Collapse to view only § 98. Short title

§ 98.
Short title

This subchapter may be cited as the “Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act”.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, § 1, as added Pub. L. 96–41, § 2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 319.)
§ 98a.
Congressional findings and declaration of purpose
(a) The Congress finds that the natural resources of the United States in certain strategic and critical materials are deficient or insufficiently developed to supply the military, industrial, and essential civilian needs of the United States for national defense.
(b) It is the purpose of this subchapter to provide for the acquisition and retention of stocks of certain strategic and critical materials and to encourage the conservation and development of sources of such materials within the United States and thereby to decrease and to preclude, when possible, a dangerous and costly depend­ence by the United States upon foreign sources or a single point of failure for supplies of such materials in times of national emergency.
(c) The purpose of the National Defense Stockpile is to serve the interest of national defense only. The National Defense Stockpile is not to be used for economic or budgetary purposes.
(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, § 2, as added Pub. L. 96–41, § 2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 319; amended Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, § 3202(b), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1245; Pub. L. 103–160, div. C, title XXXIII, § 3311, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1961; Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXIII, § 3311(b), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2857; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title XIV, § 1412, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2048.)
§ 98b.
National Defense Stockpile
(a)
Determination of materials; quantities

Subject to subsection (c), the President shall determine from time to time (1) which materials are strategic and critical materials for the purposes of this subchapter, and (2) the quality and quantity of each such material to be acquired for the purposes of this subchapter and the form in which each such material shall be acquired and stored. Such materials when acquired, together with the other materials described in section 98c of this title, shall constitute and be collectively known as the National Defense Stockpile (hereinafter in this subchapter referred to as the “stockpile”).

(b)
Guidelines for exercise of Presidential authority

The President shall make the determinations required to be made under subsection (a) on the basis of the principles stated in section 98a(c) of this title.

(c)
(1) The quantity of any material to be stockpiled under this subchapter, as in effect on September 30, 1987, may be changed only as provided in this subsection or as otherwise provided by law enacted after December 4, 1987.
(2) The President shall notify Congress in writing of any change proposed to be made in the quantity of any material to be stockpiled. The President may make the change after the end of the 45-day period beginning on the date of the notification. The President shall include a full explanation and justification for the proposed change with the notification.
(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, § 3, as added Pub. L. 96–41, § 2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 319; amended Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, § 3202(a), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1245; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XII, § 1233(b)(2), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2057; Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXIII, § 3311, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2653; Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXIII, § 3312(a), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2857.)
§ 98c.
Materials constituting the National Defense Stockpile
(a)
Contents
The stockpile consists of the following materials:
(1) Materials acquired under this subchapter and contained in the national stockpile on July 29, 1979.
(2) Materials acquired under this subchapter after July 29, 1979.
(3) Materials in the supplemental stockpile established by section 1704(b) of title 7 (as in effect from September 21, 1959, through December 31, 1966) on July 29, 1979.
(4) Materials acquired by the United States under the provisions of section 4533 of this title and transferred to the stockpile by the President pursuant to subsection (f) of such section.
(5) Materials transferred to the United States under section 2423 of title 22 that have been determined to be strategic and critical materials for the purposes of this subchapter and that are allocated by the President under subsection (b) of such section for stockpiling in the stockpile.
(6) Materials acquired by the Commodity Credit Corporation and transferred to the stockpile under section 714b(h) of title 15.
(7) Materials acquired by the Commodity Credit Corporation under paragraph (2) of section 1743(a) of title 7, and transferred to the stockpile under the third sentence of such section.
(8) Materials transferred to the stockpile by the President under paragraph (4) of section 1743(a) of title 7.
(9) Materials transferred to the stockpile under subsection (b).
(10) Materials transferred to the stockpile under subsection (c).
(b)
Transfer and reimbursement

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any material that (1) is under the control of any department or agency of the United States, (2) is determined by the head of such department or agency to be excess to its needs and responsibilities, and (3) is suitable for transfer or disposal through the stockpile shall be transferred to the stockpile. Any such transfer shall be made without reimbursement to such department or agency, but all costs required to effect such transfer shall be paid or reimbursed from funds appropriated to carry out this subchapter.

(c)
Transfer and disposal

The Secretary of Defense shall determine whether materials are suitable for transfer to the stockpile under subsection (b), are suitable for disposal through the stockpile, and are uncontaminated.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, § 4, as added Pub. L. 96–41, § 2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 320; amended Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, § 3207(a)(1), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4069; Pub. L. 104–106, div. C, title XXXIII, § 3311, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 630; Pub. L. 110–246, title III, § 3001(b)(1)(A), (2)(Z), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1820, 1821; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title XIV, § 1412(a), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2570.)
§ 98d.
Authority for stockpile operations
(a)
Funds appropriated for acquisitions; proposed stockpile transactions; significant changes therein
(1) Except for acquisitions made under the authority of paragraph (3) or (4) of section 98e(a) of this title, no funds may be obligated or appropriated for acquisition of any material under this subchapter unless funds for such acquisition have been authorized by law. Funds appropriated for such acquisition (and for transportation and other incidental expenses related to such acquisition) shall remain available until expended, unless otherwise provided in appropriation Acts.
(2) If for any fiscal year the President proposes certain stockpile transactions in the annual materials plan submitted to Congress for that year under section 98h–2(b) of this title and after that plan is submitted the President proposes (or Congress requires) a significant change in any such transaction, or a significant transaction not included in such plan, no amount may be obligated or expended for such transaction during such year until the President has submitted a full statement of the proposed transaction to the appropriate committees of Congress and a period of 45 days has passed from the date of the receipt of such statement by such committees.
(b)
Disposal

Except for disposals made under the authority of paragraph (3), (4), or (5) 1

1 See References in Text note below.
of section 98e(a) of this title or under section 98f(a) of this title, no disposal may be made from the stockpile unless such disposal, including the quantity of the material to be disposed of, has been specifically authorized by law.

(c)
Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to provide for the transportation, processing, refining, storage, security, maintenance, rotation, and disposal of materials contained in or acquired for the stockpile. Funds appropriated for such purposes shall remain available to carry out the purposes for which appropriated for a period of two fiscal years, if so provided in appropriation Acts.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, § 5, as added Pub. L. 96–41, § 2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 321; amended Pub. L. 97–35, title II, § 203(a), (b), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 381, 382; Pub. L. 98–525, title IX, § 903, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2573; Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, § 3207(a)(2), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4069; Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, § 3206(a), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1247; Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXIII, § 3312, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2653; Pub. L. 103–160, div. C, title XXXIII, § 3312, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1962.)
§ 98e.
Stockpile management
(a)
Presidential powers
The President shall—
(1) acquire the materials determined under section 98b(a) of this title to be strategic and critical materials;
(2) provide for the proper storage, security, and maintenance of materials in the stockpile;
(3) provide for the upgrading, refining, or processing of any material in the stockpile (notwithstanding any intermediate stockpile quantity established for such material) when necessary to convert such material into a form more suitable for storage, subsequent disposition, and immediate use in a national emergency;
(4) provide for the rotation of any material in the stockpile when necessary to prevent deterioration or technological obsolescence of such material by replacement of such material with an equivalent quantity of substantially the same material or better material;
(5) provide for the appropriate recovery of any strategic and critical materials under section 98b(a) of this title that may be available from excess materials made available for recovery purposes by other Federal agencies;
(6) subject to the notification required by subsection (d)(2), provide for the timely disposal of materials in the stockpile that (A) are excess to stockpile requirements, and (B) may cause a loss to the Government if allowed to deteriorate; and
(7) subject to the provisions of section 98d(b) of this title, dispose of materials in the stockpile the disposal of which is specifically authorized by law.
(b)
Federal procurement practices
Except as provided in subsections (c) and (d), acquisition of strategic and critical materials under this subchapter shall be made in accordance with established Federal procurement practices, and, except as provided in subsections (c) and (d) and in section 98f(a) of this title, disposal of strategic and critical materials from the stockpile shall be made in accordance with the next sentence. To the maximum extent feasible—
(1) competitive procedures shall be used in the acquisition and disposal of such materials; and
(2) efforts shall be made in the acquisition and disposal of such materials to avoid undue disruption of the usual markets of producers, processors, and consumers of such materials and to protect the United States against avoidable loss.
(c)
Barter; use of stockpile materials as payment for expenses of acquiring, refining, processing, or rotating materials
(1) The President shall encourage the use of barter in the acquisition under subsection (a)(1) of strategic and critical materials for, and the disposal under subsection (a)(5) or (a)(6) of materials from, the stockpile when acquisition or disposal by barter is authorized by law and is practical and in the best interest of the United States.
(2) Materials in the stockpile (the disposition of which is authorized by paragraph (3) to finance the upgrading, refining, or processing of a material in the stockpile, or is otherwise authorized by law) shall be available for transfer at fair market value as payment for expenses (including transportation and other incidental expenses) of acquisition of materials, or of upgrading, refining, processing, or rotating materials, under this subchapter.
(3) Notwithstanding section 98b(c) of this title or any other provision of law, whenever the President provides under subsection (a)(3) for the upgrading, refining, or processing of a material in the stockpile to convert that material into a form more suitable for storage, subsequent disposition, and immediate use in a national emergency, the President may barter a portion of the same material (or any other material in the stockpile that is authorized for disposal) to finance that upgrading, refining, or processing.
(4) To the extent otherwise authorized by law, property owned by the United States may be bartered for materials needed for the stockpile.
(d)
Waiver; notification of proposed disposal of materials
(1) The President may waive the applicability of any provision of the first sentence of subsection (b) to any acquisition of material for, or disposal of material from, the stockpile. Whenever the President waives any such provision with respect to any such acquisition or disposal, or whenever the President determines that the application of paragraph (1) or (2) of such subsection to a particular acquisition or disposal is not feasible, the President shall notify the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives in writing of the proposed acquisition or disposal at least 45 days before any obligation of the United States is incurred in connection with such acquisition or disposal and shall include in such notification the reasons for not complying with any provision of such subsection.
(2) Materials in the stockpile may be disposed of under subsection (a)(5) only if such congressional committees are notified in writing of the proposed disposal at least 45 days before any obligation of the United States is incurred in connection with such disposal.
(e)
Leasehold interests in property

The President may acquire leasehold interests in property, for periods not in excess of twenty years, for storage, security, and maintenance of materials in the stockpile.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, § 6, as added Pub. L. 96–41, § 2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 321; amended Pub. L. 97–35, title II, § 203(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 382; Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, § 3207(b), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4069; Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXIII, § 3314, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1688; Pub. L. 101–510, div. C, title XXXIII, § 3301(a), (b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1844; Pub. L. 102–190, div. C, title XXXIII, § 3312, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1584; Pub. L. 103–337, div. C, title XXXIII, § 3302, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3098; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, § 1502(e)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 509; Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXIII, § 3312(b), (c), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2857; Pub. L. 105–85, div. C, title XXXIII, § 3306, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 2058; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, § 1067(13), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XIV, § 1411(a), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 934.)
§ 98e–1.
Transferred
§ 98f.
Special Presidential disposal authority
(a)
Materials in the stockpile may be released for use, sale, or other disposition—
(1) on the order of the President, at any time the President determines the release of such materials is required for purposes of the national defense;
(2) in time of war declared by the Congress or during a national emergency, on the order of any officer or employee of the United States designated by the President to have authority to issue disposal orders under this subsection, if such officer or employee determines that the release of such materials is required for purposes of the national defense; and
(3) on the order of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment, if the President has designated the Under Secretary to have authority to issue release orders under this subsection and, in the case of any such order, if the Under Secretary determines that the release of such materials is required for use, manufacture, or production for purposes of national defense.
(b) Any order issued under subsection (a) shall be promptly reported by the President, or by the officer or employee issuing such order, in writing, to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives.
(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, § 7, as added Pub. L. 96–41, § 2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 322; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, § 1502(e)(2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 509; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, § 1067(13), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title XIV, § 1413(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2048; Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title IX, § 902(90), Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1554.)
§ 98g.
Materials development and research
(a)
Development, mining, preparation, treatment, and utilization of ores and other mineral substances
(1) The President shall make scientific, technologic, and economic investigations concerning the development, mining, preparation, treatment, and utilization of ores and other mineral substances that (A) are found in the United States, or in its territories or possessions, (B) are essential to the national defense, industrial, and essential civilian needs of the United States, and (C) are found in known domestic sources in inadequate quantities or grades.
(2)
Such investigations shall be carried out in order to—
(A) determine and develop new domestic sources of supply of such ores and mineral substances;
(B) devise new methods for the treatment and utilization of lower grade reserves of such ores and mineral substances; and
(C) develop substitutes for such essential ores and mineral products.
(3) Investigations under paragraph (1) may be carried out on public lands and, with the consent of the owner, on privately owned lands for the purpose of exploring and determining the extent and quality of deposits of such minerals, the most suitable methods of mining and beneficiating such minerals, and the cost at which the minerals or metals may be produced.
(b)
Development of sources of supplies of agricultural materials; use of agricultural commodities for manufacture of materials

The President shall make scientific, technologic, and economic investigations of the feasibility of developing domestic sources of supplies of any agricultural material or for using agricultural commodities for the manufacture of any material determined pursuant to section 98b(a) of this title to be a strategic and critical material or substitutes therefor.

(c)
Development of sources of supply of other materials; development or use of alternative methods for refining or processing materials in stockpile
The President shall make scientific, technologic, and economic investigations concerning the feasibility of—
(1) developing domestic sources of supply of materials (other than materials referred to in subsections (a) and (b)) determined pursuant to section 98b(a) of this title to be strategic and critical materials; and
(2) developing or using alternative methods for the refining or processing of a material in the stockpile so as to convert such material into a form more suitable for use during an emergency or for storage.
(d)
Grants and contracts to encourage conservation of strategic and critical materials
The President shall encourage the conservation of domestic sources of any material determined pursuant to section 98b(a) of this title to be a strategic and critical material by making grants or awarding contracts for research regarding the development of—
(1) substitutes for such material; or
(2) more efficient methods of production or use of such material.
(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, § 8, as added Pub. L. 96–41, § 2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 322; amended Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXIII, § 3311, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1686.)
§ 98h.
National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund
(a)
Establishment

There is established in the Treasury of the United States a separate fund to be known as the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund (hereinafter in this section referred to as the “fund”).

(b)
Fund operations
(1) All moneys received from the sale of materials in the stockpile under paragraphs (5) and (6) of section 98e(a) of this title 1
1 See References in Text note below.
shall be covered into the fund.
(2)
Subject to section 98d(a)(1) of this title, moneys covered into the fund under paragraph (1) are hereby made available (subject to such limitations as may be provided in appropriation Acts) for the following purposes:
(A) The acquisition, maintenance, and disposal of strategic and critical materials under section 98e(a) of this title.
(B) Transportation, storage, and other incidental expenses related to such acquisition, maintenance, and disposal.
(C) Development of current specifications of stockpile materials and the upgrading of existing stockpile materials to meet current specifications (including transportation, when economical, related to such upgrading).
(D) Encouraging the appropriate conservation of strategic and critical materials.
(E) Testing and quality studies of stockpile materials.
(F) Studying future material and mobilization requirements for the stockpile.
(G) Activities authorized under section 98h–6 of this title.
(H)
Contracting under competitive procedures for materials development and research to—
(i) improve the quality and availability of materials stockpiled from time to time in the stockpile; and
(ii) develop new materials for the stockpile.
(I) Improvement or rehabilitation of facilities, structures, and infrastructure needed to maintain the integrity of stockpile materials.
(J) Disposal of hazardous materials that are stored in the stockpile and authorized for disposal by law.
(K) Performance of environmental remediation, restoration, waste management, or compliance activities at locations of the stockpile that are required under a Federal law or are undertaken by the Government under an administrative decision or negotiated agreement.
(L) Pay of employees of the National Defense Stockpile program.
(M) Other expenses of the National Defense Stockpile program.
(3) Moneys in the fund shall remain available until expended.
(c)
Moneys received from sale of materials being rotated or disposed of

All moneys received from the sale of materials being rotated under the provisions of section 98e(a)(4) of this title or disposed of under section 98f(a) of this title shall be covered into the fund and shall be available only for the acquisition of replacement materials.

(d)
Effect of bartering
If, during a fiscal year, the National Defense Stockpile Manager barters materials in the stockpile for the purpose of acquiring, upgrading, refining, or processing other materials (or for services directly related to that purpose), the contract value of the materials so bartered shall—
(1) be applied toward the total value of materials that are authorized to be disposed of from the stockpile during that fiscal year;
(2) be treated as an acquisition for purposes of satisfying any requirement imposed on the National Defense Stockpile Manager to enter into obligations during that fiscal year under subsection (b)(2); and
(3) not increase or decrease the balance in the fund.
(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, § 9, as added Pub. L. 96–41, § 2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 323; amended Pub. L. 97–35, title II, § 203(d), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 382; Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, § 3203(a), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4067; Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, § 3204, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1247; Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXIII, § 3312(b), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1688;
§ 98h–1.
Advisory committees
(a)
Membership

The President may appoint advisory committees composed of individuals with expertise relating to materials in the stockpile or with expertise in stockpile management to advise the President with respect to the acquisition, transportation, processing, refining, storage, security, maintenance, rotation, and disposal of such materials under this subchapter.

(b)
Expenses

Each member of an advisory committee established under subsection (a) while serving on the business of the advisory committee away from such member’s home or regular place of business shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by section 5703 of title 5 for persons intermittently employed in the Government service.

(c)
Market Impact Committee
(1) The President shall appoint a Market Impact Committee composed of representatives from the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Commerce, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Department of the Interior, the Department of State, the Department of the Treasury, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and such other persons as the President considers appropriate. The representatives from the Department of Commerce and the Department of State shall be Cochairmen of the Committee.
(2) The Committee shall advise the National Defense Stockpile Manager on the projected domestic and foreign economic effects of all acquisitions and disposals of materials from the stockpile that are proposed to be included in the annual materials plan submitted to Congress under section 98h–2(b) of this title, or in any revision of such plan, and shall submit to the manager the Committee’s recommendations regarding those acquisitions and disposals.
(3)
The annual materials plan or the revision of such plan, as the case may be, shall contain—
(A) the views of the Committee on the projected domestic and foreign economic effects of all acquisitions and disposals of materials from the stockpile;
(B) the recommendations submitted by the Committee under paragraph (2); and
(C) for each acquisition or disposal provided for in the plan or revision that is inconsistent with a recommendation of the Committee, a justification for the acquisition or disposal.
(4) In developing recommendations for the National Defense Stockpile Manager under paragraph (2), the Committee shall consult from time to time with representatives of producers, processors, and consumers of the types of materials stored in the stockpile.
(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, § 10, as added Pub. L. 96–41, § 2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 323; amended Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXIII, § 3314, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2654.)
§ 98h–2.
Reports to Congress
(a)
Not later than February 15 of each year, the President shall submit to the Congress an annual written report detailing operations under this subchapter. Each such report shall include—
(1) information with respect to foreign and domestic purchases of materials during the preceding fiscal year;
(2) information with respect to the acquisition and disposal of materials under this subchapter by barter, as provided for in section 98e(c) of this title, during such fiscal year;
(3) information with respect to the activities by the Stockpile Manager to encourage the conservation, substitution, and development of strategic and critical materials within the United States;
(4) information with respect to the research and development activities conducted under sections 98a and 98g of this title;
(5) a statement and explanation of the financial status of the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund and the anticipated appropriations to be made to the fund, and obligations to be made from the fund, during the current fiscal year; and
(6) such other pertinent information on the administration of this subchapter as will enable the Congress to evaluate the effectiveness of the program provided for under this subchapter and to determine the need for additional legislation.
(b)
(1) Each report under subsection (a) shall also include an annual materials plan for the operation of the stockpile during the next fiscal year and the succeeding four fiscal years.
(2) With respect to the plan described in paragraph (1), each such report shall include details of all planned expenditures from the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund during such period (including expenditures to be made from appropriations from the general fund of the Treasury) and of anticipated receipts from proposed disposals of stockpile materials during such period. With respect to such plan, each report shall also contain details regarding the materials development and research projects to be conducted under section 98h(b)(2)(H) of this title during the fiscal years covered by the report. With respect to each development and research project, the report shall specify the amount planned to be expended from the fund, the material intended to be developed, the potential military or defense industrial applications for that material, and the development and research methodologies to be used.
(3) Any proposed expenditure or disposal detailed in the annual materials plan for any such fiscal year, and any expenditure or disposal proposed in connection with any transaction submitted for such fiscal year to the appropriate committees of Congress pursuant to section 98d(a)(2) of this title, that is not obligated or executed in that fiscal year may not be obligated or executed until such proposed expenditure or disposal is resubmitted in a subsequent annual materials plan or is resubmitted to the appropriate committees of Congress in accordance with section 98d(a)(2) of this title, as appropriate.
(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, § 11, as added Pub. L. 96–41, § 2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 324; amended Pub. L. 97–35, title II, § 203(e), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 382; Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, § 3207(a)(3), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4069; Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, § 3205, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1247; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XV, § 1503, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2086; Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXIII, § 3315, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1688; Pub. L. 102–190, div. C, title XXXIII, §§ 3311(b), 3313(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1584; Pub. L. 103–35, title II, § 204(d), May 31, 1993, 107 Stat. 103; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, § 1071(j), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3512; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title XIV, § 1423, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2093.)
§ 98h–3.
Definitions
For the purposes of this subchapter:
(1) The term “strategic and critical materials” means materials that (A) would be needed to supply the military, industrial, and essential civilian needs of the United States during a national emergency, and (B) are not found or produced in the United States in sufficient quantities to meet such need.
(2) The term “national emergency” means a general declaration of emergency with respect to the national defense made by the President or by the Congress.
(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, § 12, as added Pub. L. 96–41, § 2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 324.)
§ 98h–4.
Importation of strategic and critical ma­terials

The President may not prohibit or regulate the importation into the United States of any material determined to be strategic and critical pursuant to the provisions of this subchapter, if such material is the product of any foreign country or area not listed in general note 3(b) of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202), for so long as the importation into the United States of material of that kind which is the product of a country or area listed in such general note is not prohibited by any provision of law.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, § 13, formerly § 10, as added Pub. L. 92–156, title V, § 503(2), Nov. 17, 1971, 85 Stat. 427; renumbered § 13, Pub. L. 96–41, § 2(b)(1), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 324; amended Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, § 3206(b), (c), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1247; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, § 1214(o), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1159; Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXIII, § 3313, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2857.)
§ 98h–5.
Biennial report on stockpile requirements
(a)
In general
Not later than January 15 of every other year, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report on stockpile requirements. Each such report shall include—
(1) the Secretary’s recommendations with respect to stockpile requirements; and
(2) the matters required under subsection (b).
(b)
National emergency planning assumptions
Each report under this section shall set forth the national emergency planning assumptions used by the Secretary in making the Secretary’s recommendations under subsection (a)(1) with respect to stockpile requirements. The Secretary shall base the national emergency planning assumptions on a military conflict scenario consistent with the scenario used by the Secretary in budgeting and defense planning purposes. The assumptions to be set forth include assumptions relating to each of the following:
(1) The length and intensity of the assumed military conflict.
(2) The military force structure to be mobilized.
(3) The losses anticipated from enemy action.
(4) The military, industrial, and essential civilian requirements to support the national emergency.
(5) The availability of supplies of strategic and critical materials from foreign sources during the mobilization period, the military conflict, and the subsequent period of replenishment, taking into consideration possible shipping losses.
(6) The domestic production of strategic and critical materials during the mobilization period, the military conflict, and the subsequent period of replenishment, taking into consideration possible shipping losses.
(7) Civilian austerity measures required during the mobilization period and military conflict.
(c)
Period within which to replace or replenish materials

The stockpile requirements shall be based on those strategic and critical materials necessary for the United States to replenish or replace, within three years of the end of the military conflict scenario required under subsection (b), all munitions, combat support items, and weapons systems that would be required after such a military conflict.

(d)
Effect of alternative mobilization periods

The Secretary shall also include in each report under this section an examination of the effect that alternative mobilization periods under the military conflict scenario required under subsection (b), as well as a range of other military conflict scenarios addressing potentially more serious threats to national security, would have on the Secretary’s recommendations under subsection (a)(1) with respect to stockpile requirements.

(e)
Plans of President

The President shall submit with each report under this section a statement of the plans of the President for meeting the recommendations of the Secretary set forth in the report.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, § 14, as added Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, § 3202(c), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1246; amended Pub. L. 102–190, div. C, title XXXIII, § 3313(b)(1), (2), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1585; Pub. L. 103–160, div. C, title XXXIII, § 3314, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1962; Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXIII, § 3311(a), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2856.)
§ 98h–6.
Development of domestic sources
(a)
Purchase of materials of domestic origin; processing of materials in domestic facilities
Subject to subsection (c) and to the extent the President determines such action is required for the national defense, the President shall encourage the development and appropriate conservation of domestic sources for materials determined pursuant to section 98b(a) of this title to be strategic and critical materials—
(1) by purchasing, or making a commitment to purchase, strategic and critical materials of domestic origin when such materials are needed for the stockpile;
(2) by contracting with domestic facilities, or making a commitment to contract with domestic facilities, for the processing or refining of strategic and critical materials in the stockpile when processing or refining is necessary to convert such materials into a form more suitable for storage and subsequent disposition;
(3) by qualifying existing domestic facilities and domestically produced strategic and critical materials to meet the requirements of defense and essential civilian industries in times of national emergency when existing domestic sources of supply are either insufficient or vulnerable to single points of failure; and
(4) by contracting with domestic facilities to recycle strategic and critical materials, thereby increasing domestic supplies when such materials would otherwise be insufficient to support defense and essential civilian industries in times of national emergency.
(b)
Terms and conditions of contracts and commitments

A contract or commitment made under subsection (a) may not exceed five years from the date of the contract or commitment. Such purchases and commitments to purchase may be made for such quantities and on such terms and conditions, including advance payments, as the President considers to be necessary.

(c)
Proposed transactions included in annual materials plan; availability of funds
(1) Descriptions of proposed transactions under subsection (a) shall be included in the appropriate annual materials plan submitted to Congress under section 98h–2(b) of this title. Changes to any such transaction, or the addition of a transaction not included in such plan, shall be made in the manner provided by section 98d(a)(2) of this title.
(2) The authority of the President to enter into obligations under this section is effective for any fiscal year only to the extent that funds in the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund are adequate to meet such obligations. Payments required to be as a result of obligations incurred under this section shall be made from amounts in the fund.
(d)
Transportation and incidental expenses
The authority of the President under subsection (a) includes the authority to pay—
(1) the expenses of transporting materials; and
(2) other incidental expenses related to carrying out such subsection.
(e)
Reports

The President shall include in the reports required under section 98h–2(a) of this title information with respect to activities conducted under this section.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, § 15, as added Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXIII, § 3312(a), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1687; amended Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XIV, § 1411(c), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 934; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title XIV, § 1412(b), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2570.)
§ 98h–7.
National Defense Stockpile Manager
(a)
Appointment

The President shall designate a single Federal office to have responsibility for performing the functions of the President under this subchapter, other than under sections 98f(a)(1) and 98h–4 of this title. The office designated shall be one to which appointment is made by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(b)
Title of designated officer

The individual holding the office designated by the President under subsection (a) shall be known for purposes of functions under this subchapter as the “National Defense Stockpile Manager”.

(c)
Delegation of functions

The President may delegate functions of the President under this subchapter (other than under sections 98f(a)(1) and 98h–4 of this title) only to the National Defense Stockpile Manager. Any such delegation made by the President shall remain in effect until specifically revoked by law or Executive order. The President may not delegate functions of the President under sections 98f(a)(1) and 98h–4 of this title.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, § 16, formerly § 6A, as added Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, § 3202(a), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4067; amended Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, § 3203(a), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1246; renumbered § 16 and amended Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXIII, § 3313, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1688; Pub. L. 102–190, div. C, title XXXIII, § 3314, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1585; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title XIV, § 1413(b), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2049.)
§ 98i.
Repealed. Pub. L. 85–861, § 36A, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1570
§ 99.
Transferred
§ 100.
Nitrate plants
(a)
Investigations; designation of sites; construction and operation of dams, locks, improvements to navigation, etc.

The President of the United States may make, or cause to be made, such investigation as in his judgment is necessary to determine the best, cheapest, and most available means for the production of nitrates and other products for munitions of war and useful in the manufacture of fertilizers and other useful products by water power or any other power as in his judgment is the best and cheapest to use; and is also authorized to designate for the exclusive use of the United States, if in his judgment such means is best and cheapest, such site or sites, upon any navigable or nonnavigable river or rivers or upon the public lands, as in his opinion will be necessary for national defense; and is further authorized to construct, maintain, and operate, at or on any site or sites so designated, dams, locks, improvements to navigation, power houses, and other plants and equipment or other means than water power as in his judgment is the best and cheapest, necessary or convenient for the generation of electrical or other power and for the production of nitrates or other products needed for munitions of war and useful in the manufacture of fertilizers and other useful products.

(b)
Lease, purchase, or acquisition of lands and rights of way; purchase or acquisition of materials, minerals, and processes

The President is authorized to lease, buy, or acquire, by condemnation, gift, grant, or devise, such lands and rights of way as may be necessary for the construction and operation of such plants and to take from any lands of the United States, or to buy or acquire by condemnation materials, minerals, and processes, patented or otherwise, necessary for the construction and operation of such plants and for the manufacture of such products.

(c)
Use of products of plants; disposal of surplus

The products of such plants shall be used by the President for military and naval purposes to the extent that he may deem necessary, and any surplus which he shall determine is not required shall be sold and disposed of by him under such regulations as he may prescribe.

(d)
Employment of officers, agents, or agencies

The President is authorized to employ such officers, agents, or agencies as may in his discretion be necessary to enable him to carry out the purposes herein specified, and to authorize and require such officers, agents, or agencies to perform any and all of the duties imposed upon him by the provisions hereof.

(e)
Government construction and operation

The plant or plants provided for under this section shall be constructed and operated solely by the Government and not in conjunction with any other industry or enterprise carried on by private capital.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, § 37, 70A Stat. 634.)
§ 100a.
Omitted