Collapse to view only § 33101. Definitions

§ 33101. DefinitionsIn this chapter—
(1) “chop shop” means a building, lot, facility, or other structure or premise at which at least one person engages in receiving, concealing, destroying, disassembling, dismantling, reassembling, or storing a passenger motor vehicle or passenger motor vehicle part that has been unlawfully obtained—
(A) to alter, counterfeit, deface, destroy, disguise, falsify, forge, obliterate, or remove the identity of the vehicle or part, including the vehicle identification number or a derivative of that number; and
(B) to distribute, sell, or dispose of the vehicle or part in interstate or foreign commerce.
(2) “covered major part” means a major part selected under section 33104 of this title for coverage by the vehicle theft prevention standard prescribed under section 33102 or 33103 of this title.
(3) “existing line” means a line introduced into commerce before January 1, 1990.
(4) “first purchaser” means the person making the first purchase other than for resale.
(5) “line” means a name that a manufacturer of motor vehicles applies to a group of motor vehicle models of the same make that have the same body or chassis, or otherwise are similar in construction or design.
(6) “major part” means—
(A) the engine;
(B) the transmission;
(C) each door to the passenger compartment;
(D) the hood;
(E) the grille;
(F) each bumper;
(G) each front fender;
(H) the deck lid, tailgate, or hatchback;
(I) each rear quarter panel;
(J) the trunk floor pan;
(K) the frame or, for a unitized body, the supporting structure serving as the frame; and
(L) any other part of a passenger motor vehicle that the Secretary of Transportation by regulation specifies as comparable in design or function to any of the parts listed in subclauses (A)–(K) of this clause.
(7) “major replacement part” means a major part that is—
(A) an original major part in or on a completed motor vehicle and customized or modified after manufacture of the vehicle but before the time of its delivery to the first purchaser; or
(B) not installed in or on a motor vehicle at the time of its delivery to the first purchaser and the equitable or legal title to the vehicle has not been transferred to a first purchaser.
(8) “model year” has the same meaning given that term in section 32901(a) of this title.
(9) “new line” means a line introduced into commerce after December 31, 1989.
(10) “passenger motor vehicle” includes a multipurpose passenger vehicle or light duty truck when that vehicle or truck is rated at not more than 6,000 pounds gross vehicle weight.
(11) “vehicle theft prevention standard” means a minimum performance standard for identifying major parts of new motor vehicles and major replacement parts by inscribing or affixing numbers or symbols on those parts.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1076; Pub. L. 103–429, § 6(44), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4383; Pub. L. 104–287, § 6(d)(1)(B), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3399.)
§ 33102. Theft prevention standard for high theft lines
(a)General.—
(1) The Secretary of Transportation by regulation shall prescribe a vehicle theft prevention standard that conforms to the requirements of this chapter. The standard shall apply to—
(A) covered major parts that manufacturers install in passenger motor vehicles in lines designated under section 33104 of this title as high theft lines; and
(B) major replacement parts for the major parts described in clause (A) of this paragraph.
(2) The standard may apply only to—
(A) major parts that manufacturers install in passenger motor vehicles having a model year designation later than the calendar year in which the standard takes effect; and
(B) major replacement parts manufactured after the standard takes effect.
(b)Standard Requirements.—The standard shall be practicable and provide relevant objective criteria.
(c)Limitations on Major Part and Replacement Part Standards.—
(1) For a major part installed by the manufacturer of the motor vehicle, the standard may not require a part to have more than one identification.
(2) For a major replacement part, the standard may not require—
(A) identification of a part not designed as a replacement for a major part required to be identified under the standard; or
(B) the inscribing or affixing of identification except a symbol identifying the manufacturer and a common symbol identifying the part as a major replacement part.
(d)Records and Reports.—This chapter does not authorize the Secretary to require a person to keep records or make reports, except as provided in sections 33104(c), 33106(c), 33108(a), and 33112 1
1 See References in Text note below.
of this title.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1077.)
§ 33103. Theft prevention standard for other lines
(a)General.—Not later than October 25, 1994, the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe a vehicle theft standard that conforms to the requirements of this chapter for covered major parts that manufacturers install in passenger motor vehicles (except light duty trucks) in not more than 50 percent of the lines not designated under section 33104 of this title as high theft lines.
(b)Extension of Application.—
(1) Not later than 3 years after the standard is prescribed under subsection (a) of this section and based on the finding of the Attorney General under subsection (c) of this section to apply the standard, the Secretary shall apply that standard to covered major parts and major replacement parts for covered parts that manufacturers install in the lines of passenger motor vehicles (except light duty trucks)—
(A) not designated under section 33104 of this title as high theft lines; and
(B) not covered by the standard prescribed under subsection (a) of this section.
(2) The Secretary shall include as part of the regulatory proceeding under this subsection the finding of, and the record developed by, the Attorney General under subsection (c) of this section.
(c)Initial Review of Effectiveness.—Before the Secretary begins a regulatory proceeding under subsection (b) of this section, the Attorney General shall make a finding that the Secretary shall apply the standard prescribed under subsection (a) of this section unless the Attorney General finds, based on information collected and analyzed under section 33112 1
1 See References in Text note below.
of this title and other information the Attorney General develops after providing notice and an opportunity for a public hearing, that applying the standard prescribed in subsection (a) to the remaining lines of passenger motor vehicles (except light duty trucks) not covered by that standard would not substantially inhibit chop shop operations and motor vehicle thefts. The Attorney General also shall consider and include in the record additional costs, effectiveness, competition, and available alternative factors. The Attorney General shall submit to the Secretary the finding and record on which the finding is based.
(d)Long Range Review of Effectiveness.—
(1) Not later than December 31, 1999, the Attorney General shall make separate findings, after notice and an opportunity for a public hearing, on the following:
(A) whether the application of the standard under subsection (a) or (b) of this subsection, or both, have been effective in substantially inhibiting the operation of chop shops and motor vehicle theft.
(B) whether the anti-theft devices for which the Secretary has granted exemptions under section 33106 of this title are an effective substitute for parts marking in substantially inhibiting motor vehicle theft.
(2)
(A) In making the finding under paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection, the Attorney General shall—
(i) consider the additional cost, competition, and available alternatives;
(ii) base that finding on information collected and analyzed under section 33112 1 of this title;
(iii) consider the effectiveness, the extent of use, and the extent to which civil and criminal penalties under section 33115(b) of this title and section 2322 of title 18 on chop shops have been effective in substantially inhibiting operation of chop shops and motor vehicle theft;
(iv) base that finding on the 3-year and 5-year reports issued by the Secretary under section 33113 of this title; and
(v) base that finding on other information the Attorney General develops and includes in the public record.
(B) The Attorney General shall submit a finding under paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection promptly to the Secretary. If the Attorney General finds that the application of the standard under subsection (a) or (b) of this section, or both, has not been effective, the Secretary shall issue, not later than 180 days after receiving that finding, an order terminating the standard the Attorney General found was ineffective. The termination is effective for the model year beginning after the order is issued.
(3) In making a finding under paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection, the Secretary shall consider the additional cost, competition, and available alternatives. If the Attorney General finds that the anti-theft devices are an effective substitute, the Secretary shall continue to grant exemptions under section 33106 of this title for the model years after model year 2000 at one of the following levels that the Attorney General decides: at the level authorized before October 25, 1992, or at the level provided in section 33106(b)(2)(C) of this title for model year 2000.
(e)Effective Date of Standard.—A standard prescribed under this section takes effect at least 6 months after the date the standard is prescribed, except that the Secretary may prescribe an earlier effective date if the Secretary—
(1) decides with good cause that the earlier date is in the public interest; and
(2) publishes the reasons for the decision.
(f)Notification of Congress.—The Secretary and the Attorney General shall inform the appropriate legislative committees of Congress with jurisdiction over this part and section 2322 of title 18 of actions taken or planned under this section.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1078.)
§ 33104. Designation of high theft vehicle lines and parts
(a)Designation, Nonapplication, Selection, and Procedures.—
(1) For purposes of the standard under section 33102 of this title, the following are high theft lines:
(A) a passenger motor vehicle line determined under subsection (b) of this section to have had a new passenger motor vehicle theft rate in the 2-year period covering calendar years 1990 and 1991 greater than the median theft rate for all new passenger motor vehicle thefts in that 2-year period.
(B) a passenger motor vehicle line initially introduced into commerce in the United States after December 31, 1989, that is selected under paragraph (3) of this subsection as likely to have a theft rate greater than the median theft rate referred to in clause (A) of this paragraph.
(C)
(2) The standard may not apply to any major part of a line described in paragraph (1)(C) of this subsection if all the passenger motor vehicles of lines that are, or are likely to be, below the median theft rate, and that contain parts interchangeable with the major parts of the line involved, account (for existing lines), or the Secretary of Transportation determines they are likely to account (for new lines), for more than 90 percent of the total annual production of all lines of that manufacturer containing those interchangeable parts.
(3) The lines, and the major parts of the passenger motor vehicles in those lines, that are to be subject to the standard may be selected by agreement between the manufacturer and the Secretary. If the manufacturer and the Secretary disagree on the selection, the Secretary shall select the lines and parts, after notice to the manufacturer and opportunity for written comment, and subject to the confidentiality requirements of this chapter.
(4) To the maximum extent practicable, the Secretary shall prescribe reasonable procedures designed to ensure that a selection under paragraph (3) of this subsection is made at least 6 months before the first applicable model year beginning after the selection.
(5) A manufacturer may not be required to comply with the standard under a selection under paragraph (3) of this subsection for a model year beginning earlier than 6 months after the date of the selection.
(6) A passenger motor vehicle line subject on October 25, 1992, to parts marking requirements under sections 602 and 603 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act (Public Law 92–513, 86 Stat. 947), as added by section 101(a) of the Motor Vehicle Theft Law Enforcement Act of 1984 (Public Law 98–547, 98 Stat. 2756), continues to be subject to the requirements of this section and section 33102 of this title unless the line is exempted under section 33106 of this title.
(b)Determining Theft Rate for Passenger Vehicles.—
(1) In this subsection, “new passenger motor vehicle thefts”, when used in reference to a calendar year, means thefts in the United States in that year of passenger motor vehicles with the same model-year designation as that calendar year.
(2) Under subsection (a) of this section, the theft rate for passenger motor vehicles of a line shall be determined by a fraction—
(A) the numerator of which is the number of new passenger motor vehicle thefts for that line during the 2-year period referred to in subsection (a)(1)(A) of this section; and
(B) the denominator of which is the sum of the respective production volumes of all passenger motor vehicles of that line (as reported to the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency under chapter 329 of this title) that are of model years 1990 and 1991 and are distributed for sale in commerce in the United States.
(3) Under subsection (a) of this section, the median theft rate for all new passenger motor vehicle thefts during that 2-year period is the theft rate midway between the highest and the lowest theft rates determined under paragraph (2) of this subsection. If there is an even number of theft rates determined under paragraph (2), the median theft rate is the arithmetic average of the 2 adjoining theft rates midway between the highest and the lowest of those theft rates.
(4) In consultation with the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Secretary periodically shall obtain from the most reliable source accurate and timely theft and recovery information and publish the information for review and comment. To the greatest extent possible, the Secretary shall use theft information reported by United States Government, State, and local police. After publication and opportunity for comment, the Secretary shall use the theft information to determine the median theft rate under this subsection. The Secretary and the Director shall take any necessary actions to improve the accuracy, reliability, and timeliness of the information, including ensuring that vehicles represented as stolen are really stolen.
(5) The Secretary periodically (but not more often than once every 2 years) may redetermine and prescribe by regulation the median theft rate under this subsection.
(c)Providing Information.—The Secretary by regulation shall require each manufacturer to provide information necessary to select under subsection (a)(3) of this section the high theft lines and the major parts to be subject to the standard.
(d)Application.—Except as provided in section 33106 of this title, the Secretary may not make the standard inapplicable to a line that has been subject to the standard.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1079.)
§ 33105. Cost limitations
(a)Maximum Manufacturer Costs.—A standard under section 33102 or 33103 of this title may not impose—
(1) on a manufacturer of motor vehicles, compliance costs of more than $15 a motor vehicle; or
(2) on a manufacturer of major replacement parts, compliance costs for each part of more than the reasonable amount (but less than $15) that the Secretary of Transportation specifies in the standard.
(b)Costs Involved in Engines and Transmissions.—For a manufacturer engaged in identifying engines or transmissions on October 25, 1984, in a way that substantially complies with the standard—
(1) the costs of identifying engines and transmissions may not be considered in calculating the manufacturer’s costs under subsection (a) of this section; and
(2) the manufacturer may not be required under the standard to conform to any identification system for engines and transmissions that imposes greater costs on the manufacturer than are incurred under the identification system used by the manufacturer on October 25, 1984.
(c)Cost Adjustments.—
(1) In this subsection—
(A) “base period” means calendar year 1984.
(B) “price index” means the average over a calendar year of the Consumer Price Index (all items—United States city average) published monthly by the Secretary of Labor.
(2) At the beginning of each calendar year, as necessary data become available from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Secretary of Labor shall certify to the Secretary of Transportation and publish in the Federal Register the percentage difference between the price index for the 12 months before the beginning of the calendar year and the price index for the base period. For model years beginning in that calendar year, the amounts specified in subsection (a) of this section shall be adjusted by the percentage difference.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1081.)
§ 33106. Exemption for passenger motor vehicles equipped with anti-theft devices
(a)Definitions.—In this section—
(1) “anti-theft device” means a device to reduce or deter theft that—
(A) is in addition to the theft-deterrent devices required by motor vehicle safety standard numbered 114 in section 571.114 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations;
(B) the manufacturer believes will be effective in reducing or deterring theft of motor vehicles; and
(C) does not use a signaling device reserved by State law for use on police, emergency, or official vehicles, or on schoolbuses.
(2) “standard equipment” means equipment already installed in a motor vehicle when it is delivered from the manufacturer and not an accessory or other item that the first purchaser customarily has the option to have installed.
(b)Granting Exemptions and Limitations.—
(1) A manufacturer may petition the Secretary of Transportation for an exemption from a requirement of a standard prescribed under section 33102 or 33103 of this title for a line of passenger motor vehicles equipped as standard equipment with an anti-theft device that the Secretary decides is likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with the standard.
(2) The Secretary may grant an exemption—
(A) for model year 1987, for not more than 2 lines of a manufacturer;
(B) for each of the model years 1988–1996, for not more than 2 additional lines of a manufacturer;
(C) for each of the model years 1997–2000, for not more than one additional line of a manufacturer; and
(D) for each of the model years after model year 2000, for the number of lines that the Attorney General decides under section 33103(d)(3) of this title.
(3) An additional exemption granted under paragraph (2)(B) or (C) of this subsection does not affect an exemption previously granted.
(c)Petitioning Procedure.—A petition must be filed not later than 8 months before the start of production for the first model year covered by the petition. The petition must include—
(1) a detailed description of the device;
(2) the reasons for the manufacturer’s conclusion that the device will be effective in reducing and deterring theft of motor vehicles; and
(3) additional information the Secretary reasonably may require to make the decision described in subsection (b)(1) of this section.
(d)Decisions and Approvals.—The Secretary shall make a decision about a petition filed under this section not later than 120 days after the date the petition is filed. A decision approving a petition must be based on substantial evidence. The Secretary may approve a petition in whole or in part. If the Secretary does not make a decision within the 120-day period, the petition shall be deemed to be approved and the manufacturer shall be exempt from the standard for the line covered by the petition for the subsequent model year.
(e)Rescissions.—The Secretary may rescind an exemption if the Secretary decides that the anti-theft device has not been as effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with the standard. A rescission may be effective only—
(1) for a model year after the model year in which the rescission occurs; and
(2) at least 6 months after the manufacturer receives written notice of the rescission from the Secretary.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1082; Pub. L. 103–429, § 6(45), Oct. 31, 1994,
§ 33107. Voluntary vehicle identification standards
(a)Election To Inscribe or Affix Identifying Marks.—The Secretary of Transportation by regulation may prescribe a vehicle theft prevention standard under which a person may elect to inscribe or affix an identifying number or symbol on major parts of a motor vehicle manufactured or owned by the person for purposes of section 511 of title 18 and related provisions. The standard may include provisions for registration of the identification with the Secretary or a person designated by the Secretary.
(b)Standard Requirements.—The standard under this section shall be practicable and provide relevant objective criteria.
(c)Voluntary Compliance.—Compliance with the standard under this section is voluntary. Failure to comply does not subject a person to a penalty or enforcement under this chapter.
(d)Compliance With Other Standards.—Compliance with the standard under this section does not relieve a manufacturer from a requirement of a standard prescribed under section 33102 or 33103 of this title.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1083.)
§ 33108. Monitoring compliance of manufacturers
(a)Records, Reports, Information, and Inspection.—To enable the Secretary of Transportation to decide whether a manufacturer of motor vehicles containing a part subject to a standard prescribed under section 33102 or 33103 of this title, or a manufacturer of major replacement parts subject to the standard, is complying with this chapter and the standard, the Secretary may require the manufacturer to—
(1) keep records;
(2) make reports;
(3) provide items and information; and
(4) allow an officer or employee designated by the Secretary to inspect the vehicles and parts and relevant records of the manufacturer.
(b)Entry and Inspection.—To enforce this chapter, an officer or employee designated by the Secretary, on presenting appropriate credentials and a written notice to the owner, operator, or agent in charge, may inspect a facility in which motor vehicles containing major parts subject to the standard, or major replacement parts subject to the standard, are manufactured, held for introduction into interstate commerce, or held for sale after introduction into interstate commerce. An inspection shall be conducted at a reasonable time, in a reasonable way, and with reasonable promptness.
(c)Certification of Compliance.—
(1) A manufacturer of a motor vehicle subject to the standard, and a manufacturer of a major replacement part subject to the standard, shall provide at the time of delivery of the vehicle or part a certification that the vehicle or part conforms to the applicable motor vehicle theft prevention standard. The certification shall accompany the vehicle or part until its delivery to the first purchaser. The Secretary by regulation may prescribe the type and form of the certification.
(2) This subsection does not apply to a motor vehicle or major replacement part that is—
(A) intended only for export;
(B) labeled only for export on the vehicle or replacement part and the outside of any container until exported; and
(C) exported.
(d)Notification of Error.—A manufacturer shall notify the Secretary if the manufacturer discovers that—
(1) there is an error in the identification (required by the standard) applied to a major part installed by the manufacturer in a motor vehicle during its assembly, or to a major replacement part manufactured by the manufacturer; and
(2) the motor vehicle or major replacement part has entered interstate commerce.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1083.)
§ 33109. National Stolen Passenger Motor Vehicle Information System
(a)General Requirements.—
(1) Not later than July 25, 1993, the Attorney General shall establish, and thereafter maintain, a National Stolen Passenger Motor Vehicle Information System containing the vehicle identification numbers of stolen passenger motor vehicles and stolen passenger motor vehicle parts. The System shall be located in the National Crime Information Center and shall include at least the following information on each passenger motor vehicle reported to a law enforcement authority as stolen and not recovered:
(A) the vehicle identification number.
(B) the make and model year.
(C) the date on which the vehicle was reported as stolen.
(D) the location of the law enforcement authority that received the report of the theft of the vehicle.
(E) the identification numbers of the vehicle parts (or derivatives of those numbers), at the time of the theft, if those numbers are different from the vehicle identification number of the vehicle.
(2) In establishing the System, the Attorney General shall consult with—
(A) State and local law enforcement authorities; and
(B) the National Crime Information Center Policy Advisory Board to ensure the security of the information in the System and that the System will not compromise the security of stolen passenger motor vehicle and passenger motor vehicle parts information in the System.
(3) If the Attorney General decides that the Center is not able to perform the functions of the System, the Attorney General shall make an agreement for the operation of the System separate from the Center.
(4) The Attorney General shall prescribe by regulation the effective date of the System.
(b)Requests for Information.—
(1) The Attorney General shall prescribe by regulation procedures under which an individual or entity intending to transfer a passenger motor vehicle or passenger motor vehicle part may obtain information on whether the vehicle or part is listed in the System as stolen.
(2) On request of an insurance carrier, a person lawfully selling or distributing passenger motor vehicle parts in interstate commerce, or an individual or enterprise engaged in the business of repairing passenger motor vehicles, the Attorney General (or the entity the Attorney General designates) immediately shall inform the insurance carrier, person, individual, or enterprise whether the System has a record of a vehicle or vehicle part with a particular vehicle identification number (or derivative of that number) being reported as stolen. The Attorney General may require appropriate verification to ensure that the request is legitimate and will not compromise the security of the System.
(c)Advisory Committee.—
(1) Not later than December 24, 1992, the Attorney General shall establish in the Department of Justice an advisory committee. The Attorney General shall develop the System with the advice and recommendations of the committee.
(2)
(A) The committee is composed of the following 10 members:
(i) the Attorney General.
(ii) the Secretary of Transportation.
(iii) one individual who is qualified to represent the interests of the law enforcement community at the State level.
(iv) one individual who is qualified to represent the interests of the law enforcement community at the local level.
(v) one individual who is qualified to represent the interests of the automotive recycling industry.
(vi) one individual who is qualified to represent the interests of the automotive repair industry.
(vii) one individual who is qualified to represent the interests of the automotive rebuilders industry.
(viii) one individual who is qualified to represent the interests of the automotive parts suppliers industry.
(ix) one individual who is qualified to represent the interests of the insurance industry.
(x) one individual who is qualified to represent the interests of consumers.
(B) The Attorney General shall appoint the individuals described in subparagraph (A)(iii)–(x) of this paragraph and shall serve as chairman of the committee.
(3) The committee shall make recommendations on developing and carrying out—
(A) the National Stolen Passenger Motor Vehicle Information System; and
(B) the verification system under section 33110 of this title.
(4) Not later than April 25, 1993, the committee shall submit to the Attorney General, the Secretary, and Congress a report including the recommendations of the committee.
(d)Immunity.—Any person performing any activity under this section or section 33110 or 33111 in good faith and with the reasonable belief that such activity was in accordance with such section shall be immune from any civil action respecting such activity which is seeking money damages or equitable relief in any court of the United States or a State.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1084; Pub. L. 104–152, § 5, July 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1385.)
§ 33110. Verifications involving junk and salvage motor vehicles
(a)Definition.—In this section, “vehicle identification number” means a unique identification number (or derivative of that number) assigned to a passenger motor vehicle by a manufacturer in compliance with applicable regulations.
(b)General Requirements.—
(1) If an insurance carrier selling comprehensive motor vehicle insurance coverage obtains possession of and transfers a junk motor vehicle or a salvage motor vehicle, the carrier shall—
(A) under procedures the Attorney General prescribes by regulation under section 33109 of this title in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation, verify whether the vehicle is reported as stolen; and
(B) provide the purchaser or transferee of the vehicle from the insurance carrier verification identifying the vehicle identification number and verifying that the vehicle has not been reported as stolen or, if reported as stolen, that the carrier has recovered the vehicle and has proper legal title to the vehicle.
(2)
(A) This subsection does not prohibit an insurance carrier from transferring a motor vehicle if, within a reasonable period of time during normal business operations (as decided by the Attorney General under section 33109 of this title) using reasonable efforts, the carrier—
(i) has not been informed under the procedures prescribed in section 33109 of this title that the vehicle has not been reported as stolen; or
(ii) has not otherwise established whether the vehicle has been reported as stolen.
(B) When a carrier transfers a motor vehicle for which the carrier has not established whether the vehicle has been reported as stolen, the carrier shall provide written certification to the transferee that the carrier has not established whether the vehicle has been reported as stolen.
(c)Regulations.—In consultation with the Secretary, the Attorney General shall prescribe regulations necessary to ensure that verification performed and provided by an insurance carrier under subsection (b)(1)(B) of this section is uniform, effective, and resistant to fraudulent use.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1086.)
§ 33111. Verifications involving motor vehicle major parts
(a)General Requirements.—A person engaged in the business of salvaging, dismantling, recycling, or repairing passenger motor vehicles may not knowingly sell in commerce or transfer or install a major part marked with an identification number without—
(1) first establishing, through a procedure the Attorney General by regulation prescribes in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation under section 33109 of this title, that the major part has not been reported as stolen; and
(2) providing the purchaser or transferee with a verification—
(A) identifying the vehicle identification number (or derivative of that number) of that major part; and
(B) verifying that the major part has not been reported as stolen.
(b)Nonapplication.—
(1) Subsection (a) of this section does not apply to a person that—
(A) is the manufacturer of the major part;
(B) has purchased the major part directly from the manufacturer; or
(C) has received a verification from an insurance carrier under section 33110 of this title that the motor vehicle from which the major part is derived has not been reported as stolen, or that the carrier has not established whether that vehicle has been stolen.
(2) A person described under paragraph (1)(C) of this subsection that subsequently transfers or sells in commerce the motor vehicle or a major part of the vehicle shall provide the verification received from the carrier to the person to whom the vehicle or part is transferred or sold.
(c)Regulations.—The Attorney General shall prescribe regulations to carry out this section. The regulations shall include regulations prescribed in consultation with the Secretary that are necessary to ensure that a verification a person provides under subsection (a)(2) of this section is uniform, effective, and resistant to fraudulent use.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1086.)
[§ 33112. Repealed. Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title I, § 31313(2), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 772]
§ 33113. Theft reports
(a)Truck, Multipurpose Passenger Vehicle, and Motorcycle Report.—Not later than October 25, 1995, the Secretary of Transportation shall submit a report to Congress that includes—
(1) information on the number of trucks, multipurpose passenger vehicles, and motorcycles distributed for sale in interstate commerce that are stolen and recovered annually, compiled by model, make, and line;
(2) information on the extent to which trucks, multipurpose passenger vehicles, and motorcycles stolen annually are dismantled to recover parts or are exported;
(3) a description of the market for the stolen parts;
(4) information on the premiums charged by insurers of comprehensive coverage of trucks, multipurpose passenger vehicles, or motorcycles, including any increase in the premiums charged because any of those motor vehicles is a likely candidate for theft;
(5) an assessment of whether the identification of parts of trucks, multipurpose passenger vehicles, and motorcycles is likely—
(A) to decrease the theft rate of those motor vehicles;
(B) to increase the recovery rate of those motor vehicles;
(C) to decrease the trafficking in stolen parts of those motor vehicles;
(D) to stem the export and import of those stolen motor vehicles or parts; or
(E) to have benefits greater than the costs of the identification; and
(6) recommendations on whether, and to what extent, the identification of trucks, multipurpose passenger vehicles, and motorcycles should be required by law.
(b)Motor Vehicle Report.—Not later than October 25, 1997, the Secretary shall submit a report to Congress that includes—
(1) information on—
(A) the methods and procedures used by public and private entities to collect, compile, and disseminate information on the theft and recovery of motor vehicles, including classes of motor vehicles; and
(B) the reliability and timeliness of the information and how the information can be improved;
(2) information on the number of motor vehicles distributed for sale in interstate commerce that are stolen and recovered annually, compiled by class, model, make, and line;
(3) information on the extent to which motor vehicles stolen annually are dismantled to recover parts or are exported;
(4) a description of the market for the stolen parts;
(5) information on—
(A) the costs to manufacturers and purchasers of passenger motor vehicles of compliance with the standards prescribed under this chapter;
(B) the beneficial impacts of the standards and the monetary value of the impacts; and
(C) the extent to which the monetary value is greater than the costs;
(6) information on the experience of officials of the United States Government, States, and localities in—
(A) making arrests and successfully prosecuting persons for violating a law set forth in title II or III of the Motor Vehicle Theft Law Enforcement Act of 1984;
(B) preventing or reducing the number and rate of thefts of motor vehicles that are dismantled for parts subject to this chapter; and
(C) preventing or reducing the availability of used parts that are stolen from motor vehicles subject to this chapter;
(7) information on the premiums charged by insurers of comprehensive coverage of motor vehicles subject to this chapter, including any increase in the premiums charged because a motor vehicle is a likely candidate for theft, and the extent to which the insurers have reduced for the benefit of consumers the premiums, or foregone premium increases, because of this chapter;
(8) information on the adequacy and effectiveness of laws of the United States and the States aimed at preventing the distribution and sale of used parts that have been removed from stolen motor vehicles and the adequacy of systems available to enforcement personnel for tracing parts to determine if they have been stolen from a motor vehicle;
(9) an assessment of whether the identification of parts of other classes of motor vehicles is likely—
(A) to decrease the theft rate of those vehicles;
(B) to increase the recovery rate of those vehicles;
(C) to decrease the trafficking in stolen parts of those vehicles;
(D) to stem the export and import of those stolen vehicles, parts, or components; or
(E) to have benefits greater than the costs of the identification; and
(10) other relevant and reliable information available to the Secretary about the impact, including the beneficial impact, of the laws set forth in titles II and III of the Motor Vehicle Theft Law Enforcement Act of 1984 on law enforcement, consumers, and manufacturers; and
(11) recommendations (including, as appropriate, legislative and administrative recommendations) for—
(A) continuing without change the standards prescribed under this chapter;
(B) amending this chapter to cover more or fewer lines of passenger motor vehicles;
(C) amending this chapter to cover other classes of motor vehicles; or
(D) ending the standards for all future motor vehicles.
(c)Bases of Reports.—
(1) The reports under subsections (a) and (b) of this section each shall be based on—
(A) information reported under this chapter by insurers of motor vehicles and manufacturers of motor vehicles and major replacement parts;
(B) information provided by the Federal Bureau of Investigation;
(C) experience obtained in carrying out this chapter;
(D) experience of the Government under the laws set forth in titles II and III of the Motor Vehicle Theft Law Enforcement Act of 1984; and
(E) other relevant and reliable information available to the Secretary.
(2) In preparing each report, the Secretary shall consult with the Attorney General and State and local law enforcement officials, as appropriate.
(3) The report under subsection (b) of this section shall—
(A) cover a period of at least 4 years after the standards required by this chapter are prescribed; and
(B) reflect any information, as appropriate, from the report under subsection (a) of this section, updated from the date of the report.
(4) At least 90 days before submitting each report to Congress, the Secretary shall publish a proposed report for public review and an opportunity of at least 45 days for written comment. The Secretary shall consider those comments in preparing the report to be submitted and include a summary of the comments with the submitted report.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1089.)
§ 33114. Prohibited acts
(a)General.—A person may not—
(1) manufacture for sale, sell, offer for sale, introduce or deliver for introduction in interstate commerce, or import into the United States, a motor vehicle or major replacement part subject to a standard prescribed under section 33102 or 33103 of this title, unless it conforms to the standard;
(2) fail to comply with a regulation prescribed by the Secretary of Transportation or Attorney General under this chapter;
(3) fail to keep specified records, refuse access to or copying of records, fail to make reports or provide items or information, or fail or refuse to allow entry or inspection, as required by this chapter;
(4) fail to provide the certification required by section 33108(c) of this title, or provide a certification that the person knows, or in the exercise of reasonable care has reason to know, is false or misleading in a material respect; or
(5) knowingly—
(A) own, operate, maintain, or control a chop shop;
(B) conduct operations in a chop shop; or
(C) transport a passenger motor vehicle or passenger motor vehicle part to or from a chop shop.
(b)Nonapplication.—Subsection (a)(1) of this section does not apply to a person establishing that in the exercise of reasonable care the person did not have reason to know that the motor vehicle or major replacement part was not in conformity with the standard.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1091.)
§ 33115. Civil penalties and enforcement
(a)General Penalty and Civil Actions To Collect.—
(1) A person that violates section 33114(a)(1)–(4) of this title is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $1,000 for each violation. The failure of more than one part of a single motor vehicle to conform to an applicable standard under section 33102 or 33103 of this title is only a single violation. The maximum penalty under this subsection for a related series of violations is $250,000.
(2) The Secretary of Transportation imposes a civil penalty under this subsection. The Secretary may compromise the amount of a penalty.
(3) In determining the amount of a civil penalty or compromise under this subsection, the Secretary shall consider the size of the person’s business and the gravity of the violation.
(4) The Attorney General shall bring a civil action in a United States district court to collect a civil penalty imposed under this subsection.
(5) The Government may deduct the amount of a civil penalty imposed or compromised under this subsection from amounts it owes the person liable for the penalty.
(b)Chop Shop Penalty and Enforcement.—
(1) A person that violates section 33114(a)(5) of this title is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of not more than $100,000 a day for each violation.
(2) As appropriate and in consultation with the Attorney General, the Secretary shall—
(A) bring a civil action for a temporary or permanent injunction to restrain a person violating section 33114(a)(5) of this section;
(B) impose and recover the penalty described in paragraph (1) of this subsection; or
(C) take both the actions described in clauses (A) and (B) of this paragraph.
(c)Civil Actions To Enforce.—
(1) The Attorney General may bring a civil action in a United States district court to enjoin a violation of this chapter or the sale, offer for sale, introduction or delivery for introduction in interstate commerce, or importation into the United States, of a passenger motor vehicle containing a major part, or of a major replacement part, that is subject to the standard and is determined before the sale of the vehicle or part to a first purchaser not to conform to the standard.
(2)
(A) When practicable, the Secretary—
(i) shall notify a person against whom an action under this subsection is planned;
(ii) shall give the person an opportunity to present that person’s views; and
(iii) except for a knowing and willful violation, shall give the person a reasonable opportunity to comply.
(B) The failure of the Secretary to comply with subparagraph (A) of this paragraph does not prevent a court from granting appropriate relief.
(d)Jury Trial Demand.—In a trial for criminal contempt for violating an injunction or restraining order issued under subsection (c) of this section, the violation of which is also a violation of this chapter, the defendant may demand a jury trial. The defendant shall be tried as provided in rule 42(b) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure (18 App. U.S.C.).
(e)Venue.—A civil action under subsection (a) or (c) of this section may be brought in the judicial district in which the violation occurred or the defendant resides, is found, or transacts business. Process in the action may be served in any other judicial district in which the defendant resides or is found. A subpena for a witness in the action may be served in any judicial district.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1091.)
§ 33116. Confidentiality of information
(a)General.—Information obtained by the Secretary of Transportation under this chapter related to a confidential matter referred to in section 1905 of title 18 may be disclosed only—
(1) to another officer or employee of the United States Government for use in carrying out this chapter; or
(2) in a proceeding under this chapter (except a proceeding under section 33104(a)(3)).
(b)Withholding Information From Congress.—This section does not authorize information to be withheld from a committee of Congress authorized to have the information.
(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1093.)
§ 33117. Judicial review

A person that may be adversely affected by a regulation prescribed under this chapter may obtain judicial review of the regulation under section 32909 of this title. A remedy under this section is in addition to any other remedies provided by law.

(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1093.)
§ 33118. Preemption of State and local law

When a motor vehicle theft prevention standard prescribed under section 33102 or 33103 of this title is in effect, a State or political subdivision of a State may not have a different motor vehicle theft prevention standard for a motor vehicle or major replacement part.

(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1093.)