Collapse to view only § 2108. Veteran; disabled veteran; preference eligible

§ 2101. Civil service; armed forces; uniformed services
For the purpose of this title—
(1) the “civil service” consists of all appointive positions in the executive, judicial, and legislative branches of the Government of the United States, except positions in the uniformed services;
(2) “armed forces” means the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Space Force, and Coast Guard; and
(3) “uniformed services” means the armed forces, the commissioned corps of the Public Health Service, and the commissioned corps of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 408; Pub. L. 90–83, § 1(4), Sept. 11, 1967, 81 Stat. 196; Pub. L. 96–54, § 2(a)(4), Aug. 14, 1979, 93 Stat. 381; Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title IX, § 927(a), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 3831.)
§ 2101a. The Senior Executive Service

The “Senior Executive Service” consists of Senior Executive Service positions (as defined in section 3132(a)(2) of this title).

(Added Pub. L. 95–454, title IV, § 401(a), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1154.)
§ 2102. The competitive service
(a) The “competitive service” consists of—
(1) all civil service positions in the executive branch, except—
(A) positions which are specifically excepted from the competitive service by or under statute;
(B) positions to which appointments are made by nomination for confirmation by the Senate, unless the Senate otherwise directs; and
(C) positions in the Senior Executive Service;
(2) civil service positions not in the executive branch which are specifically included in the competitive service by statute; and
(3) positions in the government of the District of Columbia which are specifically included in the competitive service by statute.
(b) Notwithstanding subsection (a)(1)(B) of this section, the “competitive service” includes positions to which appointments are made by nomination for confirmation by the Senate when specifically included therein by statute.
(c) As used in other Acts of Congress, “classified civil service” or “classified service” means the “competitive service”.
(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 408; Pub. L. 95–454, title IV, § 401(b), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1154.)
§ 2103. The excepted service
(a) For the purpose of this title, the “excepted service” consists of those civil service positions which are not in the competitive service or the Senior Executive Service.
(b) As used in other Acts of Congress, “unclassified civil service” or “unclassified service” means the “excepted service”.
(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 408; Pub. L. 95–454, title IV, § 401(c), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1154.)
§ 2104. Officer
(a) For the purpose of this title, “officer”, except as otherwise provided by this section or when specifically modified, means a justice or judge of the United States and an individual who is—
(1)
(A) the President;
(B) a court of the United States;
(C) the head of an Executive agency; or
(D) the Secretary of a military department;
(2) engaged in the performance of a Federal function under authority of law or an Executive act; and
(3) subject to the supervision of an authority named by paragraph (1) of this section, or the Judicial Conference of the United States, while engaged in the performance of the duties of his office.
(b) Except as otherwise provided by law, an officer of the United States Postal Service or of the Postal Regulatory Commission is deemed not an officer for purposes of this title.
(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 408; Pub. L. 91–375, § 6(c)(3), Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 109–435, title VI, § 604(b), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3241.)
§ 2105. Employee
(a) For the purpose of this title, “employee”, except as otherwise provided by this section or when specifically modified, means an officer and an individual who is—
(1) appointed in the civil service by one of the following acting in an official capacity—
(A) the President;
(B) a Member or Members of Congress, or the Congress;
(C) a member of a uniformed service;
(D) an individual who is an employee under this section;
(E) the head of a Government controlled corporation; or
(F) an adjutant general designated by the Secretary concerned under section 709(c) of title 32;
(2) engaged in the performance of a Federal function under authority of law or an Executive act; and
(3) subject to the supervision of an individual named by paragraph (1) of this subsection while engaged in the performance of the duties of his position.
(b) An individual who is employed at the United States Naval Academy in the midshipmen’s laundry, the midshipmen’s tailor shop, the midshipmen’s cobbler and barber shops, and the midshipmen’s store, except an individual employed by the Academy dairy (if any), and whose employment in such a position began before October 1, 1996, and has been uninterrupted in such a position since that date is deemed an employee.
(c) An employee paid from nonappropriated funds of the Army and Air Force Exchange Service, Navy Ships Stores Program, Navy exchanges, Marine Corps exchanges, Coast Guard exchanges, and other instrumentalities of the United States under the jurisdiction of the armed forces conducted for the comfort, pleasure, contentment, and mental and physical improvement of personnel of the armed forces is deemed not an employee for the purpose of—
(1) laws administered by the Office of Personnel Management, except—
(A) section 7204;
(B) as otherwise specifically provided in this title;
(C) the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938;
(D) for the purpose of entering into an interchange agreement to provide for the noncompetitive movement of employees between such instrumentalities and the competitive service; or
(E) subchapter V of chapter 63, which shall be applied so as to construe references to benefit programs to refer to applicable programs for employees paid from nonappropriated funds; or
(2) subchapter I of chapter 81, chapter 84 (except to the extent specifically provided therein), and section 7902 of this title.
This subsection does not affect the status of these nonappropriated fund activities as Federal instrumentalities.
(d) A Reserve of the armed forces who is not on active duty or who is on active duty for training is deemed not an employee or an individual holding an office of trust or profit or discharging an official function under or in connection with the United States because of his appointment, oath, or status, or any duties or functions performed or pay or allowances received in that capacity.
(e) Except as otherwise provided by law, an employee of the United States Postal Service or of the Postal Regulatory Commission is deemed not an employee for purposes of this title.
(f) For purposes of sections 1212, 1213, 1214, 1215, 1216, 1221, 1222, 2302, and 7701, employees appointed under chapter 73 or 74 of title 38 shall be employees.
(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 409; Pub. L. 90–486, § 4, Aug. 13, 1968, 82 Stat. 757; Pub. L. 91–375, § 6(c)(4), Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 92–392, § 2, Aug. 19, 1972, 86 Stat. 573; Pub. L. 95–454, title VII, § 703(c)(2), title IX, § 906(a)(2), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1217, 1224; Pub. L. 96–54, § 2(a)(5), (6), Aug. 14, 1979, 93 Stat. 381; Pub. L. 99–335, title II, § 207(a), June 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 594; Pub. L. 99–638, § 2(b)(1), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3536; Pub. L. 101–508, title VII, § 7202(b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–335; Pub. L. 103–3, title II, § 201(b), Feb. 5, 1993, 107 Stat. 23; Pub. L. 103–424, § 7, Oct. 29, 1994, 108 Stat. 4364; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title III, § 370(b), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2499; Pub. L. 105–85, div. B, title XXVIII, § 2871(c)(2), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 2015; Pub. L. 109–435, title VI, § 604(f), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3242; Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title VI, § 642, Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 787.)
§ 2106. Member of Congress

For the purpose of this title, “Member of Congress” means the Vice President, a member of the Senate or the House of Representatives, a Delegate to the House of Representatives, and the Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico.

(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 409; Pub. L. 91–405, title II, § 204(b), Sept. 22, 1970, 84 Stat. 852; Pub. L. 96–54, § 2(a)(7), Aug. 14, 1979, 93 Stat. 381.)
§ 2107. Congressional employee
For the purpose of this title, “Congressional employee” means—
(1) an employee of either House of Congress, of a committee of either House, or of a joint committee of the two Houses;
(2) an elected officer of either House who is not a Member of Congress;
(3) the Legislative Counsel of either House and an employee of his office;
(4) a member or employee of the Capitol Police;
(5) an employee of a Member of Congress if the pay of the employee is paid by the Secretary of the Senate or the Chief Administrative Officer of the House of Representatives;
[(6) Repealed. Pub. L. 90–83, § 1(5)(A), Sept. 11, 1967, 81 Stat. 196.]
(7) the Architect of the Capitol and an employee of the Architect of the Capitol;
(8) an employee of the Botanic Garden; and
(9) an employee of the Office of Congressional Accessibility Services.
(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 409; Pub. L. 90–83, § 1(5), Sept. 11, 1967, 81 Stat. 196; Pub. L. 91–510, title IV, § 442(a), Oct. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 1191; Pub. L. 104–186, title II, § 215(1), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1745; Pub. L. 110–437, title IV, § 422(c), Oct. 20, 2008, 122 Stat. 4997; Pub. L. 111–145, § 7(a), Mar. 4, 2010, 124 Stat. 55.)
§ 2108. Veteran; disabled veteran; preference eligibleFor the purpose of this title—
(1) “veteran” means an individual who—
(A) served on active duty in the armed forces during a war, in a campaign or expedition for which a campaign badge has been authorized, or during the period beginning April 28, 1952, and ending July 1, 1955;
(B) served on active duty as defined by section 101(21) of title 38 at any time in the armed forces for a period of more than 180 consecutive days any part of which occurred after January 31, 1955, and before October 15, 1976, not including service under section 12103(d) of title 10 pursuant to an enlistment in the Army National Guard or the Air National Guard or as a Reserve for service in the Army Reserve, Navy Reserve, Air Force Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, or Coast Guard Reserve;
(C) served on active duty as defined by section 101(21) of title 38 in the armed forces during the period beginning on August 2, 1990, and ending on January 2, 1992; or
(D) served on active duty as defined by section 101(21) of title 38 at any time in the armed forces for a period of more than 180 consecutive days any part of which occurred during the period beginning on September 11, 2001, and ending on the date prescribed by Presidential proclamation or by law as the last date of Operation Iraqi Freedom;
and, except as provided under section 2108a, who has been discharged or released from active duty in the armed forces under honorable conditions;
(2) “disabled veteran” means an individual who has served on active duty in the armed forces, (except as provided under section 2108a) has been separated therefrom under honorable conditions, and has established the present existence of a service-connected disability or is receiving compensation, disability retirement benefits, or pension because of a public statute administered by the Department of Veterans Affairs or a military department;
(3) “preference eligible” means, except as provided in paragraph (4) of this section or section 2108a(c)—
(A) a veteran as defined by paragraph (1)(A) of this section;
(B) a veteran as defined by paragraph (1)(B), (C), or (D) of this section;
(C) a disabled veteran;
(D) the unmarried widow or widower of a veteran as defined by paragraph (1)(A) of this section;
(E) the wife or husband of a service-connected disabled veteran if the veteran has been unable to qualify for any appointment in the civil service or in the government of the District of Columbia;
(F) the parent of an individual who lost his or her life under honorable conditions while serving in the armed forces during a period named by paragraph (1)(A) of this section, if—
(i) the spouse of that parent is totally and permanently disabled; or
(ii) that parent, when preference is claimed, is unmarried or, if married, legally separated from his or her spouse;
(G) the parent of a service-connected permanently and totally disabled veteran, if—
(i) the spouse of that parent is totally and permanently disabled; or
(ii) that parent, when preference is claimed, is unmarried or, if married, legally separated from his or her spouse; and
(H) a veteran who was discharged or released from a period of active duty by reason of a sole survivorship discharge (as that term is defined in section 1174(i) of title 10);
(4) except for the purposes of chapters 43 and 75 of this title, “preference eligible” does not include a retired member of the armed forces unless—
(A) the individual is a disabled veteran; or
(B) the individual retired below the rank of major or its equivalent; and
(5) “retired member of the armed forces” means a member or former member of the armed forces who is entitled, under statute, to retired, retirement, or retainer pay on account of service as a member.
(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 410; Pub. L. 90–83, § 1(6), Sept. 11, 1967, 81 Stat. 196; Pub. L. 90–623, § 1(2), Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1312; Pub. L. 92–187, § 1, Dec. 15, 1971, 85 Stat. 644; Pub. L. 94–502, title VII, § 702, Oct. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 2405; Pub. L. 95–454, title III, § 307(a), title IV, § 401(d), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1147, 1154; Pub. L. 96–54, § 2(a)(8), (9)(A), Aug. 14, 1979, 93 Stat. 381; Pub. L. 96–191, § 8(a), Feb. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 33; Pub. L. 97–89, title VIII, § 801, Dec. 4, 1981, 95 Stat. 1161; Pub. L. 100–325, § 2(a), May 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 581; Pub. L. 102–54, § 13(b)(1), June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 274; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title XI, § 1102(a), (c), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1922; Pub. L. 105–339, § 4(a), Oct. 31, 1998, 112 Stat. 3185; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, § 515(f)(1), title XI, §§ 1111, 1112(a), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3236, 3451; Pub. L. 110–317, § 8, Aug. 29, 2008, 122 Stat. 3529; Pub. L. 112–56, title II, § 235(a)(2)(A), Nov. 21, 2011, 125 Stat. 723; Pub. L. 114–62, § 2, Oct. 7, 2015, 129 Stat. 547.)
§ 2108a. Treatment of certain individuals as veterans, disabled veterans, and preference eligibles
(a)Veteran.—
(1)In general.—Except as provided under paragraph (3),1
1 So in original. Subsec. does not contain a par. (3).
an individual shall be treated as a veteran defined under section 2108(1) for purposes of making an appointment in the competitive service, if the individual—
(A) meets the definition of a veteran under section 2108(1), except for the requirement that the individual has been discharged or released from active duty in the armed forces under honorable conditions; and
(B) submits a certification described under paragraph (2) to the Federal officer making the appointment.
(2)Certification.—A certification referred to under paragraph (1) is a certification that the individual is expected to be discharged or released from active duty in the armed forces under honorable conditions not later than 120 days after the date of the submission of the certification.
(b)Disabled Veteran.—
(1)In general.—Except as provided under paragraph (3),1 an individual shall be treated as a disabled veteran defined under section 2108(2) for purposes of making an appointment in the competitive service, if the individual—
(A) meets the definition of a disabled veteran under section 2108(2), except for the requirement that the individual has been separated from active duty in the armed forces under honorable conditions; and
(B) submits a certification described under paragraph (2) to the Federal officer making the appointment.
(2)Certification.—A certification referred to under paragraph (1) is a certification that the individual is expected to be separated from active duty in the armed forces under honorable conditions not later than 120 days after the date of the submission of the certification.
(c)Preference Eligible.—Subsections (a) and (b) shall apply with respect to determining whether an individual is a preference eligible under section 2108(3) for purposes of making an appointment in the competitive service.
(Added Pub. L. 112–56, title II, § 235(a)(1), Nov. 21, 2011, 125 Stat. 722.)
§ 2109. Air traffic controller; SecretaryFor the purpose of this title—
(1) “air traffic controller” or “controller” means a civilian employee of the Department of Transportation or the Department of Defense who, in an air traffic control facility or flight service station facility—
(A) is actively engaged—
(i) in the separation and control of air traffic; or
(ii) in providing preflight, inflight, or airport advisory service to aircraft operators; or
(B) is the immediate supervisor of any employee described in subparagraph (A); and
(2) “Secretary”, when used in connection with “air traffic controller” or “controller”, means the Secretary of Transportation with respect to controllers in the Department of Transportation, and the Secretary of Defense with respect to controllers in the Department of Defense.
(Added Pub. L. 92–297, § 1(a), May 16, 1972, 86 Stat. 141; amended Pub. L. 96–347, § 1(a), Sept. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 1150; Pub. L. 99–335, title II, § 207(b), June 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 594.)