Collapse to view only § 30117. Providing information to, and maintaining records on, purchasers

§ 30111.
Standards
(a)
General Requirements.—
The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe motor vehicle safety standards. Each standard shall be practicable, meet the need for motor vehicle safety, and be stated in objective terms.
(b)
Considerations and Consultation.—
When prescribing a motor vehicle safety standard under this chapter, the Secretary shall—
(1) consider relevant available motor vehicle safety information;
(2) consult with the agency established under the Act of August 20, 1958 (Public Law 85–684, 72 Stat. 635), and other appropriate State or interstate authorities (including legislative committees);
(3) consider whether a proposed standard is reasonable, practicable, and appropriate for the particular type of motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment for which it is prescribed; and
(4) consider the extent to which the standard will carry out section 30101 of this title.
(c)
Cooperation.—
The Secretary may advise, assist, and cooperate with departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government, States, and other public and private agencies in developing motor vehicle safety standards.
(d)
Effective Dates of Standards.—
The Secretary shall specify the effective date of a motor vehicle safety standard prescribed under this chapter in the order prescribing the standard. A standard may not become effective before the 180th day after the standard is prescribed or later than one year after it is prescribed. However, the Secretary may prescribe a different effective date after finding, for good cause shown, that a different effective date is in the public interest and publishing the reasons for the finding.
(e)
5-Year Plan for Testing Standards.—
The Secretary shall establish and periodically review and update on a continuing basis a 5-year plan for testing motor vehicle safety standards prescribed under this chapter that the Secretary considers capable of being tested. In developing the plan and establishing testing priorities, the Secretary shall consider factors the Secretary considers appropriate, consistent with section 30101 of this title and the Secretary’s other duties and powers under this chapter. The Secretary may change at any time those priorities to address matters the Secretary considers of greater priority. The initial plan may be the 5-year plan for compliance testing in effect on December 18, 1991.
(f)
Motor Vehicle Safety Guidelines.—
(1)
In general.—
No guidelines issued by the Secretary with respect to motor vehicle safety shall confer any rights on any person, State, or locality, nor shall operate to bind the Secretary or any person to the approach recommended in such guidelines. In any enforcement action with respect to motor vehicle safety, the Secretary shall allege a violation of a provision of this subtitle, a motor vehicle safety standard issued under this subtitle, or another relevant statute or regulation. The Secretary may not base an enforcement action on, or execute a consent order based on, practices that are alleged to be inconsistent with any such guidelines, unless the practices allegedly violate a provision of this subtitle, a motor vehicle safety standard issued under this subtitle, or another relevant statute or regulation.
(2)
Rule of construction.—
Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to confer any authority upon or negate any authority of the Secretary to issue guidelines under this chapter.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 944; Pub. L. 114–94, div. B, title XXIV, § 24406, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1725.)
§ 30112.
Prohibitions on manufacturing, selling, and importing noncomplying motor vehicles and equipment
(a)
General.—
(1) Except as provided in this section, sections 30113 and 30114 of this title, and subchapter III of this chapter, a person may not manufacture for sale, sell, offer for sale, introduce or deliver for introduction in interstate commerce, or import into the United States, any motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment manufactured on or after the date an applicable motor vehicle safety standard prescribed under this chapter takes effect unless the vehicle or equipment complies with the standard and is covered by a certification issued under section 30115 of this title.
(2) Except as provided in this section, sections 30113 and 30114 of this title, and subchapter III of this chapter, a school or school system may not purchase or lease a new 15-passenger van if it will be used significantly by, or on behalf of, the school or school system to transport preprimary, primary, or secondary school students to or from school or an event related to school, unless the 15-passenger van complies with the motor vehicle standards prescribed for school buses and multifunction school activity buses under this title. This paragraph does not apply to the purchase or lease of a 15-passenger van under a contract executed before the date of enactment of this paragraph.
(3) Except as provided in this section, section 30114, subsections (i) and (j) of section 30120, and subchapter III, a person may not sell, offer for sale, introduce or deliver for introduction in interstate commerce, or import into the United States any motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment if the vehicle or equipment contains a defect related to motor vehicle safety about which notice was given under section 30118(c) or an order was issued under section 30118(b). Nothing in this paragraph may be construed to prohibit the importation of a new motor vehicle that receives a required recall remedy before being sold to a consumer in the United States.
(b)
Nonapplication.—
This section does not apply to—
(1) the sale, offer for sale, or introduction or delivery for introduction in interstate commerce of a motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment after the first purchase of the vehicle or equipment in good faith other than for resale;
(2)
a person—
(A) establishing that the person had no reason to know, despite exercising reasonable care, that a motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment does not comply with applicable motor vehicle safety standards prescribed under this chapter;
(B) holding, without knowing about the noncompliance and before the vehicle or equipment is first purchased in good faith other than for resale, a certificate issued by a manufacturer or importer stating the vehicle or equipment complies with applicable standards prescribed under this chapter; or
(C) having no reason to know, despite exercising reasonable care, that a motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment contains a defect related to motor vehicle safety about which notice was given under section 30118(c) or an order was issued under section 30118(b);
(3) a motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment intended only for export, labeled for export on the vehicle or equipment and on the outside of any container of the vehicle or equipment, and exported;
(4) a motor vehicle the Secretary of Transportation decides under section 30141 of this title is capable of complying with applicable standards prescribed under this chapter;
(5) a motor vehicle imported for personal use by an individual who receives an exemption under section 30142 of this title;
(6) a motor vehicle under section 30143 of this title imported by an individual employed outside the United States;
(7) a motor vehicle under section 30144 of this title imported on a temporary basis;
(8) a motor vehicle or item of motor vehicle equipment under section 30145 of this title requiring further manufacturing;
(9) a motor vehicle that is at least 25 years old; or
(10)
the introduction of a motor vehicle in interstate commerce solely for purposes of testing or evaluation by a manufacturer that agrees not to sell or offer for sale the motor vehicle at the conclusion of the testing or evaluation and that prior to the date of enactment of this paragraph—
(A) has manufactured and distributed motor vehicles into the United States that are certified to comply with all applicable Federal motor vehicle safety standards;
(B) has submitted to the Secretary appropriate manufacturer identification information under part 566 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations; and
(C) if applicable, has identified an agent for service of process in accordance with part 551 of such title.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 945; Pub. L. 109–59, title X, § 10309(b), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1942; Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title I, § 31207, July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 761; Pub. L. 114–94, div. B, title XXIV, § 24404, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1721.)
§ 30113.
General exemptions
(a)
Definition.—
In this section, “low-emission motor vehicle” means a motor vehicle meeting the standards for new motor vehicles applicable to the vehicle under section 202 of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7521) when the vehicle is manufactured and emitting an air pollutant in an amount significantly below one of those standards.
(b)
Authority To Exempt and Procedures.—
(1) The Secretary of Transportation may exempt, on a temporary basis, motor vehicles from a motor vehicle safety standard prescribed under this chapter or passenger motor vehicles from a bumper standard prescribed under chapter 325 of this title, on terms the Secretary considers appropriate. An exemption may be renewed. A renewal may be granted only on reapplication and must conform to the requirements of this subsection.
(2) The Secretary may begin a proceeding under this subsection when a manufacturer applies for an exemption or a renewal of an exemption. The Secretary shall publish notice of the application and provide an opportunity to comment. An application for an exemption or for a renewal of an exemption shall be filed at a time and in the way, and contain information, this section and the Secretary require.
(3)
The Secretary may act under this subsection on finding that—
(A) an exemption is consistent with the public interest and this chapter or chapter 325 of this title (as applicable); and
(B)
(i) compliance with the standard would cause substantial economic hardship to a manufacturer that has tried to comply with the standard in good faith;
(ii) the exemption would make easier the development or field evaluation of a new motor vehicle safety feature providing a safety level at least equal to the safety level of the standard;
(iii) the exemption would make the development or field evaluation of a low-emission motor vehicle easier and would not unreasonably lower the safety level of that vehicle; or
(iv) compliance with the standard would prevent the manufacturer from selling a motor vehicle with an overall safety level at least equal to the overall safety level of nonexempt vehicles.
(c)
Contents of Applications.—
A manufacturer applying for an exemption under subsection (b) of this section shall include the following information in the application:
(1) if the application is made under subsection (b)(3)(B)(i) of this section, a complete financial statement describing the economic hardship and a complete description of the manufacturer’s good faith effort to comply with each motor vehicle safety standard prescribed under this chapter, or a bumper standard prescribed under chapter 325 of this title, from which the manufacturer is requesting an exemption.
(2) if the application is made under subsection (b)(3)(B)(ii) of this section, a record of the research, development, and testing establishing the innovative nature of the safety feature and a detailed analysis establishing that the safety level of the feature at least equals the safety level of the standard.
(3) if the application is made under subsection (b)(3)(B)(iii) of this section, a record of the research, development, and testing establishing that the motor vehicle is a low-emission motor vehicle and that the safety level of the vehicle is not lowered unreasonably by exemption from the standard.
(4) if the application is made under subsection (b)(3)(B)(iv) of this section, a detailed analysis showing how the vehicle provides an overall safety level at least equal to the overall safety level of nonexempt vehicles.
(d)
Eligibility.—
A manufacturer is eligible for an exemption under subsection (b)(3)(B)(i) of this section (including an exemption under subsection (b)(3)(B)(i) relating to a bumper standard referred to in subsection (b)(1)) only if the Secretary determines that the manufacturer’s total motor vehicle production in the most recent year of production is not more than 10,000. A manufacturer is eligible for an exemption under subsection (b)(3)(B)(ii), (iii), or (iv) of this section only if the Secretary determines the exemption is for not more than 2,500 vehicles to be sold in the United States in any 12-month period.
(e)
Maximum Period.—
An exemption or renewal under subsection (b)(3)(B)(i) of this section may be granted for not more than 3 years. An exemption or renewal under subsection (b)(3)(B)(ii), (iii), or (iv) of this section may be granted for not more than 2 years.
(f)
Disclosure.—
The Secretary may make public, by the 10th day after an application is filed, information contained in the application or relevant to the application unless the information concerns or is related to a trade secret or other confidential information not relevant to the application.
(g)
Notice of Decision.—
The Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a notice of each decision granting an exemption under this section and the reasons for granting it.
(h)
Permanent Label Requirement.—
The Secretary shall require a permanent label to be fixed to a motor vehicle granted an exemption under this section. The label shall either name or describe each motor vehicle safety standard prescribed under this chapter or bumper standard prescribed under chapter 325 of this title from which the vehicle is exempt. The Secretary may require that written notice of an exemption be delivered by appropriate means to the dealer and the first purchaser of the vehicle other than for resale.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 945; Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, § 101(g) [title III, § 351(a)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–439, 2681–475.)
§ 30114.
Special exemptions
(a)
1
1 So in original. Probably should be “(a)”.
Vehicles Used for Particular Purposes.2
2 So in original. Probably should be followed by a dash.
The Secretary of Transportation may exempt a motor vehicle or item of motor vehicle equipment from section 30112(a) of this title on terms the Secretary decides are necessary for research, investigations, demonstrations, training, competitive racing events, show, or display.
(b)
Exemption for Low-volume Manufacturers.—
(1)
In general.—
The Secretary shall—
(A) exempt from section 30112(a) of this title not more than 325 replica motor vehicles per year that are manufactured or imported by a low-volume manufacturer; and
(B) except as provided in paragraph (4) of this subsection, limit any such exemption to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards applicable to motor vehicles and not motor vehicle equipment.
(2)
Registration requirement.—
To qualify for an exemption under paragraph (1), a low-volume manufacturer shall register with the Secretary at such time, in such manner, and under such terms that the Secretary determines appropriate. The Secretary shall establish terms that ensure that no person may register as a low-volume manufacturer if the person is registered as an importer under section 30141 of this title.
(3)
Permanent label requirement.—
(A)
In general.—
The Secretary shall require a low-volume manufacturer to affix a permanent label to a motor vehicle exempted under paragraph (1) that identifies the specified standards and regulations for which such vehicle is exempt from section 30112(a), states that the vehicle is a replica, and designates the model year such vehicle replicates.
(B)
Written notice.—
The Secretary may require a low-volume manufacturer of a motor vehicle exempted under paragraph (1) to deliver written notice of the exemption to—
(i) the dealer; and
(ii) the first purchaser of the motor vehicle, if the first purchaser is not an individual that purchases the motor vehicle for resale.
(C)
Reporting requirement.—
A low-volume manufacturer shall annually submit a report to the Secretary including the number and description of the motor vehicles exempted under paragraph (1) and a list of the exemptions described on the label affixed under subparagraph (A).
(4)
Effect on other provisions.—
Any motor vehicle exempted under this subsection shall also be exempted from sections 32304, 32502, and 32902 of this title and from section 3 of the Automobile Information Disclosure Act (15 U.S.C. 1232).
(5)
Limitation and public notice.—
The Secretary shall have 90 days to review and approve or deny a registration submitted under paragraph (2). If the Secretary determines that any such registration submitted is incomplete, the Secretary shall have an additional 30 days for review. Any registration not approved or denied within 90 days after initial submission, or 120 days if the registration submitted is incomplete, shall be deemed approved. The Secretary shall have the authority to revoke an existing registration based on a failure to comply with requirements set forth in this subsection or a finding by the Secretary of a safety-related defect or unlawful conduct under this chapter that poses a significant safety risk. The registrant shall be provided a reasonable opportunity to correct all deficiencies, if such are correctable based on the sole discretion of the Secretary. An exemption granted by the Secretary to a low-volume manufacturer under this subsection may not be transferred to any other person, and shall expire at the end of the calendar year for which it was granted with respect to any volume authorized by the exemption that was not applied by the low-volume manufacturer to vehicles built during that calendar year. The Secretary shall maintain an up-to-date list of registrants and a list of the make and model of motor vehicles exempted under paragraph (1) on at least an annual basis and publish such list in the Federal Register or on a website operated by the Secretary.
(6)
Limitation of liability for original manufacturers, licensors or owners of product configuration, trade dress, or design patents.—
The original manufacturer, its successor or assignee, or current owner, who grants a license or otherwise transfers rights to a low-volume manufacturer shall incur no liability to any person or entity under Federal or State statute, regulation, local ordinance, or under any Federal or State common law for such license or assignment to a low-volume manufacturer.
(7)
Definitions.—
In this subsection:
(A)
Low-volume manufacturer.—
The term “low-volume manufacturer” means a motor vehicle manufacturer, other than a person who is registered as an importer under section 30141 of this title, whose annual worldwide production, including by a parent or subsidiary of the manufacturer, if applicable, is not more than 5,000 motor vehicles.
(B)
Replica motor vehicle.—
The term “replica motor vehicle” means a motor vehicle produced by a low-volume manufacturer and that—
(i) is intended to resemble the body of another motor vehicle that was manufactured not less than 25 years before the manufacture of the replica motor vehicle; and
(ii) is manufactured under a license for the product configuration, trade dress, trademark, or patent, for the motor vehicle that is intended to be replicated from the original manufacturer, its successors or assignees, or current owner of such product configuration, trade dress, trademark, or patent rights.
(8)
Construction.—
Except as provided in paragraphs (1) and (4), a registrant shall be considered a motor vehicle manufacturer for purposes of parts A and C of subtitle VI of this title. Nothing shall be construed to exempt a registrant from complying with the requirements under sections 30116 through 30120A of this title if the motor vehicle excepted under paragraph (1) contains a defect related to motor vehicle safety.
(9)
State registration.—
Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to preempt, affect, or supersede any State titling or registration law or regulation for a replica motor vehicle, or exempt a person from complying with such law or regulation.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 947; Pub. L. 105–178, title VII, § 7107(a), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 469; Pub. L. 114–94, div. B, title XXIV, § 24405(a), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1721.)
§ 30115.
Certification of compliance
(a)
In General.—
A manufacturer or distributor of a motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment shall certify to the distributor or dealer at delivery that the vehicle or equipment complies with applicable motor vehicle safety standards prescribed under this chapter. A person may not issue the certificate if, in exercising reasonable care, the person has reason to know the certificate is false or misleading in a material respect. Certification of a vehicle must be shown by a label or tag permanently fixed to the vehicle. Certification of equipment may be shown by a label or tag on the equipment or on the outside of the container in which the equipment is delivered.
(b)
Certification Label.—
In the case of the certification label affixed by an intermediate or final stage manufacturer of a motor vehicle built in more than 1 stage, each intermediate or final stage manufacturer shall certify with respect to each applicable Federal motor vehicle safety standard—
(1) that it has complied with the specifications set forth in the compliance documentation provided by the incomplete motor vehicle manufacturer in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary; or
(2)
If the intermediate or final stage manufacturer elects to assume responsibility for compliance with the standard covered by the documentation provided by an incomplete motor vehicle manufacturer, the intermediate or final stage manufacturer shall notify the incomplete motor vehicle manufacturer in writing within a reasonable time of affixing the certification label. A violation of this subsection shall not be subject to a civil penalty under section 30165.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 947; Pub. L. 106–414, § 9, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1805.)
§ 30116.
Defects and noncompliance found before sale to purchaser
(a)
Actions Required of Manufacturers and Distributors.—
If, after a manufacturer or distributor sells a motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment to a distributor or dealer and before the distributor or dealer sells the vehicle or equipment, it is decided that the vehicle or equipment contains a defect related to motor vehicle safety or does not comply with applicable motor vehicle safety standards prescribed under this chapter—
(1) the manufacturer or distributor immediately shall repurchase the vehicle or equipment at the price paid by the distributor or dealer, plus transportation charges and reasonable reimbursement of at least one percent a month of the price paid prorated from the date of notice of noncompliance or defect to the date of repurchase; or
(2) if a vehicle, the manufacturer or distributor immediately shall give to the distributor or dealer at the manufacturer’s or distributor’s own expense, the part or equipment needed to make the vehicle comply with the standards or correct the defect.
(b)
Distributor or Dealer Installation.—
The distributor or dealer shall install the part or equipment referred to in subsection (a)(2) of this section. If the distributor or dealer installs the part or equipment with reasonable diligence after it is received, the manufacturer shall reimburse the distributor or dealer for the reasonable value of the installation and a reasonable reimbursement of at least one percent a month of the manufacturer’s or distributor’s selling price prorated from the date of notice of noncompliance or defect to the date the motor vehicle complies with applicable motor vehicle safety standards prescribed under this chapter or the defect is corrected.
(c)
Establishing Amount Due and Civil Actions.—
The parties shall establish the value of installation and the amount of reimbursement under this section. If the parties do not agree, or if a manufacturer or distributor refuses to comply with subsection (a) or (b) of this section, the distributor or dealer purchasing the motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment may bring a civil action. The action may be brought in a United States district court for the judicial district in which the manufacturer or distributor resides, is found, or has an agent, to recover damages, court costs, and a reasonable attorney’s fee. An action under this section must be brought not later than 3 years after the claim accrues.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 947.)
§ 30117.
Providing information to, and maintaining records on, purchasers
(a)
Providing Information and Notice.—
The Secretary of Transportation may require that each manufacturer of a motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment provide technical information related to performance and safety required to carry out this chapter. The Secretary may require the manufacturer to give the following notice of that information when the Secretary decides it is necessary:
(1) to each prospective purchaser of a vehicle or equipment before the first sale other than for resale at each location at which the vehicle or equipment is offered for sale by a person having a legal relationship with the manufacturer, in a way the Secretary decides is appropriate.
(2) to the first purchaser of a vehicle or equipment other than for resale when the vehicle or equipment is bought, in printed matter placed in the vehicle or attached to or accompanying the equipment.
(b)
Maintaining Purchaser Records and Procedures.—
(1) A manufacturer of a motor vehicle or tire (except a retreaded tire) shall cause to be maintained a record of the name and address of the first purchaser of each vehicle or tire it produces and, to the extent prescribed by regulations of the Secretary, shall cause to be maintained a record of the name and address of the first purchaser of replacement equipment (except a tire) that the manufacturer produces. The Secretary may prescribe by regulation the records to be maintained and reasonable procedures for maintaining the records under this subsection, including procedures to be followed by distributors and dealers to assist the manufacturer in obtaining the information required by this subsection. A procedure shall be reasonable for the type of vehicle or tire involved, and shall provide reasonable assurance that a customer list of a distributor or dealer, or similar information, will be made available to a person (except the distributor or dealer) only when necessary to carry out this subsection and sections 30118–30121, 30166(f), and 30167(a) and (b) of this title. Availability of assistance from a distributor or dealer does not affect an obligation of a manufacturer under this subsection.
(2)
(A) Except as provided in paragraph (3) of this subsection, the Secretary may require a distributor or dealer to maintain a record under paragraph (1) of this subsection only if the business of the distributor or dealer is owned or controlled by a manufacturer of tires.
(B) The Secretary shall require each distributor and dealer whose business is not owned or controlled by a manufacturer of tires to give a registration form (containing the tire identification number) to the first purchaser of a tire. The Secretary shall prescribe the form, which shall be standardized for all tires and designed to allow the purchaser to complete and return it directly to the manufacturer of the tire. The manufacturer shall give sufficient copies of forms to distributors and dealers.
(3)
Rulemaking.—
(A)
In general.—
The Secretary shall initiate a rulemaking to require a distributor or dealer of tires that is not owned or controlled by a manufacturer of tires to maintain records of—
(i) the name and address of tire purchasers and lessors;
(ii) information identifying the tire that was purchased or leased; and
(iii) any additional records the Secretary considers appropriate.
(B)
Electronic transmission.—
The rulemaking carried out under subparagraph (A) shall require a distributor or dealer of tires that is not owned or controlled by a manufacturer of tires to electronically transmit the records described in clauses (i), (ii), and (iii) of subparagraph (A) to the manufacturer of the tires or the designee of the manufacturer by secure means at no cost to tire purchasers or lessors.
(C)
Satisfaction of requirements.—
A regulation promulgated under subparagraph (A) may be considered to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (2)(B).
(c)
Rollover Tests.—
(1)
Development.—
Not later than 2 years from the date of the enactment of this subsection, the Secretary shall—
(A) develop a dynamic test on rollovers by motor vehicles for the purposes of a consumer information program; and
(B) carry out a program of conducting such tests.
(2)
Test results.—
As the Secretary develops a test under paragraph (1)(A), the Secretary shall conduct a rulemaking to determine how best to disseminate test results to the public.
(3)
Motor vehicles covered.—
This subsection applies to motor vehicles, including passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, and trucks, with a gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 pounds or less. A motor vehicle designed to provide temporary residential accommodations is not covered.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 948; Pub. L. 106–414, § 12, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1806; Pub. L. 114–94, div. B, title XXIV, § 24333, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1715.)
§ 30118.
Notification of defects and noncompliance
(a)
Notification by Secretary.—
The Secretary of Transportation shall notify the manufacturer of a motor vehicle or replacement equipment immediately after making an initial decision (through testing, inspection, investigation, or research carried out under this chapter, examining communications under section 30166(f) of this title, or otherwise) that the vehicle or equipment contains a defect related to motor vehicle safety or does not comply with an applicable motor vehicle safety standard prescribed under this chapter. The notification shall include the information on which the decision is based. The Secretary shall publish a notice of each decision under this subsection in the Federal Register. Subject to section 30167(a) of this title, the notification and information are available to any interested person.
(b)
Defect and Noncompliance Proceedings and Orders.—
(1) The Secretary may make a final decision that a motor vehicle or replacement equipment contains a defect related to motor vehicle safety or does not comply with an applicable motor vehicle safety standard prescribed under this chapter only after giving the manufacturer an opportunity to present information, views, and arguments showing that there is no defect or noncompliance or that the defect does not affect motor vehicle safety. Any interested person also shall be given an opportunity to present information, views, and arguments.
(2)
If the Secretary decides under paragraph (1) of this subsection that the vehicle or equipment contains the defect or does not comply, the Secretary shall order the manufacturer to—
(A) give notification under section 30119 of this title to the owners, purchasers, and dealers of the vehicle or equipment of the defect or noncompliance; and
(B) remedy the defect or noncompliance under section 30120 of this title.
(c)
Notification by Manufacturer.—
A manufacturer of a motor vehicle or replacement equipment shall notify the Secretary by certified mail or electronic mail, and the owners, purchasers, and dealers of the vehicle or equipment as provided in section 30119(d) of this section, if the manufacturer—
(1) learns the vehicle or equipment contains a defect and decides in good faith that the defect is related to motor vehicle safety; or
(2) decides in good faith that the vehicle or equipment does not comply with an applicable motor vehicle safety standard prescribed under this chapter.
(d)
Exemptions.—
On application of a manufacturer, the Secretary shall exempt the manufacturer from this section if the Secretary decides a defect or noncompliance is inconsequential to motor vehicle safety. The Secretary may take action under this subsection only after notice in the Federal Register and an opportunity for any interested person to present information, views, and arguments.
(e)
Hearings About Meeting Notification Requirements.—
On the motion of the Secretary or on petition of any interested person, the Secretary may conduct a hearing to decide whether the manufacturer has reasonably met the notification requirements under this section. Any interested person may make written and oral presentations of information, views, and arguments on whether the manufacturer has reasonably met the notification requirements. If the Secretary decides that the manufacturer has not reasonably met the notification requirements, the Secretary shall order the manufacturer to take specified action to meet those requirements and may take any other action authorized under this chapter.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 950; Pub. L. 106–346, § 101(a) [title III, § 364], Oct. 23, 2000, 114 Stat. 1356, 1356A–37; Pub. L. 106–414, § 2, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1800; Pub. L. 114–94, div. B, title XXIV, § 24104(b), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1703.)
§ 30119.
Notification procedures
(a)
Contents of Notification.—
Notification by a manufacturer required under section 30118 of this title of a defect or noncompliance shall contain—
(1) a clear description of the defect or noncompliance;
(2) an evaluation of the risk to motor vehicle safety reasonably related to the defect or noncompliance;
(3) the measures to be taken to obtain a remedy of the defect or noncompliance;
(4) a statement that the manufacturer giving notice will remedy the defect or noncompliance without charge under section 30120 of this title;
(5) the earliest date on which the defect or noncompliance will be remedied without charge, and for tires, the period during which the defect or noncompliance will be remedied without charge under section 30120 of this title;
(6) the procedure the recipient of a notice is to follow to inform the Secretary of Transportation when a manufacturer, distributor, or dealer does not remedy the defect or noncompliance without charge under section 30120 of this title; and
(7) other information the Secretary prescribes by regulation.
(b)
Earliest Remedy Date.—
The date specified by a manufacturer in a notification under subsection (a)(5) of this section or section 30121(c)(2) of this title is the earliest date that parts and facilities reasonably can be expected to be available to remedy the defect or noncompliance. The Secretary may disapprove the date.
(c)
Time for Notification.—
Notification required under section 30118 of this title shall be given within a reasonable time—
(1) prescribed by the Secretary, after the manufacturer receives notice of a final decision under section 30118(b) of this title; or
(2) after the manufacturer first decides that a safety-related defect or noncompliance exists under section 30118(c) of this title.
(d)
Means of Providing Notification.—
(1)
Notification required under section 30118 of this title about a motor vehicle shall be sent in the manner prescribed by the Secretary, by regulation—
(A) to each person registered under State law as the owner and whose name and address are reasonably ascertainable by the manufacturer through State records or other available sources; or
(B) if a registered owner is not notified under clause (A) of this paragraph, to the most recent purchaser known to the manufacturer.
(2) Notification required under section 30118 of this title about replacement equipment shall be sent in the manner prescribed by the Secretary, by regulation, to the most recent purchaser known to the manufacturer.
(3)
In addition to the notification required under paragraphs (1) and (2), if the Secretary decides that public notice is required for motor vehicle safety, public notice shall be given by the manufacturer in the way required by the Secretary after consulting with the manufacturer. In deciding whether public notice is required, the Secretary shall consider—
(A) the magnitude of the risk to motor vehicle safety caused by the defect or noncompliance; and
(B) the cost of public notice compared to the additional number of owners the notice may reach.
(4) A dealer to whom a motor vehicle or replacement equipment was delivered shall be notified in the manner prescribed by the Secretary, by regulation.
(e)
Additional Notification.—
(1)
Second notification.—
If the Secretary decides that a notification sent by a manufacturer under this section has not resulted in an adequate number of motor vehicles or items of replacement equipment being returned for remedy, the Secretary may order the manufacturer to send a 2d notification in the way the Secretary prescribes by regulation.
(2)
Additional notifications.—
If the Secretary determines, after taking into account the severity of the defect or noncompliance, that the second notification by a manufacturer does not result in an adequate number of motor vehicles or items of replacement equipment being returned for remedy, the Secretary may order the manufacturer—
(A)
(i) to send additional notifications in the manner prescribed by the Secretary, by regulation; or
(ii) to take additional steps to locate and notify each person registered under State law as the owner or lessee or the most recent purchaser or lessee, as appropriate; and
(B) to emphasize the magnitude of the safety risk caused by the defect or noncompliance in such notification.
(f)
Notification by Lessor to Lessee.—
(1) In this subsection, “leased motor vehicle” means a motor vehicle that is leased to a person for at least 4 months by a lessor that has leased at least 5 motor vehicles in the 12 months before the date of the notification.
(2) A lessor that receives a notification required by section 30118 of this title about a leased motor vehicle shall provide a copy of the notification to the lessee in the way the Secretary prescribes by regulation.
(g)
Information Regarding Components Involved in Recall.—
A manufacturer that is required to furnish a report under section 573.6 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulation) for a defect or noncompliance in a motor vehicle or in an item of original or replacement equipment shall, if such defect or noncompliance involves a specific component or components, include in such report, with respect to such component or components, the following information:
(1) The name of the component or components.
(2) A description of the component or components.
(3) The part number of the component or components, if any.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 951; Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title I, § 31310, July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 771; Pub. L. 114–94, div. B, title XXIV, § 24116, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1711.)
§ 30120.
Remedies for defects and noncompliance
(a)
Ways To Remedy.—
(1)
Subject to subsections (f) and (g) of this section, when notification of a defect or noncompliance is required under section 30118(b) or (c) of this title, the manufacturer of the defective or noncomplying motor vehicle or replacement equipment shall remedy the defect or noncompliance without charge when the vehicle or equipment is presented for remedy. Subject to subsections (b) and (c) of this section, the manufacturer shall remedy the defect or noncompliance in any of the following ways the manufacturer chooses:
(A)
if a vehicle—
(i) by repairing the vehicle;
(ii) by replacing the vehicle with an identical or reasonably equivalent vehicle; or
(iii) by refunding the purchase price, less a reasonable allowance for depreciation.
(B) if replacement equipment, by repairing the equipment, replacing the equipment with identical or reasonably equivalent equipment, or by refunding the purchase price.
(2) The Secretary of Transportation may prescribe regulations to allow the manufacturer to impose conditions on the replacement of a motor vehicle or refund of its price.
(b)
Tire Remedies.—
(1)
A manufacturer of a tire, including an original equipment tire, shall remedy a defective or noncomplying tire if the owner or purchaser presents the tire for remedy not later than 180 days after the later of—
(A) the day the owner or purchaser receives notification under section 30119 of this title; or
(B) if the manufacturer decides to replace the tire, the day the owner or purchaser receives notification that a replacement is available.
(2) If the manufacturer decides to replace the tire and the replacement is not available during the 180-day period, the owner or purchaser must present the tire for remedy during a subsequent 180-day period that begins only after the owner or purchaser receives notification that a replacement will be available during the subsequent period. If tires are available during the subsequent period, only a tire presented for remedy during that period must be remedied.
(c)
Adequacy of Repairs.—
(1)
If a manufacturer decides to repair a defective or noncomplying motor vehicle or replacement equipment and the repair is not done adequately within a reasonable time, the manufacturer shall—
(A) replace the vehicle or equipment without charge with an identical or reasonably equivalent vehicle or equipment; or
(B) for a vehicle, refund the purchase price, less a reasonable allowance for depreciation.
(2) Failure to repair a motor vehicle or replacement equipment adequately not later than 60 days after its presentation is prima facie evidence of failure to repair within a reasonable time. However, the Secretary may extend, by order, the 60-day period if good cause for an extension is shown and the reason is published in the Federal Register before the period ends. Presentation of a vehicle or equipment for repair before the date specified by a manufacturer in a notice under section 30119(a)(5) or 30121(c)(2) of this title is not a presentation under this subsection.
(3)
If the Secretary determines that a manufacturer’s remedy program is not likely to be capable of completion within a reasonable time, the Secretary may require the manufacturer to accelerate the remedy program if the Secretary finds—
(A) that there is a risk of serious injury or death if the remedy program is not accelerated; and
(B) that acceleration of the remedy program can be reasonably achieved by expanding the sources of replacement parts, expanding the number of authorized repair facilities, or both.
The Secretary may prescribe regulations to carry out this paragraph.
(d)
Filing Manufacturer’s Remedy Program.—
A manufacturer shall file with the Secretary a copy of the manufacturer’s program under this section for remedying a defect or noncompliance. The Secretary shall make the program available to the public and publish a notice of availability in the Federal Register. A manufacturer’s remedy program shall include a plan for reimbursing an owner or purchaser who incurred the cost of the remedy within a reasonable time in advance of the manufacturer’s notification under subsection (b) or (c) of section 30118. The Secretary may prescribe regulations establishing what constitutes a reasonable time for purposes of the preceding sentence and other reasonable conditions for the reimbursement plan. In the case of a remedy program involving the replacement of tires, the manufacturer shall include a plan addressing how to prevent, to the extent reasonably within the control of the manufacturer, replaced tires from being resold for installation on a motor vehicle, and how to limit, to the extent reasonably within the control of the manufacturer, the disposal of replaced tires in landfills, particularly through shredding, crumbling, recycling, recovery, and other alternative beneficial non-vehicular uses. The manufacturer shall include information about the implementation of such plan with each quarterly report to the Secretary regarding the progress of any notification or remedy campaigns.
(e)
Hearings About Meeting Remedy Requirements.—
On the motion of the Secretary or on application by any interested person, the Secretary may conduct a hearing to decide whether the manufacturer has reasonably met the remedy requirements under this section. Any interested person may make written and oral presentations of information, views, and arguments on whether the manufacturer has reasonably met the remedy requirements. If the Secretary decides a manufacturer has not reasonably met the remedy requirements, the Secretary shall order the manufacturer to take specified action to meet those requirements and may take any other action authorized under this chapter.
(f)
Fair Reimbursement to Dealers.—
(1)
In general.—
A manufacturer 1
1 See 2015 Amendment note below.
shall pay fair reimbursement to a dealer providing a remedy without charge under this section if—
(A) at the time of providing service for each of the manufacturer’s motor vehicles it services, the dealer notifies the owner or the individual requesting the service of any open recall; and
(B) the notification requirement under subparagraph (A) is specified in a franchise, operating, or other agreement between the dealer and the manufacturer.
(2)
Definition of open recall.—
In this subsection, the term “open recall” means a recall for which a notification by a manufacturer has been provided under section 30119 and that has not been remedied under this section.
(g)
Nonapplication.—
(1) The requirement that a remedy be provided without charge does not apply if the motor vehicle or replacement equipment was bought by the first purchaser more than 15 calendar years, or the tire, including an original equipment tire, was bought by the first purchaser more than 5 calendar years, before notice is given under section 30118(c) of this title or an order is issued under section 30118(b) of this title, whichever is earlier.
(2) This section does not apply during any period in which enforcement of an order under section 30118(b) of this title is restrained or the order is set aside in a civil action to which section 30121(d) of this title applies.
(h)
Exemptions.—
On application of a manufacturer, the Secretary shall exempt the manufacturer from this section if the Secretary decides a defect or noncompliance is inconsequential to motor vehicle safety. The Secretary may take action under this subsection only after notice in the Federal Register and an opportunity for any interested person to present information, views, and arguments.
(i)
Limitation on Sale or Lease of New Vehicles or Equipment, or Rental.—
(1)
In general.—
If notification is required by an order under section 30118(b) of this title or is required under section 30118(c) of this title and the manufacturer has provided to a dealer (including retailers of motor vehicle equipment) notification about a new motor vehicle or new item of replacement equipment in the dealer’s possession at the time of notification or the manufacturer has provided to a rental company notification about a covered rental vehicle in the company’s possession at the time of notification that contains a defect related to motor vehicle safety or does not comply with an applicable motor vehicle safety standard prescribed under this chapter, the dealer or rental company may sell, lease, or rent the motor vehicle or item of replacement equipment only if—
(A) the defect or noncompliance is remedied as required by this section before delivery under the sale, lease, or rental agreement; or
(B) when the notification is required by an order under section 30118(b) of this title, enforcement of the order is restrained or the order is set aside in a civil action to which section 30121(d) of this title applies.
(2)
Rule of construction.—
Nothing in this subsection may be construed to prohibit a dealer or rental company from offering the vehicle or equipment for sale, lease, or rent.
(3)
Specific rules for rental companies.—
(A)
In general.—
Except as otherwise provided under this paragraph, a rental company shall comply with the limitations on sale, lease, or rental set forth in subparagraph (C) and paragraph (1) as soon as practicable, but not later than 24 hours after the earliest receipt of the notice to owner under subsection (b) or (c) of section 30118 (including the vehicle identification number for the covered vehicle) by the rental company, whether by electronic means or first class mail.
(B)
Special rule for large vehicle fleets.—
Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), if a rental company receives a notice to owner covering more than 5,000 motor vehicles in its fleet, the rental company shall comply with the limitations on sale, lease, or rental set forth in subparagraph (C) and paragraph (1) as soon as practicable, but not later than 48 hours after the earliest receipt of the notice to owner under subsection (b) or (c) of section 30118 (including the vehicle identification number for the covered vehicle) by the rental company, whether by electronic means or first class mail.
(C)
Special rule for when remedies not immediately available.—
If a notification required under subsection (b) or (c) of section 30118 indicates that the remedy for the defect or noncompliance is not immediately available and specifies actions to temporarily alter the vehicle that eliminate the safety risk posed by the defect or noncompliance, the rental company, after causing the specified actions to be performed, may rent (but may not sell or lease) the motor vehicle. Once the remedy for the rental vehicle becomes available to the rental company, the rental company may not rent the vehicle until the vehicle has been remedied, as provided in subsection (a).
(D)
Inapplicability to junk automobiles.—
Notwithstanding paragraph (1), this subsection does not prohibit a rental company from selling a covered rental vehicle if such vehicle—
(i) meets the definition of a junk automobile under section 201 of the Anti-Car Theft Act of 1992 (49 U.S.C. 30501);
(ii) is retitled as a junk automobile pursuant to applicable State law; and
(iii) is reported to the National Motor Vehicle Information System, if required under section 204 of such Act (49 U.S.C. 30504).
(j)
Prohibition on Sales of Replacement Equipment.—
No person may sell or lease any motor vehicle equipment (including a tire), for installation on a motor vehicle, that is the subject of a decision under section 30118(b) or a notice required under section 30118(c) in a condition that it may be reasonably used for its original purpose unless—
(1) the defect or noncompliance is remedied as required by this section before delivery under the sale or lease; or
(2) notification of the defect or noncompliance is required under section 30118(b) but enforcement of the order is set aside in a civil action to which section 30121(d) applies.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 952; Pub. L. 105–178, title VII, § 7106(a), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 467; Pub. L. 106–414, §§ 4, 6–8, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1803–1805; Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title I, § 31311, July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 771; Pub. L. 114–94, div. B, title XXIV, §§ 24107, 24108, 24109(c), 24402, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1705, 1706, 1720.)
§ 30120A.
Recall obligations and bankruptcy of a manufacturer

A manufacturer’s filing of a petition in bankruptcy under chapter 7 or chapter 11 of title 11 does not negate the manufacturer’s duty to comply with section 30112 or sections 30115 through 30120 of this title. In any bankruptcy proceeding, the manufacturer’s obligations under such sections shall be treated as a claim of the United States Government against such manufacturer, subject to subchapter II of chapter 37 of title 31, United States Code, and given priority pursuant to section 3713(a)(1)(A) of such chapter, notwithstanding section 3713(a)(2), to ensure that consumers are adequately protected from any safety defect or noncompliance determined to exist in the manufacturer’s products. This section shall apply equally to actions of a manufacturer taken before or after the filing of a petition in bankruptcy.

(Added Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title I, § 31312(a), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 772; amended Pub. L. 114–94, div. B, title XXIV, § 24106, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1705.)
§ 30121.
Provisional notification and civil actions to enforce
(a)
Provisional Notification.—
(1)
The Secretary of Transportation may order a manufacturer to issue a provisional notification if a civil action about an order issued under section 30118(b) of this title has been brought under section 30163 of this title. The provisional notification shall contain—
(A) a statement that the Secretary has decided that a defect related to motor vehicle safety or noncompliance with a motor vehicle safety standard prescribed under this chapter exists and that the manufacturer is contesting the decision in a civil action in a United States district court;
(B) a clear description of the Secretary’s stated basis for the decision;
(C) the Secretary’s evaluation of the risk to motor vehicle safety reasonably related to the defect or noncompliance;
(D) measures the Secretary considers necessary to avoid an unreasonable risk to motor vehicle safety resulting from the defect or noncompliance;
(E) a statement that the manufacturer will remedy the defect or noncompliance without charge under section 30120 of this title, but that the requirement to remedy without charge is conditioned on the outcome of the civil action; and
(F) other information the Secretary prescribes by regulation or includes in the order requiring the notice.
(2) A notification under this subsection does not relieve a manufacturer of liability for not giving notification required by an order under section 30118(b) of this title.
(b)
Civil Actions for Not Notifying.—
(1) A manufacturer that does not notify owners and purchasers under section 30119(c) and (d) of this title is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty, unless the manufacturer prevails in a civil action referred to in subsection (a) of this section or the court in that action enjoins enforcement of the order. Enforcement may be enjoined only if the court decides that the failure to notify is reasonable and that the manufacturer has demonstrated the likelihood of prevailing on the merits. If enforcement is enjoined, the manufacturer is not liable during the time the order is stayed.
(2) A manufacturer that does not notify owners and purchasers as required under subsection (a) of this section is liable for a civil penalty regardless of whether the manufacturer prevails in an action on the validity of the order issued under section 30118(b) of this title.
(c)
Orders to Manufacturers.—
If the Secretary prevails in a civil action referred to in subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary shall order the manufacturer—
(1) to notify each owner, purchaser, and dealer described in section 30119(d) of this title of the outcome of the action and other information the Secretary requires, and notification under this clause may be combined with notification required under section 30118(b) of this title;
(2) to specify the earliest date under section 30119(b) of this title on which the defect or noncompliance will be remedied without charge under section 30120 of this title; and
(3) if notification was required under subsection (a) of this section, to reimburse an owner or purchaser for reasonable and necessary expenses (in an amount that is not more than the amount specified in the order of the Secretary under subsection (a)) incurred for repairing the defect or noncompliance during the period beginning on the date that notification was required to be issued and ending on the date the owner or purchaser receives the notification under this subsection.
(d)
Venue.—
Notwithstanding section 30163(c) of this title, a civil action about an order issued under section 30118(b) of this title must be brought in the United States district court for a judicial district in the State in which the manufacturer is incorporated or the District of Columbia. On motion of a party, the court may transfer the action to another district court if good cause is shown. All actions related to the same order under section 30118(b) shall be consolidated in an action in one judicial district under an order of the court in which the first action was brought. If the first action is transferred to another court, that court shall issue the consolidation order.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 954.)
§ 30122.
Making safety devices and elements inoperative
(a)
Definition.—
In this section, “motor vehicle repair business” means a person holding itself out to the public to repair for compensation a motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment.
(b)
Prohibition.—
A manufacturer, distributor, dealer, rental company, or motor vehicle repair business may not knowingly make inoperative any part of a device or element of design installed on or in a motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment in compliance with an applicable motor vehicle safety standard prescribed under this chapter unless the manufacturer, distributor, dealer, rental company, or repair business reasonably believes the vehicle or equipment will not be used (except for testing or a similar purpose during maintenance or repair) when the device or element is inoperative.
(c)
Regulations.—
The Secretary of Transportation may prescribe regulations—
(1) to exempt a person from this section if the Secretary decides the exemption is consistent with motor vehicle safety and section 30101 of this title; and
(2) to define “make inoperative”.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 956; Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title I, § 31202(a)(1), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 757; Pub. L. 114–94, div. B, title XXIV, § 24109(d), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1707.)
§ 30123.
Tires
(a)
Regrooved Tire Limitations.—
(1) In this subsection, “regrooved tire” means a tire with a new tread produced by cutting into the tread of a worn tire.
(2) The Secretary may authorize the sale, offer for sale, introduction for sale, or delivery for introduction in interstate commerce, of a regrooved tire or a motor vehicle equipped with regrooved tires if the Secretary decides the tires are designed and made in a way consistent with section 30101 of this title. A person may not sell, offer for sale, introduce for sale, or deliver for introduction in interstate commerce, a regrooved tire or a vehicle equipped with regrooved tires unless authorized by the Secretary.
(b)
Uniform Quality Grading System, Nomenclature, and Marketing Practices.—
The Secretary shall prescribe through standards a uniform quality grading system for motor vehicle tires to help consumers make an informed choice when purchasing tires. The Secretary also shall cooperate with industry and the Federal Trade Commission to the greatest extent practicable to eliminate deceptive and confusing tire nomenclature and marketing practices. A tire standard or regulation prescribed under this chapter supersedes an order or administrative interpretation of the Commission.
(c)
Maximum Load Standards.—
The Secretary shall require a motor vehicle to be equipped with tires that meet maximum load standards when the vehicle is loaded with a reasonable amount of luggage and the total number of passengers the vehicle is designed to carry. The vehicle shall be equipped with those tires by the manufacturer or by the first purchaser when the vehicle is first bought in good faith other than for resale.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 956; Pub. L. 105–178, title VII, § 7106(b), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 467.)
§ 30124.
Nonuse of safety belts

A motor vehicle safety standard prescribed under this chapter may not require a manufacturer to comply with the standard by using a safety belt interlock designed to prevent starting or operating a motor vehicle if an occupant is not using a safety belt.

(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 957; Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title I, § 31202(a)(2), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 757.)
§ 30125.
Schoolbuses and schoolbus equipment
(a)
Definitions.—
In this section—
(1) “schoolbus” means a passenger motor vehicle designed to carry a driver and more than 10 passengers, that the Secretary of Transportation decides is likely to be used significantly to transport preprimary, primary, and secondary school students to or from school or an event related to school.
(2) “schoolbus equipment” means equipment designed primarily for a schoolbus or manufactured or sold to replace or improve a system, part, or component of a schoolbus or as an accessory or addition to a schoolbus.
(b)
Standards.—
The Secretary shall prescribe motor vehicle safety standards for schoolbuses and schoolbus equipment manufactured in, or imported into, the United States. Standards shall include minimum performance requirements for—
(1) emergency exits;
(2) interior protection for occupants;
(3) floor strength;
(4) seating systems;
(5) crashworthiness of body and frame (including protection against rollover hazards);
(6) vehicle operating systems;
(7) windows and windshields; and
(8) fuel systems.
(c)
Test Driving by Manufacturers.—
The Secretary may require by regulation a schoolbus to be test-driven by a manufacturer before introduction in commerce.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 957.)
§ 30126.
Used motor vehicles

To ensure a continuing and effective national safety program, it is the policy of the United States Government to encourage and strengthen State inspection of used motor vehicles. Therefore, the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe uniform motor vehicle safety standards applicable to all used motor vehicles. The standards shall be stated in terms of motor vehicle safety performance.

(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 958.)
§ 30127.
Automatic occupant crash protection and seat belt use
(a)
Definitions.—
In this section—
(1) “bus” means a motor vehicle with motive power (except a trailer) designed to carry more than 10 individuals.
(2) “multipurpose passenger vehicle” means a motor vehicle with motive power (except a trailer), designed to carry not more than 10 individuals, that is constructed either on a truck chassis or with special features for occasional off-road operation.
(3) “passenger car” means a motor vehicle with motive power (except a multipurpose passenger vehicle, motorcycle, or trailer) designed to carry not more than 10 individuals.
(4) “truck” means a motor vehicle with motive power (except a trailer) designed primarily to transport property or special purpose equipment.
(b)
Inflatable Restraint Requirements.—
(1)
Not later than September 1, 1993, the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe under this chapter an amendment to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 208 issued under the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966. The amendment shall require that the automatic occupant crash protection system for both of the front outboard seating positions for each of the following vehicles be an inflatable restraint (with lap and shoulder belts) complying with the occupant protection requirements under section 4.1.2.1 of Standard 208:
(A) 95 percent of each manufacturer’s annual production of passenger cars manufactured after August 31, 1996, and before September 1, 1997.
(B) 80 percent of each manufacturer’s annual production of buses, multipurpose passenger vehicles, and trucks (except walk-in van-type trucks and vehicles designed to be sold only to the United States Postal Service) with a gross vehicle weight rating of not more than 8,500 pounds and an unloaded vehicle weight of not more than 5,500 pounds manufactured after August 31, 1997, and before September 1, 1998.
(C) 100 percent of each manufacturer’s annual production of passenger cars manufactured after August 31, 1997.
(D) 100 percent of each manufacturer’s annual production of vehicles described in clause (B) of this paragraph manufactured after August 31, 1998.
(2) Manufacturers may not use credits and incentives available before September 1, 1998, under the provisions of Standard 208 (as amended by this section) to comply with the requirements of paragraph (1)(D) of this subsection after August 31, 1998.
(c)
Owner Manual Requirements.—
In amending Standard 208, the Secretary of Transportation shall require, to be effective as soon as possible after the amendment is prescribed, that owner manuals for passenger cars, buses, multipurpose passenger vehicles, and trucks equipped with an inflatable restraint include a statement in an easily understandable format stating that—
(1) either or both of the front outboard seating positions of the vehicle are equipped with an inflatable restraint referred to as an “airbag” and a lap and shoulder belt;
(2) the “airbag” is a supplemental restraint and is not a substitute for lap and shoulder belts;
(3) lap and shoulder belts also must be used correctly by an occupant in a front outboard seating position to provide restraint or protection from frontal crashes as well as other types of crashes or accidents; and
(4)
(d)
Seat Belt Use Laws.—
Congress finds that it is in the public interest for each State to adopt and enforce mandatory seat belt use laws and for the United States Government to adopt and enforce mandatory seat belt use regulations.
(e)
Temporary Exemptions.—
(1) On application of a manufacturer, the Secretary of Transportation may exempt, on a temporary basis, motor vehicles of that manufacturer from any requirement under subsections (b) and (c) of this section on terms the Secretary considers appropriate. An exemption may be renewed.
(2) The Secretary of Transportation may grant an exemption under paragraph (1) of this subsection if the Secretary finds that there has been a disruption in the supply of any component of an inflatable restraint or in the use and installation of that component by the manufacturer because of an unavoidable event not under the control of the manufacturer that will prevent the manufacturer from meeting its anticipated production volume of vehicles with those restraints.
(3) Only an affected manufacturer may apply for an exemption. The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe in the amendment to Standard 208 required under this section the information an affected manufacturer must include in its application under this subsection. The manufacturer shall specify in the application the models, lines, and types of vehicles affected. The Secretary may consolidate similar applications from different manufacturers.
(4) An exemption or renewal of an exemption is conditioned on the commitment of the manufacturer to recall the exempted vehicles for installation of the omitted inflatable restraints within a reasonable time that the manufacturer proposes and the Secretary of Transportation approves after the components become available in sufficient quantities to satisfy both anticipated production and recall volume requirements.
(5) The Secretary of Transportation shall publish in the Federal Register a notice of each application under this subsection and each decision to grant or deny a temporary exemption and the reasons for the decision.
(6) The Secretary of Transportation shall require a label for each exempted vehicle that can be removed only after recall and installation of the required inflatable restraint. The Secretary shall require that written notice of the exemption be provided to the dealer and the first purchaser of each exempted vehicle other than for resale, with the notice being provided in a way, and containing the information, the Secretary considers appropriate.
(f)
Application.—
(1)
This section revises, but does not replace, Standard 208 as in effect on December 18, 1991, including the amendment of March 26, 1991 (56 Fed. Reg. 12472), to Standard 208, extending the requirements for automatic crash protection, with incentives for more innovative automatic crash protection, to trucks, buses, and multipurpose passenger vehicles. This section may not be construed as—
(A) affecting another provision of law carried out by the Secretary of Transportation applicable to passenger cars, buses, multipurpose passenger vehicles, or trucks; or
(B) establishing a precedent related to developing or prescribing a Government motor vehicle safety standard.
(2) This section and amendments to Standard 208 made under this section may not be construed as indicating an intention by Congress to affect any liability of a motor vehicle manufacturer under applicable law related to vehicles with or without inflatable restraints.
(g)
Report.—
(1)
On October 1, 1992, and annually after that date through October 1, 2000, the Secretary of Transportation shall submit reports on the effectiveness of occupant restraint systems expressed as a percentage reduction in fatalities or injuries of restrained occupants compared to unrestrained occupants for—
(A) a combination of inflated restraints and lap and shoulder belts;
(B) inflated restraints only; and
(C) lap and shoulder belts only.
(2)
In consultation with the Secretaries of Labor and Defense, the Secretary of Transportation also shall provide information and analysis on lap and shoulder belt use, nationally and in each State by—
(A) military personnel;
(B) Government, State, and local law enforcement officers;
(C) other Government and State employees; and
(D) the public.
(h)
Airbags for Government Cars.—
In cooperation with the Administrator of General Services and the heads of appropriate departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government, the Secretary of Transportation shall establish a program, consistent with applicable procurement laws of the Government and available appropriations, requiring that all passenger cars acquired—
(1) after September 30, 1994, for use by the Government be equipped, to the maximum extent practicable, with driver-side inflatable restraints; and
(2) after September 30, 1996, for use by the Government be equipped, to the maximum extent practicable, with inflatable restraints for both front outboard seating positions.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 958; Pub. L. 105–178, title VII, § 7106(c), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 467.)
§ 30128.
Vehicle rollover prevention and crash mitigation
(a)
In General.—
The Secretary shall initiate rulemaking proceedings, for the purpose of establishing rules or standards that will reduce vehicle rollover crashes and mitigate deaths and injuries associated with such crashes for motor vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating of not more than 10,000 pounds.
(b)
Rollover Prevention.—
One of the rulemaking proceedings initiated under subsection (a) shall be to establish performance criteria to reduce the occurrence of rollovers consistent with stability enhancing technologies. The Secretary shall issue a proposed rule in this proceeding by rule by October 1, 2006, and a final rule by April 1, 2009.
(c)
Occupant Ejection Prevention.—
(1)
In general.—
The Secretary shall also initiate a rulemaking proceeding to establish performance standards to reduce complete and partial ejections of vehicle occupants from outboard seating positions. In formulating the standards the Secretary shall consider various ejection mitigation systems. The Secretary shall issue a final rule under this paragraph no later than October 1, 2009.
(2)
Door locks and door retention.—
The Secretary shall complete the rulemaking proceeding initiated to upgrade Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 206, relating to door locks and door retention, no later than 30 months after the date of enactment of this section.
(d)
Protection of Occupants.—
One of the rulemaking proceedings initiated under subsection (a) shall be to establish performance criteria to upgrade Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 216 relating to roof strength for driver and passenger sides. The Secretary may consider industry and independent dynamic tests that realistically duplicate the actual forces transmitted during a rollover crash. The Secretary shall issue a proposed rule by December 31, 2005, and a final rule by July 1, 2008.
(e)
Deadlines.—
If the Secretary determines that the deadline for a final rule under this section cannot be met, the Secretary shall—
(1) notify the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House of Representatives Committee on Energy and Commerce and explain why that deadline cannot be met; and
(2) establish a new deadline.
(Added Pub. L. 109–59, title X, § 10301(a), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1939.)