Collapse to view only § 7401. Congressional findings and declaration of purpose

§ 7401. Congressional findings and declaration of purpose
(a) Findings
The Congress finds—
(1) that the predominant part of the Nation’s population is located in its rapidly expanding metropolitan and other urban areas, which generally cross the boundary lines of local jurisdictions and often extend into two or more States;
(2) that the growth in the amount and complexity of air pollution brought about by urbanization, industrial development, and the increasing use of motor vehicles, has resulted in mounting dangers to the public health and welfare, including injury to agricultural crops and livestock, damage to and the deterioration of property, and hazards to air and ground transportation;
(3) that air pollution prevention (that is, the reduction or elimination, through any measures, of the amount of pollutants produced or created at the source) and air pollution control at its source is the primary responsibility of States and local governments; and
(4) that Federal financial assistance and leadership is essential for the development of cooperative Federal, State, regional, and local programs to prevent and control air pollution.
(b) Declaration
The purposes of this subchapter are—
(1) to protect and enhance the quality of the Nation’s air resources so as to promote the public health and welfare and the productive capacity of its population;
(2) to initiate and accelerate a national research and development program to achieve the prevention and control of air pollution;
(3) to provide technical and financial assistance to State and local governments in connection with the development and execution of their air pollution prevention and control programs; and
(4) to encourage and assist the development and operation of regional air pollution prevention and control programs.
(c) Pollution prevention
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 101, formerly § 1, as added Pub. L. 88–206, § 1, Dec. 17, 1963, 77 Stat. 392; renumbered § 101 and amended Pub. L. 89–272, title I, § 101(2), (3), Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 992; Pub. L. 90–148, § 2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 485; Pub. L. 101–549, title I, § 108(k), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2468.)
§ 7402. Cooperative activities
(a) Interstate cooperation; uniform State laws; State compacts
(b) Federal cooperation
(c) Consent of Congress to compacts
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 102, formerly § 2, as added Pub. L. 88–206, § 1, Dec. 17, 1963, 77 Stat. 393; renumbered § 102, Pub. L. 89–272, title I, § 101(3), Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 992; amended Pub. L. 90–148, § 2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 485; Pub. L. 91–604, § 15(c)(2), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1713.)
§ 7403. Research, investigation, training, and other activities
(a) Research and development program for prevention and control of air pollutionThe Administrator shall establish a national research and development program for the prevention and control of air pollution and as part of such program shall—
(1) conduct, and promote the coordination and acceleration of, research, investigations, experiments, demonstrations, surveys, and studies relating to the causes, effects (including health and welfare effects), extent, prevention, and control of air pollution;
(2) encourage, cooperate with, and render technical services and provide financial assistance to air pollution control agencies and other appropriate public or private agencies, institutions, and organizations, and individuals in the conduct of such activities;
(3) conduct investigations and research and make surveys concerning any specific problem of air pollution in cooperation with any air pollution control agency with a view to recommending a solution of such problem, if he is requested to do so by such agency or if, in his judgment, such problem may affect any community or communities in a State other than that in which the source of the matter causing or contributing to the pollution is located;
(4) establish technical advisory committees composed of recognized experts in various aspects of air pollution to assist in the examination and evaluation of research progress and proposals and to avoid duplication of research; and
(5) conduct and promote coordination and acceleration of training for individuals relating to the causes, effects, extent, prevention, and control of air pollution.
(b) Authorized activities of Administrator in establishing research and development programIn carrying out the provisions of the preceding subsection the Administrator is authorized to—
(1) collect and make available, through publications and other appropriate means, the results of and other information, including appropriate recommendations by him in connection therewith, pertaining to such research and other activities;
(2) cooperate with other Federal departments and agencies, with air pollution control agencies, with other public and private agencies, institutions, and organizations, and with any industries involved, in the preparation and conduct of such research and other activities;
(3) make grants to air pollution control agencies, to other public or nonprofit private agencies, institutions, and organizations, and to individuals, for purposes stated in subsection (a)(1) of this section;
(4) contract with public or private agencies, institutions, and organizations, and with individuals, without regard to section 3324(a) and (b) of title 31 and section 6101 of title 41;
(5) establish and maintain research fellowships, in the Environmental Protection Agency and at public or nonprofit private educational institutions or research organizations;
(6) collect and disseminate, in cooperation with other Federal departments and agencies, and with other public or private agencies, institutions, and organizations having related responsibilities, basic data on chemical, physical, and biological effects of varying air quality and other information pertaining to air pollution and the prevention and control thereof;
(7) develop effective and practical processes, methods, and prototype devices for the prevention or control of air pollution; and
(8) construct facilities, provide equipment, and employ staff as necessary to carry out this chapter.
In carrying out the provisions of subsection (a), the Administrator shall provide training for, and make training grants to, personnel of air pollution control agencies and other persons with suitable qualifications and make grants to such agencies, to other public or nonprofit private agencies, institutions, and organizations for the purposes stated in subsection (a)(5). Reasonable fees may be charged for such training provided to persons other than personnel of air pollution control agencies but such training shall be provided to such personnel of air pollution control agencies without charge.
(c) Air pollutant monitoring, analysis, modeling, and inventory researchIn carrying out subsection (a), the Administrator shall conduct a program of research, testing, and development of methods for sampling, measurement, monitoring, analysis, and modeling of air pollutants. Such program shall include the following elements:
(1) Consideration of individual, as well as complex mixtures of, air pollutants and their chemical transformations in the atmosphere.
(2) Establishment of a national network to monitor, collect, and compile data with quantification of certainty in the status and trends of air emissions, deposition, air quality, surface water quality, forest condition, and visibility impairment, and to ensure the comparability of air quality data collected in different States and obtained from different nations.
(3) Development of improved methods and technologies for sampling, measurement, monitoring, analysis, and modeling to increase understanding of the sources of ozone precursors, ozone formation, ozone transport, regional influences on urban ozone, regional ozone trends, and interactions of ozone with other pollutants. Emphasis shall be placed on those techniques which—
(A) improve the ability to inventory emissions of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides that contribute to urban air pollution, including anthropogenic and natural sources;
(B) improve the understanding of the mechanism through which anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds react to form ozone and other oxidants; and
(C) improve the ability to identify and evaluate region-specific prevention and control options for ozone pollution.
(4) Submission of periodic reports to the Congress, not less than once every 5 years, which evaluate and assess the effectiveness of air pollution control regulations and programs using monitoring and modeling data obtained pursuant to this subsection.
(d) Environmental health effects research
(1) The Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, shall conduct a research program on the short-term and long-term effects of air pollutants, including wood smoke, on human health. In conducting such research program the Administrator—
(A) shall conduct studies, including epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory and field studies, as necessary to identify and evaluate exposure to and effects of air pollutants on human health;
(B) may utilize, on a reimbursable basis, the facilities of existing Federal scientific laboratories and research centers; and
(C) shall consult with other Federal agencies to ensure that similar research being conducted in other agencies is coordinated to avoid duplication.
(2) In conducting the research program under this subsection, the Administrator shall develop methods and techniques necessary to identify and assess the risks to human health from both routine and accidental exposures to individual air pollutants and combinations thereof. Such research program shall include the following elements:
(A) The creation of an Interagency Task Force to coordinate such program. The Task Force shall include representatives of the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, the National Toxicology Program, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the National Science Foundation, the Surgeon General, and the Department of Energy. This Interagency Task Force shall be chaired by a representative of the Environmental Protection Agency and shall convene its first meeting within 60 days after November 15, 1990.
(B) An evaluation, within 12 months after November 15, 1990, of each of the hazardous air pollutants listed under section 7412(b) of this title, to decide, on the basis of available information, their relative priority for preparation of environmental health assessments pursuant to subparagraph (C). The evaluation shall be based on reasonably anticipated toxicity to humans and exposure factors such as frequency of occurrence as an air pollutant and volume of emissions in populated areas. Such evaluation shall be reviewed by the Interagency Task Force established pursuant to subparagraph (A).
(C) Preparation of environmental health assessments for each of the hazardous air pollutants referred to in subparagraph (B), beginning 6 months after the first meeting of the Interagency Task Force and to be completed within 96 months thereafter. No fewer than 24 assessments shall be completed and published annually. The assessments shall be prepared in accordance with guidelines developed by the Administrator in consultation with the Interagency Task Force and the Science Advisory Board of the Environmental Protection Agency. Each such assessment shall include—
(i) an examination, summary, and evaluation of available toxicological and epidemiological information for the pollutant to ascertain the levels of human exposure which pose a significant threat to human health and the associated acute, subacute, and chronic adverse health effects;
(ii) a determination of gaps in available information related to human health effects and exposure levels; and
(iii) where appropriate, an identification of additional activities, including toxicological and inhalation testing, needed to identify the types or levels of exposure which may present significant risk of adverse health effects in humans.
(e) Ecosystem researchIn carrying out subsection (a), the Administrator, in cooperation, where appropriate, with the Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere, the Director of the Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Secretary of Agriculture, shall conduct a research program to improve understanding of the short-term and long-term causes, effects, and trends of ecosystems damage from air pollutants on ecosystems. Such program shall include the following elements:
(1) Identification of regionally representative and critical ecosystems for research.
(2) Evaluation of risks to ecosystems exposed to air pollutants, including characterization of the causes and effects of chronic and episodic exposures to air pollutants and determination of the reversibility of those effects.
(3) Development of improved atmospheric dispersion models and monitoring systems and networks for evaluating and quantifying exposure to and effects of multiple environmental stresses associated with air pollution.
(4) Evaluation of the effects of air pollution on water quality, including assessments of the short-term and long-term ecological effects of acid deposition and other atmospherically derived pollutants on surface water (including wetlands and estuaries) and groundwater.
(5) Evaluation of the effects of air pollution on forests, materials, crops, biological diversity, soils, and other terrestrial and aquatic systems exposed to air pollutants.
(6) Estimation of the associated economic costs of ecological damage which have occurred as a result of exposure to air pollutants.
Consistent with the purpose of this program, the Administrator may use the estuarine research reserves established pursuant to section 1461 of title 16 to carry out this research.
(f) Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility
(1) The Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Energy and the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology, shall oversee an experimental and analytical research effort, with the experimental research to be carried out at the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility. In consultation with the Secretary of Energy, the Administrator shall develop a list of chemicals and a schedule for field testing at the Facility. Analysis of a minimum of 10 chemicals per year shall be carried out, with the selection of a minimum of 2 chemicals for field testing each year. Highest priority shall be given to those chemicals that would present the greatest potential risk to human health as a result of an accidental release—
(A) from a fixed site; or
(B) related to the transport of such chemicals.
(2) The purpose of such research shall be to—
(A) develop improved predictive models for atmospheric dispersion which at a minimum—
(i) describe dense gas releases in complex terrain including man-made structures or obstacles with variable winds;
(ii) improve understanding of the effects of turbulence on dispersion patterns; and
(iii) consider realistic behavior of aerosols by including physicochemical reactions with water vapor, ground deposition, and removal by water spray;
(B) evaluate existing and future atmospheric dispersion models by—
(i) the development of a rigorous, standardized methodology for dense gas models; and
(ii) the application of such methodology to current dense gas dispersion models using data generated from field experiments; and
(C) evaluate the effectiveness of hazard mitigation and emergency response technology for fixed site and transportation related accidental releases of toxic chemicals.
Models pertaining to accidental release shall be evaluated and improved periodically for their utility in planning and implementing evacuation procedures and other mitigative strategies designed to minimize human exposure to hazardous air pollutants released accidentally.
(3) The Secretary of Energy shall make available to interested persons (including other Federal agencies and businesses) the use of the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility to conduct research and other activities in connection with the activities described in this subsection.
(g) Pollution prevention and emissions control
(1) In general
(2) Participation requirement
(3) Program inclusionsThe program under this subsection shall include the following elements:
(A) Improvements in nonregulatory strategies and technologies for preventing or reducing multiple air pollutants, including sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, heavy metals, PM–10 (particulate matter), carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide, from stationary sources, including fossil fuel power plants. Such strategies and technologies shall include improvements in the relative cost effectiveness and long-range implications of various air pollutant reduction and nonregulatory control strategies such as energy conservation, including end-use efficiency, and fuel-switching to cleaner fuels. Such strategies and technologies shall be considered for existing and new facilities.
(B) Improvements in nonregulatory strategies and technologies for reducing air emissions from area sources.
(C) Improvements in nonregulatory strategies and technologies for preventing, detecting, and correcting accidental releases of hazardous air pollutants.
(D) Improvements in nonregulatory strategies and technologies that dispose of tires in ways that avoid adverse air quality impacts.
(4) Effect of subsection
(5) Coordination and avoidance of duplication
(6) Certain carbon dioxide activities
(A) In generalIn carrying out paragraph (3)(A) with respect to carbon dioxide, the Administrator—
(i) is authorized to carry out the activities described in subparagraph (B); and
(ii) shall carry out the activities described in subparagraph (C).
(B) Direct air capture research
(i) DefinitionsIn this subparagraph:(I) Board(II) Dilute(III) Direct air capture(aa) In general(bb) ExclusionThe term “direct air capture” does not include any facility, technology, or system that captures carbon dioxide—(AA) that is deliberately released from a naturally occurring subsurface spring; or(BB) using natural photosynthesis.(IV) Intellectual propertyThe term “intellectual property” means—(aa) an invention that is patentable under title 35; and(bb) any patent on an invention described in item (aa).
(ii) Technology prizes(I) In general(II) DutiesIn carrying out this clause, the Administrator shall—(aa) subject to subclause (III), develop specific requirements for—(AA) the competition process; and(BB) the demonstration of performance of approved projects;(bb) offer financial awards for a project designed—(AA) to the maximum extent practicable, to capture more than 10,000 tons of carbon dioxide per year;(BB) to operate in a manner that would be commercially viable in the foreseeable future (as determined by the Board); and(CC) to improve the technologies or information systems that enable monitoring and verification methods for direct air capture projects; and(cc) to the maximum extent practicable, make financial awards to geographically diverse projects, including at least—(AA) 1 project in a coastal State; and(BB) 1 project in a rural State.(III) Public participationIn carrying out subclause (II)(aa), the Administrator shall—(aa) provide notice of and, for a period of not less than 60 days, an opportunity for public comment on, any draft or proposed version of the requirements described in subclause (II)(aa); and(bb) take into account public comments received in developing the final version of those requirements.
(iii) Direct Air Capture Technology Advisory Board(I) Establishment(II) CompositionThe Board, on the establishment of the Board, shall be composed of 9 members appointed by the Administrator, who shall provide expertise in—(aa) climate science;(bb) physics;(cc) chemistry;(dd) biology;(ee) engineering;(ff) economics;(gg) business management; and(hh) such other disciplines as the Administrator determines to be necessary to achieve the purposes of this subparagraph.(III) Term; vacancies(aa) Term(bb) VacanciesA vacancy on the Board—(AA) shall not affect the powers of the Board; and(BB) shall be filled in the same manner as the original appointment was made.(IV) Initial meeting(V) Meetings(VI) Quorum(VII) Chairperson and Vice Chairperson(VIII) Compensation(IX) DutiesThe Board shall—(aa) advise the Administrator on carrying out the duties of the Administrator under this subparagraph; and(bb) provide other assistance and advice as requested by the Administrator.
(iv) Intellectual property(I) In general(II) Reservation of licenseThe United States—(aa) may reserve a nonexclusive, nontransferable, irrevocable, paid-up license, to have practiced for or on behalf of the United States, in connection with any intellectual property described in subclause (I); but(bb) shall not, in the exercise of a license reserved under item (aa), publicly disclose proprietary information relating to the license.(III) Transfer of title
(v) Authorization of appropriations
(vi) Termination of authority
(C) Deep saline formation report
(i) Definition of deep saline formation(I) In general(II) Clarification
(ii) ReportIn consultation with the Secretary of Energy, and, as appropriate, with the head of any other relevant Federal agency and relevant stakeholders, not later than 1 year after December 27, 2020, the Administrator shall prepare, submit to Congress, and make publicly available a report that includes—(I) a comprehensive identification of potential risks and benefits to project developers associated with increased storage of carbon dioxide captured from stationary sources in deep saline formations, using existing research;(II) recommendations for managing the potential risks identified under subclause (I), including potential risks unique to public land; and(III) recommendations for Federal legislation or other policy changes to mitigate any potential risks identified under subclause (I).
(D) GAO reportNot later than 5 years after December 27, 2020, the Comptroller General of the United States shall submit to Congress a report that—
(i) identifies all Federal grant programs in which a purpose of a grant under the program is to perform research on carbon capture and utilization technologies, including direct air capture technologies; and
(ii) examines the extent to which the Federal grant programs identified pursuant to clause (i) overlap or are duplicative.
(h) NIEHS studies
(1) The Director of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences may conduct a program of basic research to identify, characterize, and quantify risks to human health from air pollutants. Such research shall be conducted primarily through a combination of university and medical school-based grants, as well as through intramural studies and contracts.
(2) The Director of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences shall conduct a program for the education and training of physicians in environmental health.
(3) The Director shall assure that such programs shall not conflict with research undertaken by the Administrator.
(4) There are authorized to be appropriated to the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences such sums as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection.
(i) Coordination of researchThe Administrator shall develop and implement a plan for identifying areas in which activities authorized under this section can be carried out in conjunction with other Federal ecological and air pollution research efforts. The plan, which shall be submitted to Congress within 6 months after November 15, 1990, shall include—
(1) an assessment of ambient monitoring stations and networks to determine cost effective ways to expand monitoring capabilities in both urban and rural environments;
(2) a consideration of the extent of the feasibility and scientific value of conducting the research program under subsection (e) to include consideration of the effects of atmospheric processes and air pollution effects; and
(3) a methodology for evaluating and ranking pollution prevention technologies, such as those developed under subsection (g), in terms of their ability to reduce cost effectively the emissions of air pollutants and other airborne chemicals of concern.
Not later than 2 years after November 15, 1990, and every 4 years thereafter, the Administrator shall report to Congress on the progress made in implementing the plan developed under this subsection, and shall include in such report any revisions of the plan.
(j) Continuation of national acid precipitation assessment program
(1) The acid precipitation research program set forth in the Acid Precipitation Act of 1980 [42 U.S.C. 8901 et seq.] shall be continued with modifications pursuant to this subsection.
(2) The Acid Precipitation Task Force shall consist of the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and such additional members as the President may select. The President shall appoint a chairman for the Task Force from among its members within 30 days after November 15, 1990.
(3) The responsibilities of the Task Force shall include the following:
(A) Review of the status of research activities conducted to date under the comprehensive research plan developed pursuant to the Acid Precipitation Act of 1980 [42 U.S.C. 8901 et seq.], and development of a revised plan that identifies significant research gaps and establishes a coordinated program to address current and future research priorities. A draft of the revised plan shall be submitted by the Task Force to Congress within 6 months after November 15, 1990. The plan shall be available for public comment during the 60 day period after its submission, and a final plan shall be submitted by the President to the Congress within 45 days after the close of the comment period.
(B) Coordination with participating Federal agencies, augmenting the agencies’ research and monitoring efforts and sponsoring additional research in the scientific community as necessary to ensure the availability and quality of data and methodologies needed to evaluate the status and effectiveness of the acid deposition control program. Such research and monitoring efforts shall include, but not be limited to—
(i) continuous monitoring of emissions of precursors of acid deposition;
(ii) maintenance, upgrading, and application of models, such as the Regional Acid Deposition Model, that describe the interactions of emissions with the atmosphere, and models that describe the response of ecosystems to acid deposition; and
(iii) analysis of the costs, benefits, and effectiveness of the acid deposition control program.
(C) Publication and maintenance of a National Acid Lakes Registry that tracks the condition and change over time of a statistically representative sample of lakes in regions that are known to be sensitive to surface water acidification.
(D) Submission every two years of a unified budget recommendation to the President for activities of the Federal Government in connection with the research program described in this subsection.
(E) Beginning in 1992 and biennially thereafter, submission of a report to Congress describing the results of its investigations and analyses. The reporting of technical information about acid deposition shall be provided in a format that facilitates communication with policymakers and the public. The report shall include—
(i) actual and projected emissions and acid deposition trends;
(ii) average ambient concentrations of acid deposition percursors 2
2 So in original. Probably should be “precursors”.
and their transformation products;
(iii) the status of ecosystems (including forests and surface waters), materials, and visibility affected by acid deposition;
(iv) the causes and effects of such deposition, including changes in surface water quality and forest and soil conditions;
(v) the occurrence and effects of episodic acidification, particularly with respect to high elevation watersheds; and
(vi) the confidence level associated with each conclusion to aid policymakers in use of the information.
(F) Beginning in 1996, and every 4 years thereafter, the report under subparagraph (E) shall include—
(i) the reduction in deposition rates that must be achieved in order to prevent adverse ecological effects; and
(ii) the costs and benefits of the acid deposition control program created by subchapter IV–A of this chapter.
(k) Air pollution conferences
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 103, formerly § 3, as added Pub. L. 88–206, § 1, Dec. 17, 1963, 77 Stat. 394; renumbered § 103 and amended Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §§ 101(3), 103, Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 992, 996; Pub. L. 90–148, § 2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 486; Pub. L. 91–604, §§ 2(a), 4(2), 15(a)(2), (c)(2), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1676, 1689, 1710, 1713; Pub. L. 95–95, title I, § 101(a), (b), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 686, 687; Pub. L. 101–549, title IX, § 901(a)–(c), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2700–2703; Pub. L. 116–260, div. S, § 102(b), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2243.)
§ 7404. Research relating to fuels and vehicles
(a) Research programs; grants; contracts; pilot and demonstration plants; byproducts researchThe Administrator shall give special emphasis to research and development into new and improved methods, having industry-wide application, for the prevention and control of air pollution resulting from the combustion of fuels. In furtherance of such research and development he shall—
(1) conduct and accelerate research programs directed toward development of improved, cost-effective techniques for—
(A) control of combustion byproducts of fuels,
(B) removal of potential air pollutants from fuels prior to combustion,
(C) control of emissions from the evaporation of fuels,
(D) improving the efficiency of fuels combustion so as to decrease atmospheric emissions, and
(E) producing synthetic or new fuels which, when used, result in decreased atmospheric emissions.1
1 So in original. The period probably should be a semicolon.
(2) provide for Federal grants to public or nonprofit agencies, institutions, and organizations and to individuals, and contracts with public or private agencies, institutions, or persons, for payment of (A) part of the cost of acquiring, constructing, or otherwise securing for research and development purposes, new or improved devices or methods having industrywide application of preventing or controlling discharges into the air of various types of pollutants; (B) part of the cost of programs to develop low emission alternatives to the present internal combustion engine; (C) the cost to purchase vehicles and vehicle engines, or portions thereof, for research, development, and testing purposes; and (D) carrying out the other provisions of this section, without regard to section 3324(a) and (b) of title 31 and section 6101 of title 41: Provided, That research or demonstration contracts awarded pursuant to this subsection (including contracts for construction) may be made in accordance with, and subject to the limitations provided with respect to research contracts of the military departments in, section 2353 2
2 See References in Text note below.
of title 10, except that the determination, approval, and certification required thereby shall be made by the Administrator; Provided further, That no grant may be made under this paragraph in excess of $1,500,000;
(3) determine, by laboratory and pilot plant testing, the results of air pollution research and studies in order to develop new or improved processes and plant designs to the point where they can be demonstrated on a large and practical scale;
(4) construct, operate, and maintain, or assist in meeting the cost of the construction, operation, and maintenance of new or improved demonstration plants or processes which have promise of accomplishing the purposes of this chapter; 3
3 So in original. The word “and” probably should appear.
(5) study new or improved methods for the recovery and marketing of commercially valuable byproducts resulting from the removal of pollutants.
(b) Powers of Administrator in establishing research and development programsIn carrying out the provisions of this section, the Administrator may—
(1) conduct and accelerate research and development of cost-effective instrumentation techniques to facilitate determination of quantity and quality of air pollutant emissions, including, but not limited to, automotive emissions;
(2) utilize, on a reimbursable basis, the facilities of existing Federal scientific laboratories;
(3) establish and operate necessary facilities and test sites at which to carry on the research, testing, development, and programming necessary to effectuate the purposes of this section;
(4) acquire secret processes, technical data, inventions, patent applications, patents, licenses, and an interest in lands, plants, and facilities, and other property or rights by purchase, license, lease, or donation; and
(5) cause on-site inspections to be made of promising domestic and foreign projects, and cooperate and participate in their development in instances in which the purposes of the chapter will be served thereby.
(c) Clean alternative fuels
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 104, as added Pub. L. 90–148, § 2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 487; amended Pub. L. 91–137, Dec. 5, 1969, 83 Stat. 283; Pub. L. 91–604, §§ 2(b), (c), 13(a), 15(c)(2), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1676, 1677, 1709, 1713; Pub. L. 93–15, § 1(a), Apr. 9, 1973, 87 Stat. 11; Pub. L. 93–319, § 13(a), June 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 265; Pub. L. 101–549, title IX, § 901(d), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2706.)
§ 7405. Grants for support of air pollution planning and control programs
(a) Amounts; limitations; assurances of plan development capability
(1)
(A) The Administrator may make grants to air pollution control agencies, within the meaning of paragraph (1), (2), (3), (4), or (5) of section 7602 of this title, in an amount up to three-fifths of the cost of implementing programs for the prevention and control of air pollution or implementation of national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards. For the purpose of this section, “implementing” means any activity related to the planning, developing, establishing, carrying-out, improving, or maintaining of such programs.
(B) Subject to subsections (b) and (c) of this section, an air pollution control agency which receives a grant under subparagraph (A) and which contributes less than the required two-fifths minimum shall have 3 years following November 15, 1990, in which to contribute such amount. If such an agency fails to meet and maintain this required level, the Administrator shall reduce the amount of the Federal contribution accordingly.
(C) With respect to any air quality control region or portion thereof for which there is an applicable implementation plan under section 7410 of this title, grants under subparagraph (A) may be made only to air pollution control agencies which have substantial responsibilities for carrying out such applicable implementation plan.
(2) Before approving any grant under this subsection to any air pollution control agency within the meaning of sections 7602(b)(2) and 7602(b)(4) of this title, the Administrator shall receive assurances that such agency provides for adequate representation of appropriate State, interstate, local, and (when appropriate) international, interests in the air quality control region.
(3) Before approving any planning grant under this subsection to any air pollution control agency within the meaning of sections 7602(b)(2) and 7602(b)(4) of this title, the Administrator shall receive assurances that such agency has the capability of developing a comprehensive air quality plan for the air quality control region, which plan shall include (when appropriate) a recommended system of alerts to avert and reduce the risk of situations in which there may be imminent and serious danger to the public health or welfare from air pollutants and the various aspects relevant to the establishment of air quality standards for such air quality control region, including the concentration of industries, other commercial establishments, population and naturally occurring factors which shall affect such standards.
(b) Terms and conditions; regulations; factors for consideration; State expenditure limitations
(1) From the sums available for the purposes of subsection (a) of this section for any fiscal year, the Administrator shall from time to time make grants to air pollution control agencies upon such terms and conditions as the Administrator may find necessary to carry out the purpose of this section. In establishing regulations for the granting of such funds the Administrator shall, so far as practicable, give due consideration to (A) the population, (B) the extent of the actual or potential air pollution problem, and (C) the financial need of the respective agencies.
(2) Not more than 10 per centum of the total of funds appropriated or allocated for the purposes of subsection (a) of this section shall be granted for air pollution control programs in any one State. In the case of a grant for a program in an area crossing State boundaries, the Administrator shall determine the portion of such grant that is chargeable to the percentage limitation under this subsection for each State into which such area extends. Subject to the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection, no State shall have made available to it for application less than one-half of 1 per centum of the annual appropriation for grants under this section for grants to agencies within such State.
(c) Maintenance of effort
(1) No agency shall receive any grant under this section during any fiscal year when its expenditures of non-Federal funds for recurrent expenditures for air pollution control programs will be less than its expenditures were for such programs during the preceding fiscal year. In order for the Administrator to award grants under this section in a timely manner each fiscal year, the Administrator shall compare an agency’s prospective expenditure level to that of its second preceding fiscal year. The Administrator shall revise the current regulations which define applicable nonrecurrent and recurrent expenditures, and in so doing, give due consideration to exempting an agency from the limitations of this paragraph and subsection (a) due to periodic increases experienced by that agency from time to time in its annual expenditures for purposes acceptable to the Administrator for that fiscal year.
(2) The Administrator may still award a grant to an agency not meeting the requirements of paragraph (l) 1
1 So in original. Probably should be paragraph “(1)”.
of this subsection if the Administrator, after notice and opportunity for public hearing, determines that a reduction in expenditures is attributable to a non-selective reduction in the expenditures in the programs of all Executive branch agencies of the applicable unit of Government. No agency shall receive any grant under this section with respect to the maintenance of a program for the prevention and control of air pollution unless the Administrator is satisfied that such a grant will be so used to supplement and, to the extent practicable, increase the level of State, local, or other non-Federal funds. No g
rants shall be made under this section until the Administrator has consulted with the appropriate official as designated by the Governor or Governors of the State or States affected.
(d) Reduction of payments; availability of reduced amounts; reduced amount as deemed paid to agency for purpose of determining amount of grant
(e) Notice and opportunity for hearing when affected by adverse action
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 105, formerly § 4, as added Pub. L. 88–206, § 1, Dec. 17, 1963, 77 Stat. 395; renumbered § 104 and amended Pub. L. 89–272, title I, § 101(2)–(4), Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 992; Pub. L. 89–675, § 3, Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 954; renumbered § 105 and amended Pub. L. 90–148, § 2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 489; Pub. L. 91–604, §§ 3(a), (b)(1), 15(c)(2), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1677, 1713; Pub. L. 95–95, title I, § 102, title III, § 305(b), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 687, 776; Pub. L. 101–549, title VIII, § 802(a)–(e), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2687, 2688.)
§ 7406. Interstate air quality agencies; program cost limitations

For the purpose of developing implementation plans for any interstate air quality control region designated pursuant to section 7407 of this title or of implementing section 7506a of this title (relating to control of interstate air pollution) or section 7511c of this title (relating to control of interstate ozone pollution), the Administrator is authorized to pay, for two years, up to 100 per centum of the air quality planning program costs of any commission established under section 7506a of this title (relating to control of interstate air pollution) or section 7511c of this title (relating to control of interstate ozone pollution) or any agency designated by the Governors of the affected States, which agency shall be capable of recommending to the Governors plans for implementation of national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards and shall include representation from the States and appropriate political subdivisions within the air quality control region. After the initial two-year period the Administrator is authorized to make grants to such agency or such commission in an amount up to three-fifths of the air quality implementation program costs of such agency or commission.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 106, as added Pub. L. 90–148, § 2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 490; amended Pub. L. 91–604, § 3(c), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1677; Pub. L. 101–549, title I, § 102(f)(2), title VIII, § 802(f), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2420, 2688.)
§ 7407. Air quality control regions
(a) Responsibility of each State for air quality; submission of implementation plan
(b) Designated regionsFor purposes of developing and carrying out implementation plans under section 7410 of this title
(1) an air quality control region designated under this section before December 31, 1970, or a region designated after such date under subsection (c), shall be an air quality control region; and
(2) the portion of such State which is not part of any such designated region shall be an air quality control region, but such portion may be subdivided by the State into two or more air quality control regions with the approval of the Administrator.
(c) Authority of Administrator to designate regions; notification of Governors of affected States
(d) Designations
(1) Designations generally
(A) Submission by Governors of initial designations following promulgation of new or revised standardsBy such date as the Administrator may reasonably require, but not later than 1 year after promulgation of a new or revised national ambient air quality standard for any pollutant under section 7409 of this title, the Governor of each State shall (and at any other time the Governor of a State deems appropriate the Governor may) submit to the Administrator a list of all areas (or portions thereof) in the State, designating as—
(i) nonattainment, any area that does not meet (or that contributes to ambient air quality in a nearby area that does not meet) the national primary or secondary ambient air quality standard for the pollutant,
(ii) attainment, any area (other than an area identified in clause (i)) that meets the national primary or secondary ambient air quality standard for the pollutant, or
(iii) unclassifiable, any area that cannot be classified on the basis of available information as meeting or not meeting the national primary or secondary ambient air quality standard for the pollutant.
The Administrator may not require the Governor to submit the required list sooner than 120 days after promulgating a new or revised national ambient air quality standard.
(B) Promulgation by EPA of designations
(i) Upon promulgation or revision of a national ambient air quality standard, the Administrator shall promulgate the designations of all areas (or portions thereof) submitted under subparagraph (A) as expeditiously as practicable, but in no case later than 2 years from the date of promulgation of the new or revised national ambient air quality standard. Such period may be extended for up to one year in the event the Administrator has insufficient information to promulgate the designations.
(ii) In making the promulgations required under clause (i), the Administrator may make such modifications as the Administrator deems necessary to the designations of the areas (or portions thereof) submitted under subparagraph (A) (including to the boundaries of such areas or portions thereof). Whenever the Administrator intends to make a modification, the Administrator shall notify the State and provide such State with an opportunity to demonstrate why any proposed modification is inappropriate. The Administrator shall give such notification no later than 120 days before the date the Administrator promulgates the designation, including any modification thereto. If the Governor fails to submit the list in whole or in part, as required under subparagraph (A), the Administrator shall promulgate the designation that the Administrator deems appropriate for any area (or portion thereof) not designated by the State.
(iii) If the Governor of any State, on the Governor’s own motion, under subparagraph (A), submits a list of areas (or portions thereof) in the State designated as nonattainment, attainment, or unclassifiable, the Administrator shall act on such designations in accordance with the procedures under paragraph (3) (relating to redesignation).
(iv) A designation for an area (or portion thereof) made pursuant to this subsection shall remain in effect until the area (or portion thereof) is redesignated pursuant to paragraph (3) or (4).
(C) Designations by operation of law
(i) Any area designated with respect to any air pollutant under the provisions of paragraph (1)(A), (B), or (C) of this subsection (as in effect immediately before November 15, 1990) is designated, by operation of law, as a nonattainment area for such pollutant within the meaning of subparagraph (A)(i).
(ii) Any area designated with respect to any air pollutant under the provisions of paragraph (1)(E) (as in effect immediately before November 15, 1990) is designated by operation of law, as an attainment area for such pollutant within the meaning of subparagraph (A)(ii).
(iii) Any area designated with respect to any air pollutant under the provisions of paragraph (1)(D) (as in effect immediately before November 15, 1990) is designated, by operation of law, as an unclassifiable area for such pollutant within the meaning of subparagraph (A)(iii).
(2) Publication of designations and redesignations
(A) The Administrator shall publish a notice in the Federal Register promulgating any designation under paragraph (1) or (5), or announcing any designation under paragraph (4), or promulgating any redesignation under paragraph (3).
(B) Promulgation or announcement of a designation under paragraph (1), (4) or (5) shall not be subject to the provisions of sections 553 through 557 of title 5 (relating to notice and comment), except nothing herein shall be construed as precluding such public notice and comment whenever possible.
(3) Redesignation
(A) Subject to the requirements of subparagraph (E), and on the basis of air quality data, planning and control considerations, or any other air quality-related considerations the Administrator deems appropriate, the Administrator may at any time notify the Governor of any State that available information indicates that the designation of any area or portion of an area within the State or interstate area should be revised. In issuing such notification, which shall be public, to the Governor, the Administrator shall provide such information as the Administrator may have available explaining the basis for the notice.
(B) No later than 120 days after receiving a notification under subparagraph (A), the Governor shall submit to the Administrator such redesignation, if any, of the appropriate area (or areas) or portion thereof within the State or interstate area, as the Governor considers appropriate.
(C) No later than 120 days after the date described in subparagraph (B) (or paragraph (1)(B)(iii)), the Administrator shall promulgate the redesignation, if any, of the area or portion thereof, submitted by the Governor in accordance with subparagraph (B), making such modifications as the Administrator may deem necessary, in the same manner and under the same procedure as is applicable under clause (ii) of paragraph (1)(B), except that the phrase “60 days” shall be substituted for the phrase “120 days” in that clause. If the Governor does not submit, in accordance with subparagraph (B), a redesignation for an area (or portion thereof) identified by the Administrator under subparagraph (A), the Administrator shall promulgate such redesignation, if any, that the Administrator deems appropriate.
(D) The Governor of any State may, on the Governor’s own motion, submit to the Administrator a revised designation of any area or portion thereof within the State. Within 18 months of receipt of a complete State redesignation submittal, the Administrator shall approve or deny such redesignation. The submission of a redesignation by a Governor shall not affect the effectiveness or enforceability of the applicable implementation plan for the State.
(E) The Administrator may not promulgate a redesignation of a nonattainment area (or portion thereof) to attainment unless—
(i) the Administrator determines that the area has attained the national ambient air quality standard;
(ii) the Administrator has fully approved the applicable implementation plan for the area under section 7410(k) of this title;
(iii) the Administrator determines that the improvement in air quality is due to permanent and enforceable reductions in emissions resulting from implementation of the applicable implementation plan and applicable Federal air pollutant control regulations and other permanent and enforceable reductions;
(iv) the Administrator has fully approved a maintenance plan for the area as meeting the requirements of section 7505a of this title; and
(v) the State containing such area has met all requirements applicable to the area under section 7410 of this title and part D.
(F) The Administrator shall not promulgate any redesignation of any area (or portion thereof) from nonattainment to unclassifiable.
(4) Nonattainment designations for ozone, carbon monoxide and particulate matter (PM–10)
(A) Ozone and carbon monoxide
(i) Within 120 days after November 15, 1990, each Governor of each State shall submit to the Administrator a list that designates, affirms or reaffirms the designation of, or redesignates (as the case may be), all areas (or portions thereof) of the Governor’s State as attainment, nonattainment, or unclassifiable with respect to the national ambient air quality standards for ozone and carbon monoxide.
(ii) No later than 120 days after the date the Governor is required to submit the list of areas (or portions thereof) required under clause (i) of this subparagraph, the Administrator shall promulgate such designations, making such modifications as the Administrator may deem necessary, in the same manner, and under the same procedure, as is applicable under clause (ii) of paragraph (1)(B), except that the phrase “60 days” shall be substituted for the phrase “120 days” in that clause. If the Governor does not submit, in accordance with clause (i) of this subparagraph, a designation for an area (or portion thereof), the Administrator shall promulgate the designation that the Administrator deems appropriate.
(iii) No nonattainment area may be redesignated as an attainment area under this subparagraph.
(iv) Notwithstanding paragraph (1)(C)(ii) of this subsection, if an ozone or carbon monoxide nonattainment area located within a metropolitan statistical area or consolidated metropolitan statistical area (as established by the Bureau of the Census) is classified under part D of this subchapter as a Serious, Severe, or Extreme Area, the boundaries of such area are hereby revised (on the date 45 days after such classification) by operation of law to include the entire metropolitan statistical area or consolidated metropolitan statistical area, as the case may be, unless within such 45-day period the Governor (in consultation with State and local air pollution control agencies) notifies the Administrator that additional time is necessary to evaluate the application of clause (v). Whenever a Governor has submitted such a notice to the Administrator, such boundary revision shall occur on the later of the date 8 months after such classification or 14 months after November 15, 1990, unless the Governor makes the finding referred to in clause (v), and the Administrator concurs in such finding, within such period. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, a boundary revision under this clause or clause (v) shall apply for purposes of any State implementation plan revision required to be submitted after November 15, 1990.
(v) Whenever the Governor of a State has submitted a notice under clause (iv), the Governor, in consultation with State and local air pollution control agencies, shall undertake a study to evaluate whether the entire metropolitan statistical area or consolidated metropolitan statistical area should be included within the nonattainment area. Whenever a Governor finds and demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Administrator, and the Administrator concurs in such finding, that with respect to a portion of a metropolitan statistical area or consolidated metropolitan statistical area, sources in the portion do not contribute significantly to violation of the national ambient air quality standard, the Administrator shall approve the Governor’s request to exclude such portion from the nonattainment area. In making such finding, the Governor and the Administrator shall consider factors such as population density, traffic congestion, commercial development, industrial development, meteorological conditions, and pollution transport.
(B) PM–10 designationsBy operation of law, until redesignation by the Administrator pursuant to paragraph (3)—
(i) each area identified in 52 Federal Register 29383 (Aug. 7, 1987) as a Group I area (except to the extent that such identification was modified by the Administrator before November 15, 1990) is designated nonattainment for PM–10;
(ii) any area containing a site for which air quality monitoring data show a violation of the national ambient air quality standard for PM–10 before January 1, 1989 (as determined under part 50, appendix K of title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations) is hereby designated nonattainment for PM–10; and
(iii) each area not described in clause (i) or (ii) is hereby designated unclassifiable for PM–10.
Any designation for particulate matter (measured in terms of total suspended particulates) that the Administrator promulgated pursuant to this subsection (as in effect immediately before November 15, 1990) shall remain in effect for purposes of implementing the maximum allowable increases in concentrations of particulate matter (measured in terms of total suspended particulates) pursuant to section 7473(b) of this title, until the Administrator determines that such designation is no longer necessary for that purpose.
(5) Designations for lead
(6) Designations
(A) Submission
(B) Promulgation
(7) Implementation plan for regional haze
(A) In general
(B) No preclusion of other provisions
(e) Redesignation of air quality control regions
(1) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (2), the Governor of each State is authorized, with the approval of the Administrator, to redesignate from time to time the air quality control regions within such State for purposes of efficient and effective air quality management. Upon such redesignation, the list under subsection (d) shall be modified accordingly.
(2) In the case of an air quality control region in a State, or part of such region, which the Administrator finds may significantly affect air pollution concentrations in another State, the Governor of the State in which such region, or part of a region, is located may redesignate from time to time the boundaries of so much of such air quality control region as is located within such State only with the approval of the Administrator and with the consent of all Governors of all States which the Administrator determines may be significantly affected.
(3) No compliance date extension granted under section 7413(d)(5) 1
1 See References in Text note below.
of this title (relating to coal conversion) shall cease to be effective by reason of the regional limitation provided in section 7413(d)(5) 1 of this title if the violation of such limitation is due solely to a redesignation of a region under this subsection.
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 107, as added Pub. L. 91–604, § 4(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1678; amended Pub. L. 95–95, title I, § 103, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 687; Pub. L. 101–549, title I, § 101(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2399; Pub. L. 108–199, div. G, title IV, § 425(a), Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 417.)
§ 7408. Air quality criteria and control techniques
(a) Air pollutant list; publication and revision by Administrator; issuance of air quality criteria for air pollutants
(1) For the purpose of establishing national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards, the Administrator shall within 30 days after December 31, 1970, publish, and shall from time to time thereafter revise, a list which includes each air pollutant—
(A) emissions of which, in his judgment, cause or contribute to air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare;
(B) the presence of which in the ambient air results from numerous or diverse mobile or stationary sources; and
(C) for which air quality criteria had not been issued before December 31, 1970 but for which he plans to issue air quality criteria under this section.
(2) The Administrator shall issue air quality criteria for an air pollutant within 12 months after he has included such pollutant in a list under paragraph (1). Air quality criteria for an air pollutant shall accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind and extent of all identifiable effects on public health or welfare which may be expected from the presence of such pollutant in the ambient air, in varying quantities. The criteria for an air pollutant, to the extent practicable, shall include information on—
(A) those variable factors (including atmospheric conditions) which of themselves or in combination with other factors may alter the effects on public health or welfare of such air pollutant;
(B) the types of air pollutants which, when present in the atmosphere, may interact with such pollutant to produce an adverse effect on public health or welfare; and
(C) any known or anticipated adverse effects on welfare.
(b) Issuance by Administrator of information on air pollution control techniques; standing consulting committees for air pollutants; establishment; membership
(1) Simultaneously with the issuance of criteria under subsection (a), the Administrator shall, after consultation with appropriate advisory committees and Federal departments and agencies, issue to the States and appropriate air pollution control agencies information on air pollution control techniques, which information shall include data relating to the cost of installation and operation, energy requirements, emission reduction benefits, and environmental impact of the emission control technology. Such information shall include such data as are available on available technology and alternative methods of prevention and control of air pollution. Such information shall also include data on alternative fuels, processes, and operating methods which will result in elimination or significant reduction of emissions.
(2) In order to assist in the development of information on pollution control techniques, the Administrator may establish a standing consulting committee for each air pollutant included in a list published pursuant to subsection (a)(1), which shall be comprised of technically qualified individuals representative of State and local governments, industry, and the academic community. Each such committee shall submit, as appropriate, to the Administrator information related to that required by paragraph (1).
(c) Review, modification, and reissuance of criteria or information
(d) Publication in Federal Register; availability of copies for general public
(e) Transportation planning and guidelinesThe Administrator shall, after consultation with the Secretary of Transportation, and after providing public notice and opportunity for comment, and with State and local officials, within nine months after November 15, 1990,1
1 See Codification note below.
and periodically thereafter as necessary to maintain a continuous transportation-air quality planning process, update the June 1978 Transportation-Air Quality Planning Guidelines and publish guidance on the development and implementation of transportation and other measures necessary to demonstrate and maintain attainment of national ambient air quality standards. Such guidelines shall include information on—
(1) methods to identify and evaluate alternative planning and control activities;
(2) methods of reviewing plans on a regular basis as conditions change or new information is presented;
(3) identification of funds and other resources necessary to implement the plan, including interagency agreements on providing such funds and resources;
(4) methods to assure participation by the public in all phases of the planning process; and
(5) such other methods as the Administrator determines necessary to carry out a continuous planning process.
(f) Information regarding processes, procedures, and methods to reduce or control pollutants in transportation; reduction of mobile source related pollutants; reduction of impact on public health
(1) The Administrator shall publish and make available to appropriate Federal, State, and local environmental and transportation agencies not later than one year after November 15, 1990, and from time to time thereafter—
(A) information prepared, as appropriate, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation, and after providing public notice and opportunity for comment, regarding the formulation and emission reduction potential of transportation control measures related to criteria pollutants and their precursors, including, but not limited to—
(i) programs for improved public transit;
(ii) restriction of certain roads or lanes to, or construction of such roads or lanes for use by, passenger buses or high occupancy vehicles;
(iii) employer-based transportation management plans, including incentives;
(iv) trip-reduction ordinances;
(v) traffic flow improvement programs that achieve emission reductions;
(vi) fringe and transportation corridor parking facilities serving multiple occupancy vehicle programs or transit service;
(vii) programs to limit or restrict vehicle use in downtown areas or other areas of emission concentration particularly during periods of peak use;
(viii) programs for the provision of all forms of high-occupancy, shared-ride services;
(ix) programs to limit portions of road surfaces or certain sections of the metropolitan area to the use of non-motorized vehicles or pedestrian use, both as to time and place;
(x) programs for secure bicycle storage facilities and other facilities, including bicycle lanes, for the convenience and protection of bicyclists, in both public and private areas;
(xi) programs to control extended idling of vehicles;
(xii) programs to reduce motor vehicle emissions, consistent with subchapter II, which are caused by extreme cold start conditions;
(xiii) employer-sponsored programs to permit flexible work schedules;
(xiv) programs and ordinances to facilitate non-automobile travel, provision and utilization of mass transit, and to generally reduce the need for single-occupant vehicle travel, as part of transportation planning and development efforts of a locality, including programs and ordinances applicable to new shopping centers, special events, and other centers of vehicle activity;
(xv) programs for new construction and major reconstructions of paths, tracks or areas solely for the use by pedestrian or other non-motorized means of transportation when economically feasible and in the public interest. For purposes of this clause, the Administrator shall also consult with the Secretary of the Interior; and
(xvi) program to encourage the voluntary removal from use and the marketplace of pre-1980 model year light duty vehicles and pre-1980 model light duty trucks.2
2 So in original. The period probably should be a semicolon.
(B) information on additional methods or strategies that will contribute to the reduction of mobile source related pollutants during periods in which any primary ambient air quality standard will be exceeded and during episodes for which an air pollution alert, warning, or emergency has been declared;
(C) information on other measures which may be employed to reduce the impact on public health or protect the health of sensitive or susceptible individuals or groups; and
(D) information on the extent to which any process, procedure, or method to reduce or control such air pollutant may cause an increase in the emissions or formation of any other pollutant.
(2) In publishing such information the Administrator shall also include an assessment of—
(A) the relative effectiveness of such processes, procedures, and methods;
(B) the potential effect of such processes, procedures, and methods on transportation systems and the provision of transportation services; and
(C) the environmental, energy, and economic impact of such processes, procedures, and methods.
(g) Assessment of risks to ecosystems
(h) RACT/BACT/LAER clearinghouse
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 108, as added Pub. L. 91–604, § 4(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1678; amended Pub. L. 95–95, title I, §§ 104, 105, title IV, § 401(a), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 689, 790; Pub. L. 101–549, title I, §§ 108(a)–(c), (o), 111, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2465, 2466, 2469, 2470; Pub. L. 105–362, title XV, § 1501(b), Nov. 10, 1998, 112 Stat. 3294.)
§ 7409. National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards
(a) Promulgation
(1) The Administrator—
(A) within 30 days after December 31, 1970, shall publish proposed regulations prescribing a national primary ambient air quality standard and a national secondary ambient air quality standard for each air pollutant for which air quality criteria have been issued prior to such date; and
(B) after a reasonable time for interested persons to submit written comments thereon (but no later than 90 days after the initial publication of such proposed standards) shall by regulation promulgate such proposed national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards with such modifications as he deems appropriate.
(2) With respect to any air pollutant for which air quality criteria are issued after December 31, 1970, the Administrator shall publish, simultaneously with the issuance of such criteria and information, proposed national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for any such pollutant. The procedure provided for in paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection shall apply to the promulgation of such standards.
(b) Protection of public health and welfare
(1) National primary ambient air quality standards, prescribed under subsection (a) shall be ambient air quality standards the attainment and maintenance of which in the judgment of the Administrator, based on such criteria and allowing an adequate margin of safety, are requisite to protect the public health. Such primary standards may be revised in the same manner as promulgated.
(2) Any national secondary ambient air quality standard prescribed under subsection (a) shall specify a level of air quality the attainment and maintenance of which in the judgment of the Administrator, based on such criteria, is requisite to protect the public welfare from any known or anticipated adverse effects associated with the presence of such air pollutant in the ambient air. Such secondary standards may be revised in the same manner as promulgated.
(c) National primary ambient air quality standard for nitrogen dioxide
(d) Review and revision of criteria and standards; independent scientific review committee; appointment; advisory functions
(1) Not later than December 31, 1980, and at five-year intervals thereafter, the Administrator shall complete a thorough review of the criteria published under section 7408 of this title and the national ambient air quality standards promulgated under this section and shall make such revisions in such criteria and standards and promulgate such new standards as may be appropriate in accordance with section 7408 of this title and subsection (b) of this section. The Administrator may review and revise criteria or promulgate new standards earlier or more frequently than required under this paragraph.
(2)
(A) The Administrator shall appoint an independent scientific review committee composed of seven members including at least one member of the National Academy of Sciences, one physician, and one person representing State air pollution control agencies.
(B) Not later than January 1, 1980, and at five-year intervals thereafter, the committee referred to in subparagraph (A) shall complete a review of the criteria published under section 7408 of this title and the national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards promulgated under this section and shall recommend to the Administrator any new national ambient air quality standards and revisions of existing criteria and standards as may be appropriate under section 7408 of this title and subsection (b) of this section.
(C) Such committee shall also (i) advise the Administrator of areas in which additional knowledge is required to appraise the adequacy and basis of existing, new, or revised national ambient air quality standards, (ii) describe the research efforts necessary to provide the required information, (iii) advise the Administrator on the relative contribution to air pollution concentrations of natural as well as anthropogenic activity, and (iv) advise the Administrator of any adverse public health, welfare, social, economic, or energy effects which may result from various strategies for attainment and maintenance of such national ambient air quality standards.
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 109, as added Pub. L. 91–604, § 4(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1679; amended Pub. L. 95–95, title I, § 106, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 691.)
§ 7410. State implementation plans for national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards
(a) Adoption of plan by State; submission to Administrator; span of plan; revision; new sources; indirect source review program; supplemental or intermittent control systems
(1) Each State shall, after reasonable notice and public hearings, adopt and submit to the Administrator, within 3 years (or such shorter period as the Administrator may prescribe) after the promulgation of a national primary ambient air quality standard (or any revision thereof) under section 7409 of this title for any air pollutant, a plan which provides for implementation, maintenance, and enforcement of such primary standard in each air quality control region (or portion thereof) within such State. In addition, such State shall adopt and submit to the Administrator (either as a part of a plan submitted under the preceding sentence or separately) within 3 years (or such shorter period as the Administrator may prescribe) after the promulgation of a national ambient air quality secondary standard (or revision thereof), a plan which provides for implementation, maintenance, and enforcement of such secondary standard in each air quality control region (or portion thereof) within such State. Unless a separate public hearing is provided, each State shall consider its plan implementing such secondary standard at the hearing required by the first sentence of this paragraph.
(2) Each implementation plan submitted by a State under this chapter shall be adopted by the State after reasonable notice and public hearing. Each such plan shall—
(A) include enforceable emission limitations and other control measures, means, or techniques (including economic incentives such as fees, marketable permits, and auctions of emissions rights), as well as schedules and timetables for compliance, as may be necessary or appropriate to meet the applicable requirements of this chapter;
(B) provide for establishment and operation of appropriate devices, methods, systems, and procedures necessary to—
(i) monitor, compile, and analyze data on ambient air quality, and
(ii) upon request, make such data available to the Administrator;
(C) include a program to provide for the enforcement of the measures described in subparagraph (A), and regulation of the modification and construction of any stationary source within the areas covered by the plan as necessary to assure that national ambient air quality standards are achieved, including a permit program as required in parts C and D;
(D) contain adequate provisions—
(i) prohibiting, consistent with the provisions of this subchapter, any source or other type of emissions activity within the State from emitting any air pollutant in amounts which will—(I) contribute significantly to nonattainment in, or interfere with maintenance by, any other State with respect to any such national primary or secondary ambient air quality standard, or(II) interfere with measures required to be included in the applicable implementation plan for any other State under part C to prevent significant deterioration of air quality or to protect visibility,
(ii) insuring compliance with the applicable requirements of sections 7426 and 7415 of this title (relating to interstate and international pollution abatement);
(E) provide (i) necessary assurances that the State (or, except where the Administrator deems inappropriate, the general purpose local government or governments, or a regional agency designated by the State or general purpose local governments for such purpose) will have adequate personnel, funding, and authority under State (and, as appropriate, local) law to carry out such implementation plan (and is not prohibited by any provision of Federal or State law from carrying out such implementation plan or portion thereof), (ii) requirements that the State comply with the requirements respecting State boards under section 7428 of this title, and (iii) necessary assurances that, where the State has relied on a local or regional government, agency, or instrumentality for the implementation of any plan provision, the State has responsibility for ensuring adequate implementation of such plan provision;
(F) require, as may be prescribed by the Administrator—
(i) the installation, maintenance, and replacement of equipment, and the implementation of other necessary steps, by owners or operators of stationary sources to monitor emissions from such sources,
(ii) periodic reports on the nature and amounts of emissions and emissions-related data from such sources, and
(iii) correlation of such reports by the State agency with any emission limitations or standards established pursuant to this chapter, which reports shall be available at reasonable times for public inspection;
(G) provide for authority comparable to that in section 7603 of this title and adequate contingency plans to implement such authority;
(H) provide for revision of such plan—
(i) from time to time as may be necessary to take account of revisions of such national primary or secondary ambient air quality standard or the availability of improved or more expeditious methods of attaining such standard, and
(ii) except as provided in paragraph (3)(C), whenever the Administrator finds on the basis of information available to the Administrator that the plan is substantially inadequate to attain the national ambient air quality standard which it implements or to otherwise comply with any additional requirements established under this chapter;
(I) in the case of a plan or plan revision for an area designated as a nonattainment area, meet the applicable requirements of part D (relating to nonattainment areas);
(J) meet the applicable requirements of section 7421 of this title (relating to consultation), section 7427 of this title (relating to public notification), and part C (relating to prevention of significant deterioration of air quality and visibility protection);
(K) provide for—
(i) the performance of such air quality modeling as the Administrator may prescribe for the purpose of predicting the effect on ambient air quality of any emissions of any air pollutant for which the Administrator has established a national ambient air quality standard, and
(ii) the submission, upon request, of data related to such air quality modeling to the Administrator;
(L) require the owner or operator of each major stationary source to pay to the permitting authority, as a condition of any permit required under this chapter, a fee sufficient to cover—
(i) the reasonable costs of reviewing and acting upon any application for such a permit, and
(ii) if the owner or operator receives a permit for such source, the reasonable costs of implementing and enforcing the terms and conditions of any such permit (not including any court costs or other costs associated with any enforcement action),
until such fee requirement is superseded with respect to such sources by the Administrator’s approval of a fee program under subchapter V; and
(M) provide for consultation and participation by local political subdivisions affected by the plan.
(3)
(A) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–549, title I, § 101(d)(1), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2409.
(B) As soon as practicable, the Administrator shall, consistent with the purposes of this chapter and the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974 [15 U.S.C. 791 et seq.], review each State’s applicable implementation plans and report to the State on whether such plans can be revised in relation to fuel burning stationary sources (or persons supplying fuel to such sources) without interfering with the attainment and maintenance of any national ambient air quality standard within the period permitted in this section. If the Administrator determines that any such plan can be revised, he shall notify the State that a plan revision may be submitted by the State. Any plan revision which is submitted by the State shall, after public notice and opportunity for public hearing, be approved by the Administrator if the revision relates only to fuel burning stationary sources (or persons supplying fuel to such sources), and the plan as revised complies with paragraph (2) of this subsection. The Administrator shall approve or disapprove any revision no later than three months after its submission.
(C) Neither the State, in the case of a plan (or portion thereof) approved under this subsection, nor the Administrator, in the case of a plan (or portion thereof) promulgated under subsection (c), shall be required to revise an applicable implementation plan because one or more exemptions under section 7418 of this title (relating to Federal facilities), enforcement orders under section 7413(d) 1
1 See References in Text note below.
of this title, suspensions under subsection (f) or (g) (relating to temporary energy or economic authority), orders under section 7419 of this title (relating to primary nonferrous smelters), or extensions of compliance in decrees entered under section 7413(e) 1 of this title (relating to iron- and steel-producing operations) have been granted, if such plan would have met the requirements of this section if no such exemptions, orders, or extensions had been granted.
(4) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–549, title I, § 101(d)(2), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2409.
(5)
(A)
(i) Any State may include in a State implementation plan, but the Administrator may not require as a condition of approval of such plan under this section, any indirect source review program. The Administrator may approve and enforce, as part of an applicable implementation plan, an indirect source review program which the State chooses to adopt and submit as part of its plan.
(ii) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), no plan promulgated by the Administrator shall include any indirect source review program for any air quality control region, or portion thereof.
(iii) Any State may revise an applicable implementation plan approved under this subsection to suspend or revoke any such program included in such plan, provided that such plan meets the requirements of this section.
(B) The Administrator shall have the authority to promulgate, implement and enforce regulations under subsection (c) respecting indirect source review programs which apply only to federally assisted highways, airports, and other major federally assisted indirect sources and federally owned or operated indirect sources.
(C) For purposes of this paragraph, the term “indirect source” means a facility, building, structure, installation, real property, road, or highway which attracts, or may attract, mobile sources of pollution. Such term includes parking lots, parking garages, and other facilities subject to any measure for management of parking supply (within the meaning of subsection (c)(2)(D)(ii)), including regulation of existing off-street parking but such term does not include new or existing on-street parking. Direct emissions sources or facilities at, within, or associated with, any indirect source shall not be deemed indirect sources for the purpose of this paragraph.
(D) For purposes of this paragraph the term “indirect source review program” means the facility-by-facility review of indirect sources of air pollution, including such measures as are necessary to assure, or assist in assuring, that a new or modified indirect source will not attract mobile sources of air pollution, the emissions from which would cause or contribute to air pollution concentrations—
(i) exceeding any national primary ambient air quality standard for a mobile source-related air pollutant after the primary standard attainment date, or
(ii) preventing maintenance of any such standard after such date.
(E) For purposes of this paragraph and paragraph (2)(B), the term “transportation control measure” does not include any measure which is an “indirect source review program”.
(6) No State plan shall be treated as meeting the requirements of this section unless such plan provides that in the case of any source which uses a supplemental, or intermittent control system for purposes of meeting the requirements of an order under section 7413(d) 1 of this title or section 7419 of this title (relating to primary nonferrous smelter orders), the owner or operator of such source may not temporarily reduce the pay of any employee by reason of the use of such supplemental or intermittent or other dispersion dependent control system.
(b) Extension of period for submission of plans
(c) Preparation and publication by Administrator of proposed regulations setting forth implementation plan; transportation regulations study and report; parking surcharge; suspension authority; plan implementation
(1) The Administrator shall promulgate a Federal implementation plan at any time within 2 years after the Administrator—
(A) finds that a State has failed to make a required submission or finds that the plan or plan revision submitted by the State does not satisfy the minimum criteria established under subsection (k)(1)(A), or
(B) disapproves a State implementation plan submission in whole or in part,
unless the State corrects the deficiency, and the Administrator approves the plan or plan revision, before the Administrator promulgates such Federal implementation plan.
(2)
(A) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–549, title I, § 101(d)(3)(A), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2409.
(B) No parking surcharge regulation may be required by the Administrator under paragraph (1) of this subsection as a part of an applicable implementation plan. All parking surcharge regulations previously required by the Administrator shall be void upon June 22, 1974. This subparagraph shall not prevent the Administrator from approving parking surcharges if they are adopted and submitted by a State as part of an applicable implementation plan. The Administrator may not condition approval of any implementation plan submitted by a State on such plan’s including a parking surcharge regulation.
(C) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–549, title I, § 101(d)(3)(B), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2409.
(D) For purposes of this paragraph—
(i) The term “parking surcharge regulation” means a regulation imposing or requiring the imposition of any tax, surcharge, fee, or other charge on parking spaces, or any other area used for the temporary storage of motor vehicles.
(ii) The term “management of parking supply” shall include any requirement providing that any new facility containing a given number of parking spaces shall receive a permit or other prior approval, issuance of which is to be conditioned on air quality considerations.
(iii) The term “preferential bus/carpool lane” shall include any requirement for the setting aside of one or more lanes of a street or highway on a permanent or temporary basis for the exclusive use of buses or carpools, or both.
(E) No standard, plan, or requirement, relating to management of parking supply or preferential bus/carpool lanes shall be promulgated after June 22, 1974, by the Administrator pursuant to this section, unless such promulgation has been subjected to at least one public hearing which has been held in the area affected and for which reasonable notice has been given in such area. If substantial changes are made following public hearings, one or more additional hearings shall be held in such area after such notice.
(3) Upon application of the chief executive officer of any general purpose unit of local government, if the Administrator determines that such unit has adequate authority under State or local law, the Administrator may delegate to such unit the authority to implement and enforce within the jurisdiction of such unit any part of a plan promulgated under this subsection. Nothing in this paragraph shall prevent the Administrator from implementing or enforcing any applicable provision of a plan promulgated under this subsection.
(4) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–549, title I, § 101(d)(3)(C), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2409.
(5)
(A) Any measure in an applicable implementation plan which requires a toll or other charge for the use of a bridge located entirely within one city shall be eliminated from such plan by the Administrator upon application by the Governor of the State, which application shall include a certification by the Governor that he will revise such plan in accordance with subparagraph (B).
(B) In the case of any applicable implementation plan with respect to which a measure has been eliminated under subparagraph (A), such plan shall, not later than one year after August 7, 1977, be revised to include comprehensive measures to:
(i) establish, expand, or improve public transportation measures to meet basic transportation needs, as expeditiously as is practicable; and
(ii) implement transportation control measures necessary to attain and maintain national ambient air quality standards,
and such revised plan shall, for the purpose of implementing such comprehensive public transportation measures, include requirements to use (insofar as is necessary) Federal grants, State or local funds, or any combination of such grants and funds as may be consistent with the terms of the legislation providing such grants and funds. Such measures shall, as a substitute for the tolls or charges eliminated under subparagraph (A), provide for emissions reductions equivalent to the reductions which may reasonably be expected to be achieved through the use of the tolls or charges eliminated.
(C) Any revision of an implementation plan for purposes of meeting the requirements of subparagraph (B) shall be submitted in coordination with any plan revision required under part D.
(d), (e) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–549, title I, § 101(d)(4), (5), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2409
(f) National or regional energy emergencies; determination by President
(1) Upon application by the owner or operator of a fuel burning stationary source, and after notice and opportunity for public hearing, the Governor of the State in which such source is located may petition the President to determine that a national or regional energy emergency exists of such severity that—
(A) a temporary suspension of any part of the applicable implementation plan or of any requirement under section 7651j of this title (concerning excess emissions penalties or offsets) may be necessary, and
(B) other means of responding to the energy emergency may be inadequate.
Such determination shall not be delegable by the President to any other person. If the President determines that a national or regional energy emergency of such severity exists, a temporary emergency suspension of any part of an applicable implementation plan or of any requirement under section 7651j of this title (concerning excess emissions penalties or offsets) adopted by the State may be issued by the Governor of any State covered by the President’s determination under the condition specified in paragraph (2) and may take effect immediately.
(2) A temporary emergency suspension under this subsection shall be issued to a source only if the Governor of such State finds that—
(A) there exists in the vicinity of such source a temporary energy emergency involving high levels of unemployment or loss of necessary energy supplies for residential dwellings; and
(B) such unemployment or loss can be totally or partially alleviated by such emergency suspension.
Not more than one such suspension may be issued for any source on the basis of the same set of circumstances or on the basis of the same emergency.
(3) A temporary emergency suspension issued by a Governor under this subsection shall remain in effect for a maximum of four months or such lesser period as may be specified in a disapproval order of the Administrator, if any. The Administrator may disapprove such suspension if he determines that it does not meet the requirements of paragraph (2).
(4) This subsection shall not apply in the case of a plan provision or requirement promulgated by the Administrator under subsection (c) of this section, but in any such case the President may grant a temporary emergency suspension for a four month period of any such provision or requirement if he makes the determinations and findings specified in paragraphs (1) and (2).
(5) The Governor may include in any temporary emergency suspension issued under this subsection a provision delaying for a period identical to the period of such suspension any compliance schedule (or increment of progress) to which such source is subject under section 1857c–10 1 of this title, as in effect before August 7, 1977, or section 7413(d) 1 of this title, upon a finding that such source is unable to comply with such schedule (or increment) solely because of the conditions on the basis of which a suspension was issued under this subsection.
(g) Governor’s authority to issue temporary emergency suspensions
(1) In the case of any State which has adopted and submitted to the Administrator a proposed plan revision which the State determines—
(A) meets the requirements of this section, and
(B) is necessary (i) to prevent the closing for one year or more of any source of air pollution, and (ii) to prevent substantial increases in unemployment which would result from such closing, and
which the Administrator has not approved or disapproved under this section within 12 months of submission of the proposed plan revision, the Governor may issue a temporary emergency suspension of the part of the applicable implementation plan for such State which is proposed to be revised with respect to such source. The determination under subparagraph (B) may not be made with respect to a source which would close without regard to whether or not the proposed plan revision is approved.
(2) A temporary emergency suspension issued by a Governor under this subsection shall remain in effect for a maximum of four months or such lesser period as may be specified in a disapproval order of the Administrator. The Administrator may disapprove such suspension if he determines that it does not meet the requirements of this subsection.
(3) The Governor may include in any temporary emergency suspension issued under this subsection a provision delaying for a period identical to the period of such suspension any compliance schedule (or increment of progress) to which such source is subject under section 1857c–10 1 of this title as in effect before August 7, 1977, or under section 7413(d) 1 of this title upon a finding that such source is unable to comply with such schedule (or increment) solely because of the conditions on the basis of which a suspension was issued under this subsection.
(h) Publication of comprehensive document for each State setting forth requirements of applicable implementation plan
(1) Not later than 5 years after November 15, 1990, and every 3 years thereafter, the Administrator shall assemble and publish a comprehensive document for each State setting forth all requirements of the applicable implementation plan for such State and shall publish notice in the Federal Register of the availability of such documents.
(2) The Administrator may promulgate such regulations as may be reasonably necessary to carry out the purpose of this subsection.
(i) Modification of requirements prohibited
(j) Technological systems of continuous emission reduction on new or modified stationary sources; compliance with performance standards
(k) Environmental Protection Agency action on plan submissions
(1) Completeness of plan submissions
(A) Completeness criteria
(B) Completeness finding
(C) Effect of finding of incompleteness
(2) Deadline for action
(3) Full and partial approval and disapproval
(4) Conditional approval
(5) Calls for plan revisions
(6) Corrections
(l) Plan revisions
(m) Sanctions
(n) Savings clauses
(1) Existing plan provisions
(2) Attainment datesFor any area not designated nonattainment, any plan or plan revision submitted or required to be submitted by a State—
(A) in response to the promulgation or revision of a national primary ambient air quality standard in effect on November 15, 1990, or
(B) in response to a finding of substantial inadequacy under subsection (a)(2) (as in effect immediately before November 15, 1990),
shall provide for attainment of the national primary ambient air quality standards within 3 years of November 15, 1990, or within 5 years of issuance of such finding of substantial inadequacy, whichever is later.
(3) Retention of construction moratorium in certain areas
(o) Indian tribes
(p) Reports
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 110, as added Pub. L. 91–604, § 4(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1680; amended Pub. L. 93–319, § 4, June 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 256; Pub. L. 95–95, title I, §§ 107, 108, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 691, 693; Pub. L. 95–190, § 14(a)(1)–(6), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1399; Pub. L. 97–23, § 3, July 17, 1981, 95 Stat. 142; Pub. L. 101–549, title I, §§ 101(b)–(d), 102(h), 107(c), 108(d), title IV, § 412, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2404–2408, 2422, 2464, 2466, 2634.)
§ 7411. Standards of performance for new stationary sources
(a) DefinitionsFor purposes of this section:
(1) The term “standard of performance” means a standard for emissions of air pollutants which reflects the degree of emission limitation achievable through the application of the best system of emission reduction which (taking into account the cost of achieving such reduction and any nonair quality health and environmental impact and energy requirements) the Administrator determines has been adequately demonstrated.
(2) The term “new source” means any stationary source, the construction or modification of which is commenced after the publication of regulations (or, if earlier, proposed regulations) prescribing a standard of performance under this section which will be applicable to such source.
(3) The term “stationary source” means any building, structure, facility, or installation which emits or may emit any air pollutant. Nothing in subchapter II of this chapter relating to nonroad engines shall be construed to apply to stationary internal combustion engines.
(4) The term “modification” means any physical change in, or change in the method of operation of, a stationary source which increases the amount of any air pollutant emitted by such source or which results in the emission of any air pollutant not previously emitted.
(5) The term “owner or operator” means any person who owns, leases, operates, controls, or supervises a stationary source.
(6) The term “existing source” means any stationary source other than a new source.
(7) The term “technological system of continuous emission reduction” means—
(A) a technological process for production or operation by any source which is inherently low-polluting or nonpolluting, or
(B) a technological system for continuous reduction of the pollution generated by a source before such pollution is emitted into the ambient air, including precombustion cleaning or treatment of fuels.
(8) A conversion to coal (A) by reason of an order under section 2(a) of the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974 [15 U.S.C. 792(a)] or any amendment thereto, or any subsequent enactment which supersedes such Act [15 U.S.C. 791 et seq.], or (B) which qualifies under section 7413(d)(5)(A)(ii) 1
1 See References in Text note below.
of this title, shall not be deemed to be a modification for purposes of paragraphs (2) and (4) of this subsection.
(b) List of categories of stationary sources; standards of performance; information on pollution control techniques; sources owned or operated by United States; particular systems; revised standards
(1)
(A) The Administrator shall, within 90 days after December 31, 1970, publish (and from time to time thereafter shall revise) a list of categories of stationary sources. He shall include a category of sources in such list if in his judgment it causes, or contributes significantly to, air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare.
(B) Within one year after the inclusion of a category of stationary sources in a list under subparagraph (A), the Administrator shall publish proposed regulations, establishing Federal standards of performance for new sources within such category. The Administrator shall afford interested persons an opportunity for written comment on such proposed regulations. After considering such comments, he shall promulgate, within one year after such publication, such standards with such modifications as he deems appropriate. The Administrator shall, at least every 8 years, review and, if appropriate, revise such standards following the procedure required by this subsection for promulgation of such standards. Notwithstanding the requirements of the previous sentence, the Administrator need not review any such standard if the Administrator determines that such review is not appropriate in light of readily available information on the efficacy of such standard. Standards of performance or revisions thereof shall become effective upon promulgation. When implementation and enforcement of any requirement of this chapter indicate that emission limitations and percent reductions beyond those required by the standards promulgated under this section are achieved in practice, the Administrator shall, when revising standards promulgated under this section, consider the emission limitations and percent reductions achieved in practice.
(2) The Administrator may distinguish among classes, types, and sizes within categories of new sources for the purpose of establishing such standards.
(3) The Administrator shall, from time to time, issue information on pollution control techniques for categories of new sources and air pollutants subject to the provisions of this section.
(4) The provisions of this section shall apply to any new source owned or operated by the United States.
(5) Except as otherwise authorized under subsection (h), nothing in this section shall be construed to require, or to authorize the Administrator to require, any new or modified source to install and operate any particular technological system of continuous emission reduction to comply with any new source standard of performance.
(6) The revised standards of performance required by enactment of subsection (a)(1)(A)(i) and (ii) 1 shall be promulgated not later than one year after August 7, 1977. Any new or modified fossil fuel fired stationary source which commences construction prior to the date of publication of the proposed revised standards shall not be required to comply with such revised standards.
(c) State implementation and enforcement of standards of performance
(1) Each State may develop and submit to the Administrator a procedure for implementing and enforcing standards of performance for new sources located in such State. If the Administrator finds the State procedure is adequate, he shall delegate to such State any authority he has under this chapter to implement and enforce such standards.
(2) Nothing in this subsection shall prohibit the Administrator from enforcing any applicable standard of performance under this section.
(d) Standards of performance for existing sources; remaining useful life of source
(1) The Administrator shall prescribe regulations which shall establish a procedure similar to that provided by section 7410 of this title under which each State shall submit to the Administrator a plan which (A) establishes standards of performance for any existing source for any air pollutant (i) for which air quality criteria have not been issued or which is not included on a list published under section 7408(a) of this title or emitted from a source category which is regulated under section 7412 of this title but (ii) to which a standard of performance under this section would apply if such existing source were a new source, and (B) provides for the implementation and enforcement of such standards of performance. Regulations of the Administrator under this paragraph shall permit the State in applying a standard of performance to any particular source under a plan submitted under this paragraph to take into consideration, among other factors, the remaining useful life of the existing source to which such standard applies.
(2) The Administrator shall have the same authority—
(A) to prescribe a plan for a State in cases where the State fails to submit a satisfactory plan as he would have under section 7410(c) of this title in the case of failure to submit an implementation plan, and
(B) to enforce the provisions of such plan in cases where the State fails to enforce them as he would have under sections 7413 and 7414 of this title with respect to an implementation plan.
In promulgating a standard of performance under a plan prescribed under this paragraph, the Administrator shall take into consideration, among other factors, remaining useful lives of the sources in the category of sources to which such standard applies.
(e) Prohibited acts
(f) New source standards of performance
(1) For those categories of major stationary sources that the Administrator listed under subsection (b)(1)(A) before November 15, 1990, and for which regulations had not been proposed by the Administrator by November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall—
(A) propose regulations establishing standards of performance for at least 25 percent of such categories of sources within 2 years after November 15, 1990;
(B) propose regulations establishing standards of performance for at least 50 percent of such categories of sources within 4 years after November 15, 1990; and
(C) propose regulations for the remaining categories of sources within 6 years after November 15, 1990.
(2) In determining priorities for promulgating standards for categories of major stationary sources for the purpose of paragraph (1), the Administrator shall consider—
(A) the quantity of air pollutant emissions which each such category will emit, or will be designed to emit;
(B) the extent to which each such pollutant may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare; and
(C) the mobility and competitive nature of each such category of sources and the consequent need for nationally applicable new source standards of performance.
(3) Before promulgating any regulations under this subsection or listing any category of major stationary sources as required under this subsection, the Administrator shall consult with appropriate representatives of the Governors and of State air pollution control agencies.
(g) Revision of regulations
(1) Upon application by the Governor of a State showing that the Administrator has failed to specify in regulations under subsection (f)(1) any category of major stationary sources required to be specified under such regulations, the Administrator shall revise such regulations to specify any such category.
(2) Upon application of the Governor of a State, showing that any category of stationary sources which is not included in the list under subsection (b)(1)(A) contributes significantly to air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare (notwithstanding that such category is not a category of major stationary sources), the Administrator shall revise such regulations to specify such category of stationary sources.
(3) Upon application of the Governor of a State showing that the Administrator has failed to apply properly the criteria required to be considered under subsection (f)(2), the Administrator shall revise the list under subsection (b)(1)(A) to apply properly such criteria.
(4) Upon application of the Governor of a State showing that—
(A) a new, innovative, or improved technology or process which achieves greater continuous emission reduction has been adequately demonstrated for any category of stationary sources, and
(B) as a result of such technology or process, the new source standard of performance in effect under this section for such category no longer reflects the greatest degree of emission limitation achievable through application of the best technological system of continuous emission reduction which (taking into consideration the cost of achieving such emission reduction, and any non-air quality health and environmental impact and energy requirements) has been adequately demonstrated,
the Administrator shall revise such standard of performance for such category accordingly.
(5) Unless later deadlines for action of the Administrator are otherwise prescribed under this section, the Administrator shall, not later than three months following the date of receipt of any application by a Governor of a State, either—
(A) find that such application does not contain the requisite showing and deny such application, or
(B) grant such application and take the action required under this subsection.
(6) Before taking any action required by subsection (f) or by this subsection, the Administrator shall provide notice and opportunity for public hearing.
(h) Design, equipment, work practice, or operational standard; alternative emission limitation
(1) For purposes of this section, if in the judgment of the Administrator, it is not feasible to prescribe or enforce a standard of performance, he may instead promulgate a design, equipment, work practice, or operational standard, or combination thereof, which reflects the best technological system of continuous emission reduction which (taking into consideration the cost of achieving such emission reduction, and any non-air quality health and environmental impact and energy requirements) the Administrator determines has been adequately demonstrated. In the event the Administrator promulgates a design or equipment standard under this subsection, he shall include as part of such standard such requirements as will assure the proper operation and maintenance of any such element of design or equipment.
(2) For the purpose of this subsection, the phrase “not feasible to prescribe or enforce a standard of performance” means any situation in which the Administrator determines that (A) a pollutant or pollutants cannot be emitted through a conveyance designed and constructed to emit or capture such pollutant, or that any requirement for, or use of, such a conveyance would be inconsistent with any Federal, State, or local law, or (B) the application of measurement methodology to a particular class of sources is not practicable due to technological or economic limitations.
(3) If after notice and opportunity for public hearing, any person establishes to the satisfaction of the Administrator that an alternative means of emission limitation will achieve a reduction in emissions of any air pollutant at least equivalent to the reduction in emissions of such air pollutant achieved under the requirements of paragraph (1), the Administrator shall permit the use of such alternative by the source for purposes of compliance with this section with respect to such pollutant.
(4) Any standard promulgated under paragraph (1) shall be promulgated in terms of standard of performance whenever it becomes feasible to promulgate and enforce such standard in such terms.
(5) Any design, equipment, work practice, or operational standard, or any combination thereof, described in this subsection shall be treated as a standard of performance for purposes of the provisions of this chapter (other than the provisions of subsection (a) and this subsection).
(i) Country elevators
(j) Innovative technological systems of continuous emission reduction
(1)
(A) Any person proposing to own or operate a new source may request the Administrator for one or more waivers from the requirements of this section for such source or any portion thereof with respect to any air pollutant to encourage the use of an innovative technological system or systems of continuous emission reduction. The Administrator may, with the consent of the Governor of the State in which the source is to be located, grant a waiver under this paragraph, if the Administrator determines after notice and opportunity for public hearing, that—
(i) the proposed system or systems have not been adequately demonstrated,
(ii) the proposed system or systems will operate effectively and there is a substantial likelihood that such system or systems will achieve greater continuous emission reduction than that required to be achieved under the standards of performance which would otherwise apply, or achieve at least an equivalent reduction at lower cost in terms of energy, economic, or nonair quality environmental impact,
(iii) the owner or operator of the proposed source has demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Administrator that the proposed system will not cause or contribute to an unreasonable risk to public health, welfare, or safety in its operation, function, or malfunction, and
(iv) the granting of such waiver is consistent with the requirements of subparagraph (C).
In making any determination under clause (ii), the Administrator shall take into account any previous failure of such system or systems to operate effectively or to meet any requirement of the new source performance standards. In determining whether an unreasonable risk exists under clause (iii), the Administrator shall consider, among other factors, whether and to what extent the use of the proposed technological system will cause, increase, reduce, or eliminate emissions of any unregulated pollutants; available methods for reducing or eliminating any risk to public health, welfare, or safety which may be associated with the use of such system; and the availability of other technological systems which may be used to conform to standards under this section without causing or contributing to such unreasonable risk. The Administrator may conduct such tests and may require the owner or operator of the proposed source to conduct such tests and provide such information as is necessary to carry out clause (iii) of this subparagraph. Such requirements shall include a requirement for prompt reporting of the emission of any unregulated pollutant from a system if such pollutant was not emitted, or was emitted in significantly lesser amounts without use of such system.
(B) A waiver under this paragraph shall be granted on such terms and conditions as the Administrator determines to be necessary to assure—
(i) emissions from the source will not prevent attainment and maintenance of any national ambient air quality standards, and
(ii) proper functioning of the technological system or systems authorized.
Any such term or condition shall be treated as a standard of performance for the purposes of subsection (e) of this section and section 7413 of this title.
(C) The number of waivers granted under this paragraph with respect to a proposed technological system of continuous emission reduction shall not exceed such number as the Administrator finds necessary to ascertain whether or not such system will achieve the conditions specified in clauses (ii) and (iii) of subparagraph (A).
(D) A waiver under this paragraph shall extend to the sooner of—
(i) the date determined by the Administrator, after consultation with the owner or operator of the source, taking into consideration the design, installation, and capital cost of the technological system or systems being used, or
(ii) the date on which the Administrator determines that such system has failed to—(I) achieve at least an equivalent continuous emission reduction to that required to be achieved under the standards of performance which would otherwise apply, or(II) comply with the condition specified in paragraph (1)(A)(iii),
and that such failure cannot be corrected.
(E) In carrying out subparagraph (D)(i), the Administrator shall not permit any waiver for a source or portion thereof to extend beyond the date—
(i) seven years after the date on which any waiver is granted to such source or portion thereof, or
(ii) four years after the date on which such source or portion thereof commences operation,
whichever is earlier.
(F) No waiver under this subsection shall apply to any portion of a source other than the portion on which the innovative technological system or systems of continuous emission reduction is used.
(2)
(A) If a waiver under paragraph (1) is terminated under clause (ii) of paragraph (1)(D), the Administrator shall grant an extension of the requirements of this section for such source for such minimum period as may be necessary to comply with the applicable standard of performance under this section. Such period shall not extend beyond the date three years from the time such waiver is terminated.
(B) An extension granted under this paragraph shall set forth emission limits and a compliance schedule containing increments of progress which require compliance with the applicable standards of performance as expeditiously as practicable and include such measures as are necessary and practicable in the interim to minimize emissions. Such schedule shall be treated as a standard of performance for purposes of subsection (e) of this section and section 7413 of this title.
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 111, as added Pub. L. 91–604, § 4(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1683; amended Pub. L. 92–157, title III, § 302(f), Nov. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 464; Pub. L. 95–95, title I, § 109(a)–(d)(1), (e), (f), title IV, § 401(b), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 697–703, 791; Pub. L. 95–190, § 14(a)(7)–(9), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1399; Pub. L. 95–623, § 13(a), Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3457; Pub. L. 101–549, title I, § 108(e)–(g), title III, § 302(a), (b), title IV, § 403(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2467, 2574, 2631.)
§ 7412. Hazardous air pollutants
(a) DefinitionsFor purposes of this section, except subsection (r)—
(1) Major source
(2) Area source
(3) Stationary source
(4) New source
(5) Modification
(6) Hazardous air pollutant
(7) Adverse environmental effect
(8) Electric utility steam generating unit
(9) Owner or operator
(10) Existing source
(11) Carcinogenic effect
(b) List of pollutants
(1) Initial list
(2) Revision of the list
(3) Petitions to modify the list
(A) Beginning at any time after 6 months after November 15, 1990, any person may petition the Administrator to modify the list of hazardous air pollutants under this subsection by adding or deleting a substance or, in case of listed pollutants without CAS numbers (other than coke oven emissions, mineral fibers, or polycyclic organic matter) removing certain unique substances. Within 18 months after receipt of a petition, the Administrator shall either grant or deny the petition by publishing a written explanation of the reasons for the Administrator’s decision. Any such petition shall include a showing by the petitioner that there is adequate data on the health or environmental defects 2
2 So in original. Probably should be “effects”.
of the pollutant or other evidence adequate to support the petition. The Administrator may not deny a petition solely on the basis of inadequate resources or time for review.
(B) The Administrator shall add a substance to the list upon a showing by the petitioner or on the Administrator’s own determination that the substance is an air pollutant and that emissions, ambient concentrations, bioaccumulation or deposition of the substance are known to cause or may reasonably be anticipated to cause adverse effects to human health or adverse environmental effects.
(C) The Administrator shall delete a substance from the list upon a showing by the petitioner or on the Administrator’s own determination that there is adequate data on the health and environmental effects of the substance to determine that emissions, ambient concentrations, bioaccumulation or deposition of the substance may not reasonably be anticipated to cause any adverse effects to the human health or adverse environmental effects.
(D) The Administrator shall delete one or more unique chemical substances that contain a listed hazardous air pollutant not having a CAS number (other than coke oven emissions, mineral fibers, or polycyclic organic matter) upon a showing by the petitioner or on the Administrator’s own determination that such unique chemical substances that contain the named chemical of such listed hazardous air pollutant meet the deletion requirements of subparagraph (C). The Administrator must grant or deny a deletion petition prior to promulgating any emission standards pursuant to subsection (d) applicable to any source category or subcategory of a listed hazardous air pollutant without a CAS number listed under subsection (b) for which a deletion petition has been filed within 12 months of November 15, 1990.
(4) Further information
(5) Test methods
(6) Prevention of significant deterioration
(7) Lead
(c) List of source categories
(1) In general
(2) Requirement for emissions standards
(3) Area sources
(4) Previously regulated categories
(5) Additional categories
(6) Specific pollutants
(7) Research facilities
(8) Boat manufacturing
(9) Deletions from the list
(A) Where the sole reason for the inclusion of a source category on the list required under this subsection is the emission of a unique chemical substance, the Administrator shall delete the source category from the list if it is appropriate because of action taken under either subparagraphs (C) or (D) of subsection (b)(3).
(B) The Administrator may delete any source category from the list under this subsection, on petition of any person or on the Administrator’s own motion, whenever the Administrator makes the following determination or determinations, as applicable:
(i) In the case of hazardous air pollutants emitted by sources in the category that may result in cancer in humans, a determination that no source in the category (or group of sources in the case of area sources) emits such hazardous air pollutants in quantities which may cause a lifetime risk of cancer greater than one in one million to the individual in the population who is most exposed to emissions of such pollutants from the source (or group of sources in the case of area sources).
(ii) In the case of hazardous air pollutants that may result in adverse health effects in humans other than cancer or adverse environmental effects, a determination that emissions from no source in the category or subcategory concerned (or group of sources in the case of area sources) exceed a level which is adequate to protect public health with an ample margin of safety and no adverse environmental effect will result from emissions from any source (or from a group of sources in the case of area sources).
The Administrator shall grant or deny a petition under this paragraph within 1 year after the petition is filed.
(d) Emission standards
(1) In general
(2) Standards and methodsEmissions standards promulgated under this subsection and applicable to new or existing sources of hazardous air pollutants shall require the maximum degree of reduction in emissions of the hazardous air pollutants subject to this section (including a prohibition on such emissions, where achievable) that the Administrator, taking into consideration the cost of achieving such emission reduction, and any non-air quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable for new or existing sources in the category or subcategory to which such emission standard applies, through application of measures, processes, methods, systems or techniques including, but not limited to, measures which—
(A) reduce the volume of, or eliminate emissions of, such pollutants through process changes, substitution of materials or other modifications,
(B) enclose systems or processes to eliminate emissions,
(C) collect, capture or treat such pollutants when released from a process, stack, storage or fugitive emissions point,
(D) are design, equipment, work practice, or operational standards (including requirements for operator training or certification) as provided in subsection (h), or
(E) are a combination of the above.
None of the measures described in subparagraphs (A) through (D) shall, consistent with the provisions of section 7414(c) of this title, in any way compromise any United States patent or United States trademark right, or any confidential business information, or any trade secret or any other intellectual property right.
(3) New and existing sourcesThe maximum degree of reduction in emissions that is deemed achievable for new sources in a category or subcategory shall not be less stringent than the emission control that is achieved in practice by the best controlled similar source, as determined by the Administrator. Emission standards promulgated under this subsection for existing sources in a category or subcategory may be less stringent than standards for new sources in the same category or subcategory but shall not be less stringent, and may be more stringent than—
(A) the average emission limitation achieved by the best performing 12 percent of the existing sources (for which the Administrator has emissions information), excluding those sources that have, within 18 months before the emission standard is proposed or within 30 months before such standard is promulgated, whichever is later, first achieved a level of emission rate or emission reduction which complies, or would comply if the source is not subject to such standard, with the lowest achievable emission rate (as defined by section 7501 of this title) applicable to the source category and prevailing at the time, in the category or subcategory for categories and subcategories with 30 or more sources, or
(B) the average emission limitation achieved by the best performing 5 sources (for which the Administrator has or could reasonably obtain emissions information) in the category or subcategory for categories or subcategories with fewer than 30 sources.
(4) Health threshold
(5) Alternative standard for area sources
(6) Review and revision
(7) Other requirements preserved
(8) Coke ovens
(A) Not later than December 31, 1992, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations establishing emission standards under paragraphs (2) and (3) of this subsection for coke oven batteries. In establishing such standards, the Administrator shall evaluate—
(i) the use of sodium silicate (or equivalent) luting compounds to prevent door leaks, and other operating practices and technologies for their effectiveness in reducing coke oven emissions, and their suitability for use on new and existing coke oven batteries, taking into account costs and reasonable commercial door warranties; and
(ii) as a basis for emission standards under this subsection for new coke oven batteries that begin construction after the date of proposal of such standards, the Jewell design Thompson non-recovery coke oven batteries and other non-recovery coke oven technologies, and other appropriate emission control and coke production technologies, as to their effectiveness in reducing coke oven emissions and their capability for production of steel quality coke.
Such regulations shall require at a minimum that coke oven batteries will not exceed 8 per centum leaking doors, 1 per centum leaking lids, 5 per centum leaking offtakes, and 16 seconds visible emissions per charge, with no exclusion for emissions during the period after the closing of self-sealing oven doors. Notwithstanding subsection (i), the compliance date for such emission standards for existing coke oven batteries shall be December 31, 1995.
(B) The Administrator shall promulgate work practice regulations under this subsection for coke oven batteries requiring, as appropriate—
(i) the use of sodium silicate (or equivalent) luting compounds, if the Administrator determines that use of sodium silicate is an effective means of emissions control and is achievable, taking into account costs and reasonable commercial warranties for doors and related equipment; and
(ii) door and jam cleaning practices.
Notwithstanding subsection (i), the compliance date for such work practice regulations for coke oven batteries shall be not later than the date 3 years after November 15, 1990.
(C) For coke oven batteries electing to qualify for an extension of the compliance date for standards promulgated under subsection (f) in accordance with subsection (i)(8), the emission standards under this subsection for coke oven batteries shall require that coke oven batteries not exceed 8 per centum leaking doors, 1 per centum leaking lids, 5 per centum leaking offtakes, and 16 seconds visible emissions per charge, with no exclusion for emissions during the period after the closing of self-sealing doors. Notwithstanding subsection (i), the compliance date for such emission standards for existing coke oven batteries seeking an extension shall be not later than the date 3 years after November 15, 1990.
(9) Sources licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission
(10) Effective date
(e) Schedule for standards and review
(1) In generalThe Administrator shall promulgate regulations establishing emission standards for categories and subcategories of sources initially listed for regulation pursuant to subsection (c)(1) as expeditiously as practicable, assuring that—
(A) emission standards for not less than 40 categories and subcategories (not counting coke oven batteries) shall be promulgated not later than 2 years after November 15, 1990;
(B) emission standards for coke oven batteries shall be promulgated not later than December 31, 1992;
(C) emission standards for 25 per centum of the listed categories and subcategories shall be promulgated not later than 4 years after November 15, 1990;
(D) emission standards for an additional 25 per centum of the listed categories and subcategories shall be promulgated not later than 7 years after November 15, 1990; and
(E) emission standards for all categories and subcategories shall be promulgated not later than 10 years after November 15, 1990.
(2) PrioritiesIn determining priorities for promulgating standards under subsection (d), the Administrator shall consider—
(A) the known or anticipated adverse effects of such pollutants on public health and the environment;
(B) the quantity and location of emissions or reasonably anticipated emissions of hazardous air pollutants that each category or subcategory will emit; and
(C) the efficiency of grouping categories or subcategories according to the pollutants emitted, or the processes or technologies used.
(3) Published schedule
(4) Judicial review
(5) Publicly owned treatment works
(f) Standard to protect health and environment
(1) ReportNot later than 6 years after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall investigate and report, after consultation with the Surgeon General and after opportunity for public comment, to Congress on—
(A) methods of calculating the risk to public health remaining, or likely to remain, from sources subject to regulation under this section after the application of standards under subsection (d);
(B) the public health significance of such estimated remaining risk and the technologically and commercially available methods and costs of reducing such risks;
(C) the actual health effects with respect to persons living in the vicinity of sources, any available epidemiological or other health studies, risks presented by background concentrations of hazardous air pollutants, any uncertainties in risk assessment methodology or other health assessment technique, and any negative health or environmental consequences to the community of efforts to reduce such risks; and
(D) recommendations as to legislation regarding such remaining risk.
(2) Emission standards
(A) If Congress does not act on any recommendation submitted under paragraph (1), the Administrator shall, within 8 years after promulgation of standards for each category or subcategory of sources pursuant to subsection (d), promulgate standards for such category or subcategory if promulgation of such standards is required in order to provide an ample margin of safety to protect public health in accordance with this section (as in effect before November 15, 1990) or to prevent, taking into consideration costs, energy, safety, and other relevant factors, an adverse environmental effect. Emission standards promulgated under this subsection shall provide an ample margin of safety to protect public health in accordance with this section (as in effect before November 15, 1990), unless the Administrator determines that a more stringent standard is necessary to prevent, taking into consideration costs, energy, safety, and other relevant factors, an adverse environmental effect. If standards promulgated pursuant to subsection (d) and applicable to a category or subcategory of sources emitting a pollutant (or pollutants) classified as a known, probable or possible human carcinogen do not reduce lifetime excess cancer risks to the individual most exposed to emissions from a source in the category or subcategory to less than one in one million, the Administrator shall promulgate standards under this subsection for such source category.
(B) Nothing in subparagraph (A) or in any other provision of this section shall be construed as affecting, or applying to the Administrator’s interpretation of this section, as in effect before November 15, 1990, and set forth in the Federal Register of September 14, 1989 (54 Federal Register 38044).
(C) The Administrator shall determine whether or not to promulgate such standards and, if the Administrator decides to promulgate such standards, shall promulgate the standards 8 years after promulgation of the standards under subsection (d) for each source category or subcategory concerned. In the case of categories or subcategories for which standards under subsection (d) are required to be promulgated within 2 years after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall have 9 years after promulgation of the standards under subsection (d) to make the determination under the preceding sentence and, if required, to promulgate the standards under this paragraph.
(3) Effective date
(4) ProhibitionNo air pollutant to which a standard under this subsection applies may be emitted from any stationary source in violation of such standard, except that in the case of an existing source—
(A) such standard shall not apply until 90 days after its effective date, and
(B) the Administrator may grant a waiver permitting such source a period of up to 2 years after the effective date of a standard to comply with the standard if the Administrator finds that such period is necessary for the installation of controls and that steps will be taken during the period of the waiver to assure that the health of persons will be protected from imminent endangerment.
(5) Area sources
(6) Unique chemical substances
(g) Modifications
(1) Offsets
(A) A physical change in, or change in the method of operation of, a major source which results in a greater than de minimis increase in actual emissions of a hazardous air pollutant shall not be considered a modification, if such increase in the quantity of actual emissions of any hazardous air pollutant from such source will be offset by an equal or greater decrease in the quantity of emissions of another hazardous air pollutant (or pollutants) from such source which is deemed more hazardous, pursuant to guidance issued by the Administrator under subparagraph (B). The owner or operator of such source shall submit a showing to the Administrator (or the State) that such increase has been offset under the preceding sentence.
(B) The Administrator shall, after notice and opportunity for comment and not later than 18 months after November 15, 1990, publish guidance with respect to implementation of this subsection. Such guidance shall include an identification, to the extent practicable, of the relative hazard to human health resulting from emissions to the ambient air of each of the pollutants listed under subsection (b) sufficient to facilitate the offset showing authorized by subparagraph (A). Such guidance shall not authorize offsets between pollutants where the increased pollutant (or more than one pollutant in a stream of pollutants) causes adverse effects to human health for which no safety threshold for exposure can be determined unless there are corresponding decreases in such types of pollutant(s).
(2) Construction, reconstruction and modifications
(A) After the effective date of a permit program under subchapter V in any State, no person may modify a major source of hazardous air pollutants in such State, unless the Administrator (or the State) determines that the maximum achievable control technology emission limitation under this section for existing sources will be met. Such determination shall be made on a case-by-case basis where no applicable emissions limitations have been established by the Administrator.
(B) After the effective date of a permit program under subchapter V in any State, no person may construct or reconstruct any major source of hazardous air pollutants, unless the Administrator (or the State) determines that the maximum achievable control technology emission limitation under this section for new sources will be met. Such determination shall be made on a case-by-case basis where no applicable emission limitations have been established by the Administrator.
(3) Procedures for modifications
(h) Work practice standards and other requirements
(1) In general
(2) DefinitionFor the purpose of this subsection, the phrase “not feasible to prescribe or enforce an emission standard” means any situation in which the Administrator determines that—
(A) a hazardous air pollutant or pollutants cannot be emitted through a conveyance designed and constructed to emit or capture such pollutant, or that any requirement for, or use of, such a conveyance would be inconsistent with any Federal, State or local law, or
(B) the application of measurement methodology to a particular class of sources is not practicable due to technological and economic limitations.
(3) Alternative standard
(4) Numerical standard required
(i) Schedule for compliance
(1) Preconstruction and operating requirements
(2) Special ruleNotwithstanding the requirements of paragraph (1), a new source which commences construction or reconstruction after a standard, limitation or regulation applicable to such source is proposed and before such standard, limitation or regulation is promulgated shall not be required to comply with such promulgated standard until the date 3 years after the date of promulgation if—
(A) the promulgated standard, limitation or regulation is more stringent than the standard, limitation or regulation proposed; and
(B) the source complies with the standard, limitation, or regulation as proposed during the 3-year period immediately after promulgation.
(3) Compliance schedule for existing sources
(A) After the effective date of any emissions standard, limitation or regulation promulgated under this section and applicable to a source, no person may operate such source in violation of such standard, limitation or regulation except, in the case of an existing source, the Administrator shall establish a compliance date or dates for each category or subcategory of existing sources, which shall provide for compliance as expeditiously as practicable, but in no event later than 3 years after the effective date of such standard, except as provided in subparagraph (B) and paragraphs (4) through (8).
(B) The Administrator (or a State with a program approved under subchapter V) may issue a permit that grants an extension permitting an existing source up to 1 additional year to comply with standards under subsection (d) if such additional period is necessary for the installation of controls. An additional extension of up to 3 years may be added for mining waste operations, if the 4-year compliance time is insufficient to dry and cover mining waste in order to reduce emissions of any pollutant listed under subsection (b).
(4) Presidential exemption
(5) Early reduction
(A) The Administrator (or a State acting pursuant to a permit program approved under subchapter V) shall issue a permit allowing an existing source, for which the owner or operator demonstrates that the source has achieved a reduction of 90 per centum or more in emissions of hazardous air pollutants (95 per centum in the case of hazardous air pollutants which are particulates) from the source, to meet an alternative emission limitation reflecting such reduction in lieu of an emission limitation promulgated under subsection (d) for a period of 6 years from the compliance date for the otherwise applicable standard, provided that such reduction is achieved before the otherwise applicable standard under subsection (d) is first proposed. Nothing in this paragraph shall preclude a State from requiring reductions in excess of those specified in this subparagraph as a condition of granting the extension authorized by the previous sentence.
(B) An existing source which achieves the reduction referred to in subparagraph (A) after the proposal of an applicable standard but before January 1, 1994, may qualify under subparagraph (A), if the source makes an enforceable commitment to achieve such reduction before the proposal of the standard. Such commitment shall be enforceable to the same extent as a regulation under this section.
(C) The reduction shall be determined with respect to verifiable and actual emissions in a base year not earlier than calendar year 1987, provided that, there is no evidence that emissions in the base year are artificially or substantially greater than emissions in other years prior to implementation of emissions reduction measures. The Administrator may allow a source to use a baseline year of 1985 or 1986 provided that the source can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Administrator that emissions data for the source reflects verifiable data based on information for such source, received by the Administrator prior to November 15, 1990, pursuant to an information request issued under section 7414 of this title.
(D) For each source granted an alternative emission limitation under this paragraph there shall be established by a permit issued pursuant to subchapter V an enforceable emission limitation for hazardous air pollutants reflecting the reduction which qualifies the source for an alternative emission limitation under this paragraph. An alternative emission limitation under this paragraph shall not be available with respect to standards or requirements promulgated pursuant to subsection (f) and the Administrator shall, for the purpose of determining whether a standard under subsection (f) is necessary, review emissions from sources granted an alternative emission limitation under this paragraph at the same time that other sources in the category or subcategory are reviewed.
(E) With respect to pollutants for which high risks of adverse public health effects may be associated with exposure to small quantities including, but not limited to, chlorinated dioxins and furans, the Administrator shall by regulation limit the use of offsetting reductions in emissions of other hazardous air pollutants from the source as counting toward the 90 per centum reduction in such high-risk pollutants qualifying for an alternative emissions limitation under this paragraph.
(6) Other reductionsNotwithstanding the requirements of this section, no existing source that has installed—
(A) best available control technology (as defined in section 7479(3) of this title), or
(B) technology required to meet a lowest achievable emission rate (as defined in section 7501 of this title),
prior to the promulgation of a standard under this section applicable to such source and the same pollutant (or stream of pollutants) controlled pursuant to an action described in subparagraph (A) or (B) shall be required to comply with such standard under this section until the date 5 years after the date on which such installation or reduction has been achieved, as determined by the Administrator. The Administrator may issue such rules and guidance as are necessary to implement this paragraph.
(7) Extension for new sources
(8) Coke ovens
(A) Any coke oven battery that complies with the emission limitations established under subsection (d)(8)(C), subparagraph (B), and subparagraph (C), and complies with the provisions of subparagraph (E), shall not be required to achieve emission limitations promulgated under subsection (f) until January 1, 2020.
(B)
(i) Not later than December 31, 1992, the Administrator shall promulgate emission limitations for coke oven emissions from coke oven batteries. Notwithstanding paragraph (3) of this subsection, the compliance date for such emission limitations for existing coke oven batteries shall be January 1, 1998. Such emission limitations shall reflect the lowest achievable emission rate as defined in section 7501 of this title for a coke oven battery that is rebuilt or a replacement at a coke oven plant for an existing battery. Such emission limitations shall be no less stringent than—(I) 3 per centum leaking doors (5 per centum leaking doors for six meter batteries);(II) 1 per centum leaking lids;(III) 4 per centum leaking offtakes; and(IV) 16 seconds visible emissions per charge,
with an exclusion for emissions during the period after the closing of self-sealing oven doors (or the total mass emissions equivalent). The rulemaking in which such emission limitations are promulgated shall also establish an appropriate measurement methodology for determining compliance with such emission limitations, and shall establish such emission limitations in terms of an equivalent level of mass emissions reduction from a coke oven battery, unless the Administrator finds that such a mass emissions standard would not be practicable or enforceable. Such measurement methodology, to the extent it measures leaking doors, shall take into consideration alternative test methods that reflect the best technology and practices actually applied in the affected industries, and shall assure that the final test methods are consistent with the performance of such best technology and practices.
(ii) If the Administrator fails to promulgate such emission limitations under this subparagraph prior to the effective date of such emission limitations, the emission limitations applicable to coke oven batteries under this subparagraph shall be—(I) 3 per centum leaking doors (5 per centum leaking doors for six meter batteries);(II) 1 per centum leaking lids;(III) 4 per centum leaking offtakes; and(IV) 16 seconds visible emissions per charge,
or the total mass emissions equivalent (if the total mass emissions equivalent is determined to be practicable and enforceable), with no exclusion for emissions during the period after the closing of self-sealing oven doors.
(C) Not later than January 1, 2007, the Administrator shall review the emission limitations promulgated under subparagraph (B) and revise, as necessary, such emission limitations to reflect the lowest achievable emission rate as defined in section 7501 of this title at the time for a coke oven battery that is rebuilt or a replacement at a coke oven plant for an existing battery. Such emission limitations shall be no less stringent than the emission limitation promulgated under subparagraph (B). Notwithstanding paragraph (2) of this subsection, the compliance date for such emission limitations for existing coke oven batteries shall be January 1, 2010.
(D) At any time prior to January 1, 1998, the owner or operator of any coke oven battery may elect to comply with emission limitations promulgated under subsection (f) by the date such emission limitations would otherwise apply to such coke oven battery, in lieu of the emission limitations and the compliance dates provided under subparagraphs (B) and (C) of this paragraph. Any such owner or operator shall be legally bound to comply with such emission limitations promulgated under subsection (f) with respect to such coke oven battery as of January 1, 2003. If no such emission limitations have been promulgated for such coke oven battery, the Administrator shall promulgate such emission limitations in accordance with subsection (f) for such coke oven battery.
(E) Coke oven batteries qualifying for an extension under subparagraph (A) shall make available not later than January 1, 2000, to the surrounding communities the results of any risk assessment performed by the Administrator to determine the appropriate level of any emission standard established by the Administrator pursuant to subsection (f).
(F) Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, reconstruction of any source of coke oven emissions qualifying for an extension under this paragraph shall not subject such source to emission limitations under subsection (f) more stringent than those established under subparagraphs (B) and (C) until January 1, 2020. For the purposes of this subparagraph, the term “reconstruction” includes the replacement of existing coke oven battery capacity with new coke oven batteries of comparable or lower capacity and lower potential emissions.
(j) Equivalent emission limitation by permit
(1) Effective date
(2) Failure to promulgate a standard
(3) Applications
(4) Review and approval
(5) Emission limitation
(6) Applicability of subsequent standards
(k) Area source program
(1) Findings and purpose
(2) Research programThe Administrator shall, after consultation with State and local air pollution control officials, conduct a program of research with respect to sources of hazardous air pollutants in urban areas and shall include within such program—
(A) ambient monitoring for a broad range of hazardous air pollutants (including, but not limited to, volatile organic compounds, metals, pesticides and products of incomplete combustion) in a representative number of urban locations;
(B) analysis to characterize the sources of such pollution with a focus on area sources and the contribution that such sources make to public health risks from hazardous air pollutants; and
(C) consideration of atmospheric transformation and other factors which can elevate public health risks from such pollutants.
Health effects considered under this program shall include, but not be limited to, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, neurotoxicity, reproductive dysfunction and other acute and chronic effects including the role of such pollutants as precursors of ozone or acid aerosol formation. The Administrator shall report the preliminary results of such research not later than 3 years after November 15, 1990.
(3) National strategy
(A) Considering information collected pursuant to the monitoring program authorized by paragraph (2), the Administrator shall, not later than 5 years after November 15, 1990, and after notice and opportunity for public comment, prepare and transmit to the Congress a comprehensive strategy to control emissions of hazardous air pollutants from area sources in urban areas.
(B) The strategy shall—
(i) identify not less than 30 hazardous air pollutants which, as the result of emissions from area sources, present the greatest threat to public health in the largest number of urban areas and that are or will be listed pursuant to subsection (b), and
(ii) identify the source categories or subcategories emitting such pollutants that are or will be listed pursuant to subsection (c). When identifying categories and subcategories of sources under this subparagraph, the Administrator shall assure that sources accounting for 90 per centum or more of the aggregate emissions of each of the 30 identified hazardous air pollutants are subject to standards pursuant to subsection (d).
(C) The strategy shall include a schedule of specific actions to substantially reduce the public health risks posed by the release of hazardous air pollutants from area sources that will be implemented by the Administrator under the authority of this or other laws (including, but not limited to, the Toxic Substances Control Act [15 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.], the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.] and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act [42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.]) or by the States. The strategy shall achieve a reduction in the incidence of cancer attributable to exposure to hazardous air pollutants emitted by stationary sources of not less than 75 per centum, considering control of emissions of hazardous air pollutants from all stationary sources and resulting from measures implemented by the Administrator or by the States under this or other laws.
(D) The strategy may also identify research needs in monitoring, analytical methodology, modeling or pollution control techniques and recommendations for changes in law that would further the goals and objectives of this subsection.
(E) Nothing in this subsection shall be interpreted to preclude or delay implementation of actions with respect to area sources of hazardous air pollutants under consideration pursuant to this or any other law and that may be promulgated before the strategy is prepared.
(F) The Administrator shall implement the strategy as expeditiously as practicable assuring that all sources are in compliance with all requirements not later than 9 years after November 15, 1990.
(G) As part of such strategy the Administrator shall provide for ambient monitoring and emissions modeling in urban areas as appropriate to demonstrate that the goals and objectives of the strategy are being met.
(4) Areawide activities
(5) Report
(l) State programs
(1) In general
(2) Guidance
(3) Technical assistance
(4) Grants
(5) Approval or disapprovalNot later than 180 days after receiving a program submitted by a State, and after notice and opportunity for public comment, the Administrator shall either approve or disapprove such program. The Administrator shall disapprove any program submitted by a State, if the Administrator determines that—
(A) the authorities contained in the program are not adequate to assure compliance by all sources within the State with each applicable standard, regulation or requirement established by the Administrator under this section;
(B) adequate authority does not exist, or adequate resources are not available, to implement the program;
(C) the schedule for implementing the program and assuring compliance by affected sources is not sufficiently expeditious; or
(D) the program is otherwise not in compliance with the guidance issued by the Administrator under paragraph (2) or is not likely to satisfy, in whole or in part, the objectives of this chapter.
If the Administrator disapproves a State program, the Administrator shall notify the State of any revisions or modifications necessary to obtain approval. The State may revise and resubmit the proposed program for review and approval pursuant to the provisions of this subsection.
(6) Withdrawal
(7) Authority to enforce
(8) Local program
(9) Permit authority
(m) Atmospheric deposition to Great Lakes and coastal waters
(1) Deposition assessmentThe Administrator, in cooperation with the Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere, shall conduct a program to identify and assess the extent of atmospheric deposition of hazardous air pollutants (and in the discretion of the Administrator, other air pollutants) to the Great Lakes, the Chesapeake Bay, Lake Champlain and coastal waters. As part of such program, the Administrator shall—
(A) monitor the Great Lakes, the Chesapeake Bay, Lake Champlain and coastal waters, including monitoring of the Great Lakes through the monitoring network established pursuant to paragraph (2) of this subsection and designing and deploying an atmospheric monitoring network for coastal waters pursuant to paragraph (4);
(B) investigate the sources and deposition rates of atmospheric deposition of air pollutants (and their atmospheric transformation precursors);
(C) conduct research to develop and improve monitoring methods and to determine the relative contribution of atmospheric pollutants to total pollution loadings to the Great Lakes, the Chesapeake Bay, Lake Champlain, and coastal waters;
(D) evaluate any adverse effects to public health or the environment caused by such deposition (including effects resulting from indirect exposure pathways) and assess the contribution of such deposition to violations of water quality standards established pursuant to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act [33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.] and drinking water standards established pursuant to the Safe Drinking Water Act [42 U.S.C. 300f et seq.]; and
(E) sample for such pollutants in biota, fish, and wildlife of the Great Lakes, the Chesapeake Bay, Lake Champlain and coastal waters and characterize the sources of such pollutants.
(2) Great Lakes monitoring networkThe Administrator shall oversee, in accordance with Annex 15 of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, the establishment and operation of a Great Lakes atmospheric deposition network to monitor atmospheric deposition of hazardous air pollutants (and in the Administrator’s discretion, other air pollutants) to the Great Lakes.
(A) As part of the network provided for in this paragraph, and not later than December 31, 1991, the Administrator shall establish in each of the 5 Great Lakes at least 1 facility capable of monitoring the atmospheric deposition of hazardous air pollutants in both dry and wet conditions.
(B) The Administrator shall use the data provided by the network to identify and track the movement of hazardous air pollutants through the Great Lakes, to determine the portion of water pollution loadings attributable to atmospheric deposition of such pollutants, and to support development of remedial action plans and other management plans as required by the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement.
(C) The Administrator shall assure that the data collected by the Great Lakes atmospheric deposition monitoring network is in a format compatible with databases sponsored by the International Joint Commission, Canada, and the several States of the Great Lakes region.
(3) Monitoring for the Chesapeake Bay and Lake Champlain
(4) Monitoring for coastal waters
(5) ReportWithin 3 years of November 15, 1990, and biennially thereafter, the Administrator, in cooperation with the Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere, shall submit to the Congress a report on the results of any monitoring, studies, and investigations conducted pursuant to this subsection. Such report shall include, at a minimum, an assessment of—
(A) the contribution of atmospheric deposition to pollution loadings in the Great Lakes, the Chesapeake Bay, Lake Champlain and coastal waters;
(B) the environmental and public health effects of any pollution which is attributable to atmospheric deposition to the Great Lakes, the Chesapeake Bay, Lake Champlain and coastal waters;
(C) the source or sources of any pollution to the Great Lakes, the Chesapeake Bay, Lake Champlain and coastal waters which is attributable to atmospheric deposition;
(D) whether pollution loadings in the Great Lakes, the Chesapeake Bay, Lake Champlain or coastal waters cause or contribute to exceedances of drinking water standards pursuant to the Safe Drinking Water Act [42 U.S.C. 300f et seq.] or water quality standards pursuant to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act [33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.] or, with respect to the Great Lakes, exceedances of the specific objectives of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement; and
(E) a description of any revisions of the requirements, standards, and limitations pursuant to this chapter and other applicable Federal laws as are necessary to assure protection of human health and the environment.
(6) Additional regulation
(n) Other provisions
(1) Electric utility steam generating units
(A) The Administrator shall perform a study of the hazards to public health reasonably anticipated to occur as a result of emissions by electric utility steam generating units of pollutants listed under subsection (b) after imposition of the requirements of this chapter. The Administrator shall report the results of this study to the Congress within 3 years after November 15, 1990. The Administrator shall develop and describe in the Administrator’s report to Congress alternative control strategies for emissions which may warrant regulation under this section. The Administrator shall regulate electric utility steam generating units under this section, if the Administrator finds such regulation is appropriate and necessary after considering the results of the study required by this subparagraph.
(B) The Administrator shall conduct, and transmit to the Congress not later than 4 years after November 15, 1990, a study of mercury emissions from electric utility steam generating units, municipal waste combustion units, and other sources, including area sources. Such study shall consider the rate and mass of such emissions, the health and environmental effects of such emissions, technologies which are available to control such emissions, and the costs of such technologies.
(C) The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences shall conduct, and transmit to the Congress not later than 3 years after November 15, 1990, a study to determine the threshold level of mercury exposure below which adverse human health effects are not expected to occur. Such study shall include a threshold for mercury concentrations in the tissue of fish which may be consumed (including consumption by sensitive populations) without adverse effects to public health.
(2) Coke oven production technology study
(A) The Secretary of the Department of Energy and the Administrator shall jointly undertake a 6-year study to assess coke oven production emission control technologies and to assist in the development and commercialization of technically practicable and economically viable control technologies which have the potential to significantly reduce emissions of hazardous air pollutants from coke oven production facilities. In identifying control technologies, the Secretary and the Administrator shall consider the range of existing coke oven operations and battery design and the availability of sources of materials for such coke ovens as well as alternatives to existing coke oven production design.
(B) The Secretary and the Administrator are authorized to enter into agreements with persons who propose to develop, install and operate coke production emission control technologies which have the potential for significant emissions reductions of hazardous air pollutants provided that Federal funds shall not exceed 50 per centum of the cost of any project assisted pursuant to this paragraph.
(C) On completion of the study, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report on the results of the study and shall make recommendations to the Administrator identifying practicable and economically viable control technologies for coke oven production facilities to reduce residual risks remaining after implementation of the standard under subsection (d).
(D) There are authorized to be appropriated $5,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1992 through 1997 to carry out the program authorized by this paragraph.
(3) Publicly owned treatment works
(4) Oil and gas wells; pipeline facilities
(A) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a), emissions from any oil or gas exploration or production well (with its associated equipment) and emissions from any pipeline compressor or pump station shall not be aggregated with emissions from other similar units, whether or not such units are in a contiguous area or under common control, to determine whether such units or stations are major sources, and in the case of any oil or gas exploration or production well (with its associated equipment), such emissions shall not be aggregated for any purpose under this section.
(B) The Administrator shall not list oil and gas production wells (with its associated equipment) as an area source category under subsection (c), except that the Administrator may establish an area source category for oil and gas production wells located in any metropolitan statistical area or consolidated metropolitan statistical area with a population in excess of 1 million, if the Administrator determines that emissions of hazardous air pollutants from such wells present more than a negligible risk of adverse effects to public health.
(5) Hydrogen sulfide
(6) Hydrofluoric acid
(7) RCRA facilities
(o) National Academy of Sciences study
(1) Request of the AcademyWithin 3 months of November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall enter into appropriate arrangements with the National Academy of Sciences to conduct a review of—
(A) risk assessment methodology used by the Environmental Protection Agency to determine the carcinogenic risk associated with exposure to hazardous air pollutants from source categories and subcategories subject to the requirements of this section; and
(B) improvements in such methodology.
(2) Elements to be studiedIn conducting such review, the National Academy of Sciences should consider, but not be limited to, the following—
(A) the techniques used for estimating and describing the carcinogenic potency to humans of hazardous air pollutants; and
(B) the techniques used for estimating exposure to hazardous air pollutants (for hypothetical and actual maximally exposed individuals as well as other exposed individuals).
(3) Other health effects of concern
(4) Report
(5) Assistance
(6) Authorization
(7) Guidelines for carcinogenic risk assessment
(p) Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center
(1) Establishment
(2) Board of Directors
(3) Scientific Advisory Panel
(4) Funding
(q) Savings provision
(1) Standards previously promulgated
(2) Special rule
(3) Other categories
(4) Medical facilities
(r) Prevention of accidental releases
(1) Purpose and general duty
(2) Definitions
(A) The term “accidental release” means an unanticipated emission of a regulated substance or other extremely hazardous substance into the ambient air from a stationary source.
(B) The term “regulated substance” means a substance listed under paragraph (3).
(C) The term “stationary source” means any buildings, structures, equipment, installations or substance emitting stationary activities (i) which belong to the same industrial group, (ii) which are located on one or more contiguous properties, (iii) which are under the control of the same person (or persons under common control), and (iv) from which an accidental release may occur.
(D) The term “retail facility” means a stationary source at which more than one-half of the income is obtained from direct sales to end users or at which more than one-half of the fuel sold, by volume, is sold through a cylinder exchange program.
(3) List of substances
(4) Factors to be consideredIn listing substances under paragraph (3), the Administrator—
(A) shall consider—
(i) the severity of any acute adverse health effects associated with accidental releases of the substance;
(ii) the likelihood of accidental releases of the substance; and
(iii) the potential magnitude of human exposure to accidental releases of the substance; and
(B) shall not list a flammable substance when used as a fuel or held for sale as a fuel at a retail facility under this subsection solely because of the explosive or flammable properties of the substance, unless a fire or explosion caused by the substance will result in acute adverse health effects from human exposure to the substance, including the unburned fuel or its combustion byproducts, other than those caused by the heat of the fire or impact of the explosion.
(5) Threshold quantity
(6) Chemical Safety Board
(A) There is hereby established an independent safety board to be known as the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board.
(B) The Board shall consist of 5 members, including a Chairperson, who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. Members of the Board shall be appointed on the basis of technical qualification, professional standing, and demonstrated knowledge in the fields of accident reconstruction, safety engineering, human factors, toxicology, or air pollution regulation. The terms of office of members of the Board shall be 5 years. Any member of the Board, including the Chairperson, may be removed for inefficiency, neglect of duty, or malfeasance in office. The Chairperson shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the Board and shall exercise the executive and administrative functions of the Board.
(C) The Board shall—
(i) investigate (or cause to be investigated), determine and report to the public in writing the facts, conditions, and circumstances and the cause or probable cause of any accidental release resulting in a fatality, serious injury or substantial property damages;
(ii) issue periodic reports to the Congress, Federal, State and local agencies, including the Environmental Protection Agency and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, concerned with the safety of chemical production, processing, handling and storage, and other interested persons recommending measures to reduce the likelihood or the consequences of accidental releases and proposing corrective steps to make chemical production, processing, handling and storage as safe and free from risk of injury as is possible and may include in such reports proposed rules or orders which should be issued by the Administrator under the authority of this section or the Secretary of Labor under the Occupational Safety and Health Act [29 U.S.C. 651 et seq.] to prevent or minimize the consequences of any release of substances that may cause death, injury or other serious adverse effects on human health or substantial property damage as the result of an accidental release; and
(iii) establish by regulation requirements binding on persons for reporting accidental releases into the ambient air subject to the Board’s investigatory jurisdiction. Reporting releases to the National Response Center, in lieu of the Board directly, shall satisfy such regulations. The National Response Center shall promptly notify the Board of any releases which are within the Board’s jurisdiction.
(D) The Board may utilize the expertise and experience of other agencies.
(E) The Board shall coordinate its activities with investigations and studies conducted by other agencies of the United States having a responsibility to protect public health and safety. The Board shall enter into a memorandum of understanding with the National Transportation Safety Board to assure coordination of functions and to limit duplication of activities which shall designate the National Transportation Safety Board as the lead agency for the investigation of releases which are transportation related. The Board shall not be authorized to investigate marine oil spills, which the National Transportation Safety Board is authorized to investigate. The Board shall enter into a memorandum of understanding with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration so as to limit duplication of activities. In no event shall the Board forego an investigation where an accidental release causes a fatality or serious injury among the general public, or had the potential to cause substantial property damage or a number of deaths or injuries among the general public.
(F) The Board is authorized to conduct research and studies with respect to the potential for accidental releases, whether or not an accidental release has occurred, where there is evidence which indicates the presence of a potential hazard or hazards. To the extent practicable, the Board shall conduct such studies in cooperation with other Federal agencies having emergency response authorities, State and local governmental agencies and associations and organizations from the industrial, commercial, and nonprofit sectors.
(G) No part of the conclusions, findings, or recommendations of the Board relating to any accidental release or the investigation thereof shall be admitted as evidence or used in any action or suit for damages arising out of any matter mentioned in such report.
(H) Not later than 18 months after November 15, 1990, the Board shall publish a report accompanied by recommendations to the Administrator on the use of hazard assessments in preventing the occurrence and minimizing the consequences of accidental releases of extremely hazardous substances. The recommendations shall include a list of extremely hazardous substances which are not regulated substances (including threshold quantities for such substances) and categories of stationary sources for which hazard assessments would be an appropriate measure to aid in the prevention of accidental releases and to minimize the consequences of those releases that do occur. The recommendations shall also include a description of the information and analysis which would be appropriate to include in any hazard assessment. The Board shall also make recommendations with respect to the role of risk management plans as required by paragraph (8)(B) 5
5 So in original. Probably should be paragraph “(7)(B)”.
in preventing accidental releases. The Board may from time to time review and revise its recommendations under this subparagraph.
(I) Whenever the Board submits a recommendation with respect to accidental releases to the Administrator, the Administrator shall respond to such recommendation formally and in writing not later than 180 days after receipt thereof. The response to the Board’s recommendation by the Administrator shall indicate whether the Administrator will—
(i) initiate a rulemaking or issue such orders as are necessary to implement the recommendation in full or in part, pursuant to any timetable contained in the recommendation; 6
6 So in original. The word “or” probably should appear.
(ii) decline to initiate a rulemaking or issue orders as recommended.
Any determination by the Administrator not to implement a recommendation of the Board or to implement a recommendation only in part, including any variation from the schedule contained in the recommendation, shall be accompanied by a statement from the Administrator setting forth the reasons for such determination.
(J) The Board may make recommendations with respect to accidental releases to the Secretary of Labor. Whenever the Board submits such recommendation, the Secretary shall respond to such recommendation formally and in writing not later than 180 days after receipt thereof. The response to the Board’s recommendation by the Administrator 7
7 So in original. The word “Administrator” probably should be “Secretary”.
shall indicate whether the Secretary will—
(i) initiate a rulemaking or issue such orders as are necessary to implement the recommendation in full or in part, pursuant to any timetable contained in the recommendation; 6
(ii) decline to initiate a rulemaking or issue orders as recommended.
Any determination by the Secretary not to implement a recommendation or to implement a recommendation only in part, including any variation from the schedule contained in the recommendation, shall be accompanied by a statement from the Secretary setting forth the reasons for such determination.
(K) Within 2 years after November 15, 1990, the Board shall issue a report to the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and to the Administrator of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration recommending the adoption of regulations for the preparation of risk management plans and general requirements for the prevention of accidental releases of regulated substances into the ambient air (including recommendations for listing substances under paragraph (3)) and for the mitigation of the potential adverse effect on human health or the environment as a result of accidental releases which should be applicable to any stationary source handling any regulated substance in more than threshold amounts. The Board may include proposed rules or orders which should be issued by the Administrator under authority of this subsection or by the Secretary of Labor under the Occupational Safety and Health Act [29 U.S.C. 651 et seq.]. Any such recommendations shall be specific and shall identify the regulated substance or class of regulated substances (or other substances) to which the recommendations apply. The Administrator shall consider such recommendations before promulgating regulations required by paragraph (7)(B).
(L) The Board, or upon authority of the Board, any member thereof, any administrative law judge employed by or assigned to the Board, or any officer or employee duly designated by the Board, may for the purpose of carrying out duties authorized by subparagraph (C)—
(i) hold such hearings, sit and act at such times and places, administer such oaths, and require by subpoena or otherwise attendance and testimony of such witnesses and the production of evidence and may require by order that any person engaged in the production, processing, handling, or storage of extremely hazardous substances submit written reports and responses to requests and questions within such time and in such form as the Board may require; and
(ii) upon presenting appropriate credentials and a written notice of inspection authority, enter any property where an accidental release causing a fatality, serious injury or substantial property damage has occurred and do all things therein necessary for a proper investigation pursuant to subparagraph (C) and inspect at reasonable times records, files, papers, processes, controls, and facilities and take such samples as are relevant to such investigation.
Whenever the Administrator or the Board conducts an inspection of a facility pursuant to this subsection, employees and their representatives shall have the same rights to participate in such inspections as provided in the Occupational Safety and Health Act [29 U.S.C. 651 et seq.].
(M) In addition to that described in subparagraph (L), the Board may use any information gathering authority of the Administrator under this chapter, including the subpoena power provided in section 7607(a)(1) of this title.
(N) The Board is authorized to establish such procedural and administrative rules as are necessary to the exercise of its functions and duties. The Board is authorized without regard to section 6101 of title 41 to enter into contracts, leases, cooperative agreements or other transactions as may be necessary in the conduct of the duties and functions of the Board with any other agency, institution, or person.
(O) After the effective date of any reporting requirement promulgated pursuant to subparagraph (C)(iii) it shall be unlawful for any person to fail to report any release of any extremely hazardous substance as required by such subparagraph. The Administrator is authorized to enforce any regulation or requirements established by the Board pursuant to subparagraph (C)(iii) using the authorities of sections 7413 and 7414 of this title. Any request for information from the owner or operator of a stationary source made by the Board or by the Administrator under this section shall be treated, for purposes of sections 7413, 7414, 7416, 7420, 7603, 7604 and 7607 of this title and any other enforcement provisions of this chapter, as a request made by the Administrator under section 7414 of this title and may be enforced by the Chairperson of the Board or by the Administrator as provided in such section.
(P) The Administrator shall provide to the Board such support and facilities as may be necessary for operation of the Board.
(Q) Consistent with subsection 8
8 So in original. Probably should be “subparagraph”.
(G) and section 7414(c) of this title any records, reports or information obtained by the Board shall be available to the Administrator, the Secretary of Labor, the Congress and the public, except that upon a showing satisfactory to the Board by any person that records, reports, or information, or particular part thereof (other than release or emissions data) to which the Board has access, if made public, is likely to cause substantial harm to the person’s competitive position, the Board shall consider such record, report, or information or particular portion thereof confidential in accordance with section 1905 of title 18, except that such record, report, or information may be disclosed to other officers, employees, and authorized representatives of the United States concerned with carrying out this chapter or when relevant under any proceeding under this chapter. This subparagraph does not constitute authority to withhold records, reports, or information from the Congress.
(R) Whenever the Board submits or transmits any budget estimate, budget request, supplemental budget request, or other budget information, legislative recommendation, prepared testimony for congressional hearings, recommendation or study to the President, the Secretary of Labor, the Administrator, or the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, it shall concurrently transmit a copy thereof to the Congress. No report of the Board shall be subject to review by the Administrator or any Federal agency or to judicial review in any court. No officer or agency of the United States shall have authority to require the Board to submit its budget requests or estimates, legislative recommendations, prepared testimony, comments, recommendations or reports to any officer or agency of the United States for approval or review prior to the submission of such recommendations, testimony, comments or reports to the Congress. In the performance of their functions as established by this chapter, the members, officers and employees of the Board shall not be responsible to or subject to supervision or direction, in carrying out any duties under this subsection, of any officer or employee or agent of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Labor or any other agency of the United States except that the President may remove any member, officer or employee of the Board for inefficiency, neglect of duty or malfeasance in office. Nothing in this section shall affect the application of title 5 to officers or employees of the Board.
(S) The Board shall submit an annual report to the President and to the Congress which shall include, but not be limited to, information on accidental releases which have been investigated by or reported to the Board during the previous year, recommendations for legislative or administrative action which the Board has made, the actions which have been taken by the Administrator or the Secretary of Labor or the heads of other agencies to implement such recommendations, an identification of priorities for study and investigation in the succeeding year, progress in the development of risk-reduction technologies and the response to and implementation of significant research findings on chemical safety in the public and private sector.
(7) Accident prevention
(A) In order to prevent accidental releases of regulated substances, the Administrator is authorized to promulgate release prevention, detection, and correction requirements which may include monitoring, record-keeping, reporting, training, vapor recovery, secondary containment, and other design, equipment, work practice, and operational requirements. Regulations promulgated under this paragraph may make distinctions between various types, classes, and kinds of facilities, devices and systems taking into consideration factors including, but not limited to, the size, location, process, process controls, quantity of substances handled, potency of substances, and response capabilities present at any stationary source. Regulations promulgated pursuant to this subparagraph shall have an effective date, as determined by the Administrator, assuring compliance as expeditiously as practicable.
(B)
(i) Within 3 years after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall promulgate reasonable regulations and appropriate guidance to provide, to the greatest extent practicable, for the prevention and detection of accidental releases of regulated substances and for response to such releases by the owners or operators of the sources of such releases. The Administrator shall utilize the expertise of the Secretaries of Transportation and Labor in promulgating such regulations. As appropriate, such regulations shall cover the use, operation, repair, replacement, and maintenance of equipment to monitor, detect, inspect, and control such releases, including training of persons in the use and maintenance of such equipment and in the conduct of periodic inspections. The regulations shall include procedures and measures for emergency response after an accidental release of a regulated substance in order to protect human health and the environment. The regulations shall cover storage, as well as operations. The regulations shall, as appropriate, recognize differences in size, operations, processes, class and categories of sources and the voluntary actions of such sources to prevent such releases and respond to such releases. The regulations shall be applicable to a stationary source 3 years after the date of promulgation, or 3 years after the date on which a regulated substance present at the source in more than threshold amounts is first listed under paragraph (3), whichever is later.
(ii) The regulations under this subparagraph shall require the owner or operator of stationary sources at which a regulated substance is present in more than a threshold quantity to prepare and implement a risk management plan to detect and prevent or minimize accidental releases of such substances from the stationary source, and to provide a prompt emergency response to any such releases in order to protect human health and the environment. Such plan shall provide for compliance with the requirements of this subsection and shall also include each of the following:(I) a hazard assessment to assess the potential effects of an accidental release of any regulated substance. This assessment shall include an estimate of potential release quantities and a determination of downwind effects, including potential exposures to affected populations. Such assessment shall include a previous release history of the past 5 years, including the size, concentration, and duration of releases, and shall include an evaluation of worst case accidental releases;(II) a program for preventing accidental releases of regulated substances, including safety precautions and maintenance, monitoring and employee training measures to be used at the source; and(III) a response program providing for specific actions to be taken in response to an accidental release of a regulated substance so as to protect human health and the environment, including procedures for informing the public and local agencies responsible for responding to accidental releases, emergency health care, and employee training measures.
At the time regulations are promulgated under this subparagraph, the Administrator shall promulgate guidelines to assist stationary sources in the preparation of risk management plans. The guidelines shall, to the extent practicable, include model risk management plans.
(iii) The owner or operator of each stationary source covered by clause (ii) shall register a risk management plan prepared under this subparagraph with the Administrator before the effective date of regulations under clause (i) in such form and manner as the Administrator shall, by rule, require. Plans prepared pursuant to this subparagraph shall also be submitted to the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, to the State in which the stationary source is located, and to any local agency or entity having responsibility for planning for or responding to accidental releases which may occur at such source, and shall be available to the public under section 7414(c) of this title. The Administrator shall establish, by rule, an auditing system to regularly review and, if necessary, require revision in risk management plans to assure that the plans comply with this subparagraph. Each such plan shall be updated periodically as required by the Administrator, by rule.
(C) Any regulations promulgated pursuant to this subsection shall to the maximum extent practicable, consistent with this subsection, be consistent with the recommendations and standards established by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) or the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM). The Administrator shall take into consideration the concerns of small business in promulgating regulations under this subsection.
(D) In carrying out the authority of this paragraph, the Administrator shall consult with the Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of Transportation and shall coordinate any requirements under this paragraph with any requirements established for comparable purposes by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the Department of Transportation. Nothing in this subsection shall be interpreted, construed or applied to impose requirements affecting, or to grant the Administrator, the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, or any other agency any authority to regulate (including requirements for hazard assessment), the accidental release of radionuclides arising from the construction and operation of facilities licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
(E) After the effective date of any regulation or requirement imposed under this subsection, it shall be unlawful for any person to operate any stationary source subject to such regulation or requirement in violation of such regulation or requirement. Each regulation or requirement under this subsection shall for purposes of sections 7413, 7414, 7416, 7420, 7604, and 7607 of this title and other enforcement provisions of this chapter, be treated as a standard in effect under subsection (d).
(F) Notwithstanding the provisions of subchapter V or this section, no stationary source shall be required to apply for, or operate pursuant to, a permit issued under such subchapter solely because such source is subject to regulations or requirements under this subsection.
(G) In exercising any authority under this subsection, the Administrator shall not, for purposes of section 653(b)(1) of title 29, be deemed to be exercising statutory authority to prescribe or enforce standards or regulations affecting occupational safety and health.
(H)Public access to off-site consequence analysis information.—
(i)Definitions.—In this subparagraph:(I)Covered person.—The term “covered person” means—(aa) an officer or employee of the United States;(bb) an officer or employee of an agent or contractor of the Federal Government;(cc) an officer or employee of a State or local government;(dd) an officer or employee of an agent or contractor of a State or local government;(ee) an individual affiliated with an entity that has been given, by a State or local government, responsibility for preventing, planning for, or responding to accidental releases;(ff) an officer or employee or an agent or contractor of an entity described in item (ee); and(gg) a qualified researcher under clause (vii).(II)Official use.—The term “official use” means an action of a Federal, State, or local government agency or an entity referred to in subclause (I)(ee) intended to carry out a function relevant to preventing, planning for, or responding to accidental releases.(III)Off-site consequence analysis information.—The term “off-site consequence analysis information” means those portions of a risk management plan, excluding the executive summary of the plan, consisting of an evaluation of 1 or more worst-case release scenarios or alternative release scenarios, and any electronic data base created by the Administrator from those portions.(IV)Risk management plan.—The term “risk management plan” means a risk management plan submitted to the Administrator by an owner or operator of a stationary source under subparagraph (B)(iii).
(ii)Regulations.—Not later than 1 year after August 5, 1999, the President shall—(I) assess—(aa) the increased risk of terrorist and other criminal activity associated with the posting of off-site consequence analysis information on the Internet; and(bb) the incentives created by public disclosure of off-site consequence analysis information for reduction in the risk of accidental releases; and(II) based on the assessment under subclause (I), promulgate regulations governing the distribution of off-site consequence analysis information in a manner that, in the opinion of the President, minimizes the likelihood of accidental releases and the risk described in subclause (I)(aa) and the likelihood of harm to public health and welfare, and—(aa) allows access by any member of the public to paper copies of off-site consequence analysis information for a limited number of stationary sources located anywhere in the United States, without any geographical restriction;(bb) allows other public access to off-site consequence analysis information as appropriate;(cc) allows access for official use by a covered person described in any of items (cc) through (ff) of clause (i)(I) (referred to in this subclause as a “State or local covered person”) to off-site consequence analysis information relating to stationary sources located in the person’s State;(dd) allows a State or local covered person to provide, for official use, off-site consequence analysis information relating to stationary sources located in the person’s State to a State or local covered person in a contiguous State; and(ee) allows a State or local covered person to obtain for official use, by request to the Administrator, off-site consequence analysis information that is not available to the person under item (cc).
(iii)Availability under freedom of information act.—(I)First year.—Off-site consequence analysis information, and any ranking of stationary sources derived from the information, shall not be made available under section 552 of title 5 during the 1-year period beginning on August 5, 1999.(II)After first year.—If the regulations under clause (ii) are promulgated on or before the end of the period described in subclause (I), off-site consequence analysis information covered by the regulations, and any ranking of stationary sources derived from the information, shall not be made available under section 552 of title 5 after the end of that period.(III)Applicability.—Subclauses (I) and (II) apply to off-site consequence analysis information submitted to the Administrator before, on, or after August 5, 1999.
(iv)Availability of information during transition period.—The Administrator shall make off-site consequence analysis information available to covered persons for official use in a manner that meets the requirements of items (cc) through (ee) of clause (ii)(II), and to the public in a form that does not make available any information concerning the identity or location of stationary sources, during the period—(I) beginning on August 5, 1999; and(II) ending on the earlier of the date of promulgation of the regulations under clause (ii) or the date that is 1 year after August 5, 1999.
(v)Prohibition on unauthorized disclosure of information by covered persons.—(I)In general.—Beginning on August 5, 1999, a covered person shall not disclose to the public off-site consequence analysis information in any form, or any statewide or national ranking of identified stationary sources derived from such information, except as authorized by this subparagraph (including the regulations promulgated under clause (ii)). After the end of the 1-year period beginning on August 5, 1999, if regulations have not been promulgated under clause (ii), the preceding sentence shall not apply.(II)Criminal penalties.—Notwithstanding section 7413 of this title, a covered person that willfully violates a restriction or prohibition established by this subparagraph (including the regulations promulgated under clause (ii)) shall, upon conviction, be fined for an infraction under section 3571 of title 18 (but shall not be subject to imprisonment) for each unauthorized disclosure of off-site consequence analysis information, except that subsection (d) of such section 3571 shall not apply to a case in which the offense results in pecuniary loss unless the defendant knew that such loss would occur. The disclosure of off-site consequence analysis information for each specific stationary source shall be considered a separate offense. The total of all penalties that may be imposed on a single person or organization under this item shall not exceed $1,000,000 for violations committed during any 1 calendar year.(III)Applicability.—If the owner or operator of a stationary source makes off-site consequence analysis information relating to that stationary source available to the public without restriction—(aa) subclauses (I) and (II) shall not apply with respect to the information; and(bb) the owner or operator shall notify the Administrator of the public availability of the information.(IV)List.—The Administrator shall maintain and make publicly available a list of all stationary sources that have provided notification under subclause (III)(bb).
(vi)Notice.—The Administrator shall provide notice of the definition of official use as provided in clause (i)(III) 9
9 So in original. Probably should be “(i)(II)”.
and examples of actions that would and would not meet that definition, and notice of the restrictions on further dissemination and the penalties established by this chapter to each covered person who receives off-site consequence analysis information under clause (iv) and each covered person who receives off-site consequence analysis information for an official use under the regulations promulgated under clause (ii).
(vii)Qualified researchers.—(I)In general.—Not later than 180 days after August 5, 1999, the Administrator, in consultation with the Attorney General, shall develop and implement a system for providing off-site consequence analysis information, including facility identification, to any qualified researcher, including a qualified researcher from industry or any public interest group.(II)Limitation on dissemination.—The system shall not allow the researcher to disseminate, or make available on the Internet, the off-site consequence analysis information, or any portion of the off-site consequence analysis information, received under this clause.
(viii)Read-only information technology system.—In consultation with the Attorney General and the heads of other appropriate Federal agencies, the Administrator shall establish an information technology system that provides for the availability to the public of off-site consequence analysis information by means of a central data base under the control of the Federal Government that contains information that users may read, but that provides no means by which an electronic or mechanical copy of the information may be made.
(ix)Voluntary industry accident prevention standards.—The Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Justice, and other appropriate agencies may provide technical assistance to owners and operators of stationary sources and participate in the development of voluntary industry standards that will help achieve the objectives set forth in paragraph (1).
(x)Effect on state or local law.—(I)In general.—Subject to subclause (II), this subparagraph (including the regulations promulgated under this subparagraph) shall supersede any provision of State or local law that is inconsistent with this subparagraph (including the regulations).(II)Availability of information under state law.—Nothing in this subparagraph precludes a State from making available data on the off-site consequences of chemical releases collected in accordance with State law.
(xi)Report.—(I)In general.—Not later than 3 years after August 5, 1999, the Attorney General, in consultation with appropriate State, local, and Federal Government agencies, affected industry, and the public, shall submit to Congress a report that describes the extent to which regulations promulgated under this paragraph have resulted in actions, including the design and maintenance of safe facilities, that are effective in detecting, preventing, and minimizing the consequences of releases of regulated substances that may be caused by criminal activity. As part of this report, the Attorney General, using available data to the extent possible, and a sampling of covered stationary sources selected at the discretion of the Attorney General, and in consultation with appropriate State, local, and Federal governmental agencies, affected industry, and the public, shall review the vulnerability of covered stationary sources to criminal and terrorist activity, current industry practices regarding site security, and security of transportation of regulated substances. The Attorney General shall submit this report, containing the results of the review, together with recommendations, if any, for reducing vulnerability of covered stationary sources to criminal and terrorist activity, to the Committee on Commerce of the United States House of Representatives and the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the United States Senate and other relevant committees of Congress.(II)Interim report.—Not later than 12 months after August 5, 1999, the Attorney General shall submit to the Committee on Commerce of the United States House of Representatives and the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the United States Senate, and other relevant committees of Congress, an interim report that includes, at a minimum—(aa) the preliminary findings under subclause (I);(bb) the methods used to develop the findings; and(cc) an explanation of the activities expected to occur that could cause the findings of the report under subclause (I) to be different than the preliminary findings.(III)Availability of information.—Information that is developed by the Attorney General or requested by the Attorney General and received from a covered stationary source for the purpose of conducting the review under subclauses (I) and (II) shall be exempt from disclosure under section 552 of title 5 if such information would pose a threat to national security.
(xii)Scope.—This subparagraph—(I) applies only to covered persons; and(II) does not restrict the dissemination of off-site consequence analysis information by any covered person in any manner or form except in the form of a risk management plan or an electronic data base created by the Administrator from off-site consequence analysis information.
(xiii)Authorization of appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated to the Administrator and the Attorney General such sums as are necessary to carry out this subparagraph (including the regulations promulgated under clause (ii)), to remain available until expended.
(8) Research on hazard assessments
(9) Order authority
(A) In addition to any other action taken, when the Administrator determines that there may be an imminent and substantial endangerment to the human health or welfare or the environment because of an actual or threatened accidental release of a regulated substance, the Administrator may secure such relief as may be necessary to abate such danger or threat, and the district court of the United States in the district in which the threat occurs shall have jurisdiction to grant such relief as the public interest and the equities of the case may require. The Administrator may also, after notice to the State in which the stationary source is located, take other action under this paragraph including, but not limited to, issuing such orders as may be necessary to protect human health. The Administrator shall take action under section 7603 of this title rather than this paragraph whenever the authority of such section is adequate to protect human health and the environment.
(B) Orders issued pursuant to this paragraph may be enforced in an action brought in the appropriate United States district court as if the order were issued under section 7603 of this title.
(C) Within 180 days after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall publish guidance for using the order authorities established by this paragraph. Such guidance shall provide for the coordinated use of the authorities of this paragraph with other emergency powers authorized by section 9606 of this title, sections 311(c), 308, 309 and 504(a) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act [33 U.S.C. 1321(c), 1318, 1319, 1364(a)], sections 3007, 3008, 3013, and 7003 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act [42 U.S.C. 6927, 6928, 6934, 6973], sections 1445 and 1431 of the Safe Drinking Water Act [42 U.S.C. 300j–4, 300i], sections 5 and 7 of the Toxic Substances Control Act [15 U.S.C. 2604, 2606], and sections 7413, 7414, and 7603 of this title.
(10) Presidential review
(11) State authority
(s) Periodic reportNot later than January 15, 1993 and every 3 years thereafter, the Administrator shall prepare and transmit to the Congress a comprehensive report on the measures taken by the Agency and by the States to implement the provisions of this section. The Administrator shall maintain a database on pollutants and sources subject to the provisions of this section and shall include aggregate information from the database in each annual report. The report shall include, but not be limited to—
(1) a status report on standard-setting under subsections (d) and (f);
(2) information with respect to compliance with such standards including the costs of compliance experienced by sources in various categories and subcategories;
(3) development and implementation of the national urban air toxics program; and
(4) recommendations of the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board with respect to the prevention and mitigation of accidental releases.
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 112, as added Pub. L. 91–604, § 4(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1685; amended Pub. L. 95–95, title I, §§ 109(d)(2), 110, title IV, § 401(c), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 701, 703, 791; Pub. L. 95–623, § 13(b), Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3458; Pub. L. 101–549, title III, § 301, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2531; Pub. L. 102–187, Dec. 4, 1991, 105 Stat. 1285; Pub. L. 105–362, title IV, § 402(b), Nov. 10, 1998, 112 Stat. 3283; Pub. L. 106–40, §§ 2, 3(a), Aug. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 207, 208.)
§ 7413. Federal enforcement
(a) In general
(1) Order to comply with SIPWhenever, on the basis of any information available to the Administrator, the Administrator finds that any person has violated or is in violation of any requirement or prohibition of an applicable implementation plan or permit, the Administrator shall notify the person and the State in which the plan applies of such finding. At any time after the expiration of 30 days following the date on which such notice of a violation is issued, the Administrator may, without regard to the period of violation (subject to section 2462 of title 28)—
(A) issue an order requiring such person to comply with the requirements or prohibitions of such plan or permit,
(B) issue an administrative penalty order in accordance with subsection (d), or
(C) bring a civil action in accordance with subsection (b).
(2) State failure to enforce SIP or permit programWhenever, on the basis of information available to the Administrator, the Administrator finds that violations of an applicable implementation plan or an approved permit program under subchapter V are so widespread that such violations appear to result from a failure of the State in which the plan or permit program applies to enforce the plan or permit program effectively, the Administrator shall so notify the State. In the case of a permit program, the notice shall be made in accordance with subchapter V. If the Administrator finds such failure extends beyond the 30th day after such notice (90 days in the case of such permit program), the Administrator shall give public notice of such finding. During the period beginning with such public notice and ending when such State satisfies the Administrator that it will enforce such plan or permit program (hereafter referred to in this section as “period of federally assumed enforcement”), the Administrator may enforce any requirement or prohibition of such plan or permit program with respect to any person by—
(A) issuing an order requiring such person to comply with such requirement or prohibition,
(B) issuing an administrative penalty order in accordance with subsection (d), or
(C) bringing a civil action in accordance with subsection (b).
(3) EPA enforcement of other requirementsExcept for a requirement or prohibition enforceable under the preceding provisions of this subsection, whenever, on the basis of any information available to the Administrator, the Administrator finds that any person has violated, or is in violation of, any other requirement or prohibition of this subchapter, section 7603 of this title, subchapter IV–A, subchapter V, or subchapter VI, including, but not limited to, a requirement or prohibition of any rule, plan, order, waiver, or permit promulgated, issued, or approved under those provisions or subchapters, or for the payment of any fee owed to the United States under this chapter (other than subchapter II), the Administrator may—
(A) issue an administrative penalty order in accordance with subsection (d),
(B) issue an order requiring such person to comply with such requirement or prohibition,
(C) bring a civil action in accordance with subsection (b) or section 7605 of this title, or
(D) request the Attorney General to commence a criminal action in accordance with subsection (c).
(4) Requirements for orders
(5) Failure to comply with new source requirementsWhenever, on the basis of any available information, the Administrator finds that a State is not acting in compliance with any requirement or prohibition of the chapter relating to the construction of new sources or the modification of existing sources, the Administrator may—
(A) issue an order prohibiting the construction or modification of any major stationary source in any area to which such requirement applies; 1
1 So in original. The semicolon probably should be a comma.
(B) issue an administrative penalty order in accordance with subsection (d), or
(C) bring a civil action under subsection (b).
Nothing in this subsection shall preclude the United States from commencing a criminal action under subsection (c) at any time for any such violation.
(b) Civil judicial enforcementThe Administrator shall, as appropriate, in the case of any person that is the owner or operator of an affected source, a major emitting facility, or a major stationary source, and may, in the case of any other person, commence a civil action for a permanent or temporary injunction, or to assess and recover a civil penalty of not more than $25,000 per day for each violation, or both, in any of the following instances:
(1) Whenever such person has violated, or is in violation of, any requirement or prohibition of an applicable implementation plan or permit. Such an action shall be commenced (A) during any period of federally assumed enforcement, or (B) more than 30 days following the date of the Administrator’s notification under subsection (a)(1) that such person has violated, or is in violation of, such requirement or prohibition.
(2) Whenever such person has violated, or is in violation of, any other requirement or prohibition of this subchapter, section 7603 of this title, subchapter IV–A, subchapter V, or subchapter VI, including, but not limited to, a requirement or prohibition of any rule, order, waiver or permit promulgated, issued, or approved under this chapter, or for the payment of any fee owed the United States under this chapter (other than subchapter II).
(3) Whenever such person attempts to construct or modify a major stationary source in any area with respect to which a finding under subsection (a)(5) has been made.
Any action under this subsection may be brought in the district court of the United States for the district in which the violation is alleged to have occurred, or is occurring, or in which the defendant resides, or where the defendant’s principal place of business is located, and such court shall have jurisdiction to restrain such violation, to require compliance, to assess such civil penalty, to collect any fees owed the United States under this chapter (other than subchapter II) and any noncompliance assessment and nonpayment penalty owed under section 7420 of this title, and to award any other appropriate relief. Notice of the commencement of such action shall be given to the appropriate State air pollution control agency. In the case of any action brought by the Administrator under this subsection, the court may award costs of litigation (including reasonable attorney and expert witness fees) to the party or parties against whom such action was brought if the court finds that such action was unreasonable.
(c) Criminal penalties
(1) Any person who knowingly violates any requirement or prohibition of an applicable implementation plan (during any period of federally assumed enforcement or more than 30 days after having been notified under subsection (a)(1) by the Administrator that such person is violating such requirement or prohibition), any order under subsection (a) of this section, requirement or prohibition of section 7411(e) of this title (relating to new source performance standards), section 7412 of this title, section 7414 of this title (relating to inspections, etc.), section 7429 of this title (relating to solid waste combustion), section 7475(a) of this title (relating to preconstruction requirements), an order under section 7477 of this title (relating to preconstruction requirements), an order under section 7603 of this title (relating to emergency orders), section 7661a(a) or 7661b(c) of this title (relating to permits), or any requirement or prohibition of subchapter IV–A (relating to acid deposition control), or subchapter VI (relating to stratospheric ozone control), including a requirement of any rule, order, waiver, or permit promulgated or approved under such sections or subchapters, and including any requirement for the payment of any fee owed the United States under this chapter (other than subchapter II) shall, upon conviction, be punished by a fine pursuant to title 18 or by imprisonment for not to exceed 5 years, or both. If a conviction of any person under this paragraph is for a violation committed after a first conviction of such person under this paragraph, the maximum punishment shall be doubled with respect to both the fine and imprisonment.
(2) Any person who knowingly—
(A) makes any false material statement, representation, or certification in, or omits material information from, or knowingly alters, conceals, or fails to file or maintain any notice, application, record, report, plan, or other document required pursuant to this chapter to be either filed or maintained (whether with respect to the requirements imposed by the Administrator or by a State);
(B) fails to notify or report as required under this chapter; or
(C) falsifies, tampers with, renders inaccurate, or fails to install any monitoring device or method required to be maintained or followed under this chapter 2
2 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.
shall, upon conviction, be punished by a fine pursuant to title 18 or by imprisonment for not more than 2 years, or both. If a conviction of any person under this paragraph is for a violation committed after a first conviction of such person under this paragraph, the maximum punishment shall be doubled with respect to both the fine and imprisonment.
(3) Any person who knowingly fails to pay any fee owed the United States under this subchapter, subchapter III, IV–A, V, or VI shall, upon conviction, be punished by a fine pursuant to title 18 or by imprisonment for not more than 1 year, or both. If a conviction of any person under this paragraph is for a violation committed after a first conviction of such person under this paragraph, the maximum punishment shall be doubled with respect to both the fine and imprisonment.
(4) Any person who negligently releases into the ambient air any hazardous air pollutant listed pursuant to section 7412 of this title or any extremely hazardous substance listed pursuant to section 11002(a)(2) of this title that is not listed in section 7412 of this title, and who at the time negligently places another person in imminent danger of death or serious bodily injury shall, upon conviction, be punished by a fine under title 18 or by imprisonment for not more than 1 year, or both. If a conviction of any person under this paragraph is for a violation committed after a first conviction of such person under this paragraph, the maximum punishment shall be doubled with respect to both the fine and imprisonment.
(5)
(A) Any person who knowingly releases into the ambient air any hazardous air pollutant listed pursuant to section 7412 of this title or any extremely hazardous substance listed pursuant to section 11002(a)(2) of this title that is not listed in section 7412 of this title, and who knows at the time that he thereby places another person in imminent danger of death or serious bodily injury shall, upon conviction, be punished by a fine under title 18 or by imprisonment of not more than 15 years, or both. Any person committing such violation which is an organization shall, upon conviction under this paragraph, be subject to a fine of not more than $1,000,000 for each violation. If a conviction of any person under this paragraph is for a violation committed after a first conviction of such person under this paragraph, the maximum punishment shall be doubled with respect to both the fine and imprisonment. For any air pollutant for which the Administrator has set an emissions standard or for any source for which a permit has been issued under subchapter V, a release of such pollutant in accordance with that standard or permit shall not constitute a violation of this paragraph or paragraph (4).
(B) In determining whether a defendant who is an individual knew that the violation placed another person in imminent danger of death or serious bodily injury—
(i) the defendant is responsible only for actual awareness or actual belief possessed; and
(ii) knowledge possessed by a person other than the defendant, but not by the defendant, may not be attributed to the defendant;
except that in proving a defendant’s possession of actual knowledge, circumstantial evidence may be used, including evidence that the defendant took affirmative steps to be shielded from relevant information.
(C) It is an affirmative defense to a prosecution that the conduct charged was freely consented to by the person endangered and that the danger and conduct charged were reasonably foreseeable hazards of—
(i) an occupation, a business, or a profession; or
(ii) medical treatment or medical or scientific experimentation conducted by professionally approved methods and such other person had been made aware of the risks involved prior to giving consent.
The defendant may establish an affirmative defense under this subparagraph by a preponderance of the evidence.
(D) All general defenses, affirmative defenses, and bars to prosecution that may apply with respect to other Federal criminal offenses may apply under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph and shall be determined by the courts of the United States according to the principles of common law as they may be interpreted in the light of reason and experience. Concepts of justification and excuse applicable under this section may be developed in the light of reason and experience.
(E) The term “organization” means a legal entity, other than a government, established or organized for any purpose, and such term includes a corporation, company, association, firm, partnership, joint stock company, foundation, institution, trust, society, union, or any other association of persons.
(F) The term “serious bodily injury” means bodily injury which involves a substantial risk of death, unconsciousness, extreme physical pain, protracted and obvious disfigurement or protracted loss or impairment of the function of a bodily member, organ, or mental faculty.
(6) For the purpose of this subsection, the term “person” includes, in addition to the entities referred to in section 7602(e) of this title, any responsible corporate officer.
(d) Administrative assessment of civil penalties
(1) The Administrator may issue an administrative order against any person assessing a civil administrative penalty of up to $25,000, per day of violation, whenever, on the basis of any available information, the Administrator finds that such person—
(A) has violated or is violating any requirement or prohibition of an applicable implementation plan (such order shall be issued (i) during any period of federally assumed enforcement, or (ii) more than thirty days following the date of the Administrator’s notification under subsection (a)(1) of this section of a finding that such person has violated or is violating such requirement or prohibition); or
(B) has violated or is violating any other requirement or prohibition of this subchapter or subchapter III, IV–A, V, or VI, including, but not limited to, a requirement or prohibition of any rule, order, waiver, permit, or plan promulgated, issued, or approved under this chapter, or for the payment of any fee owed the United States under this chapter (other than subchapter II); or
(C) attempts to construct or modify a major stationary source in any area with respect to which a finding under subsection (a)(5) of this section has been made.
The Administrator’s authority under this paragraph shall be limited to matters where the total penalty sought does not exceed $200,000 and the first alleged date of violation occurred no more than 12 months prior to the initiation of the administrative action, except where the Administrator and the Attorney General jointly determine that a matter involving a larger penalty amount or longer period of violation is appropriate for administrative penalty action. Any such determination by the Administrator and the Attorney General shall not be subject to judicial review.
(2)
(A) An administrative penalty assessed under paragraph (1) shall be assessed by the Administrator by an order made after opportunity for a hearing on the record in accordance with sections 554 and 556 of title 5. The Administrator shall issue reasonable rules for discovery and other procedures for hearings under this paragraph. Before issuing such an order, the Administrator shall give written notice to the person to be assessed an administrative penalty of the Administrator’s proposal to issue such order and provide such person an opportunity to request such a hearing on the order, within 30 days of the date the notice is received by such person.
(B) The Administrator may compromise, modify, or remit, with or without conditions, any administrative penalty which may be imposed under this subsection.
(3) The Administrator may implement, after consultation with the Attorney General and the States, a field citation program through regulations establishing appropriate minor violations for which field citations assessing civil penalties not to exceed $5,000 per day of violation may be issued by officers or employees designated by the Administrator. Any person to whom a field citation is assessed may, within a reasonable time as prescribed by the Administrator through regulation, elect to pay the penalty assessment or to request a hearing on the field citation. If a request for a hearing is not made within the time specified in the regulation, the penalty assessment in the field citation shall be final. Such hearing shall not be subject to section 554 or 556 of title 5, but shall provide a reasonable opportunity to be heard and to present evidence. Payment of a civil penalty required by a field citation shall not be a defense to further enforcement by the United States or a State to correct a violation, or to assess the statutory maximum penalty pursuant to other authorities in the chapter, if the violation continues.
(4) Any person against whom a civil penalty is assessed under paragraph (3) of this subsection or to whom an administrative penalty order is issued under paragraph (1) of this subsection may seek review of such assessment in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia or for the district in which the violation is alleged to have occurred, in which such person resides, or where such person’s principal place of business is located, by filing in such court within 30 days following the date the administrative penalty order becomes final under paragraph (2), the assessment becomes final under paragraph (3), or a final decision following a hearing under paragraph (3) is rendered, and by simultaneously sending a copy of the filing by certified mail to the Administrator and the Attorney General. Within 30 days thereafter, the Administrator shall file in such court a certified copy, or certified index, as appropriate, of the record on which the administrative penalty order or assessment was issued. Such court shall not set aside or remand such order or assessment unless there is not substantial evidence in the record, taken as a whole, to support the finding of a violation or unless the order or penalty assessment constitutes an abuse of discretion. Such order or penalty assessment shall not be subject to review by any court except as provided in this paragraph. In any such proceedings, the United States may seek to recover civil penalties ordered or assessed under this section.
(5) If any person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty or fails to comply with an administrative penalty order—
(A) after the order or assessment has become final, or
(B) after a court in an action brought under paragraph (4) has entered a final judgment in favor of the Administrator,
the Administrator shall request the Attorney General to bring a civil action in an appropriate district court to enforce the order or to recover the amount ordered or assessed (plus interest at rates established pursuant to section 6621(a)(2) of title 26 from the date of the final order or decision or the date of the final judgment, as the case may be). In such an action, the validity, amount, and appropriateness of such order or assessment shall not be subject to review. Any person who fails to pay on a timely basis a civil penalty ordered or assessed under this section shall be required to pay, in addition to such penalty and interest, the United States enforcement expenses, including but not limited to attorneys fees and costs incurred by the United States for collection proceedings and a quarterly nonpayment penalty for each quarter during which such failure to pay persists. Such nonpayment penalty shall be 10 percent of the aggregate amount of such person’s outstanding penalties and nonpayment penalties accrued as of the beginning of such quarter.
(e) Penalty assessment criteria
(1) In determining the amount of any penalty to be assessed under this section or section 7604(a) of this title, the Administrator or the court, as appropriate, shall take into consideration (in addition to such other factors as justice may require) the size of the business, the economic impact of the penalty on the business, the violator’s full compliance history and good faith efforts to comply, the duration of the violation as established by any credible evidence (including evidence other than the applicable test method), payment by the violator of penalties previously assessed for the same violation, the economic benefit of noncompliance, and the seriousness of the violation. The court shall not assess penalties for noncompliance with administrative subpoenas under section 7607(a) of this title, or actions under section 7414 of this title, where the violator had sufficient cause to violate or fail or refuse to comply with such subpoena or action.
(2) A penalty may be assessed for each day of violation. For purposes of determining the number of days of violation for which a penalty may be assessed under subsection (b) or (d)(1) of this section, or section 7604(a) of this title, or an assessment may be made under section 7420 of this title, where the Administrator or an air pollution control agency has notified the source of the violation, and the plaintiff makes a prima facie showing that the conduct or events giving rise to the violation are likely to have continued or recurred past the date of notice, the days of violation shall be presumed to include the date of such notice and each and every day thereafter until the violator establishes that continuous compliance has been achieved, except to the extent that the violator can prove by a preponderance of the evidence that there were intervening days during which no violation occurred or that the violation was not continuing in nature.
(f) Awards
(g) Settlements; public participation
(h) Operator
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 113, as added Pub. L. 91–604, § 4(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1686; amended Pub. L. 92–157, title III, § 302(b), (c), Nov. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 464; Pub. L. 93–319, § 6(a)(1)–(3), June 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 259; Pub. L. 95–95, title I, §§ 111, 112(a), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 704, 705; Pub. L. 95–190, § 14(a)(10)–(21), (b)(1), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1400, 1404; Pub. L. 97–23, § 2, July 17, 1981, 95 Stat. 139; Pub. L. 101–549, title VII, § 701, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2672.)
§ 7414. Recordkeeping, inspections, monitoring, and entry
(a) Authority of Administrator or authorized representativeFor the purpose (i) of developing or assisting in the development of any implementation plan under section 7410 or section 7411(d) of this title, any standard of performance under section 7411 of this title, any emission standard under section 7412 of this title,,1
1 So in original.
or any regulation of solid waste combustion under section 7429 of this title, or any regulation under section 7429 of this title (relating to solid waste combustion), (ii) of determining whether any person is in violation of any such standard or any requirement of such a plan, or (iii) carrying out any provision of this chapter (except a provision of subchapter II with respect to a manufacturer of new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines)—
(1) the Administrator may require any person who owns or operates any emission source, who manufactures emission control equipment or process equipment, who the Administrator believes may have information necessary for the purposes set forth in this subsection, or who is subject to any requirement of this chapter (other than a manufacturer subject to the provisions of section 7525(c) or 7542 of this title with respect to a provision of subchapter II) on a one-time, periodic or continuous basis to—
(A) establish and maintain such records;
(B) make such reports;
(C) install, use, and maintain such monitoring equipment, and use such audit procedures, or methods;
(D) sample such emissions (in accordance with such procedures or methods, at such locations, at such intervals, during such periods and in such manner as the Administrator shall prescribe);
(E) keep records on control equipment parameters, production variables or other indirect data when direct monitoring of emissions is impractical;
(F) submit compliance certifications in accordance with subsection (a)(3); and
(G) provide such other information as the Administrator may reasonably require; and 2
2 So in original. The “and” probably should not appear.
(2) the Administrator or his authorized representative, upon presentation of his credentials—
(A) shall have a right of entry to, upon, or through any premises of such person or in which any records required to be maintained under paragraph (1) of this section are located, and
(B) may at reasonable times have access to and copy any records, inspect any monitoring equipment or method required under paragraph (1), and sample any emissions which such person is required to sample under paragraph (1).3
3 The period probably should be “; and”.
(3) The 4
4 So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.
Administrator shall in the case of any person which is the owner or operator of a major stationary source, and may, in the case of any other person, require enhanced monitoring and submission of compliance certifications. Compliance certifications shall include (A) identification of the applicable requirement that is the basis of the certification, (B) the method used for determining the compliance status of the source, (C) the compliance status, (D) whether compliance is continuous or intermittent, (E) such other facts as the Administrator may require. Compliance certifications and monitoring data shall be subject to subsection (c) of this section. Submission of a compliance certification shall in no way limit the Administrator’s authorities to investigate or otherwise implement this chapter. The Administrator shall promulgate rules to provide guidance and to implement this paragraph within 2 years after
(b) State enforcement
(1) Each State may develop and submit to the Administrator a procedure for carrying out this section in such State. If the Administrator finds the State procedure is adequate, he may delegate to such State any authority he has to carry out this section.
(2) Nothing in this subsection shall prohibit the Administrator from carrying out this section in a State.
(c) Availability of records, reports, and information to public; disclosure of trade secrets
(d) Notice of proposed entry, inspection, or monitoring
(1) In the case of any emission standard or limitation or other requirement which is adopted by a State, as part of an applicable implementation plan or as part of an order under section 7413(d) 5
5 See References in Text note below.
of this title, before carrying out an entry, inspection, or monitoring under paragraph (2) of subsection (a) with respect to such standard, limitation, or other requirement, the Administrator (or his representatives) shall provide the State air pollution control agency with reasonable prior notice of such action, indicating the purpose of such action. No State agency which receives notice under this paragraph of an action proposed to be taken may use the information contained in the notice to inform the person whose property is proposed to be affected of the proposed action. If the Administrator has reasonable basis for believing that a State agency is so using or will so use such information, notice to the agency under this paragraph is not required until such time as the Administrator determines the agency will no longer so use information contained in a notice under this paragraph. Nothing in this section shall be construed to require notification to any State agency of any action taken by the Administrator with respect to any standard, limitation, or other requirement which is not part of an applicable implementation plan or which was promulgated by the Administrator under section 7410(c) of this title.
(2) Nothing in paragraph (1) shall be construed to provide that any failure of the Administrator to comply with the requirements of such paragraph shall be a defense in any enforcement action brought by the Administrator or shall make inadmissible as evidence in any such action any information or material obtained notwithstanding such failure to comply with such requirements.
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 114, as added Pub. L. 91–604, § 4(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1687; amended Pub. L. 93–319, § 6(a)(4), June 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 259; Pub. L. 95–95, title I, §§ 109(d)(3), 113, title III, § 305(d), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 701, 709, 776; Pub. L. 95–190, § 14(a)(22), (23), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1400; Pub. L. 101–549, title III, § 302(c), title VII, § 702(a), (b), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2574, 2680, 2681.)
§ 7415. International air pollution
(a) Endangerment of public health or welfare in foreign countries from pollution emitted in United States
(b) Prevention or elimination of endangerment
(c) Reciprocity
(d) Recommendations
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 115, formerly § 5, as added Pub. L. 88–206, § 1, Dec. 17, 1963, 77 Stat. 396; renumbered § 105 and amended Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §§ 101(2), (3), 102, Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 992, 995, renumbered § 108 and amended Pub. L. 90–148, § 2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 491, renumbered § 115 and amended Pub. L. 91–604, §§ 4(a), (b)(2)–(10), 15(c)(2), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1678, 1688, 1689, 1713; Pub. L. 95–95, title I, § 114, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 710.)
§ 7416. Retention of State authority

Except as otherwise provided in sections 1857c–10(c), (e), and (f) (as in effect before August 7, 1977

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 116, formerly § 109, as added Pub. L. 90–148, § 2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 497; renumbered § 116 and amended Pub. L. 91–604, § 4(a), (c), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1678, 1689; Pub. L. 93–319, § 6(b), June 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 259; Pub. L. 95–190, § 14(a)(24), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1400.)
§ 7417. Advisory committees
(a) Establishment; membership
(b) Compensation
(c)1
1 See Codification note below.
Consultations by Administrator
Prior to—
(1) issuing criteria for an air pollutant under section 7408(a)(2) of this title,
(2) publishing any list under section 7411(b)(1)(A) or section 7412(b)(1)(A) 2
2 See References in Text note below.
of this title,
(3) publishing any standard under section 7411 or section 7412 of this title, or
(4) publishing any regulation under section 7521(a) of this title,
the Administrator shall, to the maximum extent practicable within the time provided, consult with appropriate advisory committees, independence experts, and Federal departments and agencies.
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 117 formerly § 6, as added Pub. L. 88–206, § 1, Dec. 17, 1963, 77 Stat. 399; renumbered § 106, Pub. L. 89–272, title I, § 101(3), Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 992; renumbered § 110 and amended Pub. L. 90–148, § 2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 498; renumbered § 117 and amended Pub. L. 91–604, §§ 4(a), (d), 15(c)(2), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1678, 1689, 1713; Pub. L. 95–95, title I, § 115, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 711; Pub. L. 95–623, § 13(c), Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3458.)
§ 7418. Control of pollution from Federal facilities
(a) General compliance
(b) Exemption
(c) Government vehicles
(d) Vehicles operated on Federal installations
Each department, agency, and instrumentality of executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the Federal Government having jurisdiction over any property or facility shall require all employees which operate motor vehicles on the property or facility to furnish proof of compliance with the applicable requirements of any vehicle inspection and maintenance program established under the provisions of subpart 2 of part D or subpart 3 of part D for the State in which such property or facility is located (without regard to whether such vehicles are registered in the State). The installation shall use one of the following methods to establish proof of compliance—
(1) presentation by the vehicle owner of a valid certificate of compliance from the vehicle inspection and maintenance program;
(2) presentation by the vehicle owner of proof of vehicle registration within the geographic area covered by the vehicle inspection and maintenance program (except for any program whose enforcement mechanism is not through the denial of vehicle registration);
(3) another method approved by the vehicle inspection and maintenance program administrator.
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 118, formerly, § 7, as added Pub. L. 88–206, § 1, Dec. 17, 1963, 77 Stat. 399; renumbered § 107, Pub. L. 89–272, title I, § 101(3), Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 992; renumbered § 111 and amended Pub. L. 90–148, § 2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 499; renumbered § 118 and amended Pub. L. 91–604, §§ 4(a), 5, Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1678, 1689; Pub. L. 95–95, title I, § 116, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 711; Pub. L. 101–549, title I, § 101(e), title II, § 235, title III, § 302(d), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2409, 2530, 2574.)
§ 7419. Primary nonferrous smelter orders
(a) Issuance; hearing; enforcement orders; statement of grounds for application; findings
(1) Upon application by the owner or operator of a primary nonferrous smelter, a primary nonferrous smelter order under subsection (b) may be issued—
(A) by the Administrator, after thirty days’ notice to the State, or
(B) by the State in which such source is located, but no such order issued by the State shall take effect until the Administrator determines that such order has been issued in accordance with the requirements of this chapter.
Not later than ninety days after submission by the State to the Administrator of notice of the issuance of a primary nonferrous smelter order under this section, the Administrator shall determine whether or not such order has been issued by the State in accordance with the requirements of this chapter. If the Administrator determines that such order has not been issued in accordance with such requirements, he shall conduct a hearing respecting the reasonably available control technology for primary nonferrous smelters.
(2)
(A) An order issued under this section to a primary nonferrous smelter shall be referred to as a “primary nonferrous smelter order”. No primary nonferrous smelter may receive both an enforcement order under section 7413(d) 1
1 See References in Text note below.
of this title and a primary nonferrous smelter order under this section.
(B) Before any hearing conducted under this section, in the case of an application made by the owner or operator of a primary nonferrous smelter for a second order under this section, the applicant shall furnish the Administrator (or the State as the case may be) with a statement of the grounds on which such application is based (including all supporting documents and information). The statement of the grounds for the proposed order shall be provided by the Administrator or the State in any case in which such State or Administrator is acting on its own initiative. Such statement (including such documents and information) shall be made available to the public for a thirty-day period before such hearing and shall be considered as part of such hearing. No primary nonferrous smelter order may be granted unless the applicant establishes that he meets the conditions required for the issuance of such order (or the Administrator or State establishes the meeting of such conditions when acting on their own initiative).
(C) Any decision with respect to the issuance of a primary nonferrous smelter order shall be accompanied by a concise statement of the findings and of the basis of such findings.
(3) For the purposes of sections 7410, 7604, and 7607 of this title, any order issued by the State and in effect pursuant to this subsection shall become part of the applicable implementation plan.
(b) Prerequisites to issuance of ordersA primary nonferrous smelter order under this section may be issued to a primary nonferrous smelter if—
(1) such smelter is in existence on August 7, 1977;
(2) the requirement of the applicable implementation plan with respect to which the order is issued is an emission limitation or standard for sulfur oxides which is necessary and intended to be itself sufficient to enable attainment and maintenance of national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides; and
(3) such smelter is unable to comply with such requirement by the applicable date for compliance because no means of emission limitation applicable to such smelter which will enable it to achieve compliance with such requirement has been adequately demonstrated to be reasonably available (as determined by the Administrator, taking into account the cost of compliance, non-air quality health and environmental impact, and energy consideration).
(c) Second orders
(1) A second order issued to a smelter under this section shall set forth compliance schedules containing increments of progress which require compliance with the requirement postponed as expeditiously as practicable. The increments of progress shall be limited to requiring compliance with subsection (d) and, in the case of a second order, to procuring, installing, and operating the necessary means of emission limitation as expeditiously as practicable after the Administrator determines such means have been adequately demonstrated to be reasonably available within the meaning of subsection (b)(3).
(2) Not in excess of two primary nonferrous smelter orders may be issued under this section to any primary nonferrous smelter. The first such order issued to a smelter shall not result in the postponement of the requirement with respect to which such order is issued beyond January 1, 1983. The second such order shall not result in the postponement of such requirement beyond January 1, 1988.
(d) Interim measures; continuous emission reduction technology
(1)
(A) Each primary nonferrous smelter to which an order is issued under this section shall be required to use such interim measures for the period during which such order is in effect as may be necessary in the judgment of the Administrator to assure attainment and maintenance of the national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards during such period, taking into account the aggregate effect on air quality of such order together with all variances, extensions, waivers, enforcement orders, delayed compliance orders and primary nonferrous smelter orders previously issued under this chapter.
(B) Such interim requirements shall include—
(i) a requirement that the source to which the order applies comply with such reporting requirements and conduct such monitoring as the Administrator determines may be necessary, and
(ii) such measures as the Administrator determines are necessary to avoid an imminent and substantial endangerment to health of persons.
(C) Such interim measures shall also, except as provided in paragraph (2), include continuous emission reduction technology. The Administrator shall condition the use of any such interim measures upon the agreement of the owner or operator of the smelter—
(i) to comply with such conditions as the Administrator determines are necessary to maximize the reliability and enforceability of such interim measures, as applied to the smelter, in attaining and maintaining the national ambient air quality standards to which the order relates, and
(ii) to commit reasonable resources to research and development of appropriate emission control technology.
(2) The requirement of paragraph (1) for the use of continuous emission reduction technology may be waived with respect to a particular smelter by the State or the Administrator, after notice and a hearing on the record, and upon a showing by the owner or operator of the smelter that such requirement would be so costly as to necessitate permanent or prolonged temporary cessation of operations of the smelter. Upon application for such waiver, the Administrator shall be notified and shall, within ninety days, hold a hearing on the record in accordance with section 554 of title 5. At such hearing the Administrator shall require the smelter involved to present information relating to any alleged cessation of operations and the detailed reasons or justifications therefor. On the basis of such hearing the Administrator shall make findings of fact as to the effect of such requirement and on the alleged cessation of operations and shall make such recommendations as he deems appropriate. Such report, findings, and recommendations shall be available to the public, and shall be taken into account by the State or the Administrator in making the decision whether or not to grant such waiver.
(3) In order to obtain information for purposes of a waiver under paragraph (2), the Administrator may, on his own motion, conduct an investigation and use the authority of section 7621 of this title.
(4) In the case of any smelter which on August 7, 1977, uses continuous emission reduction technology and supplemental controls and which receives an initial primary nonferrous smelter order under this section, no additional continuous emission reduction technology shall be required as a condition of such order unless the Administrator determines, at any time, after notice and public hearing, that such additional continuous emission reduction technology is adequately demonstrated to be reasonably available for the primary nonferrous smelter industry.
(e) Termination of orders
(f) Violation of requirementsIf the Administrator determines that a smelter to which an order is issued under this section is in violation of any requirement of subsection (c) or (d), he shall—
(1) enforce such requirement under section 7413 of this title,
(2) (after notice and opportunity for public hearing) revoke such order and enforce compliance with the requirement with respect to which such order was granted,
(3) give notice of noncompliance and commence action under section 7420 of this title, or
(4) take any appropriate combination of such actions.
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 119, as added Pub. L. 95–95, title I, § 117(b), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 712; amended Pub. L. 95–190, § 14(a)(25)–(27), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1401.)
§ 7420. Noncompliance penalty
(a) Assessment and collection
(1)
(A) Not later than 6 months after August 7, 1977, and after notice and opportunity for a public hearing, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations requiring the assessment and collection of a noncompliance penalty against persons referred to in paragraph (2)(A).
(B)
(i) Each State may develop and submit to the Administrator a plan for carrying out this section in such State. If the Administrator finds that the State plan meets the requirements of this section, he may delegate to such State any authority he has to carry out this section.
(ii) Notwithstanding a delegation to a State under clause (i), the Administrator may carry out this section in such State under the circumstances described in subsection (b)(2)(B).
(2)
(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B) or (C) of this paragraph, the State or the Administrator shall assess and collect a noncompliance penalty against every person who owns or operates—
(i) a major stationary source (other than a primary nonferrous smelter which has received a primary nonferrous smelter order under section 7419 of this title), which is not in compliance with any emission limitation, emission standard or compliance schedule under any applicable implementation plan (whether or not such source is subject to a Federal or State consent decree), or
(ii) a stationary source which is not in compliance with an emission limitation, emission standard, standard of performance, or other requirement established under section 7411, 7477, 7603, or 7412 of this title, or
(iii) a stationary source which is not in compliance with any requirement of subchapter IV–A, V, or VI of this chapter, or
(iv) any source referred to in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) (for which an extension, order, or suspension referred to in subparagraph (B), or Federal or State consent decree is in effect), or a primary nonferrous smelter which has received a primary nonferrous smelter order under section 7419 of this title which is not in compliance with any interim emission control requirement or schedule of compliance under such extension, order, suspension, or consent decree.
For purposes of subsection (d)(2), in the case of a penalty assessed with respect to a source referred to in clause (iii) of this subparagraph, the costs referred to in such subsection (d)(2) shall be the economic value of noncompliance with the interim emission control requirement or the remaining steps in the schedule of compliance referred to in such clause.
(B)
(i) a conversion by such source from the burning of petroleum products or natural gas, or both, as the permanent primary energy source to the burning of coal pursuant to an order under section 7413(d)(5) 1
1 See References in Text note below.
of this title or section 1857c–10 1 of this title (as in effect before August 7, 1977);
(ii) in the case of a coal-burning source granted an extension under the second sentence of section 1857c–10(c)(1) 1 of this title (as in effect before August 7, 1977), a prohibition from using petroleum products or natural gas or both, by reason of an order under the provisions of section 792(a) and (b) of title 15 or under any legislation which amends or supersedes such provisions;
(iii) the use of innovative technology sanctioned by an enforcement order under section 7413(d)(4) 1 of this title;
(iv) an inability to comply with any such requirement, for which inability the source has received an order under section 7413(d) 1 of this title (or an order under section 7413 of this title issued before August 7, 1977) which has the effect of permitting a delay or violation of any requirement of this chapter (including a requirement of an applicable implementation plan) which inability results from reasons entirely beyond the control of the owner or operator of such source or of any entity controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the owner or operator of such source; or
(v) the conditions by reason of which a temporary emergency suspension is authorized under section 7410(f) or (g) of this title.
An exemption under this subparagraph shall cease to be effective if the source fails to comply with the interim emission control requirements or schedules of compliance (including increments of progress) under any such extension, order, or suspension.
(C) The Administrator may, after notice and opportunity for public hearing, exempt any source from the requirements of this section with respect to a particular instance of noncompliance if he finds that such instance of noncompliance is de minimis in nature and in duration.
(b) RegulationsRegulations under subsection (a) shall—
(1) permit the assessment and collection of such penalty by the State if the State has a delegation of authority in effect under subsection (a)(1)(B)(i) of this section;
(2) provide for the assessment and collection of such penalty by the Administrator, if—
(A) the State does not have a delegation of authority in effect under subsection (a)(1)(B)(i), or
(B) the State has such a delegation in effect but fails with respect to any particular person or source to assess or collect the penalty in accordance with the requirements of this section;
(3) require the States, or in the event the States fail to do so, the Administrator, to give a brief but reasonably specific notice of noncompliance under this section to each person referred to in subsection (a)(2)(A) with respect to each source owned or operated by such person which is not in compliance as provided in such subsection, not later than July 1, 1979, or thirty days after the discovery of such noncompliance, whichever is later;
(4) require each person to whom notice is given under paragraph (3) to—
(A) calculate the amount of the penalty owed (determined in accordance with subsection (d)(2)) and the schedule of payments (determined in accordance with subsection (d)(3)) for each such source and, within forty-five days after the issuance of such notice or after the denial of a petition under subparagraph (B), to submit that calculation and proposed schedule, together with the information necessary for an independent verification thereof, to the State and to the Administrator, or
(B) submit a petition, within forty–five days after the issuance of such notice, challenging such notice of noncompliance or alleging entitlement to an exemption under subsection (a)(2)(B) with respect to a particular source;
(5) require the Administrator to provide a hearing on the record (within the meaning of subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5) and to make a decision on such petition (including findings of fact and conclusions of law) not later than ninety days after the receipt of any petition under paragraph (4)(B), unless the State agrees to provide a hearing which is substantially similar to such a hearing on the record and to make a decision on such petition (including such findings and conclusions) within such ninety-day period;
(6)
(A) authorize the Administrator on his own initiative to review the decision of the State under paragraph (5) and disapprove it if it is not in accordance with the requirements of this section, and (B) require the Administrator to do so not later than sixty days after receipt of a petition under this subparagraph, notice, and public hearing and a showing by such petitioner that the State decision under paragraph (5) is not in accordance with the requirements of this section;
(7) require payment, in accordance with subsection (d), of the penalty by each person to whom notice of noncompliance is given under paragraph (3) with respect to each noncomplying source for which such notice is given unless there has been a final determination granting a petition under paragraph (4)(B) with respect to such source;
(8) authorize the State or the Administrator to adjust (and from time to time to readjust) the amount of the penalty assessment calculated or the payment schedule proposed by such owner or operator under paragraph (4), if the Administrator finds after notice and opportunity for a hearing on the record that the penalty or schedule does not meet the requirements of this section; and
(9) require a final adjustment of the penalty within 180 days after such source comes into compliance in accordance with subsection (d)(4).
In any case in which the State establishes a noncompliance penalty under this section, the State shall provide notice thereof to the Administrator. A noncompliance penalty established by a State under this section shall apply unless the Administrator, within ninety days after the date of receipt of notice of the State penalty assessment under this section, objects in writing to the amount of the penalty as less than would be required to comply with guidelines established by the Administrator. If the Administrator objects, he shall immediately establish a substitute noncompliance penalty applicable to such source.
(c) Contract to assist in determining amount of penalty assessment or payment scheduleIf the owner or operator of any stationary source to whom a notice is issued under subsection (b)(3)—
(1) does not submit a timely petition under subsection (b)(4)(B), or
(2) submits a petition under subsection (b)(4)(B) which is denied, and
fails to submit a calculation of the penalty assessment, a schedule for payment, and the information necessary for independent verification thereof, the State (or the Administrator, as the case may be) may enter into a contract with any person who has no financial interest in the owner or operator of the source (or in any person controlling, controlled by or under common control with such source) to assist in determining the amount of the penalty assessment or payment schedule with respect to such source. The cost of carrying out such contract may be added to the penalty to be assessed against the owner or operator of such source.
(d) Payment
(1) All penalties assessed by the Administrator under this section shall be paid to the United States Treasury. All penalties assessed by the State under this section shall be paid to such State.
(2) The amount of the penalty which shall be assessed and collected with respect to any source under this section shall be equal to—
(A) the amount determined in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Administrator under subsection (a), which is no less than the economic value which a delay in compliance beyond July 1, 1979, may have for the owner of such source, including the quarterly equivalent of the capital costs of compliance and debt service over a normal amortization period, not to exceed ten years, operation and maintenance costs foregone as a result of noncompliance, and any additional economic value which such a delay may have for the owner or operator of such source, minus
(B) the amount of any expenditure made by the owner or operator of that source during any such quarter for the purpose of bringing that source into, and maintaining compliance with, such requirement, to the extent that such expenditures have not been taken into account in the calculation of the penalty under subparagraph (A).
To the extent that any expenditure under subparagraph (B) made during any quarter is not subtracted for such quarter from the costs under subparagraph (A), such expenditure may be subtracted for any subsequent quarter from such costs. In no event shall the amount paid be less than the quarterly payment minus the amount attributed to actual cost of construction.
(3)
(A) The assessed penalty required under this section shall be paid in quarterly installments for the period of covered noncompliance. All quarterly payments (determined without regard to any adjustment or any subtraction under paragraph (2)(B)) after the first payment shall be equal.
(B) The first payment shall be due on the date six months after the date of issuance of the notice of noncompliance under subsection (b)(3) with respect to any source or on January 1, 1980, whichever is later. Such first payment shall be in the amount of the quarterly installment for the upcoming quarter, plus the amount owed for any preceding period within the period of covered noncompliance for such source.
(C) For the purpose of this section, the term “period of covered noncompliance” means the period which begins—
(i) two years after August 7, 1977, in the case of a source for which notice of noncompliance under subsection (b)(3) is issued on or before the date two years after August 7, 1977, or
(ii) on the date of issuance of the notice of noncompliance under subsection (b)(3), in the case of a source for which such notice is issued after July 1, 1979,
and ending on the date on which such source comes into (or for the purpose of establishing the schedule of payments, is estimated to come into) compliance with such requirement.
(4) Upon making a determination that a source with respect to which a penalty has been paid under this section is in compliance and is maintaining compliance with the applicable requirement, the State (or the Administrator as the case may be) shall review the actual expenditures made by the owner or operator of such source for the purpose of attaining and maintaining compliance, and shall within 180 days after such source comes into compliance—
(A) provide reimbursement with interest (to be paid by the State or Secretary of the Treasury, as the case may be) at appropriate prevailing rates (as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury) for any overpayment by such person, or
(B) assess and collect an additional payment with interest at appropriate prevailing rates (as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury) for any underpayment by such person.
(5) Any person who fails to pay the amount of any penalty with respect to any source under this section on a timely basis shall be required to pay in addition a quarterly nonpayment penalty for each quarter during which such failure to pay persists. Such nonpayment penalty shall be in an amount equal to 20 percent of the aggregate amount of such person’s penalties and nonpayment penalties with respect to such source which are unpaid as of the beginning of such quarter.
(e) Judicial review
(f) Other orders, payments, sanctions, or requirements
(g) More stringent emission limitations or other requirements
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 120, as added Pub. L. 95–95, title I, § 118, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 714; amended Pub. L. 95–190, § 14(a)(28)–(38), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1401; Pub. L. 101–549, title VII, § 710(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2684.)
§ 7421. ConsultationIn carrying out the requirements of this chapter requiring applicable implementation plans to contain—
(1) any transportation controls, air quality maintenance plan requirements or preconstruction review of direct sources of air pollution, or
(2) any measure referred to—
(A) in part D (pertaining to nonattainment requirements), or
(B) in part C (pertaining to prevention of significant deterioration),
and in carrying out the requirements of section 7413(d) 1
1 See References in Text note below.
of this title (relating to certain enforcement orders), the State shall provide a satisfactory process of consultation with general purpose local governments, designated organizations of elected officials of local governments and any Federal land manager having authority over Federal land to which the State plan applies, effective with respect to any such requirement which is adopted more than one year after August 7, 1977, as part of such plan. Such process shall be in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Administrator to assure adequate consultation. The Administrator shall update as necessary the original regulations required and promulgated under this section (as in effect immediately before November 15, 1990
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 121, as added Pub. L. 95–95, title I, § 119, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 719; amended Pub. L. 101–549, title I, § 108(h), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2467.)
§ 7422. Listing of certain unregulated pollutants
(a) Radioactive pollutants, cadmium, arsenic, and polycyclic organic matter
(b) Revision authority
(c) Consultation with Nuclear Regulatory Commission; interagency agreement; notice and hearing
(1) Before listing any source material, special nuclear, 2
2 So in original. The word “material” probably should precede the comma.
or byproduct material (or component or derivative thereof) as provided in subsection (a), the Administrator shall consult with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
(2) Not later than six months after listing any such material (or component or derivative thereof) the Administrator and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission shall enter into an interagency agreement with respect to those sources or facilities which are under the jurisdiction of the Commission. This agreement shall, to the maximum extent practicable consistent with this chapter, minimize duplication of effort and conserve administrative resources in the establishment, implementation, and enforcement of emission limitations, standards of performance, and other requirements and authorities (substantive and procedural) under this chapter respecting the emission of such material (or component or derivative thereof) from such sources or facilities.
(3) In case of any standard or emission limitation promulgated by the Administrator, under this chapter or by any State (or the Administrator) under any applicable implementation plan under this chapter, if the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines, after notice and opportunity for public hearing that the application of such standard or limitation to a source or facility within the jurisdiction of the Commission would endanger public health or safety, such standard or limitation shall not apply to such facilities or sources unless the President determines otherwise within ninety days from the date of such finding.
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 122, as added Pub. L. 95–95, title I, § 120(a), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 720.)
§ 7423. Stack heights
(a) Heights in excess of good engineering practice; other dispersion techniques
The degree of emission limitation required for control of any air pollutant under an applicable implementation plan under this subchapter shall not be affected in any manner by—
(1) so much of the stack height of any source as exceeds good engineering practice (as determined under regulations promulgated by the Administrator), or
(2) any other dispersion technique.
The preceding sentence shall not apply with respect to stack heights in existence before December 31, 1970, or dispersion techniques implemented before such date. In establishing an emission limitation for coal-fired steam electric generating units which are subject to the provisions of section 7418 of this title and which commenced operation before July 1, 1957, the effect of the entire stack height of stacks for which a construction contract was awarded before February 8, 1974, may be taken into account.
(b) Dispersion technique
(c) Regulations; good engineering practice
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 123, as added Pub. L. 95–95, title I, § 121, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 721.)
§ 7424. Assurance of adequacy of State plans
(a) State review of implementation plans which relate to major fuel burning sources
As expeditiously as practicable but not later than one year after August 7, 1977, each State shall review the provisions of its implementation plan which relate to major fuel burning sources and shall determine—
(1) the extent to which compliance with requirements of such plan is dependent upon the use by major fuel burning stationary sources of petroleum products or natural gas,
(2) the extent to which such plan may reasonably be anticipated to be inadequate to meet the requirements of this chapter in such State on a reliable and long-term basis by reason of its dependence upon the use of such fuels, and
(3) the extent to which compliance with the requirements of such plan is dependent upon use of coal or coal derivatives which is not locally or regionally available.
Each State shall submit the results of its review and its determination under this paragraph to the Administrator promptly upon completion thereof.
(b) Plan revision
(1) Not later than eighteen months after August 7, 1977, the Administrator shall review the submissions of the States under subsection (a) and shall require each State to revise its plan if, in the judgment of the Administrator, such plan revision is necessary to assure that such plan will be adequate to assure compliance with the requirements of this chapter in such State on a reliable and long-term basis, taking into account the actual or potential prohibitions on use of petroleum products or natural gas, or both, under any other authority of law.
(2) Before requiring a plan revision under this subsection, with respect to any State the Administrator shall take into account the report of the review conducted by such State under paragraph (1) and shall consult with the Governor of the State respecting such required revision.
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 124, as added Pub. L. 95–95, title I, § 122, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 722.)
§ 7425. Measures to prevent economic disruption or unemployment
(a) Determination that action is necessary
After notice and opportunity for a public hearing—
(1) the Governor of any State in which a major fuel burning stationary source referred to in this subsection (or class or category thereof) is located,
(2) the Administrator, or
(3) the President (or his designee),
may determine that action under subsection (b) of this section is necessary to prevent or minimize significant local or regional economic disruption or unemployment which would otherwise result from use by such source (or class or category) of—
(A) coal or coal derivatives other than locally or regionally available coal,
(B) petroleum products,
(C) natural gas, or
(D) any combination of fuels referred to in subparagraphs (A) through (C),
to comply with the requirements of a State implementation plan.
(b) Use of locally or regionally available coal or coal derivatives to comply with implementation plan requirements
Upon a determination under subsection (a)—
(1) such Governor, with the written consent of the President or his designee,
(2) the President’s designee with the written consent of such Governor, or
(3) the President
may by rule or order prohibit any such major fuel burning stationary source (or class or category thereof) from using fuels other than locally or regionally available coal or coal derivatives to comply with implementation plan requirements. In taking any action under this subsection, the Governor, the President, or the President’s designee as the case may be, shall take into account, the final cost to the consumer of such an action.
(c) Contracts; schedules
The Governor, in the case of action under subsection (b)(1), or the Administrator, in the case of an action under subsection (b)(2) or (3) shall, by rule or order, require each source to which such action applies to—
(1) enter into long-term contracts of at least ten years in duration (except as the President or his designee may otherwise permit or require by rule or order for good cause) for supplies of regionally available coal or coal derivatives,
(2) enter into contracts to acquire any additional means of emission limitation which the Administrator or the State determines may be necessary to comply with the requirements of this chapter while using such coal or coal derivatives as fuel, and
(3) comply with such schedules (including increments of progress), timetables and other requirements as may be necessary to assure compliance with the requirements of this chapter.
Requirements under this subsection shall be established simultaneously with, and as a condition of, any action under subsection (b).
(d) Existing or new major fuel burning stationary sources
This section applies only to existing or new major fuel burning stationary sources—
(1) which have the design capacity to produce 250,000,000 Btu’s per hour (or its equivalent), as determined by the Administrator, and
(2) which are not in compliance with the requirements of an applicable implementation plan or which are prohibited from burning oil or natural gas, or both, under any other authority of law.
(e) Actions not to be deemed modifications of major fuel burning stationary sources
(f) Treatment of prohibitions, rules, or orders as requirements or parts of plans under other provisions
(g) Delegation of Presidential authority
(h) “Locally or regionally available coal or coal derivatives” defined
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 125, as added Pub. L. 95–95, title I, § 122, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 722.)
§ 7426. Interstate pollution abatement
(a) Written notice to all nearby StatesEach applicable implementation plan shall—
(1) require each major proposed new (or modified) source—
(A) subject to part C (relating to significant deterioration of air quality) or
(B) which may significantly contribute to levels of air pollution in excess of the national ambient air quality standards in any air quality control region outside the State in which such source intends to locate (or make such modification),
to provide written notice to all nearby States the air pollution levels of which may be affected by such source at least sixty days prior to the date on which commencement of construction is to be permitted by the State providing notice, and
(2) identify all major existing stationary sources which may have the impact described in paragraph (1) with respect to new or modified sources and provide notice to all nearby States of the identity of such sources not later than three months after August 7, 1977.
(b) Petition for finding that major sources emit or would emit prohibited air pollutants
(c) Violations; allowable continued operationNotwithstanding any permit which may have been granted by the State in which the source is located (or intends to locate), it shall be a violation of this section and the applicable implementation plan in such State—
(1) for any major proposed new (or modified) source with respect to which a finding has been made under subsection (b) to be constructed or to operate in violation of the prohibition of section 7410(a)(2)(D)(ii) of this title or this section, or
(2) for any major existing source to operate more than three months after such finding has been made with respect to it.
The Administrator may permit the continued operation of a source referred to in paragraph (2) beyond the expiration of such three-month period if such source complies with such emission limitations and compliance schedules (containing increments of progress) as may be provided by the Administrator to bring about compliance with the requirements contained in section 7410(a)(2)(D)(ii) of this title or this section as expeditiously as practicable, but in no case later than three years after the date of such finding. Nothing in the preceding sentence shall be construed to preclude any such source from being eligible for an enforcement order under section 7413(d) 1
1 See References in Text note below.
of this title after the expiration of such period during which the Administrator has permitted continuous operation.
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 126, as added Pub. L. 95–95, title I, § 123, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 724; amended Pub. L. 95–190, § 14(a)(39), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1401; Pub. L. 101–549, title I, § 109(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2469.)
§ 7427. Public notification
(a) Warning signs; television, radio, or press notices or information
(b) Grants
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 127, as added Pub. L. 95–95, title I, § 124, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 725.)
§ 7428. State boards
(a)1
1 So in original. Section enacted without a subsec. (b).
Not later than the date one year after August 7, 1977, each applicable implementation plan shall contain requirements that—
(1) any board or body which approves permits or enforcement orders under this chapter shall have at least a majority of members who represent the public interest and do not derive any significant portion of their income from persons subject to permits or enforcement orders under this chapter, and
(2) any potential conflicts of interest by members of such board or body or the head of an executive agency with similar powers be adequately disclosed.
A State may adopt any requirements respecting conflicts of interest for such boards or bodies or heads of executive agencies, or any other entities which are more stringent than the requirements of paragraph (1) and (2), and the Administrator shall approve any such more stringent requirements submitted as part of an implementation plan.
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 128, as added Pub. L. 95–95, title I, § 125, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 725.)
§ 7429. Solid waste combustion
(a) New source performance standards
(1) In general
(A) The Administrator shall establish performance standards and other requirements pursuant to section 7411 of this title and this section for each category of solid waste incineration units. Such standards shall include emissions limitations and other requirements applicable to new units and guidelines (under section 7411(d) of this title and this section) and other requirements applicable to existing units.
(B) Standards under section 7411 of this title and this section applicable to solid waste incineration units with capacity greater than 250 tons per day combusting municipal waste shall be promulgated not later than 12 months after November 15, 1990. Nothing in this subparagraph shall alter any schedule for the promulgation of standards applicable to such units under section 7411 of this title pursuant to any settlement and consent decree entered by the Administrator before November 15, 1990: Provided, That, such standards are subsequently modified pursuant to the schedule established in this subparagraph to include each of the requirements of this section.
(C) Standards under section 7411 of this title and this section applicable to solid waste incineration units with capacity equal to or less than 250 tons per day combusting municipal waste and units combusting hospital waste, medical waste and infectious waste shall be promulgated not later than 24 months after November 15, 1990.
(D) Standards under section 7411 of this title and this section applicable to solid waste incineration units combusting commercial or industrial waste shall be proposed not later than 36 months after November 15, 1990, and promulgated not later than 48 months after November 15, 1990.
(E) Not later than 18 months after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall publish a schedule for the promulgation of standards under section 7411 of this title and this section applicable to other categories of solid waste incineration units.
(2) Emissions standard
(3) Control methods and technologies
(4) Numerical emissions limitations
(5) Review and revision
(b) Existing units
(1) Guidelines
(2) State plans
(3) Federal plan
(c) Monitoring
The Administrator shall, as part of each performance standard promulgated pursuant to subsection (a) and section 7411 of this title, promulgate regulations requiring the owner or operator of each solid waste incineration unit—
(1) to monitor emissions from the unit at the point at which such emissions are emitted into the ambient air (or within the stack, combustion chamber or pollution control equipment, as appropriate) and at such other points as necessary to protect public health and the environment;
(2) to monitor such other parameters relating to the operation of the unit and its pollution control technology as the Administrator determines are appropriate; and
(3) to report the results of such monitoring.
Such regulations shall contain provisions regarding the frequency of monitoring, test methods and procedures validated on solid waste incineration units, and the form and frequency of reports containing the results of monitoring and shall require that any monitoring reports or test results indicating an exceedance of any standard under this section shall be reported separately and in a manner that facilitates review for purposes of enforcement actions. Such regulations shall require that copies of the results of such monitoring be maintained on file at the facility concerned and that copies shall be made available for inspection and copying by interested members of the public during business hours.
(d) Operator training
(e) Permits
(f) Effective date and enforcement
(1) New units
(2) Existing units
(3) Prohibition
(4) Coordination with other authorities
(g) Definitions
For purposes of section 306 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and this section only—
(1) Solid waste incineration unit
(2) New solid waste incineration unit
(3) Modified solid waste incineration unit
(4) Existing solid waste incineration unit
(5) Municipal waste
(6) Other terms
(h) Other authority
(1) State authority
(2) Other authority under this chapter
(3) Residual risk
The Administrator shall promulgate standards under section 7412(f) of this title for a category of solid waste incineration units, if promulgation of such standards is required under section 7412(f) of this title. For purposes of this 3
3 So in original. Probably should be “the”.
preceding sentence only—
(A) the performance standards under subsection (a) and section 7411 of this title applicable to a category of solid waste incineration units shall be deemed standards under section 7412(d)(2) of this title, and
(B) the Administrator shall consider and regulate, if required, the pollutants listed under subsection (a)(4) and no others.
(4) Acid rain
(5) Requirements of parts C and D
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 129, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title III, § 305(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2577.)
§ 7430. Emission factors

Within 6 months after November 15, 1990, and at least every 3 years thereafter, the Administrator shall review and, if necessary, revise, the methods (“emission factors”) used for purposes of this chapter to estimate the quantity of emissions of carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, and oxides of nitrogen from sources of such air pollutants (including area sources and mobile sources). In addition, the Administrator shall establish emission factors for sources for which no such methods have previously been established by the Administrator. The Administrator shall permit any person to demonstrate improved emissions estimating techniques, and following approval of such techniques, the Administrator shall authorize the use of such techniques. Any such technique may be approved only after appropriate public participation. Until the Administrator has completed the revision required by this section, nothing in this section shall be construed to affect the validity of emission factors established by the Administrator before November 15, 1990.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 130, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title VIII, § 804, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2689.)
§ 7431. Land use authority

Nothing in this chapter constitutes an infringement on the existing authority of counties and cities to plan or control land use, and nothing in this chapter provides or transfers authority over such land use.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 131, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title VIII, § 805, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2689.)
§ 7432. Clean heavy-duty vehicles
(a) Appropriations
(1) In general
(2) Nonattainment areas
(3) Reservation
(b) Program
Beginning not later than 180 days after August 16, 2022, the Administrator shall implement a program to make awards of grants and rebates to eligible recipients, and to make awards of contracts to eligible contractors for providing rebates, for up to 100 percent of costs for—
(1) the incremental costs of replacing an eligible vehicle that is not a zero-emission vehicle with a zero-emission vehicle, as determined by the Administrator based on the market value of the vehicles;
(2) purchasing, installing, operating, and maintaining infrastructure needed to charge, fuel, or maintain zero-emission vehicles;
(3) workforce development and training to support the maintenance, charging, fueling, and operation of zero-emission vehicles; and
(4) planning and technical activities to support the adoption and deployment of zero-emission vehicles.
(c) Applications
(d) Definitions
For purposes of this section:
(1) Eligible contractor
The term “eligible contractor” means a contractor that has the capacity—
(A) to sell, lease, license, or contract for service zero-emission vehicles, or charging or other equipment needed to charge, fuel, or maintain zero-emission vehicles, to individuals or entities that own, lease, license, or contract for service an eligible vehicle; or
(B) to arrange financing for such a sale, lease, license, or contract for service.
(2) Eligible recipient
The term “eligible recipient” means—
(A) a State;
(B) a municipality;
(C) an Indian tribe; or
(D) a nonprofit school transportation association.
(3) Eligible vehicle
(4) Greenhouse gas
(5) Zero-emission vehicle
The term “zero-emission vehicle” means a vehicle that has a drivetrain that produces, under any possible operational mode or condition, zero exhaust emissions of—
(A) any air pollutant that is listed pursuant to section 7408(a) of this title (or any precursor to such an air pollutant); and
(B) any greenhouse gas.
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 132, as added Pub. L. 117–169, title VI, § 60101, Aug. 16, 2022, 136 Stat. 2063.)
§ 7433. Grants to reduce air pollution at ports
(a) Appropriations
(1) General assistanceIn addition to amounts otherwise available, there is appropriated to the Administrator for fiscal year 2022, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, $2,250,000,000, to remain available until September 30, 2027, to award rebates and grants to eligible recipients on a competitive basis—
(A) to purchase or install zero-emission port equipment or technology for use at, or to directly serve, one or more ports;
(B) to conduct any relevant planning or permitting in connection with the purchase or installation of such zero-emission port equipment or technology; and
(C) to develop qualified climate action plans.
(2) Nonattainment areas
(b) Limitation
(c) Administration of funds
(d) DefinitionsIn this section:
(1) Eligible recipientThe term “eligible recipient” means—
(A) a port authority;
(B) a State, regional, local, or Tribal agency that has jurisdiction over a port authority or a port;
(C) an air pollution control agency; or
(D) a private entity that—
(i) applies for a grant under this section in partnership with an entity described in any of subparagraphs (A) through (C); and
(ii) owns, operates, or uses the facilities, cargo-handling equipment, transportation equipment, or related technology of a port.
(2) Greenhouse gas
(3) Qualified climate action planThe term “qualified climate action plan” means a detailed and strategic plan that—
(A) establishes goals, implementation strategies, and accounting and inventory practices to reduce emissions at one or more ports of—
(i) greenhouse gases;
(ii) an air pollutant that is listed pursuant to section 7408(a) of this title (or any precursor to such an air pollutant); and
(iii) hazardous air pollutants;
(B) includes a strategy to collaborate with, communicate with, and address potential effects on low-income and disadvantaged near-port communities and other stakeholders that may be affected by implementation of the plan; and
(C) describes how an eligible recipient has implemented or will implement measures to increase the resilience of the one or more ports involved.
(4) Zero-emission port equipment or technologyThe term “zero-emission port equipment or technology” means human-operated equipment or human-maintained technology that—
(A) produces zero emissions of any air pollutant that is listed pursuant to section 7408(a) of this title (or any precursor to such an air pollutant) and any greenhouse gas other than water vapor; or
(B) captures 100 percent of the emissions described in subparagraph (A) that are produced by an ocean-going vessel at berth.
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 133, as added Pub. L. 117–169, title VI, § 60102, Aug. 16, 2022, 136 Stat. 2064.)
§ 7434. Greenhouse gas reduction fund
(a) Appropriations
(1) Zero-emission technologies
(2) General assistance
(3) Low-income and disadvantaged communities
(4) Administrative costs
(b) Use of funds
An eligible recipient that receives a grant pursuant to subsection (a) shall use the grant in accordance with the following:
(1) Direct investment
The eligible recipient shall—
(A) provide financial assistance to qualified projects at the national, regional, State, and local levels;
(B) prioritize investment in qualified projects that would otherwise lack access to financing; and
(C) retain, manage, recycle, and monetize all repayments and other revenue received from fees, interest, repaid loans, and all other types of financial assistance provided using grant funds under this section to ensure continued operability.
(2) Indirect investment
(c) Definitions
In this section:
(1) Eligible recipient
The term “eligible recipient” means a nonprofit organization that—
(A) is designed to provide capital, leverage private capital, and provide other forms of financial assistance for the rapid deployment of low- and zero-emission products, technologies, and services;
(B) does not take deposits other than deposits from repayments and other revenue received from financial assistance provided using grant funds under this section;
(C) is funded by public or charitable contributions; and
(D) invests in or finances projects alone or in conjunction with other investors.
(2) Greenhouse gas
(3) Qualified project
The term “qualified project” includes any project, activity, or technology that—
(A) reduces or avoids greenhouse gas emissions and other forms of air pollution in partnership with, and by leveraging investment from, the private sector; or
(B) assists communities in the efforts of those communities to reduce or avoid greenhouse gas emissions and other forms of air pollution.
(4) Zero-emission technology
The term “zero-emission technology” means any technology that produces zero emissions of—
(A) any air pollutant that is listed pursuant to section 7408(a) of this title (or any precursor to such an air pollutant); and
(B) any greenhouse gas.
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 134, as added Pub. L. 117–169, title VI, § 60103, Aug. 16, 2022, 136 Stat. 2066.)
§ 7435. Low emissions electricity program
(a) Appropriation
In addition to amounts otherwise available, there is appropriated to the Administrator for fiscal year 2022, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, to remain available until September 30, 2031
(1) $17,000,000 for consumer-related education and partnerships with respect to reductions in greenhouse gas emissions that result from domestic electricity generation and use;
(2) $17,000,000 for education, technical assistance, and partnerships within low-income and disadvantaged communities with respect to reductions in greenhouse gas emissions that result from domestic electricity generation and use;
(3) $17,000,000 for industry-related outreach, technical assistance, and partnerships with respect to reductions in greenhouse gas emissions that result from domestic electricity generation and use;
(4) $17,000,000 for outreach and technical assistance to, and partnerships with, State, Tribal, and local governments with respect to reductions in greenhouse gas emissions that result from domestic electricity generation and use;
(5) $1,000,000 to assess, not later than 1 year after August 16, 2022, the reductions in greenhouse gas emissions that result from changes in domestic electricity generation and use that are anticipated to occur on an annual basis through fiscal year 2031; and
(6) $18,000,000 to ensure that reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are achieved through use of the existing authorities of this chapter, incorporating the assessment under paragraph (5).
(b) Administration of funds
(c) Definition of greenhouse gas
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 135, as added Pub. L. 117–169, title VI, § 60107, Aug. 16, 2022, 136 Stat. 2069.)
§ 7436. Methane emissions and waste reduction incentive program for petroleum and natural gas systems
(a) Incentives for methane mitigation and monitoringIn addition to amounts otherwise available, there is appropriated to the Administrator for fiscal year 2022, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, $850,000,000, to remain available until September 30, 2028
(1) for grants, rebates, contracts, loans, and other activities of the Environmental Protection Agency for the purposes of providing financial and technical assistance to owners and operators of applicable facilities to prepare and submit greenhouse gas reports under subpart W of part 98 of title 40, Code of Federal Regulations;
(2) for grants, rebates, contracts, loans, and other activities of the Environmental Protection Agency authorized under subsections (a) through (c) of section 7403 of this title for methane emissions monitoring;
(3) for grants, rebates, contracts, loans, and other activities of the Environmental Protection Agency for the purposes of providing financial and technical assistance to reduce methane and other greenhouse gas emissions from petroleum and natural gas systems, mitigate legacy air pollution from petroleum and natural gas systems, and provide funding for—
(A) improving climate resiliency of communities and petroleum and natural gas systems;
(B) improving and deploying industrial equipment and processes that reduce methane and other greenhouse gas emissions and waste;
(C) supporting innovation in reducing methane and other greenhouse gas emissions and waste from petroleum and natural gas systems;
(D) permanently shutting in and plugging wells on non-Federal land;
(E) mitigating health effects of methane and other greenhouse gas emissions, and legacy air pollution from petroleum and natural gas systems in low-income and disadvantaged communities; and
(F) supporting environmental restoration; and
(4) to cover all direct and indirect costs required to administer this section, prepare inventories, gather empirical data, and track emissions.
(b) Incentives for methane mitigation from conventional wells
(c) Waste emissions charge
(d) Applicable facilityFor purposes of this section, the term “applicable facility” means a facility within the following industry segments, as defined in subpart W of part 98 of title 40, Code of Federal Regulations:
(1) Offshore petroleum and natural gas production.
(2) Onshore petroleum and natural gas production.
(3) Onshore natural gas processing.
(4) Onshore natural gas transmission compression.
(5) Underground natural gas storage.
(6) Liquefied natural gas storage.
(7) Liquefied natural gas import and export equipment.
(8) Onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting.
(9) Onshore natural gas transmission pipeline.
(e) Charge amountThe amount of a charge under subsection (c) for an applicable facility shall be equal to the product obtained by multiplying—
(1) the number of metric tons of methane emissions reported pursuant to subpart W of part 98 of title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, for the applicable facility that exceed the applicable annual waste emissions threshold listed in subsection (f) during the previous reporting period; and
(2)
(A) $900 for emissions reported for calendar year 2024;
(B) $1,200 for emissions reported for calendar year 2025; or
(C) $1,500 for emissions reported for calendar year 2026 and each year thereafter.
(f) Waste emissions threshold
(1) Petroleum and natural gas productionWith respect to imposing and collecting the charge under subsection (c) for an applicable facility in an industry segment listed in paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (d), the Administrator shall impose and collect the charge on the reported metric tons of methane emissions from such facility that exceed—
(A) 0.20 percent of the natural gas sent to sale from such facility; or
(B) 10 metric tons of methane per million barrels of oil sent to sale from such facility, if such facility sent no natural gas to sale.
(2) Nonproduction petroleum and natural gas systems
(3) Natural gas transmission
(4) Common ownership or control
(5) Exemption
(6) Exemption for regulatory compliance
(A) In generalCharges shall not be imposed pursuant to subsection (c) on an applicable facility that is subject to and in compliance with methane emissions requirements pursuant to subsections (b) and (d) of section 7411 of this title upon a determination by the Administrator that—
(i) methane emissions standards and plans pursuant to subsections (b) and (d) of section 7411 of this title have been approved and are in effect in all States with respect to the applicable facilities; and
(ii) compliance with the requirements described in clause (i) will result in equivalent or greater emissions reductions as would be achieved by the proposed rule of the Administrator entitled “Standards of Performance for New, Reconstructed, and Modified Sources and Emissions Guidelines for Existing Sources: Oil and Natural Gas Sector Climate Review” (86 Fed. Reg. 63110 (November 15, 2021)), if such rule had been finalized and implemented.
(B) Resumption of charge
(7) Plugged wells
(g) Period
(h) Reporting
(i) Definition of greenhouse gas
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 136, as added Pub. L. 117–169, title VI, § 60113, Aug. 16, 2022, 136 Stat. 2073.)
§ 7437. Greenhouse gas air pollution plans and implementation grants
(a) Appropriations
(1) Greenhouse gas air pollution planning grants
(2) Greenhouse gas air pollution implementation grants
(3) Administrative costs
(b) Greenhouse gas air pollution planning grants
(c) Greenhouse gas air pollution reduction implementation grants
(1) In general
(2) Application
(3) Terms and conditions
(d) Definitions
In this section:
(1) Eligible entity
The term “eligible entity” means—
(A) a State;
(B) an air pollution control agency;
(C) a municipality;
(D) an Indian tribe; and
(E) a group of one or more entities listed in subparagraphs (A) through (D).
(2) Greenhouse gas
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 137, as added Pub. L. 117–169, title VI, § 60114, Aug. 16, 2022, 136 Stat. 2076.)
§ 7438. Environmental and climate justice block grants
(a) AppropriationIn addition to amounts otherwise available, there is appropriated to the Administrator for fiscal year 2022, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated—
(1) $2,800,000,000 to remain available until September 30, 2026, to award grants for the activities described in subsection (b); and
(2) $200,000,000 to remain available until September 30, 2026, to provide technical assistance to eligible entities related to grants awarded under this section.
(b) Grants
(1) In general
(2) Eligible activitiesAn eligible entity may use a grant awarded under this subsection for—
(A) community-led air and other pollution monitoring, prevention, and remediation, and investments in low- and zero-emission and resilient technologies and related infrastructure and workforce development that help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other air pollutants;
(B) mitigating climate and health risks from urban heat islands, extreme heat, wood heater emissions, and wildfire events;
(C) climate resiliency and adaptation;
(D) reducing indoor toxics and indoor air pollution; or
(E) facilitating engagement of disadvantaged communities in State and Federal advisory groups, workshops, rulemakings, and other public processes.
(3) Eligible entitiesIn this subsection, the term “eligible entity” means—
(A) a partnership between—
(i) an Indian tribe, a local government, or an institution of higher education; and
(ii) a community-based nonprofit organization;
(B) a community-based nonprofit organization; or
(C) a partnership of community-based nonprofit organizations.
(c) Administrative costs
(d) Definition of greenhouse gas
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 138, as added Pub. L. 117–169, title VI, § 60201, Aug. 16, 2022, 136 Stat. 2078.)