Secretary may not restrict the number of hours or days of respite care in any period which a State may provide under a waiver under this subsection.
(5) For purposes of paragraph (4)(B), the term “habilitation services”—
(A) means services designed to assist individuals in acquiring, retaining, and improving the self-help, socialization, and adaptive skills necessary to reside successfully in home and community based settings; and
(B) includes (except as provided in subparagraph (C)) prevocational, educational, and supported employment services; but
(C) does not include—
(i) special education and related services (as such terms are defined in section 1401 of title 20) which otherwise are available to the individual through a local educational agency; and
(ii) vocational rehabilitation services which otherwise are available to the individual through a program funded under section 730 of title 29.
(6) The Secretary may not require, as a condition of approval of a waiver under this section under paragraph (2)(D), that the actual total expenditures for home and community-based services under the waiver (and a claim for Federal financial participation in expenditures for the services) cannot exceed the approved estimates for these services. The Secretary may not deny Federal financial payment with respect to services under such a waiver on the ground that, in order to comply with paragraph (2)(D), a State has failed to comply with such a requirement.
(7)
(A) In making estimates under paragraph (2)(D) in the case of a waiver that applies only to individuals with a particular illness or condition who are inpatients in, or who would require the level of care provided in, hospitals, nursing facilities, or intermediate care facilities for the mentally retarded, the State may determine the average per capita expenditure that would have been made in a fiscal year for those individuals under the State plan separately from the expenditures for other individuals who are inpatients in, or who would require the level of care provided in, those respective facilities.
(B) In making estimates under paragraph (2)(D) in the case of a waiver that applies only to individuals with developmental disabilities who are inpatients in a nursing facility and whom the State has determined, on the basis of an evaluation under paragraph (2)(B), to need the level of services provided by an intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded, the State may determine the average per capita expenditures that would have been made in a fiscal year for those individuals under the State plan on the basis of the average per capita expenditures under the State plan for services to individuals who are inpatients in an intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded, without regard to the availability of beds for such inpatients.
(C) In making estimates under paragraph (2)(D) in the case of a waiver to the extent that it applies to individuals with mental retardation or a related condition who are resident in an intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded the participation of which under the State plan is terminated, the State may determine the average per capita expenditures that would have been made in a fiscal year for those individuals without regard to any such termination.
(8) The State agency administering the plan under this subchapter may, whenever appropriate, enter into cooperative arrangements with the State agency responsible for administering the program for children with special health care needs under subchapter V in order to assure improved access to coordinated services to meet the needs of such children.
(9) In the case of any waiver under this subsection which contains a limit on the number of individuals who shall receive home or community-based services, the State may substitute additional individuals to receive such services to replace any individuals who die or become ineligible for services under the State plan.
(10) The Secretary shall not limit to fewer than 200 the number of individuals in the State who may receive home and community-based services under a waiver under this subsection.
(d) Home and community-based services for elderly
(1) Subject to paragraph (2), the Secretary shall grant a waiver to provide that a State plan approved under this subchapter shall include as “medical assistance” under such plan payment for part or all of the cost of home or community-based services (other than room and board) which are provided pursuant to a written plan of care to individuals 65 years of age or older with respect to whom there has been a determination that but for the provision of such services the individuals would be likely to require the level of care provided in a skilled nursing facility or intermediate care facility the cost of which could be reimbursed under the State plan. For purposes of this subsection, the term “room and board” shall not include an amount established under a method determined by the State to reflect the portion of costs of rent and food attributable to an unrelated personal caregiver who is residing in the same household with an individual who, but for the assistance of such caregiver, would require admission to a hospital, nursing facility, or intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded.
(2) A waiver shall not be granted under this subsection unless the State provides assurances satisfactory to the Secretary that—
(A) necessary safeguards (including adequate standards for provider participation) have been taken to protect the health and welfare of individuals provided services under the waiver and to assure financial accountability for funds expended with respect to such services;
(B) with respect to individuals 65 years of age or older who—
(i) are entitled to medical assistance for skilled nursing or intermediate care facility services under the State plan,
(ii) may require such services, and
(iii) may be eligible for such home or community-based services under such waiver,
the State will provide for an evaluation of the need for such skilled nursing facility or intermediate care facility services; and
(C) such individuals who are determined to be likely to require the level of care provided in a skilled nursing facility or intermediate care facility are informed of the feasible alternatives to the provision of skilled nursing facility or intermediate care facility services, which such individuals may choose if available under the waiver.
Each State with a waiver under this subsection shall provide to the Secretary annually, consistent with a reasonable data collection plan designed by the Secretary, information on the impact of the waiver granted under this subsection on the type and amount of medical assistance provided under the State plan and on the health and welfare of recipients.
(3) A waiver granted under this subsection may include a waiver of the requirements of section 1396a(a)(1) of this title (relating to statewideness), section 1396a(a)(10)(B) of this title (relating to comparability), and section 1396a(a)(10)(C)(i)(III) of this title (relating to income and resource rules applicable in the community). Subject to a termination by the State (with notice to the Secretary) at any time, a waiver under this subsection (other than a waiver described in subsection (h)(2)) shall be for an initial term of 3 years and, upon the request of a State, shall be extended for additional 5-year periods unless the Secretary determines that for the previous waiver period the assurances provided under paragraph (2) have not been met. A waiver may provide, with respect to post-eligibility treatment of income of all individuals receiving services under the waiver, that the maximum amount of the individual’s income which may be disregarded for any month is equal to the amount that may be allowed for that purpose under a waiver under subsection (c).
(4) A waiver under this subsection may, consistent with paragraph (2), provide medical assistance to individuals for case management services, homemaker/home health aide services and personal care services, adult day health services, respite care, and other medical and social services that can contribute to the health and well-being of individuals and their ability to reside in a community-based care setting.
(5)
(A) In the case of a State having a waiver approved under this subsection, notwithstanding any other provision of section 1396b of this title to the contrary, the total amount expended by the State for medical assistance with respect to skilled nursing facility services, intermediate care facility services, and home and community-based services under the State plan for individuals 65 years of age or older during a waiver year under this subsection may not exceed the projected amount determined under subparagraph (B).
(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), the projected amount under this subparagraph is the sum of the following:
(i) The aggregate amount of the State’s medical assistance under this subchapter for skilled nursing facility services and intermediate care facility services furnished to individuals who have attained the age of 65 for the base year increased by a percentage which is equal to the lesser of 7 percent times the number of years (rounded to the nearest quarter of a year) beginning after the base year and ending at the end of the waiver year involved or the sum of—(I) the percentage increase (based on an appropriate market-basket index representing the costs of elements of such services) between the beginning of the base year and the beginning of the waiver year involved, plus(II) the percentage increase between the beginning of the base year and the beginning of the waiver year involved in the number of residents in the State who have attained the age of 65, plus(III) 2 percent for each year (rounded to the nearest quarter of a year) beginning after the base year and ending at the end of the waiver year.
(ii) The aggregate amount of the State’s medical assistance under this subchapter for home and community-based services for individuals who have attained the age of 65 for the base year increased by a percentage which is equal to the lesser of 7 percent times the number of years (rounded to the nearest quarter of a year) beginning after the base year and ending at the end of the waiver year involved or the sum of—(I) the percentage increase (based on an appropriate market-basket index representing the costs of elements of such services) between the beginning of the base year and the beginning of the waiver year involved, plus(II) the percentage increase between the beginning of the base year and the beginning of the waiver year involved in the number of residents in the State who have attained the age of 65, plus(III) 2 percent for each year (rounded to the nearest quarter of a year) beginning after the base year and ending at the end of the waiver year.
(iii) The Secretary shall develop and promulgate by regulation (by not later than October 1, 1989)—(I) a method, based on an index of appropriately weighted indicators of changes in the wages and prices of the mix of goods and services which comprise both skilled nursing facility services and intermediate care facility services (regardless of the source of payment for such services), for projecting the percentage increase for purposes of clause (i)(I);(II) a method, based on an index of appropriately weighted indicators of changes in the wages and prices of the mix of goods and services which comprise home and community-based services (regardless of the source of payment for such services), for projecting the percentage increase for purposes of clause (ii)(I); and(III) a method for projecting, on a State specific basis, the percentage increase in the number of residents in each State who are over 65 years of age for any period.
The Secretary shall develop (by not later than October 1, 1989) a method for projecting, on a State-specific basis, the percentage increase in the number of residents in each State who are over 65 years of age for any period. Effective on and after the date the Secretary promulgates the regulation under clause (iii), any reference in this subparagraph to the “lesser of 7 percent” shall be deemed to be a reference to the “greater of 7 percent”.
(iv) If there is enacted after December 22, 1987, an Act which amends this subchapter whose provisions become effective on or after such date and which results in an increase in the aggregate amount of medical assistance under this subchapter for nursing facility services and home and community-based services for individuals who have attained the age of 65 years, the Secretary, at the request of a State with a waiver under this subsection for a waiver year or years and in close consultation with the State, shall adjust the projected amount computed under this subparagraph for the waiver year or years to take into account such increase.
(C) In this paragraph:
(i) The term “home and community-based services” includes services described in sections 1396d(a)(7) and 1396d(a)(8) of this title, services described in subsection (c)(4)(B), services described in paragraph (4), and personal care services.
(ii)(I) Subject to subclause (II), the term “base year” means the most recent year (ending before December 22, 1987) for which actual final expenditures under this subchapter have been reported to, and accepted by, the Secretary.(II) For purposes of subparagraph (C), in the case of a State that does not report expenditures on the basis of the age categories described in such subparagraph for a year ending before December 22, 1987, the term “base year” means fiscal year 1989.
(iii) The term “intermediate care facility services” does not include services furnished in an institution certified in accordance with section 1396d(d) of this title.
(6)
(A) A determination by the Secretary to deny a request for a waiver (or extension of waiver) under this subsection shall be subject to review to the extent provided under section 1316(b) of this title.
(B) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, if the Secretary denies a request of the State for an extension of a waiver under this subsection, any waiver under this subsection in effect on the date such request is made shall remain in effect for a period of not less than 90 days after the date on which the Secretary denies such request (or, if the State seeks review of such determination in accordance with subparagraph (A), the date on which a final determination is made with respect to such review).
(e) Waiver for children infected with AIDS or drug dependent at birth
(1)
(A) Subject to paragraph (2), the Secretary shall grant a waiver to provide that a State plan approved under this subchapter shall include as “medical assistance” under such plan payment for part or all of the cost of nursing care, respite care, physicians’ services, prescribed drugs, medical devices and supplies, transportation services, and such other services requested by the State as the Secretary may approve which are provided pursuant to a written plan of care to a child described in subparagraph (B) with respect to whom there has been a determination that but for the provision of such services the infants would be likely to require the level of care provided in a hospital or nursing facility the cost of which could be reimbursed under the State plan.
(B) Children described in this subparagraph are individuals under 5 years of age who—
(i) at the time of birth were infected with (or tested positively for) the etiologic agent for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS),
(ii) have such syndrome, or
(iii) at the time of birth were dependent on heroin, cocaine, or phencyclidine,
and with respect to whom adoption or foster care assistance is (or will be) made available under part E of subchapter IV.
(2) A waiver shall not be granted under this subsection unless the State provides assurances satisfactory to the Secretary that—
(A) necessary safeguards (including adequate standards for provider participation) have been taken to protect the health and welfare of individuals provided services under the waiver and to assure financial accountability for funds expended with respect to such services;
(B) under such waiver the average per capita expenditure estimated by the State in any fiscal year for medical assistance provided with respect to such individuals does not exceed 100 percent of the average per capita expenditure that the State reasonably estimates would have been made in that fiscal year for expenditures under the State plan for such individuals if the waiver had not been granted; and
(C) the State will provide to the Secretary annually, consistent with a data collection plan designed by the Secretary, information on the impact of the waiver granted under this subsection on the type and amount of medical assistance provided under the State plan and on the health and welfare of recipients.
(3) A waiver granted under this subsection may include a waiver of the requirements of section 1396a(a)(1) of this title (relating to statewideness) and section 1396a(a)(10)(B) of this title (relating to comparability). A waiver under this subsection shall be for an initial term of 3 years and, upon the request of a State, shall be extended for additional five-year periods unless the Secretary determines that for the previous waiver period the assurances provided under paragraph (2) have not been met.
(4) The provisions of paragraph (6) of subsection (d) shall apply to this subsection in the same manner as it applies to subsection (d).
(f) Monitor of implementation of waivers; termination of waiver for noncompliance; time limitation for action on requests for plan approval, amendments, or waivers
(1) The Secretary shall monitor the implementation of waivers granted under this section to assure that the requirements for such waiver are being met and shall, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, terminate any such waiver where he finds noncompliance has occurred.
(2) A request to the Secretary from a State for approval of a proposed State plan or plan amendment or a waiver of a requirement of this subchapter submitted by the State pursuant to a provision of this subchapter shall be deemed granted unless the Secretary, within 90 days after the date of its submission to the Secretary, either denies such request in writing or informs the State agency in writing with respect to any additional information which is needed in order to make a final determination with respect to the request. After the date the Secretary receives such additional information, the request shall be deemed granted unless the Secretary, within 90 days of such date, denies such request.
(g) Optional targeted case management services
(1) A State may provide, as medical assistance, case management services under the plan without regard to the requirements of section 1396a(a)(1) of this title and section 1396a(a)(10)(B) of this title. The provision of case management services under this subsection shall not restrict the choice of the individual to receive medical assistance in violation of section 1396a(a)(23) of this title. A State may limit the provision of case management services under this subsection to individuals with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), or with AIDS-related conditions, or with either, or to individuals described in section 1396a(z)(1)(A) of this title and a State may limit the provision of case management services under this subsection to individuals with chronic mental illness. The State may limit the case managers available with respect to case management services for eligible individuals with developmental disabilities or with chronic mental illness in order to ensure that the case managers for such individuals are capable of ensuring that such individuals receive needed services.
(2) For purposes of this subsection:
(A)
(i) The term “case management services” means services which will assist individuals eligible under the plan in gaining access to needed medical, social, educational, and other services.
(ii) Such term includes the following:(I) Assessment of an eligible individual to determine service needs, including activities that focus on needs identification, to determine the need for any medical, educational, social, or other services. Such assessment activities include the following:(aa) Taking client history.(bb) Identifying the needs of the individual, and completing related documentation.(cc) Gathering information from other sources such as family members, medical providers, social workers, and educators, if necessary, to form a complete assessment of the eligible individual.(II) Development of a specific care plan based on the information collected through an assessment, that specifies the goals and actions to address the medical, social, educational, and other services needed by the eligible individual, including activities such as ensuring the active participation of the eligible individual and working with the individual (or the individual’s authorized health care decision maker) and others to develop such goals and identify a course of action to respond to the assessed needs of the eligible individual.(III) Referral and related activities to help an individual obtain needed services, including activities that help link eligible individuals with medical, social, educational providers or other programs and services that are capable of providing needed services, such as making referrals to providers for needed services and scheduling appointments for the individual.(IV) Monitoring and followup activities, including activities and contacts that are necessary to ensure the care plan is effectively implemented and adequately addressing the needs of the eligible individual, and which may be with the individual, family members, providers, or other entities and conducted as frequently as necessary to help determine such matters as—(aa) whether services are being furnished in accordance with an individual’s care plan;(bb) whether the services in the care plan are adequate; and(cc) whether there are changes in the needs or status of the eligible individual, and if so, making necessary adjustments in the care plan and service arrangements with providers.
(iii) Such term does not include the direct delivery of an underlying medical, educational, social, or other service to which an eligible individual has been referred, including, with respect to the direct delivery of foster care services, services such as (but not limited to) the following:(I) Research gathering and completion of documentation required by the foster care program.(II) Assessing adoption placements.(III) Recruiting or interviewing potential foster care parents.(IV) Serving legal papers.(V) Home investigations.(VI) Providing transportation.(VII) Administering foster care subsidies.(VIII) Making placement arrangements.
(B) The term “targeted case management services” are case management services that are furnished without regard to the requirements of section 1396a(a)(1) of this title and section 1396a(a)(10)(B) of this title to specific classes of individuals or to individuals who reside in specified areas.
(3) With respect to contacts with individuals who are not eligible for medical assistance under the State plan or, in the case of targeted case management services, individuals who are eligible for such assistance but are not part of the target population specified in the State plan, such contacts—
(A) are considered an allowable case management activity, when the purpose of the contact is directly related to the management of the eligible individual’s care; and
(B) are not considered an allowable case management activity if such contacts relate directly to the identification and management of the noneligible or nontargeted individual’s needs and care.
(4)
(A) In accordance with section 1396a(a)(25) of this title, Federal financial participation only is available under this subchapter for case management services or targeted case management services if there are no other third parties liable to pay for such services, including as reimbursement under a medical, social, educational, or other program.
(B) A State shall allocate the costs of any part of such services which are reimbursable under another federally funded program in accordance with OMB Circular A–87 (or any related or successor guidance or regulations regarding allocation of costs among federally funded programs) under an approved cost allocation program.
(5) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed as affecting the application of rules with respect to third party liability under programs, or activities carried out under title XXVI of the Public Health Service Act [42 U.S.C. 300ff et seq.] or by the Indian Health Service.
(h) Period of waivers; continuations
(1) No waiver under this section (other than a waiver under subsection (c), (d), or (e), or a waiver described in paragraph (2)) may extend over a period of longer than two years unless the State requests continuation of such waiver, and such request shall be deemed granted unless the Secretary, within 90 days after the date of its submission to the Secretary, either denies such request in writing or informs the State agency in writing with respect to any additional information which is needed in order to make a final determination with respect to the request. After the date the Secretary receives such additional information, the request shall be deemed granted unless the Secretary, within 90 days of such date, denies such request.
(2)
(A) Notwithstanding subsections (c)(3) and (d)(3), any waiver under subsection (b), (c), or (d), or a waiver under section 1315 of this title, that provides medical assistance for dual eligible individuals (including any such waivers under which non dual eligible individuals may be enrolled in addition to dual eligible individuals) may be conducted for a period of 5 years and, upon the request of the State, may be extended for additional 5-year periods unless the Secretary determines that for the previous waiver period the conditions for the waiver have not been met or it would no longer be cost-effective and efficient, or consistent with the purposes of this subchapter, to extend the waiver.
(B) In this paragraph, the term “dual eligible individual” means an individual who is entitled to, or enrolled for, benefits under part A of subchapter XVIII, or enrolled for benefits under part B of subchapter XVIII, and is eligible for medical assistance under the State plan under this subchapter or under a waiver of such plan.
(i) State plan amendment option to provide home and community-based services for elderly and disabled individuals
(1) In generalSubject to the succeeding provisions of this subsection, a State may provide through a State plan amendment for the provision of medical assistance for home and community-based services (within the scope of services described in paragraph (4)(B) of subsection (c) for which the Secretary has the authority to approve a waiver and not including room and board) for individuals eligible for medical assistance under the State plan whose income does not exceed 150 percent of the poverty line (as defined in section 1397jj(c)(5) of this title), without determining that but for the provision of such services the individuals would require the level of care provided in a hospital or a nursing facility or intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded, but only if the State meets the following requirements:
(A) Needs-based criteria for eligibility for, and receipt of, home and community-based services
(B) Establishment of more stringent needs-based eligibility criteria for institutionalized care
(C) Projection of number of individuals to be provided home and community-based services
(D) Criteria based on individual assessment
(i) In general
(ii) Adjustment authorityThe State plan amendment provides the State with the option to modify the criteria established under subparagraph (A) (without having to obtain prior approval from the Secretary) in the event that the enrollment of individuals eligible for home and community-based services exceeds the projected enrollment submitted for purposes of subparagraph (C), but only if—(I) the State provides at least 60 days notice to the Secretary and the public of the proposed modification;(II) the State deems an individual receiving home and community-based services on the basis of the most recent version of the criteria in effect prior to the effective date of the modification to continue to be eligible for such services after the effective date of the modification and until such time as the individual no longer meets the standard for receipt of such services under such pre-modified criteria; and(III) after the effective date of such modification, the State, at a minimum, applies the criteria for determining whether an individual requires the level of care provided in a hospital, a nursing facility, or an intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded under the State plan or under any waiver of such plan which applied prior to the application of the more stringent criteria developed under subparagraph (B).
(E) Independent evaluation and assessment
(i) Eligibility determination
(ii) AssessmentIn the case of an individual who is determined to be eligible for home and community-based services, the State uses an independent assessment, based on the needs of the individual to—(I) determine a necessary level of services and supports to be provided, consistent with an individual’s physical and mental capacity;(II) prevent the provision of unnecessary or inappropriate care; and(III) establish an individualized care plan for the individual in accordance with subparagraph (G).
(F) AssessmentThe independent assessment required under subparagraph (E)(ii) shall include the following:
(i) An objective evaluation of an individual’s inability to perform 2 or more activities of daily living (as defined in section 7702B(c)(2)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) or the need for significant assistance to perform such activities.
(ii) A face-to-face evaluation of the individual by an individual trained in the assessment and evaluation of individuals whose physical or mental conditions trigger a potential need for home and community-based services.
(iii) Where appropriate, consultation with the individual’s family, spouse, guardian, or other responsible individual.
(iv) Consultation with appropriate treating and consulting health and support professionals caring for the individual.
(v) An examination of the individual’s relevant history, medical records, and care and support needs, guided by best practices and research on effective strategies that result in improved health and quality of life outcomes.
(vi) If the State offers individuals the option to self-direct the purchase of, or control the receipt of, home and community-based service, an evaluation of the ability of the individual or the individual’s representative to self-direct the purchase of, or control the receipt of, such services if the individual so elects.
(G) Individualized care plan
(i) In general
(ii) Plan requirementsThe State ensures that the individualized care plan for an individual—(I) is developed—(aa) in consultation with the individual, the individual’s treating physician, health care or support professional, or other appropriate individuals, as defined by the State, and, where appropriate the individual’s family, caregiver, or representative; and(bb) taking into account the extent of, and need for, any family or other supports for the individual;(II) identifies the necessary home and community-based services to be furnished to the individual (or, if the individual elects to self-direct the purchase of, or control the receipt of, such services, funded for the individual); and(III) is reviewed at least annually and as needed when there is a significant change in the individual’s circumstances.
(iii) State option to offer election for self-directed services(I) Individual choice(II) Self-directed servicesThe term “self-directed” means, with respect to the home and community-based services offered under the State plan amendment, such services for the individual which are planned and purchased under the direction and control of such individual or the individual’s authorized representative, including the amount, duration, scope, provider, and location of such services, under the State plan consistent with the following requirements:(aa) Assessment(bb) Service plan(III) Plan requirementsFor purposes of subclause (II)(bb), the requirements of this subclause are that the plan—(aa) specifies those services which the individual or the individual’s authorized representative would be responsible for directing;(bb) identifies the methods by which the individual or the individual’s authorized representative will select, manage, and dismiss providers of such services;(cc) specifies the role of family members and others whose participation is sought by the individual or the individual’s authorized representative with respect to such services;(dd) is developed through a person-centered process that is directed by the individual or the individual’s authorized representative, builds upon the individual’s capacity to engage in activities that promote community life and that respects the individual’s preferences, choices, and abilities, and involves families, friends, and professionals as desired or required by the individual or the individual’s authorized representative;(ee) includes appropriate risk management techniques that recognize the roles and sharing of responsibilities in obtaining services in a self-directed manner and assure the appropriateness of such plan based upon the resources and capabilities of the individual or the individual’s authorized representative; and(ff) may include an individualized budget which identifies the dollar value of the services and supports under the control and direction of the individual or the individual’s authorized representative.(IV) Budget processWith respect to individualized budgets described in subclause (III)(ff), the State plan amendment—(aa) describes the method for calculating the dollar values in such budgets based on reliable costs and service utilization;(bb) defines a process for making adjustments in such dollar values to reflect changes in individual assessments and service plans; and(cc) provides a procedure to evaluate expenditures under such budgets.
(H) Quality assurance; conflict of interest standards
(i) Quality assurance
(ii) Conflict of interest standards
(I) Redeterminations and appeals
(J) Presumptive eligibility for assessment
(2) Definition of individual’s representative
(3) Nonapplication
(4) No effect on other waiver authority
(5) Continuation of Federal financial participation for medical assistance provided to individuals as of effective date of State plan amendment
(6) State option to provide home and community-based services to individuals eligible for services under a waiver
(A) In general
(B) Application of same requirements for individuals satisfying needs-based criteria
(C) Authority to offer different type, amount, duration, or scope of home and community-based services
(7) State option to offer home and community-based services to specific, targeted populations
(A) In general
(B) 5-year term
(i) In general
(ii) Phase-in of services and eligibility permitted during initial 5-year period
(C) RenewalAn election by a State under this paragraph may be renewed for additional 5-year terms if the Secretary determines, prior to beginning 1
1 So in original. Probably should be preceded by “the”.
of each such renewal period, that the State has—
(i) adhered to the requirements of this subsection and paragraph in providing services under such an election; and
(ii) met the State’s objectives with respect to quality improvement and beneficiary outcomes.
(j) Optional choice of self-directed personal assistance services
(1) A State may provide, as “medical assistance”, payment for part or all of the cost of self-directed personal assistance services (other than room and board) under the plan which are provided pursuant to a written plan of care to individuals with respect to whom there has been a determination that, but for the provision of such services, the individuals would require and receive personal care services under the plan, or home and community-based services provided pursuant to a waiver under subsection (c). Self-directed personal assistance services may not be provided under this subsection to individuals who reside in a home or property that is owned, operated, or controlled by a provider of services, not related by blood or marriage.
(2) The Secretary shall not grant approval for a State self-directed personal assistance services program under this section unless the State provides assurances satisfactory to the Secretary of the following:
(A) Necessary safeguards have been taken to protect the health and welfare of individuals provided services under the program, and to assure financial accountability for funds expended with respect to such services.
(B) The State will provide, with respect to individuals who—
(i) are entitled to medical assistance for personal care services under the plan, or receive home and community-based services under a waiver granted under subsection (c);
(ii) may require self-directed personal assistance services; and
(iii) may be eligible for self-directed personal assistance services,
an evaluation of the need for personal care under the plan, or personal services under a waiver granted under subsection (c).
(C) Such individuals who are determined to be likely to require personal care under the plan, or home and community-based services under a waiver granted under subsection (c) are informed of the feasible alternatives, if available under the State’s self-directed personal assistance services program, at the choice of such individuals, to the provision of personal care services under the plan, or personal assistance services under a waiver granted under subsection (c).
(D) The State will provide for a support system that ensures participants in the self-directed personal assistance services program are appropriately assessed and counseled prior to enrollment and are able to manage their budgets. Additional counseling and management support may be provided at the request of the participant.
(E) The State will provide to the Secretary an annual report on the number of individuals served and total expenditures on their behalf in the aggregate. The State shall also provide an evaluation of overall impact on the health and welfare of participating individuals compared to non-participants every three years.
(3) A State may provide self-directed personal assistance services under the State plan without regard to the requirements of section 1396a(a)(1) of this title and may limit the population eligible to receive these services and limit the number of persons served without regard to section 1396a(a)(10)(B) of this title.
(4)
(A) For purposes of this subsection, the term “self-directed personal assistance services” means personal care and related services, or home and community-based services otherwise available under the plan under this subchapter or subsection (c), that are provided to an eligible participant under a self-directed personal assistance services program under this section, under which individuals, within an approved self-directed services plan and budget, purchase personal assistance and related services, and permits participants to hire, fire, supervise, and manage the individuals providing such services.
(B) At the election of the State—
(i) a participant may choose to use any individual capable of providing the assigned tasks including legally liable relatives as paid providers of the services; and
(ii) the individual may use the individual’s budget to acquire items that increase independence or substitute (such as a microwave oven or an accessibility ramp) for human assistance, to the extent that expenditures would otherwise be made for the human assistance.
(5) For purpose of this section, the term “approved self-directed services plan and budget” means, with respect to a participant, the establishment of a plan and budget for the provision of self-directed personal assistance services, consistent with the following requirements:
(A) Self-direction
(B) Assessment of needs
(C) Service planA plan for such services (and supports for such services) for the participant has been developed and approved by the State based on such assessment through a person-centered process that—
(i) builds upon the participant’s capacity to engage in activities that promote community life and that respects the participant’s preferences, choices, and abilities; and
(ii) involves families, friends, and professionals in the planning or delivery of services or supports as desired or required by the participant.
(D) Service budget
(E) Application of quality assurance and risk management
(6) A State may employ a financial management entity to make payments to providers, track costs, and make reports under the program. Payment for the activities of the financial management entity shall be at the administrative rate established in section 1396b(a) of this title.
(k) State plan option to provide home and community-based attendant services and supports
(1) In generalSubject to the succeeding provisions of this subsection, beginning October 1, 2011, a State may provide through a State plan amendment for the provision of medical assistance for home and community-based attendant services and supports for individuals who are eligible for medical assistance under the State plan whose income does not exceed 150 percent of the poverty line (as defined in section 1397jj(c)(5) of this title) or, if greater, the income level applicable for an individual who has been determined to require an institutional level of care to be eligible for nursing facility services under the State plan and with respect to whom there has been a determination that, but for the provision of such services, the individuals would require the level of care provided in a hospital, a nursing facility, an intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded, or an institution for mental diseases, the cost of which could be reimbursed under the State plan, but only if the individual chooses to receive such home and community-based attendant services and supports, and only if the State meets the following requirements:
(A) AvailabilityThe State shall make available home and community-based attendant services and supports to eligible individuals, as needed, to assist in accomplishing activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, and health-related tasks through hands-on assistance, supervision, or cueing—
(i) under a person-centered plan of services and supports that is based on an assessment of functional need and that is agreed to in writing by the individual or, as appropriate, the individual’s representative;
(ii) in a home or community setting, which does not include a nursing facility, institution for mental diseases, or an intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded;
(iii) under an agency-provider model or other model (as defined in paragraph (6)(C)); and
(iv) the furnishing of which—(I) is selected, managed, and dismissed by the individual, or, as appropriate, with assistance from the individual’s representative;(II) is controlled, to the maximum extent possible, by the individual or where appropriate, the individual’s representative, regardless of who may act as the employer of record; and(III) provided by an individual who is qualified to provide such services, including family members (as defined by the Secretary).
(B) Included services and supportsIn addition to assistance in accomplishing activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, and health related tasks, the home and community-based attendant services and supports made available include—
(i) the acquisition, maintenance, and enhancement of skills necessary for the individual to accomplish activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, and health related tasks;
(ii) back-up systems or mechanisms (such as the use of beepers or other electronic devices) to ensure continuity of services and supports; and
(iii) voluntary training on how to select, manage, and dismiss attendants.
(C) Excluded services and supportsSubject to subparagraph (D), the home and community-based attendant services and supports made available do not include—
(i) room and board costs for the individual;
(ii) special education and related services provided under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act [20 U.S.C. 1400 et seq.] and vocational rehabilitation services provided under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 [29 U.S.C. 701 et seq.];
(iii) assistive technology devices and assistive technology services other than those under (1)(B)(ii);
(iv) medical supplies and equipment; or
(v) home modifications.
(D) Permissible services and supportsThe home and community-based attendant services and supports may include—
(i) expenditures for transition costs such as rent and utility deposits, first month’s rent and utilities, bedding, basic kitchen supplies, and other necessities required for an individual to make the transition from a nursing facility, institution for mental diseases, or intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded to a community-based home setting where the individual resides; and
(ii) expenditures relating to a need identified in an individual’s person-centered plan of services that increase independence or substitute for human assistance, to the extent that expenditures would otherwise be made for the human assistance.
(2)
(3) State requirementsIn order for a State plan amendment to be approved under this subsection, the State shall—
(A) develop and implement such amendment in collaboration with a Development and Implementation Council established by the State that includes a majority of members with disabilities, elderly individuals, and their representatives and consults and collaborates with such individuals;
(B) provide consumer controlled home and community-based attendant services and supports to individuals on a statewide basis, in a manner that provides such services and supports in the most integrated setting appropriate to the individual’s needs, and without regard to the individual’s age, type or nature of disability, severity of disability, or the form of home and community-based attendant services and supports that the individual requires in order to lead an independent life;
(C) with respect to expenditures during the first full fiscal year in which the State plan amendment is implemented, maintain or exceed the level of State expenditures for medical assistance that is provided under section 1396d(a) of this title, this section, section 1315 of this title, or otherwise to individuals with disabilities or elderly individuals attributable to the preceding fiscal year;
(D) establish and maintain a comprehensive, continuous quality assurance system with respect to community-based attendant services and supports that—
(i) includes standards for agency-based and other delivery models with respect to training, appeals for denials and reconsideration procedures of an individual plan, and other factors as determined by the Secretary;
(ii) incorporates feedback from consumers and their representatives, disability organizations, providers, families of disabled or elderly individuals, members of the community, and others and maximizes consumer independence and consumer control;
(iii) monitors the health and well-being of each individual who receives home and community-based attendant services and supports, including a process for the mandatory reporting, investigation, and resolution of allegations of neglect, abuse, or exploitation in connection with the provision of such services and supports; and
(iv) provides information about the provisions of the quality assurance required under clauses (i) through (iii) to each individual receiving such services; and
(E) collect and report information, as determined necessary by the Secretary, for the purposes of approving the State plan amendment, providing Federal oversight, and conducting an evaluation under paragraph (5)(A), including data regarding how the State provides home and community-based attendant services and supports and other home and community-based services, the cost of such services and supports, and how the State provides individuals with disabilities who otherwise qualify for institutional care under the State plan or under a waiver the choice to instead receive home and community-based services in lieu of institutional care.
(4) Compliance with certain lawsA State shall ensure that, regardless of whether the State uses an agency-provider model or other models to provide home and community-based attendant services and supports under a State plan amendment under this subsection, such services and supports are provided in accordance with the requirements of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 [29 U.S.C. 201 et seq.] and applicable Federal and State laws regarding—
(A) withholding and payment of Federal and State income and payroll taxes;
(B) the provision of unemployment and workers compensation insurance;
(C) maintenance of general liability insurance; and
(D) occupational health and safety.
(5) Evaluation, data collection, and report to Congress
(A) Evaluation
(B) Data collectionThe State shall provide the Secretary with the following information regarding the provision of home and community-based attendant services and supports under this subsection for each fiscal year for which such services and supports are provided:
(i) The number of individuals who are estimated to receive home and community-based attendant services and supports under this subsection during the fiscal year.
(ii) The number of individuals that received such services and supports during the preceding fiscal year.
(iii) The specific number of individuals served by type of disability, age, gender, education level, and employment status.
(iv) Whether the specific individuals have been previously served under any other home and community based services program under the State plan or under a waiver.
(C) ReportsNot later than—
(i)December 31, 2013, the Secretary shall submit to Congress and make available to the public an interim report on the findings of the evaluation under subparagraph (A); and
(ii)December 31, 2015, the Secretary shall submit to Congress and make available to the public a final report on the findings of the evaluation under subparagraph (A).
(6) DefinitionsIn this subsection:
(A) Activities of daily living
(B) Consumer controlled
(C) Delivery models
(i) Agency-provider model
(ii) Other models
(D) Health-related tasks
(E) Individual’s representative
(F) Instrumental activities of daily living
(l) State plan amendment option to provide medical assistance for certain individuals who are patients in certain institutions for mental diseases
(1) In general
(2) Payments
(3) Maintenance of effort
(A) In generalAs a condition for a State receiving payments under section 1396b(a) of this title for medical assistance provided in accordance with this subsection, the State shall (during the period in which it so furnished such medical assistance through a State plan amendment under this subsection) maintain on an annual basis a level of funding expended by the State (and political subdivisions thereof) from non-Federal funds for items and services (including services described in subparagraph (B)) furnished to eligible individuals in outpatient and community-based settings that is not less than the level of such funding for such items and services for, at the option of the State—
(i) fiscal year 2018; or
(ii) the most recently ended fiscal year as of the date the State submits a State plan amendment to the Secretary to provide such medical assistance in accordance with this subsection.
(B) Services describedFor purposes of subparagraph (A), services described in this subparagraph are the following:
(i) Outpatient and community-based substance use disorder treatment.
(ii) Evidence-based recovery and support services.
(iii) Clinically-directed therapeutic treatment to facilitate recovery skills, relapse prevention, and emotional coping strategies.
(iv) Outpatient medication-assisted treatment, related therapies, and pharmacology.
(v) Counseling and clinical monitoring.
(vi) Outpatient withdrawal management and related treatment designed to alleviate acute emotional, behavioral, cognitive, or biomedical distress resulting from, or occurring with, an individual’s use of alcohol and other drugs.
(vii) Routine monitoring of medication adherence.
(viii) Other outpatient and community-based services for the treatment of substance use disorders, as designated by the Secretary.
(C) State reporting requirement
(i) In general
(ii) Process
(D) Application of maintenance of effort requirements to certain States
(4) Ensuring a continuum of services
(A) In general
(B) Notification
(C) Outpatient services; inpatient and residential services
(i) Outpatient servicesThe State shall, at a minimum, provide medical assistance for services that could otherwise be covered under the State plan, consistent with each of the following outpatient levels of care:(I) Early intervention for individuals who, for a known reason, are at risk of developing substance-related problems and for individuals for whom there is not yet sufficient information to document a diagnosable substance use disorder.(II) Outpatient services for less than 9 hours per week for adults, and for less than 6 hours per week for adolescents, for recovery or motivational enhancement therapies and strategies.(III) Intensive outpatient services for 9 hours or more per week for adults, and for 6 hours or more per week for adolescents, to treat multidimensional instability.(IV) Partial hospitalization services for 20 hours or more per week for adults and adolescents to treat multidimensional instability that does not require 24-hour care.
(ii) Inpatient and residential servicesThe State shall provide medical assistance for services that could otherwise be covered under the State plan, consistent with at least 2 of the following inpatient and residential levels of care:(I) Clinically managed, low-intensity residential services that provide adults and adolescents with 24-hour living support and structure with trained personnel and at least 5 hours of clinical service per week per individual.(II) Clinically managed, population-specific, high-intensity residential services that provide adults with 24-hour care with trained counselors to stabilize multidimensional imminent danger along with less intense milieu and group treatment for those with cognitive or other impairments unable to use full active milieu or therapeutic community.(III) Clinically managed, medium-intensity residential services for adolescents, and clinically managed, high-intensity residential services for adults, that provide 24-hour care with trained counselors to stabilize multidimensional imminent danger and preparation for outpatient treatment.(IV) Medically monitored, high-intensity inpatient services for adolescents, and medically monitored, intensive inpatient services withdrawal management for adults, that provide 24-hour nursing care, make physicians available for significant conditions, and provide counseling services 16 hours per day.(V) Medically managed, intensive inpatient services for adolescents and adults that provide 24-hour nursing care and daily physician care for severe, unstable conditions.
(D) Transition of care
(i) a placement in such eligible institution for mental diseases would allow for an eligible individual’s successful transition to the community, considering such factors as proximity to an individual’s support network (such as family members, employment, and counseling and other services near an individual’s residence); and
(ii) all eligible institutions for mental diseases that furnish items and services to individuals for which medical assistance is provided under the State plan—(I) are able to provide care at such lower level of clinical intensity; or(II) have an established relationship with another facility or provider that is able to provide care at such lower level of clinical intensity and accepts patients receiving medical assistance under this subchapter under which the eligible institution for mental diseases may arrange for individuals to receive such care from such other facility or provider.
(E) Review process
(F) Assessment
(i) In generalThe State shall, not later than 12 months after the approval of a State plan amendment described in this subsection (or, in the case of a State that has such an amendment approved as of September 30, 2023, not later than 12 months after March 9, 2024), commence an assessment of—(I) the availability of treatment for individuals enrolled under a State plan under this subchapter (or waiver of such plan) in each level of care described in subparagraph (C), including how such availability varies by region of the State; and(II) the availability of medication-assisted treatment and medically supervised withdrawal management services for such individuals, including how such availability varies by region of the State.
(ii) Required completion
(5) Application to managed care
(6) Other medical assistance
(7) DefinitionsIn this subsection:
(A) Eligible individualThe term “eligible individual” means an individual who—
(i) with respect to a State, is enrolled for medical assistance under the State plan or a waiver of such plan;
(ii) is at least 21 years of age;
(iii) has not attained 65 years of age; and
(iv) has at least 1 substance use disorder.
(B) Eligible institution for mental diseasesThe term “eligible institution for mental diseases” means an institution for mental diseases that—
(i) follows reliable, evidence-based practices; and
(ii) offers at least 2 forms of medication-assisted treatment for substance use disorders on site, including, in the case of medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder, at least 1 antagonist and 1 partial agonist.
(C) Institution for mental diseases
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XIX, § 1915, as added Pub. L. 97–35, title XXI, § 2175(b), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 809; amended Pub. L. 97–35, title XXI, §§ 2176, 2177(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 812, 813; Pub. L. 97–248, title I, § 137(b)(19)(A), (20)–(25), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 380; Pub. L. 97–448, title III, § 309(b)(17), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2409; Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title III, § 2373(b)(21), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1112; Pub. L. 99–272, title IX, §§ 9502(a)–(e), (g)–(i), 9508(a), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 202–204, 210; Pub. L. 99–509, title IX, §§ 9320(h)(3), 9411(a)–(d), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 2016, 2061, 2062; Pub. L. 100–93, § 8(h)(2), Aug. 18, 1987, 101 Stat. 694; Pub. L. 100–203, title IV, §§ 4072(d), 4102(a)(1), (b)(2), 4118(a)(1), (b), (i)(1), (k), (l)(1), (p)(10), 4211(h)(10), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–117, 1330–143, 1330–146, 1330–154 to 1330–157, 1330–160, 1330–206; Pub. L. 100–360, title II, § 204(d)(3), title IV, § 411(k)(3), (10)(A), (H), (I), (17)(A), (l)(3)(G), July 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 729, 791, 794, 796, 799, 803; Pub. L. 100–485, title VI, § 608(d)(26)(M), (f)(2), Oct. 13, 1988, 102 Stat. 2422, 2424; Pub. L. 100–647, title VIII, §§ 8432(a), (b), 8437(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3804, 3806; Pub. L. 101–234, title II, § 201(a), Dec. 13, 1989, 103 Stat. 1981; Pub. L. 101–239, title VI, §§ 6115(c), 6411(c)(2), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2219, 2270; Pub. L. 101–508, title IV, §§ 4604(c), 4704(b)(3), 4741, 4742(a), (c)(1), (d)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–169, 1388–172, 1388–197, 1388–198; Pub. L. 102–119, § 26(i)(2), Oct. 7, 1991, 105 Stat. 607; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, § 13603(d), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 620; Pub. L. 105–33, title IV, §§ 4106(c), 4743(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 368, 524; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, § 1000(a)(6) [title VI, § 608(o), (z)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A–397, 1501A–398; Pub. L. 106–554, § 1(a)(6) [title VII, § 702(c)(2)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–574; Pub. L. 107–121, § 2(b)(3), Jan. 15, 2002, 115 Stat. 2384; Pub. L. 108–446, title III, § 305(j)(2), Dec. 3, 2004, 118 Stat. 2806; Pub. L. 109–171, title VI, §§ 6052(a), 6086(a), 6087(a), Feb. 8, 2006, 120 Stat. 93, 121, 127; Pub. L. 111–148, title II, §§ 2401, 2402(b), (c), (e), (f), 2601(a), (b)(1), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 297, 302–304, 314, 315; Pub. L. 111–152, title I, § 1205, Mar. 30, 2010, 124 Stat. 1056; Pub. L. 115–271, title V, § 5052(a)(2), Oct. 24, 2018, 132 Stat. 3971; Pub. L. 118–42, div. G, title I, § 204(a)–(c)(1)(A), (2), (3), Mar. 9, 2024, 138 Stat. 403–405.)
§ 1396o. Use of enrollment fees, premiums, deductions, cost sharing, and similar charges
(a) Imposition of certain charges under plan in case of individuals described in section 1396a(a)(10)(A) or (E)Subject to subsections (g), (i), and (j), the State plan shall provide that in the case of individuals described in subparagraph (A) or (E)(i) of section 1396a(a)(10) of this title who are eligible under the plan—
(1) no enrollment fee, premium, or similar charge will be imposed under the plan (except for a premium imposed under subsection (c));
(2) no deduction, cost sharing or similar charge will be imposed under the plan with respect to—
(A) services furnished to individuals under 18 years of age (and, at the option of the State, individuals under 21, 20, or 19 years of age, or any reasonable category of individuals 18 years of age or over),
(B) services furnished to pregnant women, if such services relate to the pregnancy or to any other medical condition which may complicate the pregnancy, and counseling and pharmacotherapy for cessation of tobacco use by pregnant women (as defined in section 1396d(bb) of this title) and covered outpatient drugs (as defined in subsection (k)(2) of section 1396r–8 of this title and including nonprescription drugs described in subsection (d)(2) of such section) that are prescribed for purposes of promoting, and when used to promote, tobacco cessation by pregnant women in accordance with the Guideline referred to in section 1396d(bb)(2)(A) of this title (or, at the option of the State, any services furnished to pregnant women),
(C) services furnished to any individual who is an inpatient in a hospital, nursing facility, intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded, or other medical institution, if such individual is required, as a condition of receiving services in such institution under the State plan, to spend for costs of medical care all but a minimal amount of his income required for personal needs,
(D) emergency services (as defined by the Secretary), family planning services and supplies described in section 1396d(a)(4)(C) of this title,
(E) services furnished to an individual who is receiving hospice care (as defined in section 1396d(o) of this title),
(F) any in vitro diagnostic product described in section 1396d(a)(3)(B) of this title that is administered during any portion of the emergency period described in such section beginning on or after March 18, 2020 (and the administration of such product),
(G) COVID–19 testing-related services for which payment may be made under the State plan,
(H) during the period beginning on March 11, 2021, and ending on the last day of the first calendar quarter that begins one year after the last day of the emergency period described in section 1320b–5(g)(1)(B) of this title, a COVID–19 vaccine and the administration of such vaccine (for any individual eligible for medical assistance for such vaccine (and administration)),
(I) during the period beginning on March 11, 2021, and ending on the last day of the first calendar quarter that begins one year after the last day of the emergency period described in section 1320b–5(g)(1)(B) of this title, testing and treatments for COVID–19, including specialized equipment and therapies (including preventive therapies), and, in the case of an individual who is diagnosed with or presumed to have COVID–19, during the period during which such individual has (or is presumed to have) COVID–19, the treatment of a condition that may seriously complicate the treatment of COVID–19, if otherwise covered under the State plan (or waiver of such plan), or
(J) vaccines described in section 1396d(a)(13)(B) of this title and the administration of such vaccines; and
(3) any deduction, cost sharing, or similar charge imposed under the plan with respect to other such individuals or other care and services will be nominal in amount (as determined by the Secretary in regulations which shall, if the definition of “nominal” under the regulations in effect on July 1, 1982 is changed, take into account the level of cash assistance provided in such State and such other criteria as the Secretary determines to be appropriate); except that a deduction, cost-sharing, or similar charge of up to twice the nominal amount established for outpatient services may be imposed by a State under a waiver granted by the Secretary for services received at a hospital emergency room if the services are not emergency services (referred to in paragraph (2)(D)) and the State has established to the satisfaction of the Secretary that individuals eligible for services under the plan have actually available and accessible to them alternative sources of nonemergency, outpatient services.
(b) Imposition of certain charges under plan in case of individuals other than those described in section 1396a(a)(10)(A) or (E)The State plan shall provide that in the case of individuals other than those described in subparagraph (A) or (E) of section 1396a(a)(10) of this title who are eligible under the plan—
(1) there may be imposed an enrollment fee, premium, or similar charge, which (as determined in accordance with standards prescribed by the Secretary) is related to the individual’s income,
(2) no deduction, cost sharing, or similar charge will be imposed under the plan with respect to—
(A) services furnished to individuals under 18 years of age (and, at the option of the State, individuals under 21, 20, or 19 years of age, or any reasonable category of individuals 18 years of age or over),
(B) services furnished to pregnant women, if such services relate to the pregnancy or to any other medical condition which may complicate the pregnancy, and counseling and pharmacotherapy for cessation of tobacco use by pregnant women (as defined in section 1396d(bb) of this title) and covered outpatient drugs (as defined in subsection (k)(2) of section 1396r–8 of this title and including nonprescription drugs described in subsection (d)(2) of such section) that are prescribed for purposes of promoting, and when used to promote, tobacco cessation by pregnant women in accordance with the Guideline referred to in section 1396d(bb)(2)(A) of this title (or, at the option of the State, any services furnished to pregnant women),
(C) services furnished to any individual who is an inpatient in a hospital, nursing facility, intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded, or other medical institution, if such individual is required, as a condition of receiving services in such institution under the State plan, to spend for costs of medical care all but a minimal amount of his income required for personal needs,
(D) emergency services (as defined by the Secretary), family planning services and supplies described in section 1396d(a)(4)(C) of this title,
(E) services furnished to an individual who is receiving hospice care (as defined in section 1396d(o) of this title),
(F) any in vitro diagnostic product described in section 1396d(a)(3)(B) of this title that is administered during any portion of the emergency period described in such section beginning on or after March 18, 2020 (and the administration of such product),
(G) COVID–19 testing-related services for which payment may be made under the State plan,
(H) during the period beginning on March 11, 2021, and ending on the last day of the first calendar quarter that begins one year after the last day of the emergency period described in section 1320b–5(g)(1)(B) of this title, a COVID–19 vaccine and the administration of such vaccine (for any individual eligible for medical assistance for such vaccine (and administration)),
(I) during the period beginning on March 11, 2021, and ending on the last day of the first calendar quarter that begins one year after the last day of the emergency period described in section 1320b–5(g)(1)(B) of this title, testing and treatments for COVID–19, including specialized equipment and therapies (including preventive therapies), and, in the case of an individual who is diagnosed with or presumed to have COVID–19, during the period during which such individual has (or is presumed to have) COVID–19, the treatment of a condition that may seriously complicate the treatment of COVID–19, if otherwise covered under the State plan (or waiver of such plan), or
(J) vaccines described in section 1396d(a)(13)(B) of this title and the administration of such vaccines; and
(3) any deduction, cost sharing, or similar charge imposed under the plan with respect to other such individuals or other care and services will be nominal in amount (as determined by the Secretary in regulations which shall, if the definition of “nominal” under the regulations in effect on July 1, 1982 is changed, take into account the level of cash assistance provided in such State and such other criteria as the Secretary determines to be appropriate); except that a deduction, cost-sharing, or similar charge of up to twice the nominal amount established for outpatient services may be imposed by a State under a waiver granted by the Secretary for services received at a hospital emergency room if the services are not emergency services (referred to in paragraph (2)(D)) and the State has established to the satisfaction of the Secretary that individuals eligible for services under the plan have actually available and accessible to them alternative sources of nonemergency, outpatient services.
(c) Imposition of monthly premium; persons affected; amount; prepayment; failure to pay; use of funds from other programs
(1) The State plan of a State may at the option of the State provide for imposing a monthly premium (in an amount that does not exceed the limit established under paragraph (2)) with respect to an individual described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 1396a(l)(1) of this title who is receiving medical assistance on the basis of section 1396a(a)(10)(A)(ii)(IX) of this title and whose family income (as determined in accordance with the methodology specified in section 1396a(l)(3) of this title) equals or exceeds 150 percent of the income official poverty line (as defined by the Office of Management and Budget, and revised annually in accordance with section 9902(2) of this title) applicable to a family of the size involved.
(2) In no case may the amount of any premium imposed under paragraph (1) exceed 10 percent of the amount by which the family income (less expenses for the care of a dependent child) of an individual exceeds 150 percent of the line described in paragraph (1).
(3) A State shall not require prepayment of a premium imposed pursuant to paragraph (1) and shall not terminate eligibility of an individual for medical assistance under this subchapter on the basis of failure to pay any such premium until such failure continues for a period of not less than 60 days. The State may waive payment of any such premium in any case where the State determines that requiring such payment would create an undue hardship.
(4) A State may permit State or local funds available under other programs to be used for payment of a premium imposed under paragraph (1). Payment of a premium with such funds shall not be counted as income to the individual with respect to whom such payment is made.
(d) Premiums for qualified disabled and working individuals described in section 1396d(s)
(e) Prohibition of denial of services on basis of individual’s inability to pay certain charges
(f) Charges imposed under waiver authority of SecretaryNo deduction, cost sharing, or similar charge may be imposed under any waiver authority of the Secretary, except as provided in subsections (a)(3) and (b)(3) and section 1396o–1 of this title, unless such waiver is for a demonstration project which the Secretary finds after public notice and opportunity for comment—
(1) will test a unique and previously untested use of copayments,
(2) is limited to a period of not more than two years,
(3) will provide benefits to recipients of medical assistance which can reasonably be expected to be equivalent to the risks to the recipients,
(4) is based on a reasonable hypothesis which the demonstration is designed to test in a methodologically sound manner, including the use of control groups of similar recipients of medical assistance in the area, and
(5) is voluntary, or makes provision for assumption of liability for preventable damage to the health of recipients of medical assistance resulting from involuntary participation.
(g) Individuals provided medical assistance under section 1396a(a)(10)(A)(ii)(XV) or (XVI)With respect to individuals provided medical assistance only under subclause (XV) or (XVI) of section 1396a(a)(10)(A)(ii) of this title
(1) a State may (in a uniform manner for individuals described in either such subclause)—
(A) require such individuals to pay premiums or other cost-sharing charges set on a sliding scale based on income that the State may determine; and
(B) require payment of 100 percent of such premiums for such year in the case of such an individual who has income for a year that exceeds 250 percent of the income official poverty line (referred to in subsection (c)(1)) applicable to a family of the size involved, except that in the case of such an individual who has income for a year that does not exceed 450 percent of such poverty line, such requirement may only apply to the extent such premiums do not exceed 7.5 percent of such income; and
(2) such State shall require payment of 100 percent of such premiums for a year by such an individual whose adjusted gross income (as defined in section 62 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) for such year exceeds $75,000, except that a State may choose to subsidize such premiums by using State funds which may not be federally matched under this subchapter.
In the case of any calendar year beginning after 2000, the dollar amount specified in paragraph (2) shall be increased in accordance with the provisions of section 415(i)(2)(A)(ii) of this title.
(h) Indexing nominal cost sharing
(i) State option to impose income-related premiums for families of disabled children
(1) With respect to disabled children provided medical assistance under section 1396a(a)(10)(A)(ii)(XIX) of this title, subject to paragraph (2), a State may (in a uniform manner for such children) require the families of such children to pay monthly premiums set on a sliding scale based on family income.
(2) A premium requirement imposed under paragraph (1) may only apply to the extent that—
(A) in the case of a disabled child described in that paragraph whose family income—
(i) does not exceed 200 percent of the poverty line, the aggregate amount of such premium and any premium that the parent is required to pay for family coverage under section 1396a(cc)(2)(A)(i) of this title and other cost-sharing charges do not exceed 5 percent of the family’s income; and
(ii) exceeds 200, but does not exceed 300, percent of the poverty line, the aggregate amount of such premium and any premium that the parent is required to pay for family coverage under section 1396a(cc)(2)(A)(i) of this title and other cost-sharing charges do not exceed 7.5 percent of the family’s income; and
(B) the requirement is imposed consistent with section 1396a(cc)(2)(A)(ii)(I) of this title.
(3) A State shall not require prepayment of a premium imposed pursuant to paragraph (1) and shall not terminate eligibility of a child under section 1396a(a)(10)(A)(ii)(XIX) of this title for medical assistance under this subchapter on the basis of failure to pay any such premium until such failure continues for a period of at least 60 days from the date on which the premium became past due. The State may waive payment of any such premium in any case where the State determines that requiring such payment would create an undue hardship.
(j) No premiums or cost sharing for Indians furnished items or services directly by Indian health programs or through referral under contract health services
(1) No cost sharing for items or services furnished to Indians through Indian health programs
(A) In general
(B) No reduction in amount of payment to Indian health providers
(2) Rule of construction
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XIX, § 1916, as added Pub. L. 97–248, title I, § 131(b), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 367; amended Pub. L. 97–448, title III, § 309(b)(18)–(20), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2409
§ 1396o–1. State option for alternative premiums and cost sharing
(a) State flexibility
(1) In general
(2) Exemption for individuals with family income not exceeding 100 percent of the poverty line
(A) In general
(B) Limit on aggregate cost sharing
(3) DefinitionsIn this section:
(A) Premium
(B) Cost sharing
(b) Limitations on exercise of authority
(1) Individuals with family income between 100 and 150 percent of the poverty lineIn the case of an individual whose family income exceeds 100 percent, but does not exceed 150 percent, of the poverty line applicable to a family of the size involved—
(A) no premium may be imposed under the plan; and
(B) with respect to cost sharing—
(i) the cost sharing imposed under subsection (a) with respect to any item or service may not exceed 10 percent of the cost of such item or service; and
(ii) the total aggregate amount of cost sharing imposed under this section (including any cost sharing imposed under subsection (c) or (e)) for all individuals in the family may not exceed 5 percent of the family income of the family involved, as applied on a quarterly or monthly basis (as specified by the State).
(2) Individuals with family income above 150 percent of the poverty lineIn the case of an individual whose family income exceeds 150 percent of the poverty line applicable to a family of the size involved—
(A) the total aggregate amount of premiums and cost sharing imposed under this section (including any cost sharing imposed under subsection (c) or (e)) for all individuals in the family may not exceed 5 percent of the family income of the family involved, as applied on a quarterly or monthly basis (as specified by the State); and
(B) with respect to cost sharing, the cost sharing imposed with respect to any item or service under subsection (a) may not exceed 20 percent of the cost of such item or service.
(3) Additional limitations
(A) PremiumsNo premiums shall be imposed under this section with respect to the following:
(i) Individuals under 18 years of age that are required to be provided medical assistance under section 1396a(a)(10)(A)(i) of this title, and including individuals with respect to whom child welfare services are made available under part B of subchapter IV on the basis of being a child in foster care and individuals with respect to whom adoption or foster care assistance is made available under part E of such subchapter, without regard to age.
(ii) Pregnant women.
(iii) Any terminally ill individual who is receiving hospice care (as defined in section 1396d(o) of this title).
(iv) Any individual who is an inpatient in a hospital, nursing facility, intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded, or other medical institution, if such individual is required, as a condition of receiving services in such institution under the State plan, to spend for costs of medical care all but a minimal amount of the individual’s income required for personal needs.
(v) Women who are receiving medical assistance by virtue of the application of sections 1396a(a)(10)(A)(ii)(XVIII) and 1396a(aa) of this title.
(vi) Disabled children who are receiving medical assistance by virtue of the application of sections 1396a(a)(10)(A)(ii)(XIX) and 1396a(cc) of this title.
(vii) An Indian who is furnished an item or service directly by the Indian Health Service, an Indian Tribe, Tribal Organization or Urban Indian Organization or through referral under contract health services.
(B) Cost sharingSubject to the succeeding provisions of this section, no cost sharing shall be imposed under subsection (a) with respect to the following:
(i) Services furnished to individuals under 18 years of age that are required to be provided medical assistance under section 1396a(a)(10)(A)(i) of this title, and including services furnished to individuals with respect to whom child welfare services are made available under part B of subchapter IV on the basis of being a child in foster care or and 1
1 So in original.
individuals with respect to whom adoption or foster care assistance is made available under part E of such subchapter, without regard to age.
(ii) Preventive services (such as well baby and well child care and immunizations) provided to children under 18 years of age regardless of family income.
(iii) Services furnished to pregnant women, if such services relate to the pregnancy or to any other medical condition which may complicate the pregnancy, and counseling and pharmacotherapy for cessation of tobacco use by pregnant women (as defined in section 1396d(bb) of this title).
(iv) Services furnished to a terminally ill individual who is receiving hospice care (as defined in section 1396d(o) of this title).
(v) Services furnished to any individual who is an inpatient in a hospital, nursing facility, intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded, or other medical institution, if such individual is required, as a condition of receiving services in such institution under the State plan, to spend for costs of medical care all but a minimal amount of the individual’s income required for personal needs.
(vi) Emergency services (as defined by the Secretary for purposes of section 1396o(a)(2)(D) of this title).
(vii) Family planning services and supplies described in section 1396d(a)(4)(C) of this title.
(viii) Services furnished to women who are receiving medical assistance by virtue of the application of sections 1396a(a)(10)(A)(ii)(XVIII) and 1396a(aa) of this title.
(ix) Services furnished to disabled children who are receiving medical assistance by virtue of the application of sections 1396a(a)(10)(A)(ii)(XIX) and 1396a(cc) of this title.
(x) Items and services furnished to an Indian directly by the Indian Health Service, an Indian Tribe, Tribal Organization or Urban Indian Organization or through referral under contract health services.
(xi) Any in vitro diagnostic product described in section 1396d(a)(3)(B) of this title that is administered during any portion of the emergency period described in such section beginning on or after March 18, 2020 (and the administration of such product), and any service described in section 1396o(a)(2)(G) of this title that is furnished during any such portion.
(xii) During the period beginning on March 11, 2021, and ending on the last day of the first calendar quarter that begins one year after the last day of the emergency period described in section 1320b–5(g)(1)(B) of this title, a COVID–19 vaccine and the administration of such vaccine (for any individual eligible for medical assistance for such vaccine (and administration)).
(xiii) During the period beginning on March 11, 2021, and ending on the last day of the first calendar quarter that begins one year after the last day of the emergency period described in section 1320b–5(g)(1)(B) of this title, testing and treatments for COVID–19, including specialized equipment and therapies (including preventive therapies), and, in the case of an individual who is diagnosed with or presumed to have COVID–19, during the period during which such individual has (or is presumed to have) COVID–19, the treatment of a condition that may seriously complicate the treatment of COVID–19, if otherwise covered under the State plan (or waiver of such plan).
(xiv) Vaccines described in section 1396d(a)(13)(B) of this title and the administration of such vaccines.
(C) Construction
(4) Determinations of family income
(5) Poverty line defined
(6) ConstructionNothing in this section shall be construed—
(A) as preventing a State from further limiting the premiums and cost sharing imposed under this section beyond the limitations provided under this section;
(B) as affecting the authority of the Secretary through waiver to modify limitations on premiums and cost sharing under this section; or
(C) as affecting any such waiver of requirements in effect under this subchapter before February 8, 2006, with regard to the imposition of premiums and cost sharing.
(c) Special rules for cost sharing for prescription drugs
(1) In generalIn order to encourage beneficiaries to use drugs (in this subsection referred to as “preferred drugs”) identified by the State as the most (or more) cost effective prescription drugs within a class of drugs (as defined by the State), with respect to one or more groups of beneficiaries specified by the State, subject to paragraph (2), the State may—
(A) provide cost sharing (instead of the level of cost sharing otherwise permitted under section 1396o of this title, but subject to paragraphs (2) and (3)) with respect to drugs that are not preferred drugs within a class; and
(B) waive or reduce the cost sharing otherwise applicable for preferred drugs within such class and shall not apply any such cost sharing for such preferred drugs for individuals for whom cost sharing may not be imposed under subsection (a) due to the application of subsection (b)(3)(B).
(2) Limitations
(A) By income groupIn no case may the cost sharing under paragraph (1)(A) with respect to a non-preferred drug exceed—
(i) in the case of an individual whose family income does not exceed 150 percent of the poverty line applicable to a family of the size involved, the amount of nominal cost sharing (as otherwise determined under section 1396o of this title); or
(ii) in the case of an individual whose family income exceeds 150 percent of the poverty line applicable to a family of the size involved, 20 percent of the cost of the drug.
(B) Limitation to nominal for exempt populations
(C) Continued application of aggregate cap
(3) Waiver
(4) Exclusion authority
(d) Enforceability of premiums and other cost sharing
(1) Premiums
(2) Cost sharing
(e) State option for permitting hospitals to impose cost sharing for non-emergency care furnished in an emergency department
(1) In generalNotwithstanding section 1396o of this title and section 1396a(a)(1) of this title or the previous provisions of this section, but subject to the limitations of paragraph (2), a State may, by amendment to its State plan under this subchapter, permit a hospital to impose cost sharing for non-emergency services furnished to an individual (within one or more groups of individuals specified by the State) in the hospital emergency department under this subsection if the following conditions are met:
(A) Access to non-emergency room provider
(B) NoticeThe hospital must inform the beneficiary after receiving an appropriate medical screening examination under section 1395dd of this title and after a determination has been made that the individual does not have an emergency medical condition, but before providing the non-emergency services, of the following:
(i) The hospital may require the payment of the State specified cost sharing before the service can be provided.
(ii) The name and location of an alternate non-emergency services provider (described in subparagraph (A)) that is actually available and accessible (as described in such subparagraph).
(iii) The fact that such alternate provider can provide the services without the imposition of cost sharing described in clause (i).
(iv) The hospital provides a referral to coordinate scheduling of this treatment.
Nothing in this subsection shall be construed as preventing a State from applying (or waiving) cost sharing otherwise permissible under this section to services described in clause (iii).
(2) Limitations
(A) Individuals with family income between 100 and 150 percent of the poverty line
(B) Application to exempt populations
(C) Continued application of aggregate cap; relation to other cost sharing
(3) ConstructionNothing in this section shall be construed—
(A) to limit a hospital’s obligations with respect to screening and stabilizing treatment of an emergency medical condition under section 1395dd of this title; or
(B) to modify any obligations under either State or Federal standards relating to the application of a prudent-layperson standard with respect to payment or coverage of emergency services by any managed care organization.
(4) DefinitionsFor purposes of this subsection:
(A) Non-emergency services
(B) Alternate non-emergency services provider
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XIX, § 1916A, as added and amended Pub. L. 109–171, title VI, §§ 6041(a), 6042(a), 6043(a), Feb. 8, 2006, 120 Stat. 81, 85, 86; Pub. L. 109–432, div. B, title IV, § 405(a)(1)–(5), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2996–2998; Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title V, § 5006(a)(2), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 506; Pub. L. 111–148, title II, § 2102(b), title IV, § 4107(c)(2), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 289, 561; Pub. L. 116–127, div. F, § 6004(a)(2)(B), Mar. 18, 2020, 134 Stat. 205; Pub. L. 117–2, title IX, § 9811(a)(3)(B), Mar. 11, 2021, 135 Stat. 210; Pub. L. 117–169, title I, § 11405(a)(2)(B), Aug. 16, 2022, 136 Stat. 1900.)
§ 1396p. Liens, adjustments and recoveries, and transfers of assets
(a) Imposition of lien against property of an individual on account of medical assistance rendered to him under a State plan
(1) No lien may be imposed against the property of any individual prior to his death on account of medical assistance paid or to be paid on his behalf under the State plan, except—
(A) pursuant to the judgment of a court on account of benefits incorrectly paid on behalf of such individual, or
(B) in the case of the real property of an individual—
(i) who is an inpatient in a nursing facility, intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded, or other medical institution, if such individual is required, as a condition of receiving services in such institution under the State plan, to spend for costs of medical care all but a minimal amount of his income required for personal needs, and
(ii) with respect to whom the State determines, after notice and opportunity for a hearing (in accordance with procedures established by the State), that he cannot reasonably be expected to be discharged from the medical institution and to return home,
except as provided in paragraph (2).
(2) No lien may be imposed under paragraph (1)(B) on such individual’s home if—
(A) the spouse of such individual,
(B) such individual’s child who is under age 21, or (with respect to States eligible to participate in the State program established under subchapter XVI) is blind or permanently and totally disabled, or (with respect to States which are not eligible to participate in such program) is blind or disabled as defined in section 1382c of this title, or
(C) a sibling of such individual (who has an equity interest in such home and who was residing in such individual’s home for a period of at least one year immediately before the date of the individual’s admission to the medical institution),
is lawfully residing in such home.
(3) Any lien imposed with respect to an individual pursuant to paragraph (1)(B) shall dissolve upon that individual’s discharge from the medical institution and return home.
(b) Adjustment or recovery of medical assistance correctly paid under a State plan
(1) No adjustment or recovery of any medical assistance correctly paid on behalf of an individual under the State plan may be made, except that the State shall seek adjustment or recovery of any medical assistance correctly paid on behalf of an individual under the State plan in the case of the following individuals:
(A) In the case of an individual described in subsection (a)(1)(B), the State shall seek adjustment or recovery from the individual’s estate or upon sale of the property subject to a lien imposed on account of medical assistance paid on behalf of the individual.
(B) In the case of an individual who was 55 years of age or older when the individual received such medical assistance, the State shall seek adjustment or recovery from the individual’s estate, but only for medical assistance consisting of—
(i) nursing facility services, home and community-based services, and related hospital and prescription drug services, or
(ii) at the option of the State, any items or services under the State plan (but not including medical assistance for medicare cost-sharing or for benefits described in section 1396a(a)(10)(E) of this title).
(C)
(i) In the case of an individual who has received (or is entitled to receive) benefits under a long-term care insurance policy in connection with which assets or resources are disregarded in the manner described in clause (ii), except as provided in such clause, the State shall seek adjustment or recovery from the individual’s estate on account of medical assistance paid on behalf of the individual for nursing facility and other long-term care services.
(ii) Clause (i) shall not apply in the case of an individual who received medical assistance under a State plan of a State which had a State plan amendment approved as of May 14, 1993, and which satisfies clause (iv), or which has a State plan amendment that provides for a qualified State long-term care insurance partnership (as defined in clause (iii)) which provided for the disregard of any assets or resources—(I) to the extent that payments are made under a long-term care insurance policy; or(II) because an individual has received (or is entitled to receive) benefits under a long-term care insurance policy.
(iii) For purposes of this paragraph, the term “qualified State long-term care insurance partnership” means an approved State plan amendment under this subchapter that provides for the disregard of any assets or resources in an amount equal to the insurance benefit payments that are made to or on behalf of an individual who is a beneficiary under a long-term care insurance policy if the following requirements are met:(I) The policy covers an insured who was a resident of such State when coverage first became effective under the policy.(II) The policy is a qualified long-term care insurance policy (as defined in section 7702B(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) issued not earlier than the effective date of the State plan amendment.(III) The policy meets the model regulations and the requirements of the model Act specified in paragraph (5).(IV) If the policy is sold to an individual who—(aa) has not attained age 61 as of the date of purchase, the policy provides compound annual inflation protection;(bb) has attained age 61 but has not attained age 76 as of such date, the policy provides some level of inflation protection; and(cc) has attained age 76 as of such date, the policy may (but is not required to) provide some level of inflation protection.(V) The State Medicaid agency under section 1396a(a)(5) of this title provides information and technical assistance to the State insurance department on the insurance department’s role of assuring that any individual who sells a long-term care insurance policy under the partnership receives training and demonstrates evidence of an understanding of such policies and how they relate to other public and private coverage of long-term care.(VI) The issuer of the policy provides regular reports to the Secretary, in accordance with regulations of the Secretary, that include notification regarding when benefits provided under the policy have been paid and the amount of such benefits paid, notification regarding when the policy otherwise terminates, and such other information as the Secretary determines may be appropriate to the administration of such partnerships.(VII) The State does not impose any requirement affecting the terms or benefits of such a policy unless the State imposes such requirement on long-term care insurance policies without regard to whether the policy is covered under the partnership or is offered in connection with such a partnership.
In the case of a long-term care insurance policy which is exchanged for another such policy, subclause (I) shall be applied based on the coverage of the first such policy that was exchanged. For purposes of this clause and paragraph (5), the term “long-term care insurance policy” includes a certificate issued under a group insurance contract.
(iv) With respect to a State which had a State plan amendment approved as of May 14, 1993, such a State satisfies this clause for purposes of clause (ii) if the Secretary determines that the State plan amendment provides for consumer protection standards which are no less stringent than the consumer protection standards which applied under such State plan amendment as of December 31, 2005.
(v) The regulations of the Secretary required under clause (iii)(VI) shall be promulgated after consultation with the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, issuers of long-term care insurance policies, States with experience with long-term care insurance partnership plans, other States, and representatives of consumers of long-term care insurance policies, and shall specify the type and format of the data and information to be reported and the frequency with which such reports are to be made. The Secretary, as appropriate, shall provide copies of the reports provided in accordance with that clause to the State involved.
(vi) The Secretary, in consultation with other appropriate Federal agencies, issuers of long-term care insurance, the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, State insurance commissioners, States with experience with long-term care insurance partnership plans, other States, and representatives of consumers of long-term care insurance policies, shall develop recommendations for Congress to authorize and fund a uniform minimum data set to be reported electronically by all issuers of long-term care insurance policies under qualified State long-term care insurance partnerships to a secure, centralized electronic query and report-generating mechanism that the State, the Secretary, and other Federal agencies can access.
(2) Any adjustment or recovery under paragraph (1) may be made only after the death of the individual’s surviving spouse, if any, and only at a time—
(A) when he has no surviving child who is under age 21, or (with respect to States eligible to participate in the State program established under subchapter XVI) is blind or permanently and totally disabled, or (with respect to States which are not eligible to participate in such program) is blind or disabled as defined in section 1382c of this title; and
(B) in the case of a lien on an individual’s home under subsection (a)(1)(B), when—
(i) no sibling of the individual (who was residing in the individual’s home for a period of at least one year immediately before the date of the individual’s admission to the medical institution), and
(ii) no son or daughter of the individual (who was residing in the individual’s home for a period of at least two years immediately before the date of the individual’s admission to the medical institution, and who establishes to the satisfaction of the State that he or she provided care to such individual which permitted such individual to reside at home rather than in an institution),
is lawfully residing in such home who has lawfully resided in such home on a continuous basis since the date of the individual’s admission to the medical institution.
(3)
(A) The State agency shall establish procedures (in accordance with standards specified by the Secretary) under which the agency shall waive the application of this subsection (other than paragraph (1)(C)) if such application would work an undue hardship as determined on the basis of criteria established by the Secretary.
(B) The standards specified by the Secretary under subparagraph (A) shall require that the procedures established by the State agency under subparagraph (A) exempt income, resources, and property that are exempt from the application of this subsection as of April 1, 2003, under manual instructions issued to carry out this subsection (as in effect on such date) because of the Federal responsibility for Indian Tribes and Alaska Native Villages. Nothing in this subparagraph shall be construed as preventing the Secretary from providing additional estate recovery exemptions under this subchapter for Indians.
(4) For purposes of this subsection, the term “estate”, with respect to a deceased individual—
(A) shall include all real and personal property and other assets included within the individual’s estate, as defined for purposes of State probate law; and
(B) may include, at the option of the State (and shall include, in the case of an individual to whom paragraph (1)(C)(i) applies), any other real and personal property and other assets in which the individual had any legal title or interest at the time of death (to the extent of such interest), including such assets conveyed to a survivor, heir, or assign of the deceased individual through joint tenancy, tenancy in common, survivorship, life estate, living trust, or other arrangement.
(A) For purposes of clause (iii)(III), the model regulations and the requirements of the model Act specified in this paragraph are:
(i) In the case of the model regulation, the following requirements:(I) Section 6A (relating to guaranteed renewal or noncancellability), other than paragraph (5) thereof, and the requirements of section 6B of the model Act relating to such section 6A.(II) Section 6B (relating to prohibitions on limitations and exclusions) other than paragraph (7) thereof.(III) Section 6C (relating to extension of benefits).(IV) Section 6D (relating to continuation or conversion of coverage).(V) Section 6E (relating to discontinuance and replacement of policies).(VI) Section 7 (relating to unintentional lapse).(VII) Section 8 (relating to disclosure), other than sections 8F, 8G, 8H, and 8I thereof.(VIII) Section 9 (relating to required disclosure of rating practices to consumer).(IX) Section 11 (relating to prohibitions against post-claims underwriting).(X) Section 12 (relating to minimum standards).(XI) Section 14 (relating to application forms and replacement coverage).(XII) Section 15 (relating to reporting requirements).(XIII) Section 22 (relating to filing requirements for marketing).(XIV) Section 23 (relating to standards for marketing), including inaccurate completion of medical histories, other than paragraphs (1), (6), and (9) of section 23C.(XV) Section 24 (relating to suitability).(XVI) Section 25 (relating to prohibition against preexisting conditions and probationary periods in replacement policies or certificates).(XVII) The provisions of section 26 relating to contingent nonforfeiture benefits, if the policyholder declines the offer of a nonforfeiture provision described in paragraph (4).(XVIII) Section 29 (relating to standard format outline of coverage).(XIX) Section 30 (relating to requirement to deliver shopper’s guide).
(ii) In the case of the model Act, the following:(I) Section 6C (relating to preexisting conditions).(II) Section 6D (relating to prior hospitalization).(III) The provisions of section 8 relating to contingent nonforfeiture benefits.(IV) Section 6F (relating to right to return).(V) Section 6G (relating to outline of coverage).(VI) Section 6H (relating to requirements for certificates under group plans).(VII) Section 6J (relating to policy summary).(VIII) Section 6K (relating to monthly reports on accelerated death benefits).(IX) Section 7 (relating to incontestability period).
(B) For purposes of this paragraph and paragraph (1)(C)—
(i) the terms “model regulation” and “model Act” mean the long-term care insurance model regulation, and the long-term care insurance model Act, respectively, promulgated by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (as adopted as of October 2000);
(ii) any provision of the model regulation or model Act listed under subparagraph (A) shall be treated as including any other provision of such regulation or Act necessary to implement the provision; and
(iii) with respect to a long-term care insurance policy issued in a State, the policy shall be deemed to meet applicable requirements of the model regulation or the model Act if the State plan amendment under paragraph (1)(C)(iii) provides that the State insurance commissioner for the State certifies (in a manner satisfactory to the Secretary) that the policy meets such requirements.
(C) Not later than 12 months after the National Association of Insurance Commissioners issues a revision, update, or other modification of a model regulation or model Act provision specified in subparagraph (A), or of any provision of such regulation or Act that is substantively related to a provision specified in such subparagraph, the Secretary shall review the changes made to the provision, determine whether incorporating such changes into the corresponding provision specified in such subparagraph would improve qualified State long-term care insurance partnerships, and if so, shall incorporate the changes into such provision.
(c) Taking into account certain transfers of assets
(1)
(A) In order to meet the requirements of this subsection for purposes of section 1396a(a)(18) of this title, the State plan must provide that if an institutionalized individual or the spouse of such an individual (or, at the option of a State, a noninstitutionalized individual or the spouse of such an individual) disposes of assets for less than fair market value on or after the look-back date specified in subparagraph (B)(i), the individual is ineligible for medical assistance for services described in subparagraph (C)(i) (or, in the case of a noninstitutionalized individual, for the services described in subparagraph (C)(ii)) during the period beginning on the date specified in subparagraph (D) and equal to the number of months specified in subparagraph (E).
(B)
(i) The look-back date specified in this subparagraph is a date that is 36 months (or, in the case of payments from a trust or portions of a trust that are treated as assets disposed of by the individual pursuant to paragraph (3)(A)(iii) or (3)(B)(ii) of subsection (d) or in the case of any other disposal of assets made on or after February 8, 2006, 60 months) before the date specified in clause (ii).
(ii) The date specified in this clause, with respect to—(I) an institutionalized individual is the first date as of which the individual both is an institutionalized individual and has applied for medical assistance under the State plan, or(II) a noninstitutionalized individual is the date on which the individual applies for medical assistance under the State plan or, if later, the date on which the individual disposes of assets for less than fair market value.
(C)
(i) The services described in this subparagraph with respect to an institutionalized individual are the following:(I) Nursing facility services.(II) A level of care in any institution equivalent to that of nursing facility services.(III) Home or community-based services furnished under a waiver granted under subsection (c) or (d) of section 1396n of this title.
(ii) The services described in this subparagraph with respect to a noninstitutionalized individual are services (not including any services described in clause (i)) that are described in paragraph (7), (22), or (24) of section 1396d(a) of this title, and, at the option of a State, other long-term care services for which medical assistance is otherwise available under the State plan to individuals requiring long-term care.
(D)
(i) In the case of a transfer of asset made before February 8, 2006, the date specified in this subparagraph is the first day of the first month during or after which assets have been transferred for less than fair market value and which does not occur in any other periods of ineligibility under this subsection.
(ii) In the case of a transfer of asset made on or after February 8, 2006, the date specified in this subparagraph is the first day of a month during or after which assets have been transferred for less than fair market value, or the date on which the individual is eligible for medical assistance under the State plan and would otherwise be receiving institutional level care described in subparagraph (C) based on an approved application for such care but for the application of the penalty period, whichever is later, and which does not occur during any other period of ineligibility under this subsection.
(E)
(i) With respect to an institutionalized individual, the number of months of ineligibility under this subparagraph for an individual shall be equal to—(I) the total, cumulative uncompensated value of all assets transferred by the individual (or individual’s spouse) on or after the look-back date specified in subparagraph (B)(i), divided by(II) the average monthly cost to a private patient of nursing facility services in the State (or, at the option of the State, in the community in which the individual is institutionalized) at the time of application.
(ii) With respect to a noninstitutionalized individual, the number of months of ineligibility under this subparagraph for an individual shall not be greater than a number equal to—(I) the total, cumulative uncompensated value of all assets transferred by the individual (or individual’s spouse) on or after the look-back date specified in subparagraph (B)(i), divided by(II) the average monthly cost to a private patient of nursing facility services in the State (or, at the option of the State, in the community in which the individual is institutionalized) at the time of application.
(iii) The number of months of ineligibility otherwise determined under clause (i) or (ii) with respect to the disposal of an asset shall be reduced—(I) in the case of periods of ineligibility determined under clause (i), by the number of months of ineligibility applicable to the individual under clause (ii) as a result of such disposal, and(II) in the case of periods of ineligibility determined under clause (ii), by the number of months of ineligibility applicable to the individual under clause (i) as a result of such disposal.
(iv) A State shall not round down, or otherwise disregard any fractional period of ineligibility determined under clause (i) or (ii) with respect to the disposal of assets.
(F) For purposes of this paragraph, the purchase of an annuity shall be treated as the disposal of an asset for less than fair market value unless—
(i) the State is named as the remainder beneficiary in the first position for at least the total amount of medical assistance paid on behalf of the institutionalized individual under this subchapter; or
(ii) the State is named as such a beneficiary in the second position after the community spouse or minor or disabled child and is named in the first position if such spouse or a representative of such child disposes of any such remainder for less than fair market value.
(G) For purposes of this paragraph with respect to a transfer of assets, the term “assets” includes an annuity purchased by or on behalf of an annuitant who has applied for medical assistance with respect to nursing facility services or other long-term care services under this subchapter unless—
(i) the annuity is—(I) an annuity described in subsection (b) or (q) of section 408 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986; or(II) purchased with proceeds from—(aa) an account or trust described in subsection (a), (c), or (p) of section 408 of such Code;(bb) a simplified employee pension (within the meaning of section 408(k) of such Code); or(cc) a Roth IRA described in section 408A of such Code; or
(ii) the annuity—(I) is irrevocable and nonassignable;(II) is actuarially sound (as determined in accordance with actuarial publications of the Office of the Chief Actuary of the Social Security Administration); and(III) provides for payments in equal amounts during the term of the annuity, with no deferral and no balloon payments made.
(H) Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this paragraph, in the case of an individual (or individual’s spouse) who makes multiple fractional transfers of assets in more than 1 month for less than fair market value on or after the applicable look-back date specified in subparagraph (B), a State may determine the period of ineligibility applicable to such individual under this paragraph by—
(i) treating the total, cumulative uncompensated value of all assets transferred by the individual (or individual’s spouse) during all months on or after the look-back date specified in subparagraph (B) as 1 transfer for purposes of clause (i) or (ii) (as the case may be) of subparagraph (E); and
(ii) beginning such period on the earliest date which would apply under subparagraph (D) to any of such transfers.
(I) For purposes of this paragraph with respect to a transfer of assets, the term “assets” includes funds used to purchase a promissory note, loan, or mortgage unless such note, loan, or mortgage—
(i) has a repayment term that is actuarially sound (as determined in accordance with actuarial publications of the Office of the Chief Actuary of the Social Security Administration);
(ii) provides for payments to be made in equal amounts during the term of the loan, with no deferral and no balloon payments made; and
(iii) prohibits the cancellation of the balance upon the death of the lender.
In the case of a promissory note, loan, or mortgage that does not satisfy the requirements of clauses (i) through (iii), the value of such note, loan, or mortgage shall be the outstanding balance due as of the date of the individual’s application for medical assistance for services described in subparagraph (C).
(J) For purposes of this paragraph with respect to a transfer of assets, the term “assets” includes the purchase of a life estate interest in another individual’s home unless the purchaser resides in the home for a period of at least 1 year after the date of the purchase.
(2) An individual shall not be ineligible for medical assistance by reason of paragraph (1) to the extent that—
(A) the assets transferred were a home and title to the home was transferred to—
(i) the spouse of such individual;
(ii) a child of such individual who (I) is under age 21, or (II) (with respect to States eligible to participate in the State program established under subchapter XVI) is blind or permanently and totally disabled, or (with respect to States which are not eligible to participate in such program) is blind or disabled as defined in section 1382c of this title;
(iii) a sibling of such individual who has an equity interest in such home and who was residing in such individual’s home for a period of at least one year immediately before the date the individual becomes an institutionalized individual; or
(iv) a son or daughter of such individual (other than a child described in clause (ii)) who was residing in such individual’s home for a period of at least two years immediately before the date the individual becomes an institutionalized individual, and who (as determined by the State) provided care to such individual which permitted such individual to reside at home rather than in such an institution or facility;
(B) the assets—
(i) were transferred to the individual’s spouse or to another for the sole benefit of the individual’s spouse,
(ii) were transferred from the individual’s spouse to another for the sole benefit of the individual’s spouse,
(iii) were transferred to, or to a trust (including a trust described in subsection (d)(4)) established solely for the benefit of, the individual’s child described in subparagraph (A)(ii)(II), or
(iv) were transferred to a trust (including a trust described in subsection (d)(4)) established solely for the benefit of an individual under 65 years of age who is disabled (as defined in section 1382c(a)(3) of this title);
(C) a satisfactory showing is made to the State (in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Secretary) that (i) the individual intended to dispose of the assets either at fair market value, or for other valuable consideration, (ii) the assets were transferred exclusively for a purpose other than to qualify for medical assistance, or (iii) all assets transferred for less than fair market value have been returned to the individual; or
(D) the State determines, under procedures established by the State (in accordance with standards specified by the Secretary), that the denial of eligibility would work an undue hardship as determined on the basis of criteria established by the Secretary.
The procedures established under subparagraph (D) shall permit the facility in which the institutionalized individual is residing to file an undue hardship waiver application on behalf of the individual with the consent of the individual or the personal representative of the individual. While an application for an undue hardship waiver is pending under subparagraph (D) in the case of an individual who is a resident of a nursing facility, if the application meets such criteria as the Secretary specifies, the State may provide for payments for nursing facility services in order to hold the bed for the individual at the facility, but not in excess of payments for 30 days.
(3) For purposes of this subsection, in the case of an asset held by an individual in common with another person or persons in a joint tenancy, tenancy in common, or similar arrangement, the asset (or the affected portion of such asset) shall be considered to be transferred by such individual when any action is taken, either by such individual or by any other person, that reduces or eliminates such individual’s ownership or control of such asset.
(4) A State (including a State which has elected treatment under section 1396a(f) of this title) may not provide for any period of ineligibility for an individual due to transfer of resources for less than fair market value except in accordance with this subsection. In the case of a transfer by the spouse of an individual which results in a period of ineligibility for medical assistance under a State plan for such individual, a State shall, using a reasonable methodology (as specified by the Secretary), apportion such period of ineligibility (or any portion of such period) among the individual and the individual’s spouse if the spouse otherwise becomes eligible for medical assistance under the State plan.
(5) In this subsection, the term “resources” has the meaning given such term in section 1382b of this title, without regard to the exclusion described in subsection (a)(1) thereof.
(d) Treatment of trust amounts
(1) For purposes of determining an individual’s eligibility for, or amount of, benefits under a State plan under this subchapter, subject to paragraph (4), the rules specified in paragraph (3) shall apply to a trust established by such individual.
(2)
(A) For purposes of this subsection, an individual shall be considered to have established a trust if assets of the individual were used to form all or part of the corpus of the trust and if any of the following individuals established such trust other than by will:
(i) The individual.
(ii) The individual’s spouse.
(iii) A person, including a court or administrative body, with legal authority to act in place of or on behalf of the individual or the individual’s spouse.
(iv) A person, including any court or administrative body, acting at the direction or upon the request of the individual or the individual’s spouse.
(B) In the case of a trust the corpus of which includes assets of an individual (as determined under subparagraph (A)) and assets of any other person or persons, the provisions of this subsection shall apply to the portion of the trust attributable to the assets of the individual.
(C) Subject to paragraph (4), this subsection shall apply without regard to—
(i) the purposes for which a trust is established,
(ii) whether the trustees have or exercise any discretion under the trust,
(iii) any restrictions on when or whether distributions may be made from the trust, or
(iv) any restrictions on the use of distributions from the trust.
(3)
(A) In the case of a revocable trust—
(i) the corpus of the trust shall be considered resources available to the individual,
(ii) payments from the trust to or for the benefit of the individual shall be considered income of the individual, and
(iii) any other payments from the trust shall be considered assets disposed of by the individual for purposes of subsection (c).
(B) In the case of an irrevocable trust—
(i) if there are any circumstances under which payment from the trust could be made to or for the benefit of the individual, the portion of the corpus from which, or the income on the corpus from which, payment to the individual could be made shall be considered resources available to the individual, and payments from that portion of the corpus or income—(I) to or for the benefit of the individual, shall be considered income of the individual, and(II) for any other purpose, shall be considered a transfer of assets by the individual subject to subsection (c); and
(ii) any portion of the trust from which, or any income on the corpus from which, no payment could under any circumstances be made to the individual shall be considered, as of the date of establishment of the trust (or, if later, the date on which payment to the individual was foreclosed) to be assets disposed by the individual for purposes of subsection (c), and the value of the trust shall be determined for purposes of such subsection by including the amount of any payments made from such portion of the trust after such date.
(4) This subsection shall not apply to any of the following trusts:
(A) A trust containing the assets of an individual under age 65 who is disabled (as defined in section 1382c(a)(3) of this title) and which is established for the benefit of such individual by the individual, a parent, grandparent, legal guardian of the individual, or a court if the State will receive all amounts remaining in the trust upon the death of such individual up to an amount equal to the total medical assistance paid on behalf of the individual under a State plan under this subchapter.
(B) A trust established in a State for the benefit of an individual if—
(i) the trust is composed only of pension, Social Security, and other income to the individual (and accumulated income in the trust),
(ii) the State will receive all amounts remaining in the trust upon the death of such individual up to an amount equal to the total medical assistance paid on behalf of the individual under a State plan under this subchapter; and
(iii) the State makes medical assistance available to individuals described in section 1396a(a)(10)(A)(ii)(V) of this title, but does not make such assistance available to individuals for nursing facility services under section 1396a(a)(10)(C) of this title.
(C) A trust containing the assets of an individual who is disabled (as defined in section 1382c(a)(3) of this title) that meets the following conditions:
(i) The trust is established and managed by a non-profit association.
(ii) A separate account is maintained for each beneficiary of the trust, but, for purposes of investment and management of funds, the trust pools these accounts.
(iii) Accounts in the trust are established solely for the benefit of individuals who are disabled (as defined in section 1382c(a)(3) of this title) by the parent, grandparent, or legal guardian of such individuals, by such individuals, or by a court.
(iv) To the extent that amounts remaining in the beneficiary’s account upon the death of the beneficiary are not retained by the trust, the trust pays to the State from such remaining amounts in the account an amount equal to the total amount of medical assistance paid on behalf of the beneficiary under the State plan under this subchapter.
(5) The State agency shall establish procedures (in accordance with standards specified by the Secretary) under which the agency waives the application of this subsection with respect to an individual if the individual establishes that such application would work an undue hardship on the individual as determined on the basis of criteria established by the Secretary.
(6) The term “trust” includes any legal instrument or device that is similar to a trust but includes an annuity only to such extent and in such manner as the Secretary specifies.
(e) Disclosure and treatment of annuities
(1) In order to meet the requirements of this section for purposes of section 1396a(a)(18) of this title, a State shall require, as a condition for the provision of medical assistance for services described in subsection (c)(1)(C)(i) (relating to long-term care services) for an individual, the application of the individual for such assistance (including any recertification of eligibility for such assistance) shall disclose a description of any interest the individual or community spouse has in an annuity (or similar financial instrument, as may be specified by the Secretary), regardless of whether the annuity is irrevocable or is treated as an asset. Such application or recertification form shall include a statement that under paragraph (2) the State becomes a remainder beneficiary under such an annuity or similar financial instrument by virtue of the provision of such medical assistance.
(2)
(A) In the case of disclosure concerning an annuity under subsection (c)(1)(F), the State shall notify the issuer of the annuity of the right of the State under such subsection as a preferred remainder beneficiary in the annuity for medical assistance furnished to the individual. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as preventing such an issuer from notifying persons with any other remainder interest of the State’s remainder interest under such subsection.
(B) In the case of such an issuer receiving notice under subparagraph (A), the State may require the issuer to notify the State when there is a change in the amount of income or principal being withdrawn from the amount that was being withdrawn at the time of the most recent disclosure described in paragraph (1). A State shall take such information into account in determining the amount of the State’s obligations for medical assistance or in the individual’s eligibility for such assistance.
(3) The Secretary may provide guidance to States on categories of transactions that may be treated as a transfer of asset for less than fair market value.
(4) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed as preventing a State from denying eligibility for medical assistance for an individual based on the income or resources derived from an annuity described in paragraph (1).
(f) Disqualification for long-term care assistance for individuals with substantial home equity
(1)
(A) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, subject to subparagraphs (B) and (C) of this paragraph and paragraph (2), in determining eligibility of an individual for medical assistance with respect to nursing facility services or other long-term care services, the individual shall not be eligible for such assistance if the individual’s equity interest in the individual’s home exceeds $500,000.
(B) A State may elect, without regard to the requirements of section 1396a(a)(1) of this title (relating to statewideness) and section 1396a(a)(10)(B) of this title (relating to comparability), to apply subparagraph (A) by substituting for “$500,000”, an amount that exceeds such amount, but does not exceed $750,000.
(C) The dollar amounts specified in this paragraph shall be increased, beginning with 2011, from year to year based on the percentage increase in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (all items; United States city average), rounded to the nearest $1,000.
(2) Paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to an individual if—
(A) the spouse of such individual, or
(B) such individual’s child who is under age 21, or (with respect to States eligible to participate in the State program established under subchapter XVI) is blind or permanently and totally disabled, or (with respect to States which are not eligible to participate in such program) is blind or disabled as defined in section 1382c of this title,
is lawfully residing in the individual’s home.
(3) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed as preventing an individual from using a reverse mortgage or home equity loan to reduce the individual’s total equity interest in the home.
(4) The Secretary shall establish a process whereby paragraph (1) is waived in the case of a demonstrated hardship.
(g) Treatment of entrance fees of individuals residing in continuing care retirement communities
(1) In general
(2) Treatment of entrance feeFor purposes of this subsection, an individual’s entrance fee in a continuing care retirement community or life care community shall be considered a resource available to the individual to the extent that—
(A) the individual has the ability to use the entrance fee, or the contract provides that the entrance fee may be used, to pay for care should other resources or income of the individual be insufficient to pay for such care;
(B) the individual is eligible for a refund of any remaining entrance fee when the individual dies or terminates the continuing care retirement community or life care community contract and leaves the community; and
(C) the entrance fee does not confer an ownership interest in the continuing care retirement community or life care community.
(h) DefinitionsIn this section, the following definitions shall apply:
(1) The term “assets”, with respect to an individual, includes all income and resources of the individual and of the individual’s spouse, including any income or resources which the individual or such individual’s spouse is entitled to but does not receive because of action—
(A) by the individual or such individual’s spouse,
(B) by a person, including a court or administrative body, with legal authority to act in place of or on behalf of the individual or such individual’s spouse, or
(C) by any person, including any court or administrative body, acting at the direction or upon the request of the individual or such individual’s spouse.
(2) The term “income” has the meaning given such term in section 1382a of this title.
(3) The term “institutionalized individual” means an individual who is an inpatient in a nursing facility, who is an inpatient in a medical institution and with respect to whom payment is made based on a level of care provided in a nursing facility, or who is described in section 1396a(a)(10)(A)(ii)(VI) of this title.
(4) The term “noninstitutionalized individual” means an individual receiving any of the services specified in subsection (c)(1)(C)(ii).
(5) The term “resources” has the meaning given such term in section 1382b of this title, without regard (in the case of an institutionalized individual) to the exclusion described in subsection (a)(1) of such section.
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XIX, § 1917, as added Pub. L. 97–248, title I, § 132(b), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 370; amended Pub. L. 97–448, title III, § 309(b)(21), (22), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2410; Pub. L. 100–203, title IV, § 4211(h)(12), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–207; Pub. L. 100–360, title III, § 303(b), title IV, § 411(l)(3)(I), July 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 760, 803; Pub. L. 100–485, title VI, § 608(d)(16)(B), Oct. 13, 1988, 102 Stat. 2417; Pub. L. 101–239, title VI, § 6411(e)(1), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2271; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §§ 13611(a)–(c), 13612(a)–(c), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 622–628; Pub. L. 109–171, title VI, §§ 6011(a), (b), (e), 6012(a)–(c), 6014(a), 6015(b), 6016(a)–(d), 6021(a)(1), Feb. 8, 2006, 120 Stat. 61–68;
§ 1396q. Application of provisions of subchapter II relating to subpoenas

The provisions of subsections (d) and (e) of section 405 of this title shall apply with respect to this subchapter to the same extent as they are applicable with respect to subchapter II, except that, in so applying such subsections, and in applying section 405(l) of this title thereto, with respect to this subchapter, any reference therein to the Commissioner of Social Security or the Social Security Administration shall be considered a reference to the Secretary or the Department of Health and Human Services, respectively.

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XIX, § 1918, as added Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title III, § 2370(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1110; amended Pub. L. 103–296, title I, § 108(d)(5), Aug. 15, 1994, 108 Stat. 1486.)
§ 1396r. Requirements for nursing facilities
(a) “Nursing facility” definedIn this subchapter, the term “nursing facility” means an institution (or a distinct part of an institution) which—
(1) is primarily engaged in providing to residents—
(A) skilled nursing care and related services for residents who require medical or nursing care,
(B) rehabilitation services for the rehabilitation of injured, disabled, or sick persons, or
(C) on a regular basis, health-related care and services to individuals who because of their mental or physical condition require care and services (above the level of room and board) which can be made available to them only through institutional facilities,
and is not primarily for the care and treatment of mental diseases;
(2) has in effect a transfer agreement (meeting the requirements of section 1395x(l) of this title) with one or more hospitals having agreements in effect under section 1395cc of this title; and
(3) meets the requirements for a nursing facility described in subsections (b), (c), and (d) of this section.
Such term also includes any facility which is located in a State on an Indian reservation and is certified by the Secretary as meeting the requirements of paragraph (1) and subsections (b), (c), and (d).
(b) Requirements relating to provision of services
(1) Quality of life
(A) In general
(B) Quality assessment and assurance
(2) Scope of services and activities under plan of careA nursing facility must provide services and activities to attain or maintain the highest practicable physical, mental, and psychosocial well-being of each resident in accordance with a written plan of care which—
(A) describes the medical, nursing, and psychosocial needs of the resident and how such needs will be met;
(B) is initially prepared, with the participation to the extent practicable of the resident or the resident’s family or legal representative, by a team which includes the resident’s attending physician and a registered professional nurse with responsibility for the resident; and
(C) is periodically reviewed and revised by such team after each assessment under paragraph (3).
(3) Residents’ assessment
(A) RequirementA nursing facility must conduct a comprehensive, accurate, standardized, reproducible assessment of each resident’s functional capacity, which assessment—
(i) describes the resident’s capability to perform daily life functions and significant impairments in functional capacity;
(ii) is based on a uniform minimum data set specified by the Secretary under subsection (f)(6)(A);
(iii) uses an instrument which is specified by the State under subsection (e)(5); and
(iv) includes the identification of medical problems.
(B) Certification
(i) In general
(ii) Penalty for falsification(I) An individual who willfully and knowingly certifies under clause (i) a material and false statement in a resident assessment is subject to a civil money penalty of not more than $1,000 with respect to each assessment.(II) An individual who willfully and knowingly causes another individual to certify under clause (i) a material and false statement in a resident assessment is subject to a civil money penalty of not more than $5,000 with respect to each assessment.(III) The provisions of section 1320a–7a of this title (other than subsections (a) and (b)) shall apply to a civil money penalty under this clause in the same manner as such provisions apply to a penalty or proceeding under section 1320a–7a(a) of this title.
(iii) Use of independent assessors
(C) Frequency
(i) In generalSuch an assessment must be conducted—(I) promptly upon (but no later than 14 days after the date of) admission for each individual admitted on or after October 1, 1990, and by not later than October 1, 1991, for each resident of the facility on that date;(II) promptly after a significant change in the resident’s physical or mental condition; and(III) in no case less often than once every 12 months.
(ii) Resident review
(D) Use
(E) Coordination
(F) Requirements relating to preadmission screening for mentally ill and mentally retarded individualsExcept as provided in clauses (ii) and (iii) of subsection (e)(7)(A), a nursing facility must not admit, on or after January 1, 1989, any new resident who—
(i) is mentally ill (as defined in subsection (e)(7)(G)(i)) unless the State mental health authority has determined (based on an independent physical and mental evaluation performed by a person or entity other than the State mental health authority) prior to admission that, because of the physical and mental condition of the individual, the individual requires the level of services provided by a nursing facility, and, if the individual requires such level of services, whether the individual requires specialized services for mental illness, or
(ii) is mentally retarded (as defined in subsection (e)(7)(G)(ii)) unless the State mental retardation or developmental disability authority has determined prior to admission that, because of the physical and mental condition of the individual, the individual requires the level of services provided by a nursing facility, and, if the individual requires such level of services, whether the individual requires specialized services for mental retardation.
A State mental health authority and a State mental retardation or developmental disability authority may not delegate (by subcontract or otherwise) their responsibilities under this subparagraph to a nursing facility (or to an entity that has a direct or indirect affiliation or relationship with such a facility).
(4) Provision of services and activities
(A) In generalTo the extent needed to fulfill all plans of care described in paragraph (2), a nursing facility must provide (or arrange for the provision of)—
(i) nursing and related services and specialized rehabilitative services to attain or maintain the highest practicable physical, mental, and psychosocial well-being of each resident;
(ii) medically-related social services to attain or maintain the highest practicable physical, mental, and psychosocial well-being of each resident;
(iii) pharmaceutical services (including procedures that assure the accurate acquiring, receiving, dispensing, and administering of all drugs and biologicals) to meet the needs of each resident;
(iv) dietary services that assure that the meals meet the daily nutritional and special dietary needs of each resident;
(v) an on-going program, directed by a qualified professional, of activities designed to meet the interests and the physical, mental, and psychosocial well-being of each resident;
(vi) routine dental services (to the extent covered under the State plan) and emergency dental services to meet the needs of each resident; and
(vii) treatment and services required by mentally ill and mentally retarded residents not otherwise provided or arranged for (or required to be provided or arranged for) by the State.
The services provided or arranged by the facility must meet professional standards of quality.
(B) Qualified persons providing services
(C) Required nursing care; facility waivers
(i) General requirementsWith respect to nursing facility services provided on or after October 1, 1990, a nursing facility—(I) except as provided in clause (ii), must provide 24-hour licensed nursing services which are sufficient to meet the nursing needs of its residents, and(II) except as provided in clause (ii), must use the services of a registered professional nurse for at least 8 consecutive hours a day, 7 days a week.
(ii) Waiver by StateTo the extent that a facility is unable to meet the requirements of clause (i), a State may waive such requirements with respect to the facility if—(I) the facility demonstrates to the satisfaction of the State that the facility has been unable, despite diligent efforts (including offering wages at the community prevailing rate for nursing facilities), to recruit appropriate personnel,(II) the State determines that a waiver of the requirement will not endanger the health or safety of individuals staying in the facility,(III) the State finds that, for any such periods in which licensed nursing services are not available, a registered professional nurse or a physician is obligated to respond immediately to telephone calls from the facility,(IV) the State agency granting a waiver of such requirements provides notice of the waiver to the State long-term care ombudsman (established under section 307(a)(12) 1
1 See References in Text note below.
of the Older Americans Act of 1965) and the protection and advocacy system in the State for the mentally ill and the mentally retarded, and
(V) the nursing facility that is granted such a waiver by a State notifies residents of the facility (or, where appropriate, the guardians or legal representatives of such residents) and members of their immediate families of the waiver.
 A waiver under this clause shall be subject to annual review and to the review of the Secretary and subject to clause (iii) shall be accepted by the Secretary for purposes of this subchapter to the same extent as is the State’s certification of the facility. In granting or renewing a waiver, a State may require the facility to use other qualified, licensed personnel.
(iii) Assumption of waiver authority by Secretary
(5) Required training of nurse aides
(A) In general
(i) Except as provided in clause (ii), a nursing facility must not use on a full-time basis any individual as a nurse aide in the facility on or after October 1, 1990, for more than 4 months unless the individual—(I) has completed a training and competency evaluation program, or a competency evaluation program, approved by the State under subsection (e)(1)(A), and(II) is competent to provide nursing or nursing-related services.
(ii) A nursing facility must not use on a temporary, per diem, leased, or on any other basis other than as a permanent employee any individual as a nurse aide in the facility on or after January 1, 1991, unless the individual meets the requirements described in clause (i).
(B) Offering competency evaluation programs for current employees
(C) Competency
(D) Re-training required
(E) Regular in-service education
(F) “Nurse aide” definedIn this paragraph, the term “nurse aide” means any individual providing nursing or nursing-related services to residents in a nursing facility, but does not include an individual—
(i) who is a licensed health professional (as defined in subparagraph (G)) or a registered dietician, or
(ii) who volunteers to provide such services without monetary compensation.
Such term includes an individual who provides such services through an agency or under a contract with the facility.
(G) Licensed health professional defined
(6) Physician supervision and clinical recordsA nursing facility must—
(A) require that the health care of every resident be provided under the supervision of a physician (or, at the option of a State, under the supervision of a nurse practitioner, clinical nurse specialist, or physician assistant who is not an employee of the facility but who is working in collaboration with a physician);
(B) provide for having a physician available to furnish necessary medical care in case of emergency; and
(C) maintain clinical records on all residents, which records include the plans of care (described in paragraph (2)) and the residents’ assessments (described in paragraph (3)), as well as the results of any pre-admission screening conducted under subsection (e)(7).
(7) Required social services
(8) Information on nurse staffing
(A) In general
(B) Publication of data
(c) Requirements relating to residents’ rights
(1) General rights
(A) Specified rightsA nursing facility must protect and promote the rights of each resident, including each of the following rights:
(i) Free choice
(ii) Free from restraintsThe right to be free from physical or mental abuse, corporal punishment, involuntary seclusion, and any physical or chemical restraints imposed for purposes of discipline or convenience and not required to treat the resident’s medical symptoms. Restraints may only be imposed—(I) to ensure the physical safety of the resident or other residents, and(II) only upon the written order of a physician that specifies the duration and circumstances under which the restraints are to be used (except in emergency circumstances specified by the Secretary until such an order could reasonably be obtained).
(iii) Privacy
(iv) Confidentiality
(v) Accommodation of needsThe right—(I) to reside and receive services with reasonable accommodation of individual needs and preferences, except where the health or safety of the individual or other residents would be endangered, and(II) to receive notice before the room or roommate of the resident in the facility is changed.
(vi) Grievances
(vii) Participation in resident and family groups
(viii) Participation in other activities
(ix) Examination of survey results
(x) Refusal of certain transfers
(xi) Other rights
Clause (iii) shall not be construed as requiring the provision of a private room. A resident’s exercise of a right to refuse transfer under clause (x) shall not affect the resident’s eligibility or entitlement to medical assistance under this subchapter or a State’s entitlement to Federal medical assistance under this subchapter with respect to services furnished to such a resident.
(B) Notice of rightsA nursing facility must—
(i) inform each resident, orally and in writing at the time of admission to the facility, of the resident’s legal rights during the stay at the facility and of the requirements and procedures for establishing eligibility for medical assistance under this subchapter, including the right to request an assessment under
(ii) make available to each resident, upon reasonable request, a written statement of such rights (which statement is updated upon changes in such rights) including the notice (if any) of the State developed under subsection (e)(6);
(iii) inform each resident who is entitled to medical assistance under this subchapter—(I) at the time of admission to the facility or, if later, at the time the resident becomes eligible for such assistance, of the items and services (including those specified under section 1396a(a)(28)(B) of this title) that are included in nursing facility services under the State plan and for which the resident may not be charged (except as permitted in section 1396o of this title), and of those other items and services that the facility offers and for which the resident may be charged and the amount of the charges for such items and services, and(II) of changes in the items and services described in subclause (I) and of changes in the charges imposed for items and services described in that subclause; and
(iv) inform each other resident, in writing before or at the time of admission and periodically during the resident’s stay, of services available in the facility and of related charges for such services, including any charges for services not covered under subchapter XVIII or by the facility’s basic per diem charge.
The written description of legal rights under this subparagraph shall include a description of the protection of personal funds under paragraph (6) and a statement that a resident may file a complaint with a State survey and certification agency respecting resident abuse and neglect and misappropriation of resident property in the facility.
(C) Rights of incompetent residents
(D) Use of psychopharmacologic drugs
(2) Transfer and discharge rights
(A) In generalA nursing facility must permit each resident to remain in the facility and must not transfer or discharge the resident from the facility unless—
(i) the transfer or discharge is necessary to meet the resident’s welfare and the resident’s welfare cannot be met in the facility;
(ii) the transfer or discharge is appropriate because the resident’s health has improved sufficiently so the resident no longer needs the services provided by the facility;
(iii) the safety of individuals in the facility is endangered;
(iv) the health of individuals in the facility would otherwise be endangered;
(v) the resident has failed, after reasonable and appropriate notice, to pay (or to have paid under this subchapter or subchapter XVIII on the resident’s behalf) for a stay at the facility; or
(vi) the facility ceases to operate.
In each of the cases described in clauses (i) through (iv), the basis for the transfer or discharge must be documented in the resident’s clinical record. In the cases described in clauses (i) and (ii), the documentation must be made by the resident’s physician, and in the case described in clause (iv) the documentation must be made by a physician. For purposes of clause (v), in the case of a resident who becomes eligible for assistance under this subchapter after admission to the facility, only charges which may be imposed under this subchapter shall be considered to be allowable.
(B) Pre-transfer and pre-discharge notice
(i) In generalBefore effecting a transfer or discharge of a resident, a nursing facility must—(I) notify the resident (and, if known, an immediate family member of the resident or legal representative) of the transfer or discharge and the reasons therefor,(II) record the reasons in the resident’s clinical record (including any documentation required under subparagraph (A)), and(III) include in the notice the items described in clause (iii).
(ii) Timing of noticeThe notice under clause (i)(I) must be made at least 30 days in advance of the resident’s transfer or discharge except—(I) in a case described in clause (iii) or (iv) of subparagraph (A);(II) in a case described in clause (ii) of subparagraph (A), where the resident’s health improves sufficiently to allow a more immediate transfer or discharge;(III) in a case described in clause (i) of subparagraph (A), where a more immediate transfer or discharge is necessitated by the resident’s urgent medical needs; or(IV) in a case where a resident has not resided in the facility for 30 days.
 In the case of such exceptions, notice must be given as many days before the date of the transfer or discharge as is practicable.
(iii) Items included in noticeEach notice under clause (i) must include—(I) for transfers or discharges effected on or after October 1, 1989, notice of the resident’s right to appeal the transfer or discharge under the State process established under subsection (e)(3);(II) the name, mailing address, and telephone number of the State long-term care ombudsman (established under title III or VII of the Older Americans Act of 1965 [42 U.S.C. 3021 et seq., 3058 et seq.] in accordance with section 712 of the Act [42 U.S.C. 3058g]);(III) in the case of residents with developmental disabilities, the mailing address and telephone number of the agency responsible for the protection and advocacy system for developmentally disabled individuals established under subtitle C of the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000 [42 U.S.C. 15041 et seq.]; and(IV) in the case of mentally ill residents (as defined in subsection (e)(7)(G)(i)), the mailing address and telephone number of the agency responsible for the protection and advocacy system for mentally ill individuals established under the Protection and Advocacy for Mentally Ill Individuals Act 1 [42 U.S.C. 10801 et seq.].
(C) Orientation
(D) Notice on bed-hold policy and readmission
(i) Notice before transferBefore a resident of a nursing facility is transferred for hospitalization or therapeutic leave, a nursing facility must provide written information to the resident and an immediate family member or legal representative concerning—(I) the provisions of the State plan under this subchapter regarding the period (if any) during which the resident will be permitted under the State plan to return and resume residence in the facility, and(II) the policies of the facility regarding such a period, which policies must be consistent with clause (iii).
(ii) Notice upon transfer
(iii) Permitting resident to returnA nursing facility must establish and follow a written policy under which a resident—(I) who is eligible for medical assistance for nursing facility services under a State plan,(II) who is transferred from the facility for hospitalization or therapeutic leave, and(III) whose hospitalization or therapeutic leave exceeds a period paid for under the State plan for the holding of a bed in the facility for the resident,
 will be permitted to be readmitted to the facility immediately upon the first availability of a bed in a semiprivate room in the facility if, at the time of readmission, the resident requires the services provided by the facility.
(E) Information respecting advance directives
(F) Continuing rights in case of voluntary withdrawal from participation
(i) In generalIn the case of a nursing facility that voluntarily withdraws from participation in a State plan under this subchapter but continues to provide services of the type provided by nursing facilities—(I) the facility’s voluntary withdrawal from participation is not an acceptable basis for the transfer or discharge of residents of the facility who were residing in the facility on the day before the effective date of the withdrawal (including those residents who were not entitled to medical assistance as of such day);(II) the provisions of this section continue to apply to such residents until the date of their discharge from the facility; and(III) in the case of each individual who begins residence in the facility after the effective date of such withdrawal, the facility shall provide notice orally and in a prominent manner in writing on a separate page at the time the individual begins residence of the information described in clause (ii) and shall obtain from each such individual at such time an acknowledgment of receipt of such information that is in writing, signed by the individual, and separate from other documents signed by such individual.
 Nothing in this subparagraph shall be construed as affecting any requirement of a participation agreement that a nursing facility provide advance notice to the State or the Secretary, or both, of its intention to terminate the agreement.
(ii) Information for new residentsThe information described in this clause for a resident is the following:(I) The facility is not participating in the program under this subchapter with respect to that resident.(II) The facility may transfer or discharge the resident from the facility at such time as the resident is unable to pay the charges of the facility, even though the resident may have become eligible for medical assistance for nursing facility services under this subchapter.
(iii) Continuation of payments and oversight authorityNotwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, with respect to the residents described in clause (i)(I), a participation agreement of a facility described in clause (i) is deemed to continue in effect under such plan after the effective date of the facility’s voluntary withdrawal from participation under the State plan for purposes of—(I) receiving payments under the State plan for nursing facility services provided to such residents;(II) maintaining compliance with all applicable requirements of this subchapter; and(III) continuing to apply the survey, certification, and enforcement authority provided under subsections (g) and (h) (including involuntary termination of a participation agreement deemed continued under this clause).
(iv) No application to new residents
(3) Access and visitation rightsA nursing facility must—
(A) permit immediate access to any resident by any representative of the Secretary, by any representative of the State, by an ombudsman or agency described in subclause (II), (III), or (IV) of paragraph (2)(B)(iii), or by the resident’s individual physician;
(B) permit immediate access to a resident, subject to the resident’s right to deny or withdraw consent at any time, by immediate family or other relatives of the resident;
(C) permit immediate access to a resident, subject to reasonable restrictions and the resident’s right to deny or withdraw consent at any time, by others who are visiting with the consent of the resident;
(D) permit reasonable access to a resident by any entity or individual that provides health, social, legal, or other services to the resident, subject to the resident’s right to deny or withdraw consent at any time; and
(E) permit representatives of the State ombudsman (described in paragraph (2)(B)(iii)(II)), with the permission of the resident (or the resident’s legal representative) and consistent with State law, to examine a resident’s clinical records.
(4) Equal access to quality care
(A) In general
(B) Construction
(i) Nothing prohibiting any charges for non-medicaid patients
(ii) No additional services required
(5) Admissions policy
(A) AdmissionsWith respect to admissions practices, a nursing facility must—
(i)(I) not require individuals applying to reside or residing in the facility to waive their rights to benefits under this subchapter or subchapter XVIII, (II) subject to subparagraph (B)(v), not require oral or written assurance that such individuals are not eligible for, or will not apply for, benefits under this subchapter or subchapter XVIII, and (III) prominently display in the facility written information, and provide to such individuals oral and written information, about how to apply for and use such benefits and how to receive refunds for previous payments covered by such benefits;
(ii) not require a third party guarantee of payment to the facility as a condition of admission (or expedited admission) to, or continued stay in, the facility; and
(iii) in the case of an individual who is entitled to medical assistance for nursing facility services, not charge, solicit, accept, or receive, in addition to any amount otherwise required to be paid under the State plan under this subchapter, any gift, money, donation, or other consideration as a precondition of admitting (or expediting the admission of) the individual to the facility or as a requirement for the individual’s continued stay in the facility.
(B) Construction
(i) No preemption of stricter standards
(ii) Contracts with legal representatives
(iii)
(iv) Bona fide contributions
(v) Treatment of continuing care retirement communities admission contracts
(6) Protection of resident funds
(A) In generalThe nursing facility—
(i) may not require residents to deposit their personal funds with the facility, and
(ii) upon the written authorization of the resident, must hold, safeguard, and account for such personal funds under a system established and maintained by the facility in accordance with this paragraph.
(B) Management of personal fundsUpon written authorization of a resident under subparagraph (A)(ii), the facility must manage and account for the personal funds of the resident deposited with the facility as follows:
(i) Deposit
(ii) Accounting and records
(iii) Notice of certain balances
(iv) Conveyance upon death
(C) Assurance of financial security
(D) Limitation on charges to personal funds
(7) Limitation on charges in case of medicaid-eligible individuals
(A) In general
(B) “Certain medicaid-eligible individual” defined
(8) Posting of survey results
(d) Requirements relating to administration and other matters
(1) Administration
(A) In general
(B) Required noticesIf a change occurs in—
(i) the persons with an ownership or control interest (as defined in section 1320a–3(a)(3) of this title) in the facility,
(ii) the persons who are officers, directors, agents, or managing employees (as defined in section 1320a–5(b) of this title) of the facility,
(iii) the corporation, association, or other company responsible for the management of the facility, or
(iv) the individual who is the administrator or director of nursing of the facility,
the nursing facility must provide notice to the State agency responsible for the licensing of the facility, at the time of the change, of the change and of the identity of each new person, company, or individual described in the respective clause.
(C) Nursing facility administrator
(V)2
2 So in original. There are no subpars. (D) to (U).
Availability of survey, certification, and complaint investigation reports
A nursing facility must—
(i) have reports with respect to any surveys, certifications, and complaint investigations made respecting the facility during the 3 preceding years available for any individual to review upon request; and
(ii) post notice of the availability of such reports in areas of the facility that are prominent and accessible to the public.
The facility shall not make available under clause (i) identifying information about complainants or residents.
(2) Licensing and Life Safety Code
(A) Licensing
(B) Life Safety CodeA nursing facility must meet such provisions of such edition (as specified by the Secretary in regulation) of the Life Safety Code of the National Fire Protection Association as are applicable to nursing homes; except that—
(i) the Secretary may waive, for such periods as he deems appropriate, specific provisions of such Code which if rigidly applied would result in unreasonable hardship upon a facility, but only if such waiver would not adversely affect the health and safety of residents or personnel, and
(ii) the provisions of such Code shall not apply in any State if the Secretary finds that in such State there is in effect a fire and safety code, imposed by State law, which adequately protects residents of and personnel in nursing facilities.
(3) Sanitary and infection control and physical environmentA nursing facility must—
(A) establish and maintain an infection control program designed to provide a safe, sanitary, and comfortable environment in which residents reside and to help prevent the development and transmission of disease and infection, and
(B) be designed, constructed, equipped, and maintained in a manner to protect the health and safety of residents, personnel, and the general public.
(4) Miscellaneous
(A) Compliance with Federal, State, and local laws and professional standards
(B) Other
(e) State requirements relating to nursing facility requirementsAs a condition of approval of its plan under this subchapter, a State must provide for the following:
(1) Specification and review of nurse aide training and competency evaluation programs and of nurse aide competency evaluation programsThe State must—
(A) by not later than January 1, 1989, specify those training and competency evaluation programs, and those competency evaluation programs, that the State approves for purposes of subsection (b)(5) and that meet the requirements established under subsection (f)(2), and
(B) by not later than January 1, 1990, provide for the review and reapproval of such programs, at a frequency and using a methodology consistent with the requirements established under subsection (f)(2)(A)(iii).
The failure of the Secretary to establish requirements under subsection (f)(2) shall not relieve any State of its responsibility under this paragraph.
(2) Nurse aide registry
(A) In general
(B) Information in registry
(C) Prohibition against charges
(3) State appeals process for transfers and discharges
(4) Nursing facility administrator standards
(5) Specification of resident assessment instrumentEffective July 1, 1990, the State shall specify the instrument to be used by nursing facilities in the State in complying with the requirement of subsection (b)(3)(A)(iii). Such instrument shall be—
(A) one of the instruments designated under subsection (f)(6)(B), or
(B) an instrument which the Secretary has approved as being consistent with the minimum data set of core elements, common definitions, and utilization guidelines specified by the Secretary under subsection (f)(6)(A).
(6) Notice of medicaid rights
(7) State requirements for preadmission screening and resident review
(A) Preadmission screening
(i) In general
(ii) Clarification with respect to certain readmissions
(iii) Exception for certain hospital dischargesThe preadmission screening program under clause (i) shall not apply to the admission to a nursing facility of an individual—(I) who is admitted to the facility directly from a hospital after receiving acute inpatient care at the hospital,(II) who requires nursing facility services for the condition for which the individual received care in the hospital, and(III) whose attending physician has certified, before admission to the facility, that the individual is likely to require less than 30 days of nursing facility services.
(B) State requirement for resident review
(i) For mentally ill residentsAs of April 1, 1990, in the case of each resident of a nursing facility who is mentally ill, the State mental health authority must review and determine (using any criteria developed under subsection (f)(8) and based on an independent physical and mental evaluation performed by a person or entity other than the State mental health authority)—(I) whether or not the resident, because of the resident’s physical and mental condition, requires the level of services provided by a nursing facility or requires the level of services of an inpatient psychiatric hospital for individuals under age 21 (as described in section 1396d(h) of this title) or of an institution for mental diseases providing medical assistance to individuals 65 years of age or older; and(II) whether or not the resident requires specialized services for mental illness.
(ii)As of April 1, 1990, in the case of each resident of a nursing facility who is mentally retarded, the State mental retardation or developmental disability authority must review and determine (using any criteria developed under subsection (f)(8))—(I) whether or not the resident, because of the resident’s physical and mental condition, requires the level of services provided by a nursing facility or requires the level of services of an intermediate care facility described under section 1396d(d) of this title; and(II) whether or not the resident requires specialized services for mental retardation.
(iii) Review required upon change in resident’s condition
(iv) Prohibition of delegation
(C) Response to preadmission screening and resident reviewAs of April 1, 1990, the State must meet the following requirements:
(i) Long-term residents not requiring nursing facility services, but requiring specialized servicesIn the case of a resident who is determined, under subparagraph (B), not to require the level of services provided by a nursing facility, but to require specialized services for mental illness or mental retardation, and who has continuously resided in a nursing facility for at least 30 months before the date of the determination, the State must, in consultation with the resident’s family or legal representative and care-givers—(I) inform the resident of the institutional and noninstitutional alternatives covered under the State plan for the resident,(II) offer the resident the choice of remaining in the facility or of receiving covered services in an alternative appropriate institutional or noninstitutional setting,(III) clarify the effect on eligibility for services under the State plan if the resident chooses to leave the facility (including its effect on readmission to the facility), and(IV) regardless of the resident’s choice, provide for (or arrange for the provision of) such specialized services for the mental illness or mental retardation.
 A State shall not be denied payment under this subchapter for nursing facility services for a resident described in this clause because the resident does not require the level of services provided by such a facility, if the resident chooses to remain in such a facility.
(ii) Other residents not requiring nursing facility services, but requiring specialized servicesIn the case of a resident who is determined, under subparagraph (B), not to require the level of services provided by a nursing facility, but to require specialized services for mental illness or mental retardation, and who has not continuously resided in a nursing facility for at least 30 months before the date of the determination, the State must, in consultation with the resident’s family or legal representative and care-givers—(I) arrange for the safe and orderly discharge of the resident from the facility, consistent with the requirements of subsection (c)(2),(II) prepare and orient the resident for such discharge, and(III) provide for (or arrange for the provision of) such specialized services for the mental illness or mental retardation.
(iii) Residents not requiring nursing facility services and not requiring specialized servicesIn the case of a resident who is determined, under subparagraph (B), not to require the level of services provided by a nursing facility and not to require specialized services for mental illness or mental retardation, the State must—(I) arrange for the safe and orderly discharge of the resident from the facility, consistent with the requirements of subsection (c)(2), and(II) prepare and orient the resident for such discharge.
(iv) Annual report
(D) Denial of payment
(i) For failure to conduct preadmission screening or review
(ii) For certain residents not requiring nursing facility level of services
(E) Permitting alternative disposition plans
(F) Appeals procedures
(G) DefinitionsIn this paragraph and in subsection (b)(3)(F):
(i) An individual is considered to be “mentally ill” if the individual has a serious mental illness (as defined by the Secretary in consultation with the National Institute of Mental Health) and does not have a primary diagnosis of dementia (including Alzheimer’s disease or a related disorder) or a diagnosis (other than a primary diagnosis) of dementia and a primary diagnosis that is not a serious mental illness.
(ii) An individual is considered to be “mentally retarded” if the individual is mentally retarded or a person with a related condition (as described in section 1396d(d) of this title).
(iii) The term “specialized services” has the meaning given such term by the Secretary in regulations, but does not include, in the case of a resident of a nursing facility, services within the scope of services which the facility must provide or arrange for its residents under subsection (b)(4).
(f) Responsibilities of Secretary relating to nursing facility requirements
(1) General responsibility
(2) Requirements for nurse aide training and competency evaluation programs and for nurse aide competency evaluation programs
(A) In generalFor purposes of subsections (b)(5) and (e)(1)(A), the Secretary shall establish, by not later than September 1, 1988
(i) requirements for the approval of nurse aide training and competency evaluation programs, including requirements relating to (I) the areas to be covered in such a program (including at least basic nursing skills, personal care skills, recognition of mental health and social service needs, care of cognitively impaired residents, basic restorative services, and residents’ rights) and span of the curriculum (including, in the case of initial training and, if the Secretary determines appropriate, in the case of ongoing training, dementia management training, and patient abuse prevention training 3
3 So in original. Probably should be followed by a closing parenthesis.
, (II) minimum hours of initial and ongoing training and retraining (including not less than 75 hours in the case of initial training), (III) qualifications of instructors, and (IV) procedures for determination of competency;
(ii) requirements for the approval of nurse aide competency evaluation programs, including requirement relating to the areas to be covered in such a program, including at least basic nursing skills, personal care skills, recognition of mental health and social service needs, care of cognitively impaired residents, basic restorative services, and residents’ rights, and procedures for determination of competency;
(iii) requirements respecting the minimum frequency and methodology to be used by a State in reviewing such programs’ compliance with the requirements for such programs; and
(iv) requirements, under both such programs, that—(I) provide procedures for determining competency that permit a nurse aide, at the nurse aide’s option, to establish competency through procedures or methods other than the passing of a written examination and to have the competency evaluation conducted at the nursing facility at which the aide is (or will be) employed (unless the facility is described in subparagraph (B)(iii)(I)),(II) prohibit the imposition on a nurse aide who is employed by (or who has received an offer of employment from) a facility on the date on which the aide begins either such program of any charges (including any charges for textbooks and other required course materials and any charges for the competency evaluation) for either such program, and(III) in the case of a nurse aide not described in subclause (II) who is employed by (or who has received an offer of employment from) a facility not later than 12 months after completing either such program, the State shall provide for the reimbursement of costs incurred in completing such program on a prorata basis during the period in which the nurse aide is so employed.
(B) Approval of certain programsSuch requirements—
(i) may permit approval of programs offered by or in facilities, as well as outside facilities (including employee organizations), and of programs in effect on December 22, 1987;
(ii) shall permit a State to find that an individual who has completed (before July 1, 1989) a nurse aide training and competency evaluation program shall be deemed to have completed such a program approved under subsection (b)(5) if the State determines that, at the time the program was offered, the program met the requirements for approval under such paragraph; and
(iii) subject to subparagraphs (C) and (D), shall prohibit approval of such a program—(I) offered by or in a nursing facility which, within the previous 2 years—(II) offered by or in a nursing facility unless the State makes the determination, upon an individual’s completion of the program, that the individual is competent to provide nursing and nursing-related services in nursing facilities.
(a) has operated under a waiver under subsection (b)(4)(C)(ii) that was granted on the basis of a demonstration that the facility is unable to provide the nursing care required under subsection (b)(4)(C)(i) for a period in excess of 48 hours during a week;
(b) has been subject to an extended (or partial extended) survey under section 1395i–3(g)(2)(B)(i) of this title or subsection (g)(2)(B)(i); or
(c) has been assessed a civil money penalty described in section 1395i–3(h)(2)(B)(ii) of this title or subsection (h)(2)(A)(ii) of not less than $5,000, or has been subject to a remedy described in subsection (h)(1)(B)(i), clauses 4
4 So in original. Probably should be “clause”.
(i), (iii), or (iv) of subsection (h)(2)(A), clauses 4 (i) or (iii) of section 1395i–3(h)(2)(B) of this title, or section 1395i–3(h)(4) of this title, or
 A State may not delegate (through subcontract or otherwise) its responsibility under clause (iii)(II) to the nursing facility.
(C) Waiver authorizedClause (iii)(I) of subparagraph (B) shall not apply to a program offered in (but not by) a nursing facility (or skilled nursing facility for purposes of subchapter XVIII) in a State if the State—
(i) determines that there is no other such program offered within a reasonable distance of the facility,
(ii) assures, through an oversight effort, that an adequate environment exists for operating the program in the facility, and
(iii) provides notice of such determination and assurances to the State long-term care ombudsman.
(D) Waiver of disapproval of nurse-aide training programs
(3) Federal guidelines for State appeals process for transfers and discharges
(4) Secretarial standards qualification of administrators
(5) Criteria for administrationThe Secretary shall establish criteria for assessing a nursing facility’s compliance with the requirement of subsection (d)(1) with respect to—
(A) its governing body and management,
(B) agreements with hospitals regarding transfers of residents to and from the hospitals and to and from other nursing facilities,
(C) disaster preparedness,
(D) direction of medical care by a physician,
(E) laboratory and radiological services,
(F) clinical records, and
(G) resident and advocate participation.
(6) Specification of resident assessment data set and instrumentsThe Secretary shall—
(A) not later than January 1, 1989, specify a minimum data set of core elements and common definitions for use by nursing facilities in conducting the assessments required under subsection (b)(3), and establish guidelines for utilization of the data set; and
(B) by not later than April 1, 1990, designate one or more instruments which are consistent with the specification made under subparagraph (A) and which a State may specify under subsection (e)(5)(A) for use by nursing facilities in complying with the requirements of subsection (b)(3)(A)(iii).
(7) List of items and services furnished in nursing facilities not chargeable to the personal funds of a resident
(A) Regulations required
(B) Rule if failure to publish regulations
(8) Federal minimum criteria and monitoring for preadmission screening and resident review
(A) Minimum criteria
(B) Monitoring compliance
(9) Criteria for monitoring State waivers
(10) Special focus facility program
(A) In general
(B) Periodic surveys
(g) Survey and certification process
(1) State and Federal responsibility
(A) In general
(B) Educational program
(C) Investigation of allegations of resident neglect and abuse and misappropriation of resident property
(D) Removal of name from nurse aide registry
(i) In generalIn the case of a finding of neglect under subparagraph (C), the State shall establish a procedure to permit a nurse aide to petition the State to have his or her name removed from the registry upon a determination by the State that—(I) the employment and personal history of the nurse aide does not reflect a pattern of abusive behavior or neglect; and(II) the neglect involved in the original finding was a singular occurrence.
(ii) Timing of determination
(E) Construction
(2) Surveys
(A) Annual standard survey
(i) In general
(ii) ContentsEach standard survey shall include, for a case-mix stratified sample of residents—(I) a survey of the quality of care furnished, as measured by indicators of medical, nursing, and rehabilitative care, dietary and nutrition services, activities and social participation, and sanitation, infection control, and the physical environment,(II) written plans of care provided under subsection (b)(2) and an audit of the residents’ assessments under subsection (b)(3) to determine the accuracy of such assessments and the adequacy of such plans of care, and(III) a review of compliance with residents’ rights under subsection (c).
(iii) Frequency(I) In general(II) Special surveys
(B) Extended surveys
(i) In general
(ii) Timing
(iii) Contents
(iv) Construction
(C) Survey protocolStandard and extended surveys shall be conducted—
(i) based upon a protocol which the Secretary has developed, tested, and validated by not later than January 1, 1990, and
(ii) by individuals, of a survey team, who meet such minimum qualifications as the Secretary establishes by not later than such date.
The failure of the Secretary to develop, test, or validate such protocols or to establish such minimum qualifications shall not relieve any State of its responsibility (or the Secretary of the Secretary’s responsibility) to conduct surveys under this subsection.
(D) Consistency of surveys
(E) Survey teams
(i) In general
(ii) Prohibition of conflicts of interest
(iii) Training
(3) Validation surveys
(A) In general
(B) Scope
(C) Reduction in administrative costs for substandard performance
(D) Special surveys of compliance
(4) Investigation of complaints and monitoring nursing facility complianceEach State shall maintain procedures and adequate staff to—
(A) investigate complaints of violations of requirements by nursing facilities, and
(B) monitor, on-site, on a regular, as needed basis, a nursing facility’s compliance with the requirements of subsections (b), (c), and (d), if—
(i) the facility has been found not to be in compliance with such requirements and is in the process of correcting deficiencies to achieve such compliance;
(ii) the facility was previously found not to be in compliance with such requirements, has corrected deficiencies to achieve such compliance, and verification of continued compliance is indicated; or
(iii) the State has reason to question the compliance of the facility with such requirements.
A State may maintain and utilize a specialized team (including an attorney, an auditor, and appropriate health care professionals) for the purpose of identifying, surveying, gathering and preserving evidence, and carrying out appropriate enforcement actions against substandard nursing facilities.
(5) Disclosure of results of inspections and activities
(A) Public informationEach State, and the Secretary, shall make available to the public—
(i) information respecting all surveys and certifications made respecting nursing facilities, including statements of deficiencies, within 14 calendar days after such information is made available to those facilities, and approved plans of correction,
(ii) copies of cost reports of such facilities filed under this subchapter or under subchapter XVIII,
(iii) copies of statements of ownership under section 1320a–3 of this title, and
(iv) information disclosed under section 1320a–5 of this title.
(B) Notice to ombudsman
(C) Notice to physicians and nursing facility administrator licensing boardIf a State finds that a nursing facility has provided substandard quality of care, the State shall notify—
(i) the attending physician of each resident with respect to which such finding is made, and
(ii) any State board responsible for the licensing of the nursing facility administrator of the facility.
(D) Access to fraud control units
(E) Submission of survey and certification information to the Secretary
(h) Enforcement process
(1) In generalIf a State finds, on the basis of a standard, extended, or partial extended survey under subsection (g)(2) or otherwise, that a nursing facility no longer meets a requirement of subsection (b), (c), or (d), and further finds that the facility’s deficiencies—
(A) immediately jeopardize the health or safety of its residents, the State shall take immediate action to remove the jeopardy and correct the deficiencies through the remedy specified in paragraph (2)(A)(iii), or terminate the facility’s participation under the State plan and may provide, in addition, for one or more of the other remedies described in paragraph (2); or
(B) do not immediately jeopardize the health or safety of its residents, the State may—
(i) terminate the facility’s participation under the State plan,
(ii) provide for one or more of the remedies described in paragraph (2), or
(iii) do both.
Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as restricting the remedies available to a State to remedy a nursing facility’s deficiencies. If a State finds that a nursing facility meets the requirements of subsections (b), (c), and (d), but, as of a previous period, did not meet such requirements, the State may provide for a civil money penalty under paragraph (2)(A)(ii) for the days in which it finds that the facility was not in compliance with such requirements.
(2) Specified remedies
(A) ListingExcept as provided in subparagraph (B)(ii), each State shall establish by law (whether statute or regulation) at least the following remedies:
(i) Denial of payment under the State plan with respect to any individual admitted to the nursing facility involved after such notice to the public and to the facility as may be provided for by the State.
(ii) A civil money penalty assessed and collected, with interest, for each day in which the facility is or was out of compliance with a requirement of subsection (b), (c), or (d). Funds collected by a State as a result of imposition of such a penalty (or as a result of the imposition by the State of a civil money penalty for activities described in subsections (b)(3)(B)(ii)(I), (b)(3)(B)(ii)(II), or (g)(2)(A)(i)) shall be applied to the protection of the health or property of residents of nursing facilities that the State or the Secretary finds deficient, including payment for the costs of relocation of residents to other facilities, maintenance of operation of a facility pending correction of deficiencies or closure, and reimbursement of residents for personal funds lost.
(iii) The appointment of temporary management to oversee the operation of the facility and to assure the health and safety of the facility’s residents, where there is a need for temporary management while—(I) there is an orderly closure of the facility, or(II) improvements are made in order to bring the facility into compliance with all the requirements of subsections (b), (c), and (d).
 The temporary management under this clause shall not be terminated under subclause (II) until the State has determined that the facility has the management capability to ensure continued compliance with all the requirements of subsections (b), (c), and (d).
(iv) The authority, in the case of an emergency, to close the facility, to transfer residents in that facility to other facilities, or both.
The State also shall specify criteria, as to when and how each of such remedies is to be applied, the amounts of any fines, and the severity of each of these remedies, to be used in the imposition of such remedies. Such criteria shall be designed so as to minimize the time between the identification of violations and final imposition of the remedies and shall provide for the imposition of incrementally more severe fines for repeated or uncorrected deficiencies. In addition, the State may provide for other specified remedies, such as directed plans of correction.
(B) Deadline and guidance
(i) Except as provided in clause (ii), as a condition for approval of a State plan for calendar quarters beginning on or after October 1, 1989, each State shall establish the remedies described in clauses (i) through (iv) of subparagraph (A) by not later than October 1, 1989. The Secretary shall provide, through regulations by not later than October 1, 1988, guidance to States in establishing such remedies; but the failure of the Secretary to provide such guidance shall not relieve a State of the responsibility for establishing such remedies.
(ii) A State may establish alternative remedies (other than termination of participation) other than those described in clauses (i) through (iv) of subparagraph (A), if the State demonstrates to the Secretary’s satisfaction that the alternative remedies are as effective in deterring noncompliance and correcting deficiencies as those described in subparagraph (A).
(C) Assuring prompt compliance
(D) Repeated noncomplianceIn the case of a nursing facility which, on 3 consecutive standard surveys conducted under subsection (g)(2), has been found to have provided substandard quality of care, the State shall (regardless of what other remedies are provided)—
(i) impose the remedy described in subparagraph (A)(i), and
(ii) monitor the facility under subsection (g)(4)(B),
until the facility has demonstrated, to the satisfaction of the State, that it is in compliance with the requirements of subsections (b), (c), and (d), and that it will remain in compliance with such requirements.
(E) Funding
(F) Incentives for high quality care
(3) Secretarial authority
(A) For State nursing facilities
(B) Other nursing facilitiesWith respect to any other nursing facility in a State, if the Secretary finds that a nursing facility no longer meets a requirement of subsection (b), (c), (d), or (e), and further finds that the facility’s deficiencies—
(i) immediately jeopardize the health or safety of its residents, the Secretary shall take immediate action to remove the jeopardy and correct the deficiencies through the remedy specified in subparagraph (C)(iii), or terminate the facility’s participation under the State plan and may provide, in addition, for one or more of the other remedies described in subparagraph (C); or
(ii) do not immediately jeopardize the health or safety of its residents, the Secretary may impose any of the remedies described in subparagraph (C).
Nothing in this subparagraph shall be construed as restricting the remedies available to the Secretary to remedy a nursing facility’s deficiencies. If the Secretary finds that a nursing facility meets such requirements but, as of a previous period, did not meet such requirements, the Secretary may provide for a civil money penalty under subparagraph (C)(ii) for the days on which he finds that the facility was not in compliance with such requirements.
(C) Specified remediesThe Secretary may take the following actions with respect to a finding that a facility has not met an applicable requirement:
(i) Denial of payment
(ii) Authority with respect to civil money penalties(I) In general(II) Reduction of civil money penalties in certain circumstances(III) Prohibitions on reduction for certain deficiencies(aa) Repeat deficiencies(bb) Certain other deficiencies(IV) Collection of civil money penaltiesIn the case of a civil money penalty imposed under this clause, the Secretary shall issue regulations that—(aa) subject to item (cc), not later than 30 days after the imposition of the penalty, provide for the facility to have the opportunity to participate in an independent informal dispute resolution process which generates a written record prior to the collection of such penalty;(bb) in the case where the penalty is imposed for each day of noncompliance, provide that a penalty may not be imposed for any day during the period beginning on the initial day of the imposition of the penalty and ending on the day on which the informal dispute resolution process under item (aa) is completed;(cc) may provide for the collection of such civil money penalty and the placement of such amounts collected in an escrow account under the direction of the Secretary on the earlier of the date on which the informal dispute resolution process under item (aa) is completed or the date that is 90 days after the date of the imposition of the penalty;(dd) may provide that such amounts collected are kept in such account pending the resolution of any subsequent appeals;(ee) in the case where the facility successfully appeals the penalty, may provide for the return of such amounts collected (plus interest) to the facility; and(ff) in the case where all such appeals are unsuccessful, may provide that some portion of such amounts collected may be used to support activities that benefit residents, including assistance to support and protect residents of a facility that closes (voluntarily or involuntarily) or is decertified (including offsetting costs of relocating residents to home and community-based settings or another facility), projects that support resident and family councils and other consumer involvement in assuring quality care in facilities, and facility improvement initiatives approved by the Secretary (including joint training of facility staff and surveyors, technical assistance for facilities implementing quality assurance programs, the appointment of temporary management firms, and other activities approved by the Secretary).
(iii) Appointment of temporary managementIn consultation with the State, the Secretary may appoint temporary management to oversee the operation of the facility and to assure the health and safety of the facility’s residents, where there is a need for temporary management while—(I) there is an orderly closure of the facility, or(II) improvements are made in order to bring the facility into compliance with all the requirements of subsections (b), (c), and (d).
 The temporary management under this clause shall not be terminated under subclause (II) until the Secretary has determined that the facility has the management capability to ensure continued compliance with all the requirements of subsections (b), (c), and (d).
The Secretary shall specify criteria, as to when and how each of such remedies is to be applied, the amounts of any fines, and the severity of each of these remedies, to be used in the imposition of such remedies. Such criteria shall be designed so as to minimize the time between the identification of violations and final imposition of the remedies and shall provide for the imposition of incrementally more severe fines for repeated or uncorrected deficiencies. In addition, the Secretary may provide for other specified remedies, such as directed plans of correction.
(D) Continuation of payments pending remediationThe Secretary may continue payments, over a period of not longer than 6 months after the effective date of the findings, under this subchapter with respect to a nursing facility not in compliance with a requirement of subsection (b), (c), or (d), if—
(i) the State survey agency finds that it is more appropriate to take alternative action to assure compliance of the facility with the requirements than to terminate the certification of the facility, and
(ii) the State has submitted a plan and timetable for corrective action to the Secretary for approval and the Secretary approves the plan of corrective action.
The Secretary shall establish guidelines for approval of corrective actions requested by States under this subparagraph.
(4) Effective period of denial of payment
(5) Immediate termination of participation for facility where State or Secretary finds noncompliance and immediate jeopardy
(6) Special rules where State and Secretary do not agree on finding of noncompliance
(A) State finding of noncompliance and no secretarial finding of noncompliance
(B) Secretarial finding of noncompliance and no State finding of noncomplianceIf the Secretary finds that a nursing facility has not met all the requirements of subsections (b), (c), and (d), and that the failure does not immediately jeopardize the health or safety of its residents, but the State has not made such a finding, the Secretary—
(i) may impose any remedies specified in paragraph (3)(C) with respect to the facility, and
(ii) shall (pending any termination by the Secretary) permit continuation of payments in accordance with paragraph (3)(D).
(7) Special rules for timing of termination of participation where remedies overlapIf both the Secretary and the State find that a nursing facility has not met all the requirements of subsections (b), (c), and (d), and neither finds that the failure immediately jeopardizes the health or safety of its residents—
(A)
(i) if both find that the facility’s participation under the State plan should be terminated, the State’s timing of any termination shall control so long as the termination date does not occur later than 6 months after the date of the finding to terminate;
(ii) if the Secretary, but not the State, finds that the facility’s participation under the State plan should be terminated, the Secretary shall (pending any termination by the Secretary) permit continuation of payments in accordance with paragraph (3)(D); or
(iii) if the State, but not the Secretary, finds that the facility’s participation under the State plan should be terminated, the State’s decision to terminate, and timing of such termination, shall control; and
(B)
(i) if the Secretary or the State, but not both, establishes one or more remedies which are additional or alternative to the remedy of terminating the facility’s participation under the State plan, such additional or alternative remedies shall also be applied, or
(ii) if both the Secretary and the State establish one or more remedies which are additional or alternative to the remedy of terminating the facility’s participation under the State plan, only the additional or alternative remedies of the Secretary shall apply.
(8) Construction
(9) Sharing of information
(i) Nursing Home Compare website
(1) Inclusion of additional information
(A) In generalThe Secretary shall ensure that the Department of Health and Human Services includes, as part of the information provided for comparison of nursing homes on the official Internet website of the Federal Government for Medicare beneficiaries (commonly referred to as the “Nursing Home Compare” Medicare website) (or a successor website), the following information in a manner that is prominent, updated on a timely basis, easily accessible, readily understandable to consumers of long-term care services, and searchable:
(i) Staffing data for each facility (including resident census data and data on the hours of care provided per resident per day) based on data submitted under section 1320a–7j(g) of this title, including information on staffing turnover and tenure, in a format that is clearly understandable to consumers of long-term care services and allows such consumers to compare differences in staffing between facilities and State and national averages for the facilities. Such format shall include—(I) concise explanations of how to interpret the data (such as plain English explanation of data reflecting “nursing home staff hours per resident day”);(II) differences in types of staff (such as training associated with different categories of staff);(III) the relationship between nurse staffing levels and quality of care; and(IV) an explanation that appropriate staffing levels vary based on patient case mix.
(ii) Links to State Internet websites with information regarding State survey and certification programs, links to Form 2567 State inspection reports (or a successor form) on such websites, information to guide consumers in how to interpret and understand such reports, and the facility plan of correction or other response to such report. Any such links shall be posted on a timely basis.
(iii) The standardized complaint form developed under section 1320a–7j(f) of this title, including explanatory material on what complaint forms are, how they are used, and how to file a complaint with the State survey and certification program and the State long-term care ombudsman program.
(iv) Summary information on the number, type, severity, and outcome of substantiated complaints.
(v) The number of adjudicated instances of criminal violations by a facility or the employees of a facility—(I) that were committed inside of the facility; and(II) with respect to such instances of violations or crimes committed outside of the facility, that were violations or crimes that resulted in the serious bodily injury of an elder.
(B) Deadline for provision of information
(i) In general
(ii) Exception
(2) Review and modification of website
(A) In generalThe Secretary shall establish a process—
(i) to review the accuracy, clarity of presentation, timeliness, and comprehensiveness of information reported on such website as of the day before March 23, 2010; and
(ii) not later than 1 year after March 23, 2010, to modify or revamp such website in accordance with the review conducted under clause (i).
(B) ConsultationIn conducting the review under subparagraph (A)(i), the Secretary shall consult with—
(i) State long-term care ombudsman programs;
(ii) consumer advocacy groups;
(iii) provider stakeholder groups;
(iv) skilled nursing facility employees and their representatives; and
(v) any other representatives of programs or groups the Secretary determines appropriate.
(j) Construction
(k) Funding for State strike teams
(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XIX, § 1919, as added and amended Pub. L. 100–203, title IV, §§ 4211(a)(3), (c), 4212(a), (b), 4213(a), 4216, Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–182, 1330–196, 1330–207, 1330–213, 1330–220, as amended Pub. L. 100–360, title IV, § 411(l)(3)(C)(ii), (6)(B), (8)(A), July 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 803–805; Pub. L. 100–360, title III, § 303(a)(2), title IV, § 411(l)(2)(A)–(D), (F)–(K), (L)(ii), (3)(A), (B), (C)(iii), (D), (5), (6)(A), (7), (8)(B), July 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 760, 801–805, as amended Pub. L. 100–485, title VI, § 608(d)(27)(C)–(E), (I), Oct. 13, 1988, 102 Stat. 2423; Pub. L. 101–239, title VI, § 69