- § 1331. Definitions
- § 1332. Congressional declaration of policy
- § 1333. Laws and regulations governing lands
- § 1334. Administration of leasing
- § 1335. Validation and maintenance of prior leases
- § 1336. Controversies over jurisdiction; agreements; payments; final settlement or adjudication; approval of notice concerning oil and gas operations in Gulf of Mexico
- § 1337. Leases, easements, and rights-of-way on the outer Continental Shelf
- § 1338. Disposition of revenues
- § 1338a. Moneys received as a result of forfeiture by Outer Continental Shelf permittee, lessee, or right-of-way holder; return of excess amounts
- § 1339. Repealed.
- § 1340. Geological and geophysical explorations
- § 1341. Reservation of lands and rights
- § 1342. Prior claims as unaffected
- § 1343. Repealed.
- § 1344. Outer Continental Shelf leasing program
- § 1345. Coordination and consultation with affected State and local governments
- § 1346. Environmental studies
- § 1347. Safety and health regulations
- § 1348. Enforcement of safety and environmental regulations
- § 1349. Citizens suits, jurisdiction and judicial review
- § 1350. Remedies and penalties
- § 1351. Oil and gas development and production
- § 1352. Oil and gas information program
- § 1353. Federal purchase and disposition of oil and gas
- § 1354. Limitations on export of oil or gas
- § 1355. Restrictions on employment of former officers or employees of Department of the Interior
- § 1356. Documentary, registry and manning requirements
- § 1356a. Coastal impact assistance program
- § 1356b. Transboundary hydrocarbon agreements
- § 1356c. Wind lease sales for areas of the outer Continental Shelf offshore of territories of the United States
For the purposes of the National Labor Relations Act, as amended [29 U.S.C. 151 et seq.], any unfair labor practice, as defined in such Act, occurring upon any artificial island, installation, or other device referred to in subsection (a) of this section shall be deemed to have occurred within the judicial district of the State, the laws of which apply to such artificial island, installation, or other device pursuant to such subsection, except that until the President determines the areas within which such State laws are applicable, the judicial district shall be that of the State nearest the place of location of such artificial island, installation, or other device.
The authority of the Secretary of the Army to prevent obstruction to navigation in the navigable waters of the United States is extended to the artificial islands, installations, and other devices referred to in subsection (a).
The specific application by this section of certain provisions of law to the subsoil and seabed of the outer Continental Shelf and the artificial islands, installations, and other devices referred to in subsection (a) or to acts or offenses occurring or committed thereon shall not give rise to any inference that the application to such islands and structures, acts, or offenses of any other provision of law is not intended.
The issuance and continuance in effect of any lease, or of any assignment or other transfer of any lease, under the provisions of this subchapter shall be conditioned upon compliance with regulations issued under this subchapter.
Whenever the owner of a nonproducing lease fails to comply with any of the provisions of this subchapter, or of the lease, or of the regulations issued under this subchapter, such lease may be canceled by the Secretary, subject to the right of judicial review as provided in this subchapter, if such default continues for the period of thirty days after mailing of notice by registered letter to the lease owner at his record post office address.
Whenever the owner of any producing lease fails to comply with any of the provisions of this subchapter, of the lease, or of the regulations issued under this subchapter, such lease may be forfeited and canceled by an appropriate proceeding in any United States district court having jurisdiction under the provisions of this subchapter.
Rights-of-way through the submerged lands of the outer Continental Shelf, whether or not such lands are included in a lease maintained or issued pursuant to this subchapter, may be granted by the Secretary for pipeline purposes for the transportation of oil, natural gas, sulphur, or other minerals, or under such regulations and upon such conditions as may be prescribed by the Secretary, or where appropriate the Secretary of Transportation, including (as provided in section 1347(b) of this title) assuring maximum environmental protection by utilization of the best available and safest technologies, including the safest practices for pipeline burial and upon the express condition that oil or gas pipelines shall transport or purchase without discrimination, oil or natural gas produced from submerged lands or outer Continental Shelf lands in the vicinity of the pipelines in such proportionate amounts as the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, in consultation with the Secretary of Energy, may, after a full hearing with due notice thereof to the interested parties, determine to be reasonable, taking into account, among other things, conservation and the prevention of waste. Failure to comply with the provisions of this section or the regulations and conditions prescribed under this section shall be grounds for forfeiture of the grant in an appropriate judicial proceeding instituted by the United States in any United States district court having jurisdiction under the provisions of this subchapter.
The head of any Federal department or agency who takes any action which has a direct and significant effect on the outer Continental Shelf or its development shall promptly notify the Secretary of such action and the Secretary shall thereafter notify the Governor of any affected State and the Secretary may thereafter recommend such changes in such action as are considered appropriate.
After September 18, 1978, no holder of any oil and gas lease issued or maintained pursuant to this subchapter shall be permitted to flare natural gas from any well unless the Secretary finds that there is no practicable way to complete production of such gas, or that such flaring is necessary to alleviate a temporary emergency situation or to conduct testing or work-over operations.
The Secretary shall prevent, through the cooperative development of an area, the harmful effects of unrestrained competitive production of hydrocarbons from a common hydrocarbon-bearing area underlying the Federal and State boundary.
Any person holding a mineral lease, which as determined by the Secretary meets the requirements of subsection (a) of this section, may continue to maintain such lease, and may conduct operations thereunder, in accordance with (1) its provisions as to the area, the minerals covered, rentals and, subject to the provisions of paragraphs (8)–(10) of subsection (a) of this section, as to royalties and as to the term thereof and of any extensions, renewals, or replacements authorized therein or heretofore authorized by the laws of the State issuing such lease, or, if oil or gas was not being produced in paying quantities from such lease on or before December 11, 1950, or if production in paying quantities has ceased since June 5, 1950, or if the primary term of such lease has expired since December 11, 1950, then for a term from August 7, 1953 equal to the term remaining unexpired on December 11, 1950, under the provisions of such lease or any extensions, renewals, or replacements authorized therein, or heretofore authorized by the laws of such State, and (2) such regulations as the Secretary may under section 1334 of this title prescribe within ninety days after making his determination that such lease meets the requirements of subsection (a) of this section: Provided, however, That any rights to sulphur under any lease maintained under the provisions of this subsection shall not extend beyond the primary term of such lease or any extension thereof under the provisions of this subsection unless sulphur is being produced in paying quantities or drilling, well reworking, plant construction, or other operations for the production of sulphur, as approved by the Secretary, are being conducted on the area covered by such lease on the date of expiration of such primary term or extension: Provided further, That if sulphur is being produced in paying quantities on such date, then such rights shall continue to be maintained in accordance with such lease and the provisions of this subchapter: Provided further, That, if the primary term of a lease being maintained under this subsection has expired prior to August 7, 1953 and oil or gas is being produced in paying quantities on such date, then such rights to sulphur as the lessee may have under such lease shall continue for twenty-four months from August 7, 1953 and as long thereafter as sulphur is produced in paying quantities, or drilling, well working, plant construction, or other operations for the production of sulphur, as approved by the Secretary, are being conducted on the area covered by the lease.
The permission granted in subsection (b) of this section shall not be construed to be a waiver of such claims, if any, as the United States may have against the lessor or the lessee or any other person respecting sums payable or paid for or under the lease, or respecting activities conducted under the lease, prior to August 7, 1953.
Any person complaining of a negative determination by the Secretary of the Interior under this section may have such determination reviewed by the United States District Court for the District of Columbia by filing a petition for review within sixty days after receiving notice of such action by the Secretary.
In the event any lease maintained under this section covers lands beneath navigable waters, as that term is used in the Submerged Lands Act [43 U.S.C. 1301 et seq.], as well as lands of the outer Continental Shelf, the provisions of this section shall apply to such lease only insofar as it covers lands of the outer Continental Shelf.
In the event of a controversy between the United States and a State as to whether or not lands are subject to the provisions of this subchapter, the Secretary is authorized, notwithstanding the provisions of section 1335(a) and (b) of this title and with the concurrence of the Attorney General of the United States, to negotiate and enter into agreements with the State, its political subdivision or grantee or a lessee thereof, respecting operations under existing mineral leases and payment and impounding of rents, royalties, and other sums payable thereunder, or with the State, its political subdivision or grantee, respecting the issuance or nonissuance of new mineral leases pending the settlement or adjudication of the controversy. The authorization contained in the preceding sentence of this section shall not be construed to be a limitation upon the authority conferred on the Secretary in other sections of this subchapter. Payments made pursuant to such agreement, or pursuant to any stipulation between the United States and a State, shall be considered as compliance with section 1335(a)(4) of this title. Upon the termination of such agreement or stipulation by reason of the final settlement or adjudication of such controversy, if the lands subject to any mineral lease are determined to be in whole or in part lands subject to the provisions of this subchapter, the lessee, if he has not already done so, shall comply with the requirements of section 1335(a) of this title, and thereupon the provisions of section 1335(b) of this title shall govern such lease. The notice concerning “Oil and Gas Operations in the Submerged Coastal Lands of the Gulf of Mexico” issued by the Secretary on December 11, 1950 (15 F.R. 8835), as amended by the notice dated January 26, 1951 (16 F.R. 953), and as supplemented by the notices dated February 2, 1951 (16 F.R. 1203), March 5, 1951 (16 F.R. 2195), April 23, 1951 (16 F.R. 3623), June 25, 1951 (16 F.R. 6404), August 22, 1951 (16 F.R. 8720), October 24, 1951 (16 F.R. 10998), December 21, 1951 (17 F.R. 43), March 25, 1952 (17 F.R. 2821), June 26, 1952 (17 F.R. 5833), and
No bid for a lease may be submitted if the Secretary finds, after notice and hearing, that the bidder is not meeting due diligence requirements on other leases.
No lease issued under this subchapter may be sold, exchanged, assigned, or otherwise transferred except with the approval of the Secretary. Prior to any such approval, the Secretary shall consult with and give due consideration to the views of the Attorney General.
Nothing in this subchapter shall be deemed to convey to any person, association, corporation, or other business organization immunity from civil or criminal liability, or to create defenses to actions, under any antitrust law.
Nothing contained in this section shall be construed to alter, limit, or modify any claim of any State to any jurisdiction over, or any right, title, or interest in, any submerged lands.
In order to meet the urgent need for further exploration and development of the sulphur deposits in the submerged lands of the outer Continental Shelf, the Secretary is authorized to grant to the qualified persons offering the highest cash bonuses on a basis of competitive bidding sulphur leases on submerged lands of the outer Continental Shelf, which are not covered by leases which include sulphur and meet the requirements of section 1335(a) of this title, and which sulphur leases shall be offered for bid by sealed bids and granted on separate leases from oil and gas leases, and for a separate consideration, and without priority or preference accorded to oil and gas lessees on the same area.
A sulphur lease issued by the Secretary pursuant to this section shall (1) cover an area of such size and dimensions as the Secretary may determine, (2) be for a period of not more than ten years and so long thereafter as sulphur may be produced from the area in paying quantities or drilling, well reworking, plant construction, or other operations for the production of sulphur, as approved by the Secretary, are conducted thereon, (3) require the payment to the United States of such royalty as may be specified in the lease but not less than 5 per centum of the gross production or value of the sulphur at the wellhead, and (4) contain such rental provisions and such other terms and provisions as the Secretary may by regulation prescribe at the time of offering the area for lease.
Notice of sale of leases, and the terms of bidding, authorized by this section shall be published at least thirty days before the date of sale in accordance with rules and regulations promulgated by the Secretary.
All moneys paid to the Secretary for or under leases granted pursuant to this section shall be deposited in the Treasury in accordance with section 1338 of this title.
The issuance of any lease by the Secretary pursuant to this subchapter, or the making of any interim arrangements by the Secretary pursuant to section 1336 of this title shall not prejudice the ultimate settlement or adjudication of the question as to whether or not the area involved is in the outer Continental Shelf.
The Secretary may cancel any lease obtained by fraud or misrepresentation.
Except with respect to projects that meet the criteria established under section 388(d) of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, the Secretary shall issue a lease, easement, or right-of-way under paragraph (1) on a competitive basis unless the Secretary determines after public notice of a proposed lease, easement, or right-of-way that there is no competitive interest.
The Secretary shall provide for the duration, issuance, transfer, renewal, suspension, and cancellation of a lease, easement, or right-of-way under this subsection.
The Secretary shall provide for coordination and consultation with the Governor of any State or the executive of any local government that may be affected by a lease, easement, or right-of-way under this subsection.
Not later than 270 days after August 8, 2005, the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating, the Secretary of Commerce, heads of other relevant departments and agencies of the Federal Government, and the Governor of any affected State, shall issue any necessary regulations to carry out this subsection.
Nothing in this subsection displaces, supersedes, limits, or modifies the jurisdiction, responsibility, or authority of any Federal or State agency under any other Federal law.
This subsection does not apply to any area on the outer Continental Shelf within the exterior boundaries of any unit of the National Park System, National Wildlife Refuge System, or National Marine Sanctuary System, or any National Monument.
All rentals, royalties, and other sums paid to the Secretary or the Secretary of the Navy under any lease on the outer Continental Shelf for the period from June 5, 1950, to date, and thereafter shall be deposited in the Treasury of the United States and credited to miscellaneous receipts.
Notwithstanding section 3302 of title 31, any moneys on and after November 5, 1990, received as a result of the forfeiture of a bond or other security by an Outer Continental Shelf permittee, lessee, or right-of-way holder which does not fulfill the requirements of its permit, lease, or right-of-way or does not comply with the regulations of the Secretary shall be credited to the royalty and offshore minerals management account of the Minerals Management Service to cover the cost to the United States of any improvement, protection, or rehabilitation work rendered necessary by the action or inaction that led to the forfeiture, to remain available until expended: Provided further, That any portion of the moneys so credited shall be returned to the permittee, lessee, or right-of-way holder to the extent that the money is in excess of the amount expended in performing the work necessitated by the action or inaction which led to their receipt or, if the bond or security was forfeited for failure to pay the civil penalty, in excess of the civil penalty imposed.
Except as provided in subsection (f) of this section, beginning ninety days after September 18, 1978, no exploration pursuant to any oil and gas lease issued or maintained under this subchapter may be undertaken by the holder of such lease, except in accordance with the provisions of this section.
The Secretary may, by regulation, require any lessee operating under an approved exploration plan to obtain a permit prior to drilling any well in accordance with such plan.
The Secretary shall not issue a lease or permit for, or otherwise allow, exploration, development, or production activities within fifteen miles of the boundaries of the Phillip Burton Wilderness as depicted on a map entitled “Wilderness Plan, Point Reyes National Seashore”, numbered 612–90,000–B and dated September 1976, unless the State of California issues a lease or permit for, or otherwise allows, exploration, development, or production activities on lands beneath navigable waters (as such term is defined in section 1301 of this title) of such State which are adjacent to such Wilderness.
The President of the United States may, from time to time, withdraw from disposition any of the unleased lands of the outer Continental Shelf.
In time of war, or when the President shall so prescribe, the United States shall have the right of first refusal to purchase at the market price all or any portion of any mineral produced from the outer Continental Shelf.
All leases issued under this subchapter, and leases, the maintenance and operation of which are authorized under this subchapter, shall contain or be construed to contain a provision whereby authority is vested in the Secretary, upon a recommendation of the Secretary of Defense, during a state of war or national emergency declared by the Congress or the President of the United States after August 7, 1953, to suspend operations under any lease; and all such leases shall contain or be construed to contain provisions for the payment of just compensation to the lessee whose operations are thus suspended.
The United States reserves and retains the right to designate by and through the Secretary of Defense, with the approval of the President, as areas restricted from exploration and operation that part of the outer Continental Shelf needed for national defense; and so long as such designation remains in effect no exploration or operations may be conducted on any part of the surface of such area except with the concurrence of the Secretary of Defense; and if operations or production under any lease theretofore issued on lands within any such restricted area shall be suspended, any payment of rentals, minimum royalty, and royalty prescribed by such lease likewise shall be suspended during such period of suspension of operation and production, and the term of such lease shall be extended by adding thereto any such suspension period, and the United States shall be liable to the lessee for such compensation as is required to be paid under the Constitution of the United States.
All uranium, thorium, and all other materials determined pursuant to paragraph (1) of subsection (b) of section 5 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, as amended, to be peculiarly essential to the production of fissionable material, contained, in whatever concentration, in deposits in the subsoil or seabed of the outer Continental Shelf are reserved for the use of the United States.
The United States reserves and retains the ownership of and the right to extract all helium, under such rules and regulations as shall be prescribed by the Secretary, contained in gas produced from any portion of the outer Continental Shelf which may be subject to any lease maintained or granted pursuant to this subchapter, but the helium shall be extracted from such gas so as to cause no substantial delay in the delivery of gas produced to the purchaser of such gas.
Nothing herein contained shall affect such rights, if any, as may have been acquired under any law of the United States by any person in lands subject to this subchapter and such rights, if any, shall be governed by the law in effect at the time they may have been acquired: Provided, however, That nothing herein contained is intended or shall be construed as a finding, interpretation, or construction by the Congress that the law under which such rights may be claimed in fact applies to the lands subject to this subchapter or authorizes or compels the granting of such rights in such lands, and that the determination of the applicability or effect of such law shall be unaffected by anything herein contained.
The Secretary shall review the leasing program approved under this section at least once each year. He may revise and reapprove such program, at any time, and such revision and reapproval, except in the case of a revision which is not significant, shall be in the same manner as originally developed.
The Secretary may obtain from public sources, or purchase from private sources, any survey, data, report, or other information (including interpretations of such data, survey, report, or other information) which may be necessary to assist him in preparing any environmental impact statement and in making other evaluations required by this subchapter. Data of a classified nature provided to the Secretary under the provisions of this subsection shall remain confidential for such period of time as agreed to by the head of the department or agency from whom the information is requested. The Secretary shall maintain the confidentiality of all privileged or proprietary data or information for such period of time as is provided for in this subchapter, established by regulation, or agreed to by the parties.
The heads of all Federal departments and agencies shall provide the Secretary with any nonpriviledged 1
This section shall not apply to the scheduling of any lease sale in an area of the outer Continental Shelf that is adjacent to the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the United States Virgin Islands, or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
Any Governor of any affected State or the executive of any affected local government in such State may submit recommendations to the Secretary regarding the size, timing, or location of a proposed lease sale or with respect to a proposed development and production plan. Prior to submitting recommendations to the Secretary, the executive of any affected local government in any affected State must forward his recommendations to the Governor of such State.
Such recommendations shall be submitted within sixty days after notice of such proposed lease sale or after receipt of such development and production plan.
The Secretary shall accept recommendations of the Governor and may accept recommendations of the executive of any affected local government if he determines, after having provided the opportunity for consultation, that they provide for a reasonable balance between the national interest and the well-being of the citizens of the affected State. For purposes of this subsection, a determination of the national interest shall be based on the desirability of obtaining oil and gas supplies in a balanced manner and on the findings, purposes, and policies of this subchapter. The Secretary shall communicate to the Governor, in writing, the reasons for his determination to accept or reject such Governor’s recommendations, or to implement any alternative means identified in consultation with the Governor to provide for a reasonable balance between the national interest and the well-being of the citizens of the affected State.
The Secretary’s determination that recommendations provide, or do not provide, for a reasonable balance between the national interest and the well-being of the citizens of the affected State shall be final and shall not, alone, be a basis for invalidation of a proposed lease sale or a proposed development and production plan in any suit or judicial review pursuant to section 1349 of this title, unless found to be arbitrary or capricious.
The Secretary is authorized to enter into cooperative agreements with affected States for purposes which are consistent with this subchapter and other applicable Federal law. Such agreements may include, but need not be limited to, the sharing of information (in accordance with the provisions of section 1352 of this title), the joint utilization of available expertise, the facilitating of permitting procedures, joint planning and review, and the formation of joint surveillance and monitoring arrangements to carry out applicable Federal and State laws, regulations, and stipulations relevant to outer Continental Shelf operations both onshore and offshore.
Subsequent to the leasing and developing of any area or region, the Secretary shall conduct such additional studies to establish environmental information as he deems necessary and shall monitor the human, marine, and coastal environments of such area or region in a manner designed to provide time-series and data trend information which can be used for comparison with any previously collected data for the purpose of identifying any significant changes in the quality and productivity of such environments, for establishing trends in the areas studied and monitored, and for designing experiments to identify the causes of such changes.
The Secretary shall, by regulation, establish procedures for carrying out his duties under this section, and shall plan and carry out such duties in full cooperation with affected States. To the extent that other Federal agencies have prepared environmental impact statements, are conducting studies, or are monitoring the affected human, marine, or coastal environment, the Secretary may utilize the information derived therefrom in lieu of directly conducting such activities. The Secretary may also utilize information obtained from any State or local government, or from any person, for the purposes of this section. For the purpose of carrying out his responsibilities under this section, the Secretary may by agreement utilize, with or without reimbursement, the services, personnel, or facilities of any Federal, State, or local government agency.
The Secretary shall consider available relevant environmental information in making decisions (including those relating to exploration plans, drilling permits, and development and production plans), in developing appropriate regulations and lease conditions, and in issuing operating orders.
As soon as practicable after the end of every 3 fiscal years, the Secretary shall submit to the Congress and make available to the general public an assessment of the cumulative effect of activities conducted under this subchapter on the human, marine, and coastal environments.
In executing his responsibilities under this section, the Secretary shall, to the maximum extent practicable, enter into appropriate arrangements to utilize on a reimbursable basis the capabilities of the Department of Commerce. In carrying out such arrangements, the Secretary of Commerce is authorized to enter into contracts or grants with any person, organization, or entity with funds appropriated to the Secretary of the Interior pursuant to this subchapter.
Upon September 18, 1978, the Secretary and the Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall, in consultation with each other and, as appropriate, with the heads of other Federal departments and agencies, promptly commence a joint study of the adequacy of existing safety and health regulations and of the technology, equipment, and techniques available for the exploration, development, and production of the minerals of the outer Continental Shelf. The results of such study shall be submitted to the President who shall submit a plan to the Congress of his proposals to promote safety and health in the exploration, development, and production of the minerals of the outer Continental Shelf.
In exercising their respective responsibilities for the artificial islands, installations, and other devices referred to in section 1333(a)(1) of this title, the Secretary, and the Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating, shall require, on all new drilling and production operations and, wherever practicable, on existing operations, the use of the best available and safest technologies which the Secretary determines to be economically feasible, wherever failure of equipment would have a significant effect on safety, health, or the environment, except where the Secretary determines that the incremental benefits are clearly insufficient to justify the incremental costs of utilizing such technologies.
The Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall promulgate regulations or standards applying to unregulated hazardous working conditions related to activities on the outer Continental Shelf when he determines such regulations or standards are necessary. The Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating may from time to time modify any regulations, interim or final, dealing with hazardous working conditions on the outer Continental Shelf.
Nothing in this subchapter shall affect the authority provided by law to the Secretary of Labor for the protection of occupational safety and health, the authority provided by law to the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency for the protection of the environment, or the authority provided by law to the Secretary of Transportation with respect to pipeline safety.
The Secretary of Commerce, in cooperation with the Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating, and the Director of the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, shall conduct studies of underwater diving techniques and equipment suitable for protection of human safety and improvement of diver performance. Such studies shall include, but need not be limited to, decompression and excursion table development and improvement and all aspects of diver physiological restraints and protective gear for exposure to hostile environments.
The Secretary, the Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating, and the Secretary of the Army shall enforce safety and environmental regulations promulgated pursuant to this subchapter. Each such Federal department may by agreement utilize, with or without reimbursement, the services, personnel, or facilities of other Federal departments and agencies for the enforcement of their respective regulations.
The Secretary, or, in the case of occupational safety and health, the Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating, may review any allegation from any person of the existence of a violation of a safety regulation issued under this subchapter.
In any investigation conducted pursuant to this section, the Secretary or the Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall have power to summon witnesses and to require the production of books, papers, documents, and any other evidence. Attendance of witnesses or the production of books, papers, documents, or any other evidence shall be compelled by a similar process, as in the district courts of the United States. Such Secretary, or his designee, shall administer all necessary oaths to any witnesses summoned before such investigation.
At the request of the Secretary, the Secretary of the Army, or the Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating, the Attorney General or a United States attorney shall institute a civil action in the district court of the United States for the district in which the affected operation is located for a temporary restraining order, injunction, or other appropriate remedy to enforce any provision of this subchapter, any regulation or order issued under this subchapter, or any term of a lease, license, or permit issued pursuant to this subchapter.
Any person who knowingly and willfully (1) violates any provision of this subchapter, any term of a lease, license, or permit issued pursuant to this subchapter, or any regulation or order issued under the authority of this subchapter designed to protect health, safety, or the environment or conserve natural resources, (2) makes any false statement, representation, or certification in any application, record, report, or other document filed or required to be maintained under this subchapter, (3) falsifies, tampers with, or renders inaccurate any monitoring device or method of record required to be maintained under this subchapter, or (4) reveals any data or information required to be kept confidential by this subchapter shall, upon conviction, be punished by a fine of not more than $100,000, or by imprisonment for not more than ten years, or both. Each day that a violation under clause (1) of this subsection continues, or each day that any monitoring device or data recorder remains inoperative or inaccurate because of any activity described in clause (3) of this subsection, shall constitute a separate violation.
Whenever a corporation or other entity is subject to prosecution under subsection (c) of this section, any officer or agent of such corporation or entity who knowingly and willfully authorized, ordered, or carried out the proscribed activity shall be subject to the same fines or imprisonment, or both, as provided for under subsection (c) of this section.
The remedies and penalties prescribed in this subchapter shall be concurrent and cumulative and the exercise of one shall not preclude the exercise of the others. Further, the remedies and penalties prescribed in this subchapter shall be in addition to any other remedies and penalties afforded by any other law or regulation.
After September 18, 1978, no oil and gas lease may be issued pursuant to this subchapter in any region of the outer Continental Shelf, other than the Gulf of Mexico, unless such lease requires that development and production activities be carried out in accordance with a plan which complies with the requirements of this section.
The Secretary shall not grant any license or permit for any activity described in detail in a plan and affecting any land use or water use in the coastal zone of a State with a coastal zone management program approved pursuant to section 306 of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (16 U.S.C. 1455), unless the State concurs or is conclusively presumed to concur with the consistency certification accompanying such plan pursuant to section 307(c)(3)(B)(i) or (ii) of such Act [16 U.S.C. 1456(c)(3)(B)(i) or (ii)], or the Secretary of Commerce makes the finding authorized by section 307(c)(3)(B)(iii) of such Act [16 U.S.C. 1456(c)(3)(B)(iii)].
If approval of a development and production plan is found to be a major Federal action, the Secretary shall transmit the draft environmental impact statement to the Governor of any affected State, and upon request, to the executive of any local government, and shall make such draft available to any appropriate interstate regional entity and the public.
If approval of a development and production plan is not found to be a major Federal action, the Governor of any affected State and the executive of any affected local government shall have sixty days from the date of receipt of the plan from the Secretary to submit comments and recommendations. Prior to submitting recommendations to the Secretary, the executive of any affected local government must forward his recommendations to the Governor of his State. Such comments and recommendations shall be made available to the public upon request. In addition, any interested person may submit comments and recommendations.
The Secretary may approve any revision of an approved plan proposed by the lessee if he determines that such revision will lead to greater recovery of oil and natural gas, improve the efficiency, safety, and environmental protection of the recovery operation, is the only means available to avoid substantial economic hardship to the lessee, or is otherwise not inconsistent with the provisions of this subchapter, to the extent such revision is consistent with protection of the human, marine, and coastal environments. Any revision of an approved plan which the Secretary determines is significant shall be reviewed in accordance with subsections (d) through (f) of this section.
Whenever the owner of any lease fails to submit a plan in accordance with regulations issued under this section, or fails to comply with an approved plan, the lease may be canceled in accordance with section 1334(c) and (d) of this title. Termination of a lease because of failure to comply with an approved plan, including required modifications or revisions, shall not entitle a lessee to any compensation.
If any development and production plan submitted to the Secretary pursuant to this section provides for the production and transportation of natural gas, the lessee shall contemporaneously submit to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission that portion of such plan which relates to production of natural gas and the facilities for transportation of natural gas. The Secretary and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission shall agree as to which of them shall prepare an environmental impact statement pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.] applicable to such portion of such plan, or conduct studies as to the effect on the environment of implementing it. Thereafter, the findings and recommendations by the agency preparing such environmental impact statement or conducting such studies pursuant to such agreement shall be adopted by the other agency, and such other agency shall not independently prepare another environmental impact statement or duplicate such studies with respect to such portion of such plan, but the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, in connection with its review of an application for a certificate of public convenience and necessity applicable to such transportation facilities pursuant to section 717f of title 15, may prepare such environmental studies or statement relevant to certification of such transportation facilities as have not been covered by an environmental impact statement or studies prepared by the Secretary. The Secretary, in consultation with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, shall promulgate rules to implement this subsection, but the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission shall retain sole authority with respect to rules and procedures applicable to the filing of any application with the Commission and to all aspects of the Commission’s review of, and action on, any such application.
The Secretary may require the provisions of this section to apply to an oil and gas lease issued or maintained under this subchapter, which is located in that area of the Gulf of Mexico which is adjacent to the State of Florida, as determined pursuant to section 1333(a)(2) of this title.
The Secretary shall prescribe regulations to (1) assure that the confidentiality of privileged or proprietary information received by the Secretary under this section will be maintained, and (2) set forth the time periods and conditions which shall be applicable to the release of such information. Such regulations shall include a provision that no such information will be transmitted to any affected State unless the lessee, or the permittee and all persons to whom such permittee has sold such information under promise of confidentiality, agree to such transmittal.
Prior to transmitting any privileged information to any State, or granting such State access to such information, the Secretary shall enter into a written agreement with the Governor of such State in which such State agrees, as a condition precedent to receiving or being granted access to such information, to waive the defenses set forth in subsection (f)(2) of this section, and to hold the United States harmless from any violations of the regulations prescribed pursuant to subsection (c) that the State or its employees may commit.
Any provision of State or local law which provides for public access to any privileged information received or obtained by any person pursuant to this subchapter is expressly preempted by the provisions of this section, to the extent that it applies to such information.
If the Secretary finds that any State cannot or does not comply with the regulations issued under subsection (c) of this section, he shall thereafter withhold transmittal and deny inspection of privileged information to such State until he finds that such State can and will comply with such regulations.
The lessee shall take any Federal oil or gas for which no acceptable bids are received, as determined by the Secretary, and which is not transferred pursuant to subsection (a)(3) of this section, and shall pay to the United States a cash amount equal to the regulated price, or, if no regulated price applies, the fair market value of the oil or gas so obtained.
Nothing in this section shall prohibit the right of the United States to purchase any oil or gas produced on the outer Continental Shelf as provided by section 1341(b) of this title.
Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section, any oil or gas produced from the outer Continental Shelf shall be subject to the requirements and provisions of the Export Administration Act of 1969.
Before any oil or gas subject to this section may be exported under the requirements and provisions of the Export Administration Act of 1969, the President shall make and publish an express finding that such exports will not increase reliance on imported oil or gas, are in the national interest, and are in accord with the provisions of the Export Administration Act of 1969.
The President shall submit reports to the Congress containing findings made under this section, and after the date of receipt of such report Congress shall have a period of sixty calendar days, thirty days of which Congress must have been in session, to consider whether exports under the terms of this section are in the national interest. If the Congress within such time period passes a concurrent resolution of disapproval stating disagreement with the President’s finding concerning the national interest, further exports made pursuant to such Presidential findings shall cease.
The provisions of this section shall not apply to any oil or gas which is either exchanged in similar quantity for convenience or increased efficiency of transportation with persons or the government of a foreign state, or which is temporarily exported for convenience or increased efficiency of transportation across parts of an adjacent foreign state and reenters the United States, or which is exchanged or exported pursuant to an existing international agreement.
The regulations issued under subsection (a)(2) of this section shall not apply to any vessel, rig, platform, or other vehicle or structure built prior to September 18, 1978, until such time after such date as such vehicle or structure is rebuilt.
The term “coastal population” means the population, as determined by the most recent official data of the Census Bureau, of each political subdivision any part of which lies within the designated coastal boundary of a State (as defined in a State’s coastal zone management program under the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (16 U.S.C. 1451 et seq.)).
The term “coastal State” has the meaning given the term in section 304 of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (16 U.S.C. 1453).
The term “coastline” has the meaning given the term “coast line” in section 1301 of this title.
The term “distance” means the minimum great circle distance, measured in statute miles.
The term “leased tract” means a tract that is subject to a lease under section 1335 or 1337 of this title for the purpose of drilling for, developing, and producing oil or natural gas resources.
The term “leasing moratoria” means the prohibitions on preleasing, leasing, and related activities on any geographic area of the outer Continental Shelf as contained in sections 107 through 109 of division E of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2005 (Public Law 108–447; 118 Stat. 3063).
The term “political subdivision” means the local political jurisdiction immediately below the level of State government, including counties, parishes, and boroughs.
The term “producing State” means a coastal State that has a coastal seaward boundary within 200 nautical miles of the geographic center of a leased tract within any area of the outer Continental Shelf.
The term “producing State” does not include a producing State, a majority of the coastline of which is subject to leasing moratoria, unless production was occurring on January 1, 2005, from a lease within 10 nautical miles of the coastline of that State.
The term “qualified Outer Continental Shelf revenues” includes bonus bids, rents, royalties (including payments for royalty taken in kind and sold), net profit share payments, and related late-payment interest from natural gas and oil leases issued under this subchapter.
The term “qualified Outer Continental Shelf revenues” does not include any revenues from a leased tract or portion of a leased tract that is located in a geographic area subject to a leasing moratorium on January 1, 2005, unless the lease was in production on January 1, 2005.
The Secretary shall, without further appropriation, disburse to producing States and coastal political subdivisions in accordance with this section $250,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2010.
In each fiscal year, the Secretary shall disburse to each producing State for which the Secretary has approved a plan under subsection (c), and to coastal political subdivisions under paragraph (4), such funds as are allocated to the producing State or coastal political subdivision, respectively, under this section for the fiscal year.
The amount allocated to a producing State under subparagraph (A) shall be at least 1 percent of the amounts available under paragraph (1).
The Secretary shall pay 35 percent of the allocable share of each producing State, as determined under paragraph (3) to the coastal political subdivisions in the producing State.
For the purposes of subparagraph (B)(ii), the coastline for coastal political subdivisions in the State of Louisiana without a coastline shall be considered to be ⅓ the average length of the coastline of all coastal political subdivisions with a coastline in the State of Louisiana.
For the purposes of carrying out subparagraph (B)(iii) in the State of Alaska, the amounts allocated shall be divided equally among the two coastal political subdivisions that are closest to the geographic center of a leased tract.
For purposes of subparagraph (B)(iii), a leased tract or portion of a leased tract shall be excluded if the tract or portion of a leased tract is located in a geographic area subject to a leasing moratorium on January 1, 2005, unless the lease was in production on that date.
Subject to subparagraph (B) and except as provided in subparagraph (C), in a case in which any amount allocated to a producing State or coastal political subdivision under paragraph (4) or (5) is not disbursed because the producing State does not have in effect a plan that has been approved by the Secretary under subsection (c), the Secretary shall allocate the undisbursed amount equally among all other producing States.
The Secretary shall hold in escrow an undisbursed amount described in subparagraph (A) until such date as the final appeal regarding the disapproval of a plan submitted under subsection (c) is decided.
The Secretary may waive subparagraph (A) with respect to an allocated share of a producing State and hold the allocable share in escrow if the Secretary determines that the producing State is making a good faith effort to develop and submit, or update, a plan in accordance with subsection (c).
Not later than July 1, 2008, the Governor of a producing State shall submit to the Secretary a coastal impact assistance plan.
The Secretary shall approve a plan of a producing State submitted under paragraph (1) before disbursing any amount to the producing State, or to a coastal political subdivision located in the producing State, under this section.
Not later than 90 days after the date on which a plan or amendment to a plan is submitted under paragraph (1) or (3), the Secretary shall approve or disapprove the plan or amendment.
If the Secretary determines that any expenditure made by a producing State or coastal political subdivision is not consistent with this subsection, the Secretary shall not disburse any additional amount under this section to the producing State or the coastal political subdivision until such time as all amounts obligated for unauthorized uses have been repaid or reobligated for authorized uses.
Not more than 23 percent of amounts received by a producing State or coastal political subdivision for any 1 fiscal year shall be used for the purposes described in subparagraphs (C) and (E) of paragraph (1).
The Secretary may, in the sole discretion of the Secretary, approve, on a project by project basis, the immediate disbursal of the funds under paragraph (1).
If the Secretary approves a project for funding under this subsection that is included in a plan previously approved under subsection (c), not later than 90 days after the date of the funding approval, the producing State or coastal political subdivision shall submit to the Secretary any additional information that the Secretary determines to be necessary to ensure that the project is in compliance with subsection (d).
If the Secretary approves a project for funding under this subsection that is not included in a plan previously approved under subsection (c), not later than 90 days after the date of the funding approval, the producing State or coastal political subdivision shall submit to the Secretary for approval an amendment to the plan that includes any projects funded under paragraph (1), as well as any information about such projects that the Secretary determines to be necessary to ensure that the project is in compliance with subsection (d).
If a producing State or coastal political subdivision does not submit the additional information or amendments to the plan required by this paragraph, or if, based on the information submitted by the Secretary determines that the project is not in compliance with subsection (d), by the deadlines specified in this paragraph, the Secretary shall not disburse any additional funds to the producing State or the coastal political subdivisions until the date on which the additional information or amendment to the plan has been approved by the Secretary.
After December 26, 2013, the Secretary may implement the terms of any transboundary hydrocarbon agreement for the management of transboundary hydrocarbon reservoirs entered into by the President and approved by Congress. In implementing such an agreement, the Secretary shall protect the interests of the United States to promote domestic job creation and ensure the expeditious and orderly development and conservation of domestic mineral resources in accordance with all applicable United States laws governing the exploration, development, and production of hydrocarbon resources on the Outer Continental Shelf.
The Secretary shall issue calls for information and nominations for proposed wind lease sales for areas of the outer Continental Shelf described in paragraph (2) that are determined to be feasible.
Not later than September 30, 2025, the Secretary shall issue an initial call for information and nominations under this paragraph.