Collapse to view only § 8718. Special rule for long grain and medium grain rice

§ 8711.
Base acres
(a)
Adjustment of base acres
(1)
In general
The Secretary shall provide for an adjustment, as appropriate, in the base acres for covered commodities for a farm whenever any of the following circumstances occurs:
(A) A conservation reserve contract entered into under section 1231 of the Food Security Act of 1985 (16 U.S.C. 3831) with respect to the farm expires or is voluntarily terminated, or was terminated or expired during the period beginning on October 1, 2007, and ending on the date of enactment of this Act.
(B) Cropland is released from coverage under a conservation reserve contract by the Secretary, or was released during the period beginning on October 1, 2007, and ending on the date of enactment of this Act.
(C) The producer has eligible pulse crop acreage, which shall be determined in the same manner as eligible oilseed acreage under section 7911(a)(2) of this title.
(D) The producer has eligible oilseed acreage as the result of the Secretary designating additional oilseeds, which shall be determined in the same manner as eligible oilseed acreage under section 7911(a)(2) of this title.
(2)
Special conservation reserve acreage payment rules

For the crop year in which a base acres adjustment under subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1) is first made, the owner of the farm shall elect to receive either direct payments and counter-cyclical payments with respect to the acreage added to the farm under this subsection or a prorated payment under the conservation reserve contract, but not both.

(b)
Prevention of excess base acres
(1)
Required reduction

If the sum of the base acres for a farm, together with the acreage described in paragraph (2) exceeds the actual cropland acreage of the farm, the Secretary shall reduce the base acres for 1 or more covered commodities for the farm or the base acres for peanuts for the farm so that the sum of the base acres and acreage described in paragraph (2) does not exceed the actual cropland acreage of the farm.

(2)
Other acreage
For purposes of paragraph (1), the Secretary shall include the following:
(A) Any base acres for peanuts for the farm.
(B) Any acreage on the farm enrolled in the conservation reserve program or wetlands reserve program under chapter 1 of subtitle D of title XII of the Food Security Act of 1985 (16 U.S.C. 3830 et seq.).
(C) Any other acreage on the farm enrolled in a Federal conservation program for which payments are made in exchange for not producing an agricultural commodity on the acreage.
(D) Any eligible pulse crop acreage, which shall be determined in the same manner as eligible oilseed acreage under section 7911(a)(2) of this title.
(E) If the Secretary designates additional oilseeds, any eligible oilseed acreage, which shall be determined in the same manner as eligible oilseed acreage under section 7911(a)(2) of this title.
(3)
Selection of acres

The Secretary shall give the owner of the farm the opportunity to select the base acres for a covered commodity or the base acres for peanuts for the farm against which the reduction required by paragraph (1) will be made.

(4)
Exception for double-cropped acreage

In applying paragraph (1), the Secretary shall make an exception in the case of double cropping, as determined by the Secretary.

(5)
Coordinated application of requirements

The Secretary shall take into account section 8752(b) of this title when applying the requirements of this subsection.

(c)
Reduction in base acres
(1)
Reduction at option of owner
(A)
In general

The owner of a farm may reduce, at any time, the base acres for any covered commodity for the farm.

(B)
Effect of reduction

A reduction under subparagraph (A) shall be permanent and made in a manner prescribed by the Secretary.

(2)
Required action by Secretary
(A)
In general
The Secretary shall proportionately reduce base acres on a farm for covered commodities for land that has been subdivided and developed for multiple residential units or other nonfarming uses if the size of the tracts and the density of the subdivision is such that the land is unlikely to return to the previous agricultural use, unless the producers on the farm demonstrate that the land—
(i) remains devoted to commercial agricultural production; or
(ii) is likely to be returned to the previous agricultural use.
(B)
Requirement

The Secretary shall establish procedures to identify land described in subparagraph (A).

(3)
Review and report

Each year, to ensure, to the maximum extent practicable, that payments are received only by producers, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report that describes the results of the actions taken under paragraph (2).

(d)
Treatment of farms with limited base acres
(1)
Prohibition on payments

Except as provided in paragraph (2) and notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, a producer on a farm may not receive direct payments, counter-cyclical payments, or average crop revenue election payments if the sum of the base acres of the farm is 10 acres or less, as determined by the Secretary.

(2)
Exceptions
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to a farm owned by—
(A) a socially disadvantaged farmer or rancher (as defined in section 2003(e) of this title; 1
1 So in original. A closing parenthesis probably should precede the semicolon.
or
(B) a limited resource farmer or rancher, as defined by the Secretary.
(3)
Data collection and publication
The Secretary shall—
(A) collect and publish segregated data and survey information about the farm profiles, utilization of land, and crop production; and
(B) perform an evaluation on the supply and price of fruits and vegetables based on the effects of suspension of base acres under this section.
(4)
Suspension of prohibition

Paragraphs (1) through (3) shall not apply during the 2008 crop year.

(Pub. L. 110–234, title I, § 1101, May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 938; Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title I, § 1101,
§ 8712.
Payment yields
(a)
Establishment and purpose

For the purpose of making direct payments and counter-cyclical payments under this subchapter, the Secretary shall provide for the establishment of a yield for each farm for any designated oilseed or eligible pulse crop for which a payment yield was not established under section 7912 of this title in accordance with this section.

(b)
Payment yields for designated oilseeds and eligible pulse crops
(1)
Determination of average yield

In the case of designated oilseeds and eligible pulse crops, the Secretary shall determine the average yield per planted acre for the designated oilseed or pulse crop on a farm for the 1998 through 2001 crop years, excluding any crop year in which the acreage planted to the designated oilseed or pulse crop was zero.

(2)
Adjustment for payment yield
(A)
In general
The payment yield for a farm for a designated oilseed or eligible pulse crop shall be equal to the product of the following:
(i) The average yield for the designated oilseed or pulse crop determined under paragraph (1).
(ii) The ratio resulting from dividing the national average yield for the designated oilseed or pulse crop for the 1981 through 1985 crops by the national average yield for the designated oilseed or pulse crop for the 1998 through 2001 crops.
(B)
No national average yield information available

To the extent that national average yield information for a designated oilseed or pulse crop is not available, the Secretary shall use such information as the Secretary determines to be fair and equitable to establish a national average yield under this section.

(3)
Use of partial county average yield

If the yield per planted acre for a crop of a designated oilseed or pulse crop for a farm for any of the 1998 through 2001 crop years was less than 75 percent of the county yield for that designated oilseed or pulse crop, the Secretary shall assign a yield for that crop year equal to 75 percent of the county yield for the purpose of determining the average under paragraph (1).

(4)
No historic yield data available

In the case of establishing yields for designated oilseeds and eligible pulse crops, if historic yield data is not available, the Secretary shall use the ratio for dry peas calculated under paragraph (2)(A)(ii) in determining the yields for designated oilseeds and eligible pulse crops, as determined to be fair and equitable by the Secretary.

(Pub. L. 110–234, title I, § 1102, May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 940; Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title I, § 1102, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1669.)
§ 8713.
Repealed. Pub. L. 113–79, title I, § 1101, Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 658
§ 8714.
Repealed. Pub. L. 113–79, title I, § 1102(a), Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 658
§ 8715.
Repealed. Pub. L. 113–79, title I, § 1103(a), Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 658
§ 8716.
Producer agreement required as condition of provision of payments
(a)
Compliance with certain requirements
(1)
Requirements
Before the producers on a farm may receive direct payments, counter-cyclical payments, or average crop revenue election payments with respect to the farm, the producers shall agree, during the crop year for which the payments are made and in exchange for the payments—
(A) to comply with applicable conservation requirements under subtitle B of title XII of the Food Security Act of 1985 (16 U.S.C. 3811 et seq.);
(B) to comply with applicable wetland protection requirements under subtitle C of title XII of that Act (16 U.S.C. 3821 et seq.);
(C) to comply with the planting flexibility requirements of section 8717 of this title;
(D) to use the land on the farm, in a quantity equal to the attributable base acres for the farm and any base acres for peanuts for the farm under subchapter III, for an agricultural or conserving use, and not for a nonagricultural commercial, industrial, or residential use, as determined by the Secretary; and
(E) to effectively control noxious weeds and otherwise maintain the land in accordance with sound agricultural practices, as determined by the Secretary, if the agricultural or conserving use involves the noncultivation of any portion of the land referred to in subparagraph (D).
(2)
Compliance

The Secretary may issue such rules as the Secretary considers necessary to ensure producer compliance with the requirements of paragraph (1).

(3)
Modification

At the request of the transferee or owner, the Secretary may modify the requirements of this subsection if the modifications are consistent with the objectives of this subsection, as determined by the Secretary.

(b)
Transfer or change of interest in farm
(1)
Termination
(A)
In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), a transfer of (or change in) the interest of the producers on a farm in base acres for which direct payments or counter-cyclical payments are made, or on which average crop revenue election payments are based, shall result in the termination of the direct payments, counter-cyclical payments, or average crop revenue election payments to the extent the payments are made or based on the base acres, unless the transferee or owner of the acreage agrees to assume all obligations under subsection (a).

(B)
Effective date

The termination shall take effect on the date determined by the Secretary.

(2)
Exception

If a producer entitled to a direct payment, counter-cyclical payment, or average crop revenue election payment dies, becomes incompetent, or is otherwise unable to receive the payment, the Secretary shall make the payment, in accordance with rules issued by the Secretary.

(c)
Reports
(1)
Acreage reports

As a condition on the receipt of any benefits under this subchapter or subchapter II, the Secretary shall require producers on a farm to submit to the Secretary annual acreage reports with respect to all cropland on the farm.

(2)
Production reports

As a condition on the receipt of any benefits under this subchapter or subchapter II, the Secretary shall require producers on a farm that receive payments under section 8715 1

1 See References in Text note below.
of this title to submit to the Secretary annual production reports with respect to all covered commodities and peanuts produced on the farm.

(3)
Penalties

No penalty with respect to benefits under this subchapter or subchapter II shall be assessed against the producers on a farm for an inaccurate acreage or production report unless the producers on the farm knowingly and willfully falsified the acreage or production report.

(d)
Tenants and sharecroppers

In carrying out this subchapter, the Secretary shall provide adequate safeguards to protect the interests of tenants and sharecroppers.

(e)
Sharing of payments

The Secretary shall provide for the sharing of direct payments, counter-cyclical payments, or average crop revenue election payments among the producers on a farm on a fair and equitable basis.

(f)
Extension of 2008 signup
(1)
In general
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary shall extend the 2008 crop year deadline for the signup for benefits under this subchapter by producers on a farm with base acres of 10 acres or less until the later of—
(A)November 14, 2008; or
(B) the end of the 45-day period beginning on October 13, 2008.
(2)
Penalties

The Secretary shall ensure that no penalty with respect to benefits under this subchapter or subchapter II is assessed against producers on a farm described in paragraph (1) for failure to submit reports under this section or timely comply with other program requirements as a result of compliance with the extended signup deadline under that paragraph.

(Pub. L. 110–234, title I, § 1106, May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 949; Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title I, § 1106, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1677; Pub. L. 110–398, § 1(b)(1), Oct. 13, 2008, 122 Stat. 4213.)
§ 8717.
Planting flexibility
(a)
Permitted crops

Subject to subsection (b), any commodity or crop may be planted on base acres on a farm.

(b)
Limitations regarding certain commodities
(1)
General limitation

The planting of an agricultural commodity specified in paragraph (3) shall be prohibited on base acres unless the commodity, if planted, is destroyed before harvest.

(2)
Treatment of trees and other perennials

The planting of an agricultural commodity specified in paragraph (3) that is produced on a tree or other perennial plant shall be prohibited on base acres.

(3)
Covered agricultural commodities
Paragraphs (1) and (2) apply to the following agricultural commodities:
(A) Fruits.
(B) Vegetables (other than mung beans and pulse crops).
(C) Wild rice.
(c)
Exceptions
Paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (b) shall not limit the planting of an agricultural commodity specified in paragraph (3) of that subsection—
(1) in any region in which there is a history of double-cropping of covered commodities with agricultural commodities specified in subsection (b)(3), as determined by the Secretary, in which case the double-cropping shall be permitted;
(2) on a farm that the Secretary determines has a history of planting agricultural commodities specified in subsection (b)(3) on base acres, except that direct payments and counter-cyclical payments shall be reduced by an acre for each acre planted to such an agricultural commodity; or
(3)
by the producers on a farm that the Secretary determines has an established planting history of a specific agricultural commodity specified in subsection (b)(3), except that—
(A) the quantity planted may not exceed the average annual planting history of such agricultural commodity by the producers on the farm in the 1991 through 1995 or 1998 through 2001 crop years (excluding any crop year in which no plantings were made), as determined by the Secretary; and
(B) direct payments and counter-cyclical payments shall be reduced by an acre for each acre planted to such agricultural commodity.
(d)
Planting transferability pilot project
(1)
Pilot project authorized

Notwithstanding paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (b) and in addition to the exceptions provided in subsection (c), the Secretary shall carry out a pilot project to permit the planting of cucumbers, green peas, lima beans, pumpkins, snap beans, sweet corn, and tomatoes grown for processing on base acres during each of the 2009 through 2012 crop years.

(2)
Pilot project States and acres
The number of base acres eligible during each crop year for the pilot project under paragraph (1) shall be—
(A) 9,000 acres in the State of Illinois;
(B) 9,000 acres in the State of Indiana;
(C) 1,000 acres in the State of Iowa;
(D) 9,000 acres in the State of Michigan;
(E) 34,000 acres in the State of Minnesota;
(F) 4,000 acres in the State of Ohio; and
(G) 9,000 acres in the State of Wisconsin.
(3)
Contract and management requirements
To be eligible for selection to participate in the pilot project, the producers on a farm shall—
(A) demonstrate to the Secretary that the producers on the farm have entered into a contract to produce a crop of a commodity specified in paragraph (1) for processing;
(B) agree to produce the crop as part of a program of crop rotation on the farm to achieve agronomic and pest and disease management benefits; and
(C) provide evidence of the disposition of the crop.
(4)
Temporary reduction in base acres

The base acres on a farm for a crop year shall be reduced by an acre for each acre planted under the pilot program.

(5)
Duration of reductions

The reduction in the base acres of a farm for a crop year under paragraph (4) shall expire at the end of the crop year.

(6)
Recalculation of base acres
(A)
In general

If the Secretary recalculates base acres for a farm while the farm is included in the pilot project, the planting and production of a crop of a commodity specified in paragraph (1) on base acres for which a temporary reduction was made under this section shall be considered to be the same as the planting and production of a covered commodity.

(B)
Prohibition

Nothing in this paragraph provides authority for the Secretary to recalculate base acres for a farm.

(7)
Pilot impact evaluation
(A)
In general
The Secretary shall periodically evaluate the pilot project conducted under this subsection to determine the effects of the pilot project on the supply and price of—
(i) fresh fruits and vegetables; and
(ii) fruits and vegetables for processing.
(B)
Determination
An evaluation under subparagraph (A) shall include a determination as to whether—
(i) producers of fresh fruits and vegetables are being negatively impacted; and
(ii) existing production capacities are being supplanted.
(C)
Report

As soon as practicable after conducting an evaluation under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a report that describes the results of the evaluation.

(Pub. L. 110–234, title I, § 1107, May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 950; Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title I, § 1107, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1679.)
§ 8718.
Special rule for long grain and medium grain rice
(a)
Calculation method

Subject to subsections (b) and (c), for the purposes of determining the amount of the counter-cyclical payments to be paid to the producers on a farm for long grain rice and medium grain rice under section 8714 1

1 See References in Text note below.
of this title, the base acres of rice on the farm shall be apportioned using the 4-year average of the percentages of acreage planted in the applicable State to long grain rice and medium grain rice during the 2003 through 2006 crop years, as determined by the Secretary.

(b)
Producer election
As an alternative to the calculation method described in subsection (a), the Secretary shall provide producers on a farm the opportunity to elect to apportion rice base acres on the farm using the 4-year average of—
(1) the percentages of acreage planted on the farm to long grain rice and medium grain rice during the 2003 through 2006 crop years;
(2) the percentages of any acreage on the farm that the producers were prevented from planting to long grain rice and medium grain rice during the 2003 through 2006 crop years because of drought, flood, other natural disaster, or other condition beyond the control of the producers, as determined by the Secretary; and
(3) in the case of a crop year for which a producer on a farm elected not to plant to long grain and medium grain rice during the 2003 through 2006 crop years, the percentages of acreage planted in the applicable State to long grain rice and medium grain rice, as determined by the Secretary.
(c)
Limitation

In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall use the same total base acres, payment acres, and payment yields established with respect to rice under sections 7911 and 7912 of this title, as in effect on September 30, 2007, subject to any adjustment under section 8711 of this title.

(Pub. L. 110–234, title I, § 1108, May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 952; Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title I, § 1108, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1681.)
§ 8719.
Period of effectiveness

This subchapter shall be effective beginning with the 2008 crop year of each covered commodity through the 2012 crop year.

(Pub. L. 110–234, title I, § 1109, May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 953; Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title I, § 1109, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1681.)