Collapse to view only § 1157. Annual admission of refugees and admission of emergency situation refugees

§ 1151.
Worldwide level of immigration
(a)
In general
Exclusive of aliens described in subsection (b), aliens born in a foreign state or dependent area who may be issued immigrant visas or who may otherwise acquire the status of an alien lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence are limited to—
(1) family-sponsored immigrants described in section 1153(a) of this title (or who are admitted under section 1181(a) of this title on the basis of a prior issuance of a visa to their accompanying parent under section 1153(a) of this title) in a number not to exceed in any fiscal year the number specified in subsection (c) for that year, and not to exceed in any of the first 3 quarters of any fiscal year 27 percent of the worldwide level under such subsection for all of such fiscal year;
(2) employment-based immigrants described in section 1153(b) of this title (or who are admitted under section 1181(a) of this title on the basis of a prior issuance of a visa to their accompanying parent under section 1153(b) of this title), in a number not to exceed in any fiscal year the number specified in subsection (d) for that year, and not to exceed in any of the first 3 quarters of any fiscal year 27 percent of the worldwide level under such subsection for all of such fiscal year; and
(3) for fiscal years beginning with fiscal year 1995, diversity immigrants described in section 1153(c) of this title (or who are admitted under section 1181(a) of this title on the basis of a prior issuance of a visa to their accompanying parent under section 1153(c) of this title) in a number not to exceed in any fiscal year the number specified in subsection (e) for that year, and not to exceed in any of the first 3 quarters of any fiscal year 27 percent of the worldwide level under such subsection for all of such fiscal year.
(b)
Aliens not subject to direct numerical limitations
Aliens described in this subsection, who are not subject to the worldwide levels or numerical limitations of subsection (a), are as follows:
(1)
(A) Special immigrants described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 1101(a)(27) of this title.
(B) Aliens who are admitted under section 1157 of this title or whose status is adjusted under section 1159 of this title.
(C) Aliens whose status is adjusted to permanent residence under section 1160 or 1255a of this title.
(D) Aliens whose removal is canceled under section 1229b(a) of this title.
(E) Aliens provided permanent resident status under section 1259 of this title.
(2)
(A)
(i)
Immediate relatives.—
For purposes of this subsection, the term “immediate relatives” means the children, spouses, and parents of a citizen of the United States, except that, in the case of parents, such citizens shall be at least 21 years of age. In the case of an alien who was the spouse of a citizen of the United States and was not legally separated from the citizen at the time of the citizen’s death, the alien (and each child of the alien) shall be considered, for purposes of this subsection, to remain an immediate relative after the date of the citizen’s death but only if the spouse files a petition under section 1154(a)(1)(A)(ii) of this title within 2 years after such date and only until the date the spouse remarries. For purposes of this clause, an alien who has filed a petition under clause (iii) or (iv) of section 1154(a)(1)(A) of this title remains an immediate relative in the event that the United States citizen spouse or parent loses United States citizenship on account of the abuse.
(ii) Aliens admitted under section 1181(a) of this title on the basis of a prior issuance of a visa to their accompanying parent who is such an immediate relative.
(B) Aliens born to an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence during a temporary visit abroad.
(c)
Worldwide level of family-sponsored immigrants
(1)
(A)
The worldwide level of family-sponsored immigrants under this subsection for a fiscal year is, subject to subparagraph (B), equal to—
(i) 480,000, minus
(ii) the sum of the number computed under paragraph (2) and the number computed under paragraph (4), plus
(iii) the number (if any) computed under paragraph (3).
(B)
(i) For each of fiscal years 1992, 1993, and 1994, 465,000 shall be substituted for 480,000 in subparagraph (A)(i).
(ii) In no case shall the number computed under subparagraph (A) be less than 226,000.
(2) The number computed under this paragraph for a fiscal year is the sum of the number of aliens described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of subsection (b)(2) who were issued immigrant visas or who otherwise acquired the status of aliens lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence in the previous fiscal year.
(3)
(A) The number computed under this paragraph for fiscal year 1992 is zero.
(B) The number computed under this paragraph for fiscal year 1993 is the difference (if any) between the worldwide level established under paragraph (1) for the previous fiscal year and the number of visas issued under section 1153(a) of this title during that fiscal year.
(C) The number computed under this paragraph for a subsequent fiscal year is the difference (if any) between the maximum number of visas which may be issued under section 1153(b) of this title (relating to employment-based immigrants) during the previous fiscal year and the number of visas issued under that section during that year.
(4)
The number computed under this paragraph for a fiscal year (beginning with fiscal year 1999) is the number of aliens who were paroled into the United States under section 1182(d)(5) of this title in the second preceding fiscal year—
(A) who did not depart from the United States (without advance parole) within 365 days; and
(B) who (i) did not acquire the status of aliens lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence in the two preceding fiscal years, or (ii) acquired such status in such years under a provision of law (other than subsection (b)) which exempts such adjustment from the numerical limitation on the worldwide level of immigration under this section.
(5) If any alien described in paragraph (4) (other than an alien described in paragraph (4)(B)(ii)) is subsequently admitted as an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, such alien shall not again be considered for purposes of paragraph (1).
(d)
Worldwide level of employment-based immigrants
(1)
The worldwide level of employment-based immigrants under this subsection for a fiscal year is equal to—
(A) 140,000, plus
(B) the number computed under paragraph (2).
(2)
(A) The number computed under this paragraph for fiscal year 1992 is zero.
(B) The number computed under this paragraph for fiscal year 1993 is the difference (if any) between the worldwide level established under paragraph (1) for the previous fiscal year and the number of visas issued under section 1153(b) of this title during that fiscal year.
(C) The number computed under this paragraph for a subsequent fiscal year is the difference (if any) between the maximum number of visas which may be issued under section 1153(a) of this title (relating to family-sponsored immigrants) during the previous fiscal year and the number of visas issued under that section during that year.
(e)
Worldwide level of diversity immigrants

The worldwide level of diversity immigrants is equal to 55,000 for each fiscal year.

(f)
Rules for determining whether certain aliens are immediate relatives
(1)
Age on petition filing date

Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), for purposes of subsection (b)(2)(A)(i), a determination of whether an alien satisfies the age requirement in the matter preceding subparagraph (A) of section 1101(b)(1) of this title shall be made using the age of the alien on the date on which the petition is filed with the Attorney General under section 1154 of this title to classify the alien as an immediate relative under subsection (b)(2)(A)(i).

(2)
Age on parent’s naturalization date

In the case of a petition under section 1154 of this title initially filed for an alien child’s classification as a family-sponsored immigrant under section 1153(a)(2)(A) of this title, based on the child’s parent being lawfully admitted for permanent residence, if the petition is later converted, due to the naturalization of the parent, to a petition to classify the alien as an immediate relative under subsection (b)(2)(A)(i), the determination described in paragraph (1) shall be made using the age of the alien on the date of the parent’s naturalization.

(3)

In the case of a petition under section 1154 of this title initially filed for an alien’s classification as a family-sponsored immigrant under section 1153(a)(3) of this title, based on the alien’s being a married son or daughter of a citizen, if the petition is later converted, due to the legal termination of the alien’s marriage, to a petition to classify the alien as an immediate relative under subsection (b)(2)(A)(i) or as an unmarried son or daughter of a citizen under section 1153(a)(1) of this title, the determination described in paragraph (1) shall be made using the age of the alien on the date of the termination of the marriage.

(4)
Application to self-petitions

Paragraphs (1) through (3) shall apply to self-petitioners and derivatives of self-petitioners.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 1, § 201, 66 Stat. 175; Pub. L. 89–236, § 1, Oct. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 911; Pub. L. 94–571, § 2, Oct. 20, 1976, 90 Stat. 2703; Pub. L. 95–412, § 1, Oct. 5, 1978, 92 Stat. 907; Pub. L. 96–212, title II, § 203(a), Mar. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 106; Pub. L. 97–116, § 20[(a)], Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1621; Pub. L. 101–649, title I, § 101(a), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4980; Pub. L. 102–232, title III, § 302(a)(1), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1742; Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, § 40701(b)(2), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1954; Pub. L. 103–416, title II, § 219(b)(1), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4316; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, § 308(e)(5), (g)(8)(A)(i), title VI, §§ 603, 671(d)(1)(A), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–620, 3009–624, 3009–690, 3009–723; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title V, § 1507(a)(3), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1530; Pub. L. 107–208, § 2, Aug. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 927; Pub. L. 109–162, title VIII, § 805(b)(1), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3056; Pub. L. 111–83, title V, § 568(c)(1), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2186.)
§ 1151a.
Repealed. Pub. L. 94–571, § 7(g), Oct. 20, 1976, 90 Stat. 2706
§ 1152.
Numerical limitations on individual foreign states
(a)
Per country level
(1)
Nondiscrimination
(A) Except as specifically provided in paragraph (2) and in sections 1101(a)(27), 1151(b)(2)(A)(i), and 1153 of this title, no person shall receive any preference or priority or be discriminated against in the issuance of an immigrant visa because of the person’s race, sex, nationality, place of birth, or place of residence.
(B) Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to limit the authority of the Secretary of State to determine the procedures for the processing of immigrant visa applications or the locations where such applications will be processed.
(2)
Per country levels for family-sponsored and employment-based immigrants

Subject to paragraphs (3), (4), and (5), the total number of immigrant visas made available to natives of any single foreign state or dependent area under subsections (a) and (b) of section 1153 of this title in any fiscal year may not exceed 7 percent (in the case of a single foreign state) or 2 percent (in the case of a dependent area) of the total number of such visas made available under such subsections in that fiscal year.

(3)
Exception if additional visas available

If because of the application of paragraph (2) with respect to one or more foreign states or dependent areas, the total number of visas available under both subsections (a) and (b) of section 1153 of this title for a calendar quarter exceeds the number of qualified immigrants who otherwise may be issued such a visa, paragraph (2) shall not apply to visas made available to such states or areas during the remainder of such calendar quarter.

(4)
Special rules for spouses and children of lawful permanent resident aliens
(A)
75 percent of 2nd preference set-aside for spouses and children not subject to per country limitation
(i)
In general

Of the visa numbers made available under section 1153(a) of this title to immigrants described in section 1153(a)(2)(A) of this title in any fiscal year, 75 percent of the 2–A floor (as defined in clause (ii)) shall be issued without regard to the numerical limitation under paragraph (2).

(ii)
“2–A floor” defined

In this paragraph, the term “2–A floor” means, for a fiscal year, 77 percent of the total number of visas made available under section 1153(a) of this title to immigrants described in section 1153(a)(2) of this title in the fiscal year.

(B)
Treatment of remaining 25 percent for countries subject to subsection (e)
(i)
In general

Of the visa numbers made available under section 1153(a) of this title to immigrants described in section 1153(a)(2)(A) of this title in any fiscal year, the remaining 25 percent of the 2–A floor shall be available in the case of a state or area that is subject to subsection (e) only to the extent that the total number of visas issued in accordance with subparagraph (A) to natives of the foreign state or area is less than the subsection (e) ceiling (as defined in clause (ii)).

(ii)
“Subsection (e) ceiling” defined

In clause (i), the term “subsection (e) ceiling” means, for a foreign state or dependent area, 77 percent of the maximum number of visas that may be made available under section 1153(a) of this title to immigrants who are natives of the state or area under section 1153(a)(2) of this title consistent with subsection (e).

(C)
Treatment of unmarried sons and daughters in countries subject to subsection (e)
In the case of a foreign state or dependent area to which subsection (e) applies, the number of immigrant visas that may be made available to natives of the state or area under section 1153(a)(2)(B) of this title may not exceed—
(i) 23 percent of the maximum number of visas that may be made available under section 1153(a) of this title to immigrants of the state or area described in section 1153(a)(2) of this title consistent with subsection (e), or
(ii) the number (if any) by which the maximum number of visas that may be made available under section 1153(a) of this title to immigrants of the state or area described in section 1153(a)(2) of this title consistent with subsection (e) exceeds the number of visas issued under section 1153(a)(2)(A) of this title,
whichever is greater.
(D)
Limiting pass down for certain countries subject to subsection (e)

In the case of a foreign state or dependent area to which subsection (e) applies, if the total number of visas issued under section 1153(a)(2) of this title exceeds the maximum number of visas that may be made available to immigrants of the state or area under section 1153(a)(2) of this title consistent with subsection (e) (determined without regard to this paragraph), in applying paragraphs (3) and (4) of section 1153(a) of this title under subsection (e)(2) all visas shall be deemed to have been required for the classes specified in paragraphs (1) and (2) of such section.

(5)
Rules for employment-based immigrants
(A)
Employment-based immigrants not subject to per country limitation if additional visas available

If the total number of visas available under paragraph (1), (2), (3), (4), or (5) of section 1153(b) of this title for a calendar quarter exceeds the number of qualified immigrants who may otherwise be issued such visas, the visas made available under that paragraph shall be issued without regard to the numerical limitation under paragraph (2) of this subsection during the remainder of the calendar quarter.

(B)
Limiting fall across for certain countries subject to subsection (e)

In the case of a foreign state or dependent area to which subsection (e) applies, if the total number of visas issued under section 1153(b) of this title exceeds the maximum number of visas that may be made available to immigrants of the state or area under section 1153(b) of this title consistent with subsection (e) (determined without regard to this paragraph), in applying subsection (e) all visas shall be deemed to have been required for the classes of aliens specified in section 1153(b) of this title.

(b)
Rules for chargeability

Each independent country, self-governing dominion, mandated territory, and territory under the international trusteeship system of the United Nations, other than the United States and its outlying possessions, shall be treated as a separate foreign state for the purposes of a numerical level established under subsection (a)(2) when approved by the Secretary of State. All other inhabited lands shall be attributed to a foreign state specified by the Secretary of State. For the purposes of this chapter the foreign state to which an immigrant is chargeable shall be determined by birth within such foreign state except that (1) an alien child, when accompanied by or following to join his alien parent or parents, may be charged to the foreign state of either parent if such parent has received or would be qualified for an immigrant visa, if necessary to prevent the separation of the child from the parent or parents, and if immigration charged to the foreign state to which such parent has been or would be chargeable has not reached a numerical level established under subsection (a)(2) for that fiscal year; (2) if an alien is chargeable to a different foreign state from that of his spouse, the foreign state to which such alien is chargeable may, if necessary to prevent the separation of husband and wife, be determined by the foreign state of the spouse he is accompanying or following to join, if such spouse has received or would be qualified for an immigrant visa and if immigration charged to the foreign state to which such spouse has been or would be chargeable has not reached a numerical level established under subsection (a)(2) for that fiscal year; (3) an alien born in the United States shall be considered as having been born in the country of which he is a citizen or subject, or, if he is not a citizen or subject of any country, in the last foreign country in which he had his residence as determined by the consular officer; and (4) an alien born within any foreign state in which neither of his parents was born and in which neither of his parents had a residence at the time of such alien’s birth may be charged to the foreign state of either parent.

(c)
Chargeability for dependent areas

Any immigrant born in a colony or other component or dependent area of a foreign state overseas from the foreign state, other than an alien described in section 1151(b) of this title, shall be chargeable for the purpose of the limitation set forth in subsection (a), to the foreign state.

(d)
Changes in territory

In the case of any change in the territorial limits of foreign states, the Secretary of State shall, upon recognition of such change issue appropriate instructions to all diplomatic and consular offices.

(e)
Special rules for countries at ceiling
If it is determined that the total number of immigrant visas made available under subsections (a) and (b) of section 1153 of this title to natives of any single foreign state or dependent area will exceed the numerical limitation specified in subsection (a)(2) in any fiscal year, in determining the allotment of immigrant visa numbers to natives under subsections (a) and (b) of section 1153 of this title, visa numbers with respect to natives of that state or area shall be allocated (to the extent practicable and otherwise consistent with this section and section 1153 of this title) in a manner so that—
(1) the ratio of the visa numbers made available under section 1153(a) of this title to the visa numbers made available under section 1153(b) of this title is equal to the ratio of the worldwide level of immigration under section 1151(c) of this title to such level under section 1151(d) of this title;
(2) except as provided in subsection (a)(4), the proportion of the visa numbers made available under each of paragraphs (1) through (4) of section 1153(a) of this title is equal to the ratio of the total number of visas made available under the respective paragraph to the total number of visas made available under section 1153(a) of this title, and
(3) except as provided in subsection (a)(5), the proportion of the visa numbers made available under each of paragraphs (1) through (5) of section 1153(b) of this title is equal to the ratio of the total number of visas made available under the respective paragraph to the total number of visas made available under section 1153(b) of this title.
Nothing in this subsection shall be construed as limiting the number of visas that may be issued to natives of a foreign state or dependent area under section 1153(a) or 1153(b) of this title if there is insufficient demand for visas for such natives under section 1153(b) or 1153(a) of this title, respectively, or as limiting the number of visas that may be issued under section 1153(a)(2)(A) of this title pursuant to subsection (a)(4)(A).
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 1, § 202, 66 Stat. 176; Pub. L. 87–301, § 9, Sept. 26, 1961, 75 Stat. 654; Pub. L. 89–236, § 2, Oct. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 911; Pub. L. 94–571, § 3, Oct. 20, 1976, 90 Stat. 2703; Pub. L. 95–412, § 2, Oct. 5, 1978, 92 Stat. 907; Pub. L. 96–212, title II, § 203(b), Mar. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 107; Pub. L. 97–116, §§ 18(c), 20(b), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1620, 1622; Pub. L. 99–603, title III, § 311(a), Nov. 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 3434; Pub. L. 99–653, § 4, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3655; Pub. L. 100–525, §§ 8(c), 9(f), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2617, 2620; Pub. L. 101–649, title I, § 102, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4982; Pub. L. 102–232, title III, § 302(a)(3), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1742; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title VI, § 633, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–701; Pub. L. 106–313, title I, § 104(a), (b), Oct. 17, 2000, 114 Stat. 1252, 1253.)
§ 1153.
Allocation of immigrant visas
(a)
Preference allocation for family-sponsored immigrants
Aliens subject to the worldwide level specified in section 1151(c) of this title for family-sponsored immigrants shall be allotted visas as follows:
(1)
Unmarried sons and daughters of citizens

Qualified immigrants who are the unmarried sons or daughters of citizens of the United States shall be allocated visas in a number not to exceed 23,400, plus any visas not required for the class specified in paragraph (4).

(2)
Spouses and unmarried sons and unmarried daughters of permanent resident aliens
Qualified immigrants—
(A) who are the spouses or children of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, or
(B) who are the unmarried sons or unmarried daughters (but are not the children) of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence,
shall be allocated visas in a number not to exceed 114,200, plus the number (if any) by which such worldwide level exceeds 226,000, plus any visas not required for the class specified in paragraph (1); except that not less than 77 percent of such visa numbers shall be allocated to aliens described in subparagraph (A).
(3)
Married sons and married daughters of citizens

Qualified immigrants who are the married sons or married daughters of citizens of the United States shall be allocated visas in a number not to exceed 23,400, plus any visas not required for the classes specified in paragraphs (1) and (2).

(4)
Brothers and sisters of citizens

Qualified immigrants who are the brothers or sisters of citizens of the United States, if such citizens are at least 21 years of age, shall be allocated visas in a number not to exceed 65,000, plus any visas not required for the classes specified in paragraphs (1) through (3).

(b)
Preference allocation for employment-based immigrants
Aliens subject to the worldwide level specified in section 1151(d) of this title for employment-based immigrants in a fiscal year shall be allotted visas as follows:
(1)
Priority workers
Visas shall first be made available in a number not to exceed 28.6 percent of such worldwide level, plus any visas not required for the classes specified in paragraphs (4) and (5), to qualified immigrants who are aliens described in any of the following subparagraphs (A) through (C):
(A)
Aliens with extraordinary ability
An alien is described in this subparagraph if—
(i) the alien has extraordinary ability in the sciences, arts, education, business, or athletics which has been demonstrated by sustained national or international acclaim and whose achievements have been recognized in the field through extensive documentation,
(ii) the alien seeks to enter the United States to continue work in the area of extraordinary ability, and
(iii) the alien’s entry into the United States will substantially benefit prospectively the United States.
(B)
Outstanding professors and researchers
An alien is described in this subparagraph if—
(i) the alien is recognized internationally as outstanding in a specific academic area,
(ii) the alien has at least 3 years of experience in teaching or research in the academic area, and
(iii)
the alien seeks to enter the United States—
(I) for a tenured position (or tenure-track position) within a university or institution of higher education to teach in the academic area,(II) for a comparable position with a university or institution of higher education to conduct research in the area, or(III) for a comparable position to conduct research in the area with a department, division, or institute of a private employer, if the department, division, or institute employs at least 3 persons full-time in research activities and has achieved documented accomplishments in an academic field.
(C)
Certain multinational executives and managers

An alien is described in this subparagraph if the alien, in the 3 years preceding the time of the alien’s application for classification and admission into the United States under this subparagraph, has been employed for at least 1 year by a firm or corporation or other legal entity or an affiliate or subsidiary thereof and the alien seeks to enter the United States in order to continue to render services to the same employer or to a subsidiary or affiliate thereof in a capacity that is managerial or executive.

(2)
Aliens who are members of the professions holding advanced degrees or aliens of exceptional ability
(A)
In general

Visas shall be made available, in a number not to exceed 28.6 percent of such worldwide level, plus any visas not required for the classes specified in paragraph (1), to qualified immigrants who are members of the professions holding advanced degrees or their equivalent or who because of their exceptional ability in the sciences, arts, or business, will substantially benefit prospectively the national economy, cultural or educational interests, or welfare of the United States, and whose services in the sciences, arts, professions, or business are sought by an employer in the United States.

(B)
Waiver of job offer
(i)
National interest waiver

Subject to clause (ii), the Attorney General may, when the Attorney General deems it to be in the national interest, waive the requirements of subparagraph (A) that an alien’s services in the sciences, arts, professions, or business be sought by an employer in the United States.

(ii)
Physicians working in shortage areas or veterans facilities
(I)
In general
The Attorney General shall grant a national interest waiver pursuant to clause (i) on behalf of any alien physician with respect to whom a petition for preference classification has been filed under subparagraph (A) if—
(aa) the alien physician agrees to work full time as a physician in an area or areas designated by the Secretary of Health and Human Services as having a shortage of health care professionals or at a health care facility under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Veterans Affairs; and(bb) a Federal agency or a department of public health in any State has previously determined that the alien physician’s work in such an area or at such facility was in the public interest.(II)
Prohibition

No permanent resident visa may be issued to an alien physician described in subclause (I) by the Secretary of State under section 1154(b) of this title, and the Attorney General may not adjust the status of such an alien physician from that of a nonimmigrant alien to that of a permanent resident alien under section 1255 of this title, until such time as the alien has worked full time as a physician for an aggregate of 5 years (not including the time served in the status of an alien described in section 1101(a)(15)(J) of this title), in an area or areas designated by the Secretary of Health and Human Services as having a shortage of health care professionals or at a health care facility under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Veterans Affairs.

(III)
Statutory construction

Nothing in this subparagraph may be construed to prevent the filing of a petition with the Attorney General for classification under section 1154(a) of this title, or the filing of an application for adjustment of status under section 1255 of this title, by an alien physician described in subclause (I) prior to the date by which such alien physician has completed the service described in subclause (II).

(IV)
Effective date

The requirements of this subsection do not affect waivers on behalf of alien physicians approved under subsection (b)(2)(B) before the enactment date of this subsection. In the case of a physician for whom an application for a waiver was filed under subsection (b)(2)(B) prior to November 1, 1998, the Attorney General shall grant a national interest waiver pursuant to subsection (b)(2)(B) except that the alien is required to have worked full time as a physician for an aggregate of 3 years (not including time served in the status of an alien described in section 1101(a)(15)(J) of this title) before a visa can be issued to the alien under section 1154(b) of this title or the status of the alien is adjusted to permanent resident under section 1255 of this title.

(C)
Determination of exceptional ability

In determining under subparagraph (A) whether an immigrant has exceptional ability, the possession of a degree, diploma, certificate, or similar award from a college, university, school, or other institution of learning or a license to practice or certification for a particular profession or occupation shall not by itself be considered sufficient evidence of such exceptional ability.

(3)
Skilled workers, professionals, and other workers
(A)
In general
Visas shall be made available, in a number not to exceed 28.6 percent of such worldwide level, plus any visas not required for the classes specified in paragraphs (1) and (2), to the following classes of aliens who are not described in paragraph (2):
(i)
Skilled workers

Qualified immigrants who are capable, at the time of petitioning for classification under this paragraph, of performing skilled labor (requiring at least 2 years training or experience), not of a temporary or seasonal nature, for which qualified workers are not available in the United States.

(ii)
Professionals

Qualified immigrants who hold baccalaureate degrees and who are members of the professions.

(iii)
Other workers

Other qualified immigrants who are capable, at the time of petitioning for classification under this paragraph, of performing unskilled labor, not of a temporary or seasonal nature, for which qualified workers are not available in the United States.

(B)
Limitation on other workers

Not more than 10,000 of the visas made available under this paragraph in any fiscal year may be available for qualified immigrants described in subparagraph (A)(iii).

(C)
Labor certification required

An immigrant visa may not be issued to an immigrant under subparagraph (A) until the consular officer is in receipt of a determination made by the Secretary of Labor pursuant to the provisions of section 1182(a)(5)(A) of this title.

(4)
Certain special immigrants

Visas shall be made available, in a number not to exceed 7.1 percent of such worldwide level, to qualified special immigrants described in section 1101(a)(27) of this title (other than those described in subparagraph (A) or (B) thereof), of which not more than 5,000 may be made available in any fiscal year to special immigrants described in subclause (II) or (III) of section 1101(a)(27)(C)(ii) of this title, and not more than 100 may be made available in any fiscal year to special immigrants, excluding spouses and children, who are described in section 1101(a)(27)(M) of this title.

(5)
Employment creation
(A)
In general
Visas shall be made available, in a number not to exceed 7.1 percent of such worldwide level, to qualified immigrants seeking to enter the United States for the purpose of engaging in a new commercial enterprise (including a limited partnership)—
(i) in which such alien has invested (after November 29, 1990) or, is actively in the process of investing, capital in an amount not less than the amount specified in subparagraph (C), and
(ii) which will benefit the United States economy and create full-time employment for not fewer than 10 United States citizens or aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence or other immigrants lawfully authorized to be employed in the United States (other than the immigrant and the immigrant’s spouse, sons, or daughters).
(B)
Set-aside for targeted employment areas
(i)
In general

Not less than 3,000 of the visas made available under this paragraph in each fiscal year shall be reserved for qualified immigrants who invest in a new commercial enterprise described in subparagraph (A) which will create employment in a targeted employment area.

(ii)
“Targeted employment area” defined

In this paragraph, the term “targeted employment area” means, at the time of the investment, a rural area or an area which has experienced high unemployment (of at least 150 percent of the national average rate).

(iii)
“Rural area” defined

In this paragraph, the term “rural area” means any area other than an area within a metropolitan statistical area or within the outer boundary of any city or town having a population of 20,000 or more (based on the most recent decennial census of the United States).

(C)
Amount of capital required
(i)
In general

Except as otherwise provided in this subparagraph, the amount of capital required under subparagraph (A) shall be $1,000,000. The Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of State, may from time to time prescribe regulations increasing the dollar amount specified under the previous sentence.

(ii)
Adjustment for targeted employment areas

The Attorney General may, in the case of investment made in a targeted employment area, specify an amount of capital required under subparagraph (A) that is less than (but not less than ½ of) the amount specified in clause (i).

(iii)
Adjustment for high employment areas
In the case of an investment made in a part of a metropolitan statistical area that at the time of the investment—
(I) is not a targeted employment area, and(II) is an area with an unemployment rate significantly below the national average unemployment rate,
 the Attorney General may specify an amount of capital required under subparagraph (A) that is greater than (but not greater than 3 times) the amount specified in clause (i).
(D)
Full-time employment defined

In this paragraph, the term “full-time employment” means employment in a position that requires at least 35 hours of service per week at any time, regardless of who fills the position.

(6)
Special rules for “K” special immigrants
(A)
Not counted against numerical limitation in year involved

Subject to subparagraph (B), the number of immigrant visas made available to special immigrants under section 1101(a)(27)(K) of this title in a fiscal year shall not be subject to the numerical limitations of this subsection or of section 1152(a) of this title.

(B)
Counted against numerical limitations in following year
(i)
Reduction in employment-based immigrant classifications

The number of visas made available in any fiscal year under paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) shall each be reduced by ⅓ of the number of visas made available in the previous fiscal year to special immigrants described in section 1101(a)(27)(K) of this title.

(ii)
Reduction in per country level

The number of visas made available in each fiscal year to natives of a foreign state under section 1152(a) of this title shall be reduced by the number of visas made available in the previous fiscal year to special immigrants described in section 1101(a)(27)(K) of this title who are natives of the foreign state.

(iii)
Reduction in employment-based immigrant classifications within per country ceiling

In the case of a foreign state subject to section 1152(e) of this title in a fiscal year (and in the previous fiscal year), the number of visas made available and allocated to each of paragraphs (1) through (3) of this subsection in the fiscal year shall be reduced by ⅓ of the number of visas made available in the previous fiscal year to special immigrants described in section 1101(a)(27)(K) of this title who are natives of the foreign state.

(c)
Diversity immigrants
(1)
In general
Except as provided in paragraph (2), aliens subject to the worldwide level specified in section 1151(e) of this title for diversity immigrants shall be allotted visas each fiscal year as follows:
(A)
Determination of preference immigration

The Attorney General shall determine for the most recent previous 5-fiscal-year period for which data are available, the total number of aliens who are natives of each foreign state and who (i) were admitted or otherwise provided lawful permanent resident status (other than under this subsection) and (ii) were subject to the numerical limitations of section 1151(a) of this title (other than paragraph (3) thereof) or who were admitted or otherwise provided lawful permanent resident status as an immediate relative or other alien described in section 1151(b)(2) of this title.

(B)
Identification of high-admission and low-admission regions and high-admission and low-admission states
The Attorney General—
(i)
shall identify—
(I) each region (each in this paragraph referred to as a “high-admission region”) for which the total of the numbers determined under subparagraph (A) for states in the region is greater than ⅙ of the total of all such numbers, and(II) each other region (each in this paragraph referred to as a “low-admission region”); and
(ii)
shall identify—
(I) each foreign state for which the number determined under subparagraph (A) is greater than 50,000 (each such state in this paragraph referred to as a “high-admission state”), and(II) each other foreign state (each such state in this paragraph referred to as a “low-admission state”).
(C)
Determination of percentage of worldwide immigration attributable to high-admission regions

The Attorney General shall determine the percentage of the total of the numbers determined under subparagraph (A) that are numbers for foreign states in high-admission regions.

(D)
Determination of regional populations excluding high-admission states and ratios of populations of regions within low-admission regions and high-admission regions
The Attorney General shall determine—
(i) based on available estimates for each region, the total population of each region not including the population of any high-admission state;
(ii) for each low-admission region, the ratio of the population of the region determined under clause (i) to the total of the populations determined under such clause for all the low-admission regions; and
(iii) for each high-admission region, the ratio of the population of the region determined under clause (i) to the total of the populations determined under such clause for all the high-admission regions.
(E)
Distribution of visas
(i)
No visas for natives of high-admission states

The percentage of visas made available under this paragraph to natives of a high-admission state is 0.

(ii)
For low-admission states in low-admission regions
Subject to clauses (iv) and (v), the percentage of visas made available under this paragraph to natives (other than natives of a high-admission state) in a low-admission region is the product of—
(I) the percentage determined under subparagraph (C), and(II) the population ratio for that region determined under subparagraph (D)(ii).
(iii)
For low-admission states in high-admission regions
Subject to clauses (iv) and (v), the percentage of visas made available under this paragraph to natives (other than natives of a high-admission state) in a high-admission region is the product of—
(I) 100 percent minus the percentage determined under subparagraph (C), and(II) the population ratio for that region determined under subparagraph (D)(iii).
(iv)
Redistribution of unused visa numbers

If the Secretary of State estimates that the number of immigrant visas to be issued to natives in any region for a fiscal year under this paragraph is less than the number of immigrant visas made available to such natives under this paragraph for the fiscal year, subject to clause (v), the excess visa numbers shall be made available to natives (other than natives of a high-admission state) of the other regions in proportion to the percentages otherwise specified in clauses (ii) and (iii).

(v)
Limitation on visas for natives of a single foreign state

The percentage of visas made available under this paragraph to natives of any single foreign state for any fiscal year shall not exceed 7 percent.

(F)
“Region” defined
Only for purposes of administering the diversity program under this subsection, Northern Ireland shall be treated as a separate foreign state, each colony or other component or dependent area of a foreign state overseas from the foreign state shall be treated as part of the foreign state, and the areas described in each of the following clauses shall be considered to be a separate region:
(i) Africa.
(ii) Asia.
(iii) Europe.
(iv) North America (other than Mexico).
(v) Oceania.
(vi) South America, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean.
(2)
Requirement of education or work experience
An alien is not eligible for a visa under this subsection unless the alien—
(A) has at least a high school education or its equivalent, or
(B) has, within 5 years of the date of application for a visa under this subsection, at least 2 years of work experience in an occupation which requires at least 2 years of training or experience.
(3)
Maintenance of information

The Secretary of State shall maintain information on the age, occupation, education level, and other relevant characteristics of immigrants issued visas under this subsection.

(d)
Treatment of family members

A spouse or child as defined in subparagraph (A), (B), (C), (D), or (E) of section 1101(b)(1) of this title shall, if not otherwise entitled to an immigrant status and the immediate issuance of a visa under subsection (a), (b), or (c), be entitled to the same status, and the same order of consideration provided in the respective subsection, if accompanying or following to join, the spouse or parent.

(e)
Order of consideration
(1) Immigrant visas made available under subsection (a) or (b) shall be issued to eligible immigrants in the order in which a petition in behalf of each such immigrant is filed with the Attorney General (or in the case of special immigrants under section 1101(a)(27)(D) of this title, with the Secretary of State) as provided in section 1154(a) of this title.
(2) Immigrant visa numbers made available under subsection (c) (relating to diversity immigrants) shall be issued to eligible qualified immigrants strictly in a random order established by the Secretary of State for the fiscal year involved.
(3) Waiting lists of applicants for visas under this section shall be maintained in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of State.
(f)
Authorization for issuance

In the case of any alien claiming in his application for an immigrant visa to be described in section 1151(b)(2) of this title or in subsection (a), (b), or (c) of this section, the consular officer shall not grant such status until he has been authorized to do so as provided by section 1154 of this title.

(g)
Lists

For purposes of carrying out the Secretary’s responsibilities in the orderly administration of this section, the Secretary of State may make reasonable estimates of the anticipated numbers of visas to be issued during any quarter of any fiscal year within each of the categories under subsections (a), (b), and (c) and to rely upon such estimates in authorizing the issuance of visas. The Secretary of State shall terminate the registration of any alien who fails to apply for an immigrant visa within one year following notification to the alien of the availability of such visa, but the Secretary shall reinstate the registration of any such alien who establishes within 2 years following the date of notification of the availability of such visa that such failure to apply was due to circumstances beyond the alien’s control.

(h)
Rules for determining whether certain aliens are children
(1)
In general
For purposes of subsections (a)(2)(A) and (d), a determination of whether an alien satisfies the age requirement in the matter preceding subparagraph (A) of section 1101(b)(1) of this title shall be made using—
(A) the age of the alien on the date on which an immigrant visa number becomes available for such alien (or, in the case of subsection (d), the date on which an immigrant visa number became available for the alien’s parent), but only if the alien has sought to acquire the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence within one year of such availability; reduced by
(B) the number of days in the period during which the applicable petition described in paragraph (2) was pending.
(2)
Petitions described
The petition described in this paragraph is—
(A) with respect to a relationship described in subsection (a)(2)(A), a petition filed under section 1154 of this title for classification of an alien child under subsection (a)(2)(A); or
(B) with respect to an alien child who is a derivative beneficiary under subsection (d), a petition filed under section 1154 of this title for classification of the alien’s parent under subsection (a), (b), or (c).
(3)
Retention of priority date

If the age of an alien is determined under paragraph (1) to be 21 years of age or older for the purposes of subsections (a)(2)(A) and (d), the alien’s petition shall automatically be converted to the appropriate category and the alien shall retain the original priority date issued upon receipt of the original petition.

(4)
Application to self-petitions

Paragraphs (1) through (3) shall apply to self-petitioners and derivatives of self-petitioners.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 1, § 203, 66 Stat. 178; Pub. L. 85–316, § 3, Sept. 11, 1957, 71 Stat. 639; Pub. L. 86–363, §§ 1–3, Sept. 22, 1959, 73 Stat. 644; Pub. L. 89–236, § 3, Oct. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 912; Pub. L. 94–571, § 4, Oct. 20, 1976, 90 Stat. 2705; Pub. L. 95–412, § 3, Oct. 5, 1978, 92 Stat. 907; Pub. L. 95–417, § 1, Oct. 5, 1978, 92 Stat. 917; Pub. L. 96–212, title II, § 203(c), (i), Mar. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 107, 108; Pub. L. 101–649, title I, §§ 111, 121(a), 131, 162(a)(1), title VI, § 603(a)(3), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4986, 4987, 4997, 5009, 5082; Pub. L. 102–110, § 2(b), Oct. 1, 1991, 105 Stat. 555; Pub. L. 102–232, title III, § 302(b)(2), (e)(3), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1743, 1745; Pub. L. 103–416, title II, §§ 212(b), 219(c), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4314, 4316; Pub. L. 106–95, § 5, Nov. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1318; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, § 1000(a)(1) [title I, § 117], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1535, 1501A–21; Pub. L. 106–536, § 1(b)(1), Nov. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 2560; Pub. L. 107–208, § 3, Aug. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 928; Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title I, §§ 11035, 11036(a), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1846; Pub. L. 109–162, title VIII, § 805(b)(2), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3056.)
§ 1154.
Procedure for granting immigrant status
(a)
Petitioning procedure
(1)
(A)
(i) Except as provided in clause (viii), any citizen of the United States claiming that an alien is entitled to classification by reason of a relationship described in paragraph (1), (3), or (4) of section 1153(a) of this title or to an immediate relative status under section 1151(b)(2)(A)(i) of this title may file a petition with the Attorney General for such classification.
(ii) An alien spouse described in the second sentence of section 1151(b)(2)(A)(i) of this title also may file a petition with the Attorney General under this subparagraph for classification of the alien (and the alien’s children) under such section.
(iii)(I)
An alien who is described in subclause (II) may file a petition with the Attorney General under this clause for classification of the alien (and any child of the alien) if the alien demonstrates to the Attorney General that—
(aa) the marriage or the intent to marry the United States citizen was entered into in good faith by the alien; and(bb) during the marriage or relationship intended by the alien to be legally a marriage, the alien or a child of the alien has been battered or has been the subject of extreme cruelty perpetrated by the alien’s spouse or intended spouse.(II)
For purposes of subclause (I), an alien described in this subclause is an alien—
(aa)(AA) who is the spouse of a citizen of the United States;(BB) who believed that he or she had married a citizen of the United States and with whom a marriage ceremony was actually performed and who otherwise meets any applicable requirements under this chapter to establish the existence of and bona fides of a marriage, but whose marriage is not legitimate solely because of the bigamy of such citizen of the United States; or(CC)
who was a bona fide spouse of a United States citizen within the past 2 years and—
(aaa) whose spouse died within the past 2 years;(bbb) whose spouse lost or renounced citizenship status within the past 2 years related to an incident of domestic violence; or(ccc) who demonstrates a connection between the legal termination of the marriage within the past 2 years and battering or extreme cruelty by the United States citizen spouse;(bb) who is a person of good moral character;(cc)(dd) who has resided with the alien’s spouse or intended spouse.
(iv) An alien who is the child of a citizen of the United States, or who was a child of a United States citizen parent who within the past 2 years lost or renounced citizenship status related to an incident of domestic violence, and who is a person of good moral character, who is eligible to be classified as an immediate relative under section 1151(b)(2)(A)(i) of this title, and who resides, or has resided in the past, with the citizen parent may file a petition with the Attorney General under this subparagraph for classification of the alien (and any child of the alien) under such section if the alien demonstrates to the Attorney General that the alien has been battered by or has been the subject of extreme cruelty perpetrated by the alien’s citizen parent. For purposes of this clause, residence includes any period of visitation.
(v)
An alien who—
(I)
is the spouse, intended spouse, or child living abroad of a citizen who—
(aa) is an employee of the United States Government;(bb) is a member of the uniformed services (as defined in section 101(a) of title 10); or(cc) has subjected the alien or the alien’s child to battery or extreme cruelty in the United States; and(II) is eligible to file a petition under clause (iii) or (iv),
shall file such petition with the Attorney General under the procedures that apply to self-petitioners under clause (iii) or (iv), as applicable.
(vi) For the purposes of any petition filed under clause (iii) or (iv), the denaturalization, loss or renunciation of citizenship, death of the abuser, divorce, or changes to the abuser’s citizenship status after filing of the petition shall not adversely affect the approval of the petition, and for approved petitions shall not preclude the classification of the eligible self-petitioning spouse or child as an immediate relative or affect the alien’s ability to adjust status under subsections (a) and (c) of section 1255 of this title or obtain status as a lawful permanent resident based on the approved self-petition under such clauses.
(vii)
An alien may file a petition with the Secretary of Homeland Security under this subparagraph for classification of the alien under section 1151(b)(2)(A)(i) of this title if the alien—
(I) is the parent of a citizen of the United States or was a parent of a citizen of the United States who, within the past 2 years, lost or renounced citizenship status related to an incident of domestic violence or died;(II) is a person of good moral character;(III) is eligible to be classified as an immediate relative under section 1151(b)(2)(A)(i) of this title;(IV) resides, or has resided, with the citizen daughter or son; and(V) demonstrates that the alien has been battered or subject to extreme cruelty by the citizen daughter or son.
(viii)(I) Clause (i) shall not apply to a citizen of the United States who has been convicted of a specified offense against a minor, unless the Secretary of Homeland Security, in the Secretary’s sole and unreviewable discretion, determines that the citizen poses no risk to the alien with respect to whom a petition described in clause (i) is filed.(II) For purposes of subclause (I), the term “specified offense against a minor” is defined as in section 20911 of title 34.
(B)
(i)(I) Except as provided in subclause (II), any alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence claiming that an alien is entitled to a classification by reason of the relationship described in section 1153(a)(2) of this title may file a petition with the Attorney General for such classification.(I)1
1 So in original. Probably should be “(II)”.
Subclause (I) shall not apply in the case of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence who has been convicted of a specified offense against a minor (as defined in subparagraph (A)(viii)(II)), unless the Secretary of Homeland Security, in the Secretary’s sole and unreviewable discretion, determines that such person poses no risk to the alien with respect to whom a petition described in subclause (I) is filed.
(ii)(I)
An alien who is described in subclause (II) may file a petition with the Attorney General under this clause for classification of the alien (and any child of the alien) if such a child has not been classified under clause (iii) of section 1153(a)(2)(A) of this title and if the alien demonstrates to the Attorney General that—
(aa) the marriage or the intent to marry the lawful permanent resident was entered into in good faith by the alien; and(bb) during the marriage or relationship intended by the alien to be legally a marriage, the alien or a child of the alien has been battered or has been the subject of extreme cruelty perpetrated by the alien’s spouse or intended spouse.(II)
For purposes of subclause (I), an alien described in this paragraph is an alien—
(aa)(AA) who is the spouse of a lawful permanent resident of the United States; or(BB) who believed that he or she had married a lawful permanent resident of the United States and with whom a marriage ceremony was actually performed and who otherwise meets any applicable requirements under this chapter to establish the existence of and bona fides of a marriage, but whose marriage is not legitimate solely because of the bigamy of such lawful permanent resident of the United States; or(CC)
who was a bona fide spouse of a lawful permanent resident within the past 2 years and—
(aaa) whose spouse lost status within the past 2 years due to an incident of domestic violence; or(bbb) who demonstrates a connection between the legal termination of the marriage within the past 2 years and battering or extreme cruelty by the lawful permanent resident spouse;(bb) who is a person of good moral character;(cc) who is eligible to be classified as a spouse of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence under section 1153(a)(2)(A) of this title or who would have been so classified but for the bigamy of the lawful permanent resident of the United States that the alien intended to marry; and(dd) who has resided with the alien’s spouse or intended spouse.
(iii) An alien who is the child of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, or who was the child of a lawful permanent resident who within the past 2 years lost lawful permanent resident status due to an incident of domestic violence, and who is a person of good moral character, who is eligible for classification under section 1153(a)(2)(A) of this title, and who resides, or has resided in the past, with the alien’s permanent resident alien parent may file a petition with the Attorney General under this subparagraph for classification of the alien (and any child of the alien) under such section if the alien demonstrates to the Attorney General that the alien has been battered by or has been the subject of extreme cruelty perpetrated by the alien’s permanent resident parent.
(iv)
An alien who—
(I)
is the spouse, intended spouse, or child living abroad of a lawful permanent resident who—
(aa) is an employee of the United States Government;(bb) is a member of the uniformed services (as defined in section 101(a) of title 10); or(cc) has subjected the alien or the alien’s child to battery or extreme cruelty in the United States; and(II) is eligible to file a petition under clause (ii) or (iii),
shall file such petition with the Attorney General under the procedures that apply to self-petitioners under clause (ii) or (iii), as applicable.
(v)(I) For the purposes of any petition filed or approved under clause (ii) or (iii), divorce, or the loss of lawful permanent resident status by a spouse or parent after the filing of a petition under that clause shall not adversely affect approval of the petition, and, for an approved petition, shall not affect the alien’s ability to adjust status under subsections (a) and (c) of section 1255 of this title or obtain status as a lawful permanent resident based on an approved self-petition under clause (ii) or (iii).(II) Upon the lawful permanent resident spouse or parent becoming or establishing the existence of United States citizenship through naturalization, acquisition of citizenship, or other means, any petition filed with the Immigration and Naturalization Service and pending or approved under clause (ii) or (iii) on behalf of an alien who has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty shall be deemed reclassified as a petition filed under subparagraph (A) even if the acquisition of citizenship occurs after divorce or termination of parental rights.
(C) Notwithstanding section 1101(f) of this title, an act or conviction that is waivable with respect to the petitioner for purposes of a determination of the petitioner’s admissibility under section 1182(a) of this title or deportability under section 1227(a) of this title shall not bar the Attorney General from finding the petitioner to be of good moral character under subparagraph (A)(iii), (A)(iv), (B)(ii), or (B)(iii) if the Attorney General finds that the act or conviction was connected to the alien’s having been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty.
(D)
(i)(I) Any child who attains 21 years of age who has filed a petition under clause (iv) of subsection (a)(1)(A) or subsection (a)(1)(B)(iii) that was filed or approved before the date on which the child attained 21 years of age shall be considered (if the child has not been admitted or approved for lawful permanent residence by the date the child attained 21 years of age) a petitioner for preference status under paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of section 1153(a) of this title, whichever paragraph is applicable, with the same priority date assigned to the self-petition filed under clause (iv) of subsection (a)(1)(A) or subsection (a)(1)(B)(iii). No new petition shall be required to be filed.(II) Any individual described in subclause (I) is eligible for deferred action and work authorization.(III) Any derivative child who attains 21 years of age who is included in a petition described in clause (ii) that was filed or approved before the date on which the child attained 21 years of age shall be considered (if the child has not been admitted or approved for lawful permanent residence by the date the child attained 21 years of age) a VAWA self-petitioner with the same priority date as that assigned to the petitioner in any petition described in clause (ii). No new petition shall be required to be filed.(IV) Any individual described in subclause (III) and any derivative child of a petition described in clause (ii) is eligible for deferred action and work authorization.
(ii) The petition referred to in clause (i)(III) is a petition filed by an alien under subparagraph (A)(iii), (A)(iv), (B)(ii) or (B)(iii) in which the child is included as a derivative beneficiary.
(iii) Nothing in the amendments made by the Child Status Protection Act shall be construed to limit or deny any right or benefit provided under this subparagraph.
(iv) Any alien who benefits from this subparagraph may adjust status in accordance with subsections (a) and (c) of section 1255 of this title as an alien having an approved petition for classification under subparagraph (A)(iii), (A)(iv), (B)(ii), or (B)(iii).
(v) For purposes of this paragraph, an individual who is not less than 21 years of age, who qualified to file a petition under subparagraph (A)(iv) or (B)(iii) as of the day before the date on which the individual attained 21 years of age, and who did not file such a petition before such day, shall be treated as having filed a petition under such subparagraph as of such day if a petition is filed for the status described in such subparagraph before the individual attains 25 years of age and the individual shows that the abuse was at least one central reason for the filing delay. Clauses (i) through (iv) of this subparagraph shall apply to an individual described in this clause in the same manner as an individual filing a petition under subparagraph (A)(iv) or (B)(iii).
(E) Any alien desiring to be classified under section 1153(b)(1)(A) of this title, or any person on behalf of such an alien, may file a petition with the Attorney General for such classification.
(F) Any employer desiring and intending to employ within the United States an alien entitled to classification under section 1153(b)(1)(B), 1153(b)(1)(C), 1153(b)(2), or 1153(b)(3) of this title may file a petition with the Attorney General for such classification.
(G)
(i) Any alien (other than a special immigrant under section 1101(a)(27)(D) of this title) desiring to be classified under section 1153(b)(4) of this title, or any person on behalf of such an alien, may file a petition with the Attorney General for such classification.
(ii) Aliens claiming status as a special immigrant under section 1101(a)(27)(D) of this title may file a petition only with the Secretary of State and only after notification by the Secretary that such status has been recommended and approved pursuant to such section.
(H) Any alien desiring to be classified under section 1153(b)(5) of this title may file a petition with the Attorney General for such classification.
(I)
(i) Any alien desiring to be provided an immigrant visa under section 1153(c) of this title may file a petition at the place and time determined by the Secretary of State by regulation. Only one such petition may be filed by an alien with respect to any petitioning period established. If more than one petition is submitted all such petitions submitted for such period by the alien shall be voided.
(ii)(I) The Secretary of State shall designate a period for the filing of petitions with respect to visas which may be issued under section 1153(c) of this title for the fiscal year beginning after the end of the period.(II) Aliens who qualify, through random selection, for a visa under section 1153(c) of this title shall remain eligible to receive such visa only through the end of the specific fiscal year for which they were selected.(III) The Secretary of State shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out this clause.
(iii) A petition under this subparagraph shall be in such form as the Secretary of State may by regulation prescribe and shall contain such information and be supported by such documentary evidence as the Secretary of State may require.
(J) In acting on petitions filed under clause (iii) or (iv) of subparagraph (A) or clause (ii) or (iii) of subparagraph (B), or in making determinations under subparagraphs (C) and (D), the Attorney General shall consider any credible evidence relevant to the petition. The determination of what evidence is credible and the weight to be given that evidence shall be within the sole discretion of the Attorney General.
(K)
Upon the approval of a petition as a VAWA self-petitioner, the alien—
(i) is eligible for work authorization; and
(ii) may be provided an “employment authorized” endorsement or appropriate work permit incidental to such approval.
(L) Notwithstanding the previous provisions of this paragraph, an individual who was a VAWA petitioner or who had the status of a nonimmigrant under subparagraph (T) or (U) of section 1101(a)(15) of this title may not file a petition for classification under this section or section 1184 of this title to classify any person who committed the battery or extreme cruelty or trafficking against the individual (or the individual’s child) which established the individual’s (or individual’s child 2
2 So in original. Probably should be “child’s”.
) eligibility as a VAWA petitioner or for such nonimmigrant status.
(2)
(A)
The Attorney General may not approve a spousal second preference petition for the classification of the spouse of an alien if the alien, by virtue of a prior marriage, has been accorded the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence as the spouse of a citizen of the United States or as the spouse of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, unless—
(i) a period of 5 years has elapsed after the date the alien acquired the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, or
(ii) the alien establishes to the satisfaction of the Attorney General by clear and convincing evidence that the prior marriage (on the basis of which the alien obtained the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence) was not entered into for the purpose of evading any provision of the immigration laws.
In this subparagraph, the term “spousal second preference petition” refers to a petition, seeking preference status under
(B) Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to a petition filed for the classification of the spouse of an alien if the prior marriage of the alien was terminated by the death of his or her spouse.
(b)
Investigation; consultation; approval; authorization to grant preference status

After an investigation of the facts in each case, and after consultation with the Secretary of Labor with respect to petitions to accord a status under section 1153(b)(2) or 1153(b)(3) of this title, the Attorney General shall, if he determines that the facts stated in the petition are true and that the alien in behalf of whom the petition is made is an immediate relative specified in section 1151(b) of this title or is eligible for preference under subsection (a) or (b) of section 1153 of this title, approve the petition and forward one copy thereof to the Department of State. The Secretary of State shall then authorize the consular officer concerned to grant the preference status.

(c)
Limitation on orphan petitions approved for a single petitioner; prohibition against approval in cases of marriages entered into in order to evade immigration laws; restriction on future entry of aliens involved with marriage fraud

Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b) no petition shall be approved if (1) the alien has previously been accorded, or has sought to be accorded, an immediate relative or preference status as the spouse of a citizen of the United States or the spouse of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, by reason of a marriage determined by the Attorney General to have been entered into for the purpose of evading the immigration laws, or (2) the Attorney General has determined that the alien has attempted or conspired to enter into a marriage for the purpose of evading the immigration laws.

(d)
Recommendation of valid home-study
(1) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (a) and (b) no petition may be approved on behalf of a child defined in subparagraph (F) or (G) of section 1101(b)(1) of this title unless a valid home-study has been favorably recommended by an agency of the State of the child’s proposed residence, or by an agency authorized by that State to conduct such a study, or, in the case of a child adopted abroad, by an appropriate public or private adoption agency which is licensed in the United States.
(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (a) and (b), no petition may be approved on behalf of a child defined in section 1101(b)(1)(G) of this title unless the Secretary of State has certified that the central authority of the child’s country of origin has notified the United States central authority under the convention referred to in such section 1101(b)(1)(G) of this title that a United States citizen habitually resident in the United States has effected final adoption of the child, or has been granted custody of the child for the purpose of emigration and adoption, in accordance with such convention and the Intercountry Adoption Act of 2000 [42 U.S.C. 14901 et seq.].
(e)
Subsequent finding of non-entitlement to preference classification

Nothing in this section shall be construed to entitle an immigrant, in behalf of whom a petition under this section is approved, to be admitted 3

3 So in original. Probably should be followed by “to”.
the United States as an immigrant under subsection (a), (b), or (c) of section 1153 of this title or as an immediate relative under section 1151(b) of this title if upon his arrival at a port of entry in the United States he is found not to be entitled to such classification.

(f)
Preferential treatment for children fathered by United States citizens and born in Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Kampuchea, or Thailand after 1950 and before October 22, 1982
(1) Any alien claiming to be an alien described in paragraph (2)(A) of this subsection (or any person on behalf of such an alien) may file a petition with the Attorney General for classification under section 1151(b), 1153(a)(1), or 1153(a)(3) of this title, as appropriate. After an investigation of the facts of each case the Attorney General shall, if the conditions described in paragraph (2) are met, approve the petition and forward one copy to the Secretary of State.
(2)
The Attorney General may approve a petition for an alien under paragraph (1) if—
(A) he has reason to believe that the alien (i) was born in Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Kampuchea, or Thailand after 1950 and before October 22, 1982, and (ii) was fathered by a United States citizen;
(B) he has received an acceptable guarantee of legal custody and financial responsibility described in paragraph (4); and
(C) in the case of an alien under eighteen years of age, (i) the alien’s placement with a sponsor in the United States has been arranged by an appropriate public, private, or State child welfare agency licensed in the United States and actively involved in the intercountry placement of children and (ii) the alien’s mother or guardian has in writing irrevocably released the alien for emigration.
(3)
In considering petitions filed under paragraph (1), the Attorney General shall—
(A) consult with appropriate governmental officials and officials of private voluntary organizations in the country of the alien’s birth in order to make the determinations described in subparagraphs (A) and (C)(ii) of paragraph (2); and
(B) consider the physical appearance of the alien and any evidence provided by the petitioner, including birth and baptismal certificates, local civil records, photographs of, and letters or proof of financial support from, a putative father who is a citizen of the United States, and the testimony of witnesses, to the extent it is relevant or probative.
(4)
(A)
A guarantee of legal custody and financial responsibility for an alien described in paragraph (2) must—
(i) be signed in the presence of an immigration officer or consular officer by an individual (hereinafter in this paragraph referred to as the “sponsor”) who is twenty-one years of age or older, is of good moral character, and is a citizen of the United States or alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, and
(ii) provide that the sponsor agrees (I) in the case of an alien under eighteen years of age, to assume legal custody for the alien after the alien’s departure to the United States and until the alien becomes eighteen years of age, in accordance with the laws of the State where the alien and the sponsor will reside, and (II) to furnish, during the five-year period beginning on the date of the alien’s acquiring the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, or during the period beginning on the date of the alien’s acquiring the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence and ending on the date on which the alien becomes twenty-one years of age, whichever period is longer, such financial support as is necessary to maintain the family in the United States of which the alien is a member at a level equal to at least 125 per centum of the current official poverty line (as established by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, under section 9902(2) of title 42 and as revised by the Secretary of Health and Human Services under the second and third sentences of such section) for a family of the same size as the size of the alien’s family.
(B) A guarantee of legal custody and financial responsibility described in subparagraph (A) may be enforced with respect to an alien against his sponsor in a civil suit brought by the Attorney General in the United States district court for the district in which the sponsor resides, except that a sponsor or his estate shall not be liable under such a guarantee if the sponsor dies or is adjudicated a bankrupt under title 11.
(g)
Restriction on petitions based on marriages entered while in exclusion or deportation proceedings

Notwithstanding subsection (a), except as provided in section 1255(e)(3) of this title, a petition may not be approved to grant an alien immediate relative status or preference status by reason of a marriage which was entered into during the period described in section 1255(e)(2) of this title, until the alien has resided outside the United States for a 2-year period beginning after the date of the marriage.

(h)
Survival of rights to petition

The legal termination of a marriage may not be the sole basis for revocation under section 1155 of this title of a petition filed under subsection (a)(1)(A)(iii) or a petition filed under subsection (a)(1)(B)(ii) pursuant to conditions described in subsection (a)(1)(A)(iii)(I). Remarriage of an alien whose petition was approved under subsection (a)(1)(B)(ii) or (a)(1)(A)(iii) or marriage of an alien described in clause (iv) or (vi) of subsection (a)(1)(A) or in subsection (a)(1)(B)(iii) shall not be the basis for revocation of a petition approval under section 1155 of this title.

(i)
Professional athletes
(1)
In general

A petition under subsection (a)(4)(D) 4

4 See References in Text note below.
for classification of a professional athlete shall remain valid for the athlete after the athlete changes employers, if the new employer is a team in the same sport as the team which was the employer who filed the petition.

(2)
“Professional athlete” defined
For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “professional athlete” means an individual who is employed as an athlete by—
(A) a team that is a member of an association of 6 or more professional sports teams whose total combined revenues exceed $10,000,000 per year, if the association governs the conduct of its members and regulates the contests and exhibitions in which its member teams regularly engage; or
(B) any minor league team that is affiliated with such an association.
(j)
Job flexibility for long delayed applicants for adjustment of status to permanent residence

A petition under subsection (a)(1)(D) 4 for an individual whose application for adjustment of status pursuant to section 1255 of this title has been filed and remained unadjudicated for 180 days or more shall remain valid with respect to a new job if the individual changes jobs or employers if the new job is in the same or a similar occupational classification as the job for which the petition was filed.

(k)
Procedures for unmarried sons and daughters of citizens
(1)
In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), in the case of a petition under this section initially filed for an alien unmarried son or daughter’s classification as a family-sponsored immigrant under section 1153(a)(2)(B) of this title, based on a parent of the son or daughter being an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, if such parent subsequently becomes a naturalized citizen of the United States, such petition shall be converted to a petition to classify the unmarried son or daughter as a family-sponsored immigrant under section 1153(a)(1) of this title.

(2)
Exception

Paragraph (1) does not apply if the son or daughter files with the Attorney General a written statement that he or she elects not to have such conversion occur (or if it has occurred, to have such conversion revoked). Where such an election has been made, any determination with respect to the son or daughter’s eligibility for admission as a family-sponsored immigrant shall be made as if such naturalization had not taken place.

(3)
Priority date

Regardless of whether a petition is converted under this subsection or not, if an unmarried son or daughter described in this subsection was assigned a priority date with respect to such petition before such naturalization, he or she may maintain that priority date.

(4)
Clarification

This subsection shall apply to a petition if it is properly filed, regardless of whether it was approved or not before such naturalization.

(l)
Surviving relative consideration for certain petitions and applications
(1)
In general

An alien described in paragraph (2) who resided in the United States at the time of the death of the qualifying relative and who continues to reside in the United States shall have such petition described in paragraph (2), or an application for adjustment of status to that of a person admitted for lawful permanent residence based upon the family relationship described in paragraph (2), and any related applications, adjudicated notwithstanding the death of the qualifying relative, unless the Secretary of Homeland Security determines, in the unreviewable discretion of the Secretary, that approval would not be in the public interest.

(2)
Alien described
An alien described in this paragraph is an alien who, immediately prior to the death of his or her qualifying relative, was—
(A) the beneficiary of a pending or approved petition for classification as an immediate relative (as described in section 1151(b)(2)(A)(i) of this title);
(B) the beneficiary of a pending or approved petition for classification under section 1153(a) or (d) of this title;
(C) a derivative beneficiary of a pending or approved petition for classification under section 1153(b) of this title (as described in section 1153(d) of this title);
(D) the beneficiary of a pending or approved refugee/asylee relative petition under section 1157 or 1158 of this title;
(E) an alien admitted in “T” nonimmigrant status as described in section 1101(a)(15)(T)(ii) of this title or in “U” nonimmigrant status as described in section 1101(a)(15)(U)(ii) of this title;
(F) a child of an alien who filed a pending or approved petition for classification or application for adjustment of status or other benefit specified in section 1101(a)(51) of this title as a VAWA self-petitioner; or
(G) an asylee (as described in section 1158(b)(3) of this title).
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 1, § 204, 66 Stat. 179; Pub. L. 87–885, § 3, Oct. 24, 1962, 76 Stat. 1247; Pub. L. 89–236, § 4, Oct. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 915; Pub. L. 94–571, § 7(b), Oct. 20, 1976, 90 Stat. 2706; Pub. L. 95–417, §§ 2, 3, Oct. 5, 1978, 92 Stat. 917; Pub. L. 96–470, title II, § 207, Oct. 19, 1980, 94 Stat. 2245; Pub. L. 97–116, §§ 3, 18(d), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1611, 1620; Pub. L. 97–359, Oct. 22, 1982, 96 Stat. 1716; Pub. L. 99–639, §§ 2(c), 4(a), 5(b), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3541, 3543; Pub. L. 100–525, § 9(g), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2620; Pub. L. 101–649, title I, § 162(b), title VII, § 702(b), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5010, 5086; Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §§ 302(e)(4), (5), 308(b), 309(b)(5), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1745, 1746, 1757, 1758; Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, § 40701(a), (b)(1), (c), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1953, 1954; Pub. L. 103–416, title II, § 219(b)(2), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4316; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, § 308(e)(1)(A), (f)(2)(A), title VI, § 624(b), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–619, 3009–621, 3009–699; Pub. L. 106–279, title III, § 302(b), Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 839; Pub. L. 106–313, title I, § 106(c)(1), Oct. 17, 2000, 114 Stat. 1254; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title V, §§ 1503(b)–(d), 1507(a)(1), (2), (b), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1518–1521, 1529, 1530; Pub. L. 107–208, §§ 6, 7, Aug. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 929; Pub. L. 109–162, title VIII, §§ 805(a),(c), 814(b),(e), 816, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3056, 3059, 3060; Pub. L. 109–248, title IV, § 402(a), July 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 622; Pub. L. 109–271, § 6(a), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 762; Pub. L. 111–83, title V, § 568(d)(1), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2187; Pub. L. 113–4, title VIII, § 803, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 111; Pub. L. 113–6, div. D, title V, § 563, Mar. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 380.)
§ 1155.
Revocation of approval of petitions; effective date

The Secretary of Homeland Security may, at any time, for what he deems to be good and sufficient cause, revoke the approval of any petition approved by him under section 1154 of this title. Such revocation shall be effective as of the date of approval of any such petition.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 1, § 205, 66 Stat. 180; Pub. L. 86–363, § 5(a), (b), Sept. 22, 1959, 73 Stat. 644, 645; Pub. L. 87–301, §§ 3, 10, Sept. 26, 1961, 75 Stat. 650, 654; Pub. L. 89–236, § 5, Oct. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 916; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, § 308(g)(3)(A), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–622; Pub. L. 108–458, title V, § 5304(c), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3736.)
§ 1156.
Unused immigrant visas

If an immigrant having an immigrant visa is denied admission to the United States and removed, or does not apply for admission before the expiration of the validity of his visa, or if an alien having an immigrant visa issued to him as a preference immigrant is found not to be a preference immigrant, an immigrant visa or a preference immigrant visa, as the case may be, may be issued in lieu thereof to another qualified alien.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 1, § 206, 66 Stat. 181; Pub. L. 89–236, § 6, Oct. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 916; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, § 308(d)(4)(D), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–618.)
§ 1157.
Annual admission of refugees and admission of emergency situation refugees
(a)
Maximum number of admissions; increases for humanitarian concerns; allocations
(1) Except as provided in subsection (b), the number of refugees who may be admitted under this section in fiscal year 1980, 1981, or 1982, may not exceed fifty thousand unless the President determines, before the beginning of the fiscal year and after appropriate consultation (as defined in subsection (e)), that admission of a specific number of refugees in excess of such number is justified by humanitarian concerns or is otherwise in the national interest.
(2) Except as provided in subsection (b), the number of refugees who may be admitted under this section in any fiscal year after fiscal year 1982 shall be such number as the President determines, before the beginning of the fiscal year and after appropriate consultation, is justified by humanitarian concerns or is otherwise in the national interest.
(3) Admissions under this subsection shall be allocated among refugees of special humanitarian concern to the United States in accordance with a determination made by the President after appropriate consultation.
(4) In the determination made under this subsection for each fiscal year (beginning with fiscal year 1992), the President shall enumerate, with the respective number of refugees so determined, the number of aliens who were granted asylum in the previous year.
(b)
Determinations by President respecting number of admissions for humanitarian concerns

If the President determines, after appropriate consultation, that (1) an unforeseen emergency refugee situation exists, (2) the admission of certain refugees in response to the emergency refugee situation is justified by grave humanitarian concerns or is otherwise in the national interest, and (3) the admission to the United States of these refugees cannot be accomplished under subsection (a), the President may fix a number of refugees to be admitted to the United States during the succeeding period (not to exceed twelve months) in response to the emergency refugee situation and such admissions shall be allocated among refugees of special humanitarian concern to the United States in accordance with a determination made by the President after the appropriate consultation provided under this subsection.

(c)
Admission by Attorney General of refugees; criteria; admission status of spouse or child; applicability of other statutory requirements; termination of refugee status of alien, spouse or child
(1) Subject to the numerical limitations established pursuant to subsections (a) and (b), the Attorney General may, in the Attorney General’s discretion and pursuant to such regulations as the Attorney General may prescribe, admit any refugee who is not firmly resettled in any foreign country, is determined to be of special humanitarian concern to the United States, and is admissible (except as otherwise provided under paragraph (3)) as an immigrant under this chapter.
(2)
(A) A spouse or child (as defined in section 1101(b)(1)(A), (B), (C), (D), or (E) of this title) of any refugee who qualifies for admission under paragraph (1) shall, if not otherwise entitled to admission under paragraph (1) and if not a person described in the second sentence of section 1101(a)(42) of this title, be entitled to the same admission status as such refugee if accompanying, or following to join, such refugee and if the spouse or child is admissible (except as otherwise provided under paragraph (3)) as an immigrant under this chapter. Upon the spouse’s or child’s admission to the United States, such admission shall be charged against the numerical limitation established in accordance with the appropriate subsection under which the refugee’s admission is charged.
(B) An unmarried alien who seeks to accompany, or follow to join, a parent granted admission as a refugee under this subsection, and who was under 21 years of age on the date on which such parent applied for refugee status under this section, shall continue to be classified as a child for purposes of this paragraph, if the alien attained 21 years of age after such application was filed but while it was pending.
(3) The provisions of paragraphs (4), (5), and (7)(A) of section 1182(a) of this title shall not be applicable to any alien seeking admission to the United States under this subsection, and the Attorney General may waive any other provision of such section (other than paragraph (2)(C) or subparagraph (A), (B), (C), or (E) of paragraph (3)) with respect to such an alien for humanitarian purposes, to assure family unity, or when it is otherwise in the public interest. Any such waiver by the Attorney General shall be in writing and shall be granted only on an individual basis following an investigation. The Attorney General shall provide for the annual reporting to Congress of the number of waivers granted under this paragraph in the previous fiscal year and a summary of the reasons for granting such waivers.
(4) The refugee status of any alien (and of the spouse or child of the alien) may be terminated by the Attorney General pursuant to such regulations as the Attorney General may prescribe if the Attorney General determines that the alien was not in fact a refugee within the meaning of section 1101(a)(42) of this title at the time of the alien’s admission.
(d)
Oversight reporting and consultation requirements
(1) Before the start of each fiscal year the President shall report to the Committees on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and of the Senate regarding the foreseeable number of refugees who will be in need of resettlement during the fiscal year and the anticipated allocation of refugee admissions during the fiscal year. The President shall provide for periodic discussions between designated representatives of the President and members of such committees regarding changes in the worldwide refugee situation, the progress of refugee admissions, and the possible need for adjustments in the allocation of admissions among refugees.
(2) As soon as possible after representatives of the President initiate appropriate consultation with respect to the number of refugee admissions under subsection (a) or with respect to the admission of refugees in response to an emergency refugee situation under subsection (b), the Committees on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and of the Senate shall cause to have printed in the Congressional Record the substance of such consultation.
(3)
(A) After the President initiates appropriate consultation prior to making a determination under subsection (a), a hearing to review the proposed determination shall be held unless public disclosure of the details of the proposal would jeopardize the lives or safety of individuals.
(B) After the President initiates appropriate consultation prior to making a determination, under subsection (b), that the number of refugee admissions should be increased because of an unforeseen emergency refugee situation, to the extent that time and the nature of the emergency refugee situation permit, a hearing to review the proposal to increase refugee admissions shall be held unless public disclosure of the details of the proposal would jeopardize the lives or safety of individuals.
(e)
“Appropriate consultation” defined
For purposes of this section, the term “appropriate consultation” means, with respect to the admission of refugees and allocation of refugee admissions, discussions in person by designated Cabinet-level representatives of the President with members of the Committees on the Judiciary of the Senate and of the House of Representatives to review the refugee situation or emergency refugee situation, to project the extent of possible participation of the United States therein, to discuss the reasons for believing that the proposed admission of refugees is justified by humanitarian concerns or grave humanitarian concerns or is otherwise in the national interest, and to provide such members with the following information:
(1) A description of the nature of the refugee situation.
(2) A description of the number and allocation of the refugees to be admitted and an analysis of conditions within the countries from which they came.
(3) A description of the proposed plans for their movement and resettlement and the estimated cost of their movement and resettlement.
(4) An analysis of the anticipated social, economic, and demographic impact of their admission to the United States.
(5) A description of the extent to which other countries will admit and assist in the resettlement of such refugees.
(6) An analysis of the impact of the participation of the United States in the resettlement of such refugees on the foreign policy interests of the United States.
(7) Such additional information as may be appropriate or requested by such members.
To the extent possible, information described in this subsection shall be provided at least two weeks in advance of discussions in person by designated representatives of the President with such members.
(f)
Training
(1) The Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary of State, shall provide all United States officials adjudicating refugee cases under this section with the same training as that provided to officers adjudicating asylum cases under section 1158 of this title.
(2) Such training shall include country-specific conditions, instruction on the internationally recognized right to freedom of religion, instruction on methods of religious persecution practiced in foreign countries, and applicable distinctions within a country between the nature of and treatment of various religious practices and believers.
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 1, § 207, as added Pub. L. 96–212, title II, § 201(b), Mar. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 103; amended Pub. L. 100–525, § 9(h), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2620; Pub. L. 101–649, title I, § 104(b), title VI, § 603(a)(4), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4985, 5082; Pub. L. 102–232, title III, § 307(l)(1), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1756; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title VI, § 601(b), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–689; Pub. L. 105–292, title VI, § 602(a), Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2812; Pub. L. 107–208, § 5, Aug. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 929; Pub. L. 109–13, div. B, title I, § 101(g)(2), May 11, 2005, 119 Stat. 305.)
§ 1158.
Asylum
(a)
Authority to apply for asylum
(1)
In general

Any alien who is physically present in the United States or who arrives in the United States (whether or not at a designated port of arrival and including an alien who is brought to the United States after having been interdicted in international or United States waters), irrespective of such alien’s status, may apply for asylum in accordance with this section or, where applicable, section 1225(b) of this title.

(2)
Exceptions
(A)
Safe third country

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to an alien if the Attorney General determines that the alien may be removed, pursuant to a bilateral or multilateral agreement, to a country (other than the country of the alien’s nationality or, in the case of an alien having no nationality, the country of the alien’s last habitual residence) in which the alien’s life or freedom would not be threatened on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion, and where the alien would have access to a full and fair procedure for determining a claim to asylum or equivalent temporary protection, unless the Attorney General finds that it is in the public interest for the alien to receive asylum in the United States.

(B)
Time limit

Subject to subparagraph (D), paragraph (1) shall not apply to an alien unless the alien demonstrates by clear and convincing evidence that the application has been filed within 1 year after the date of the alien’s arrival in the United States.

(C)
Previous asylum applications

Subject to subparagraph (D), paragraph (1) shall not apply to an alien if the alien has previously applied for asylum and had such application denied.

(D)
Changed circumstances

An application for asylum of an alien may be considered, notwithstanding subparagraphs (B) and (C), if the alien demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Attorney General either the existence of changed circumstances which materially affect the applicant’s eligibility for asylum or extraordinary circumstances relating to the delay in filing an application within the period specified in subparagraph (B).

(E)
Applicability

Subparagraphs (A) and (B) shall not apply to an unaccompanied alien child (as defined in section 279(g) of title 6).

(3)
Limitation on judicial review

No court shall have jurisdiction to review any determination of the Attorney General under paragraph (2).

(b)
Conditions for granting asylum
(1)
In general
(A)
Eligibility

The Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General may grant asylum to an alien who has applied for asylum in accordance with the requirements and procedures established by the Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General under this section if the Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General determines that such alien is a refugee within the meaning of section 1101(a)(42)(A) of this title.

(B)
Burden of proof
(i)
In general

The burden of proof is on the applicant to establish that the applicant is a refugee, within the meaning of section 1101(a)(42)(A) of this title. To establish that the applicant is a refugee within the meaning of such section, the applicant must establish that race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion was or will be at least one central reason for persecuting the applicant.

(ii)
Sustaining burden

The testimony of the applicant may be sufficient to sustain the applicant’s burden without corroboration, but only if the applicant satisfies the trier of fact that the applicant’s testimony is credible, is persuasive, and refers to specific facts sufficient to demonstrate that the applicant is a refugee. In determining whether the applicant has met the applicant’s burden, the trier of fact may weigh the credible testimony along with other evidence of record. Where the trier of fact determines that the applicant should provide evidence that corroborates otherwise credible testimony, such evidence must be provided unless the applicant does not have the evidence and cannot reasonably obtain the evidence.

(iii)
Credibility determination

Considering the totality of the circumstances, and all relevant factors, a trier of fact may base a credibility determination on the demeanor, candor, or responsiveness of the applicant or witness, the inherent plausibility of the applicant’s or witness’s account, the consistency between the applicant’s or witness’s written and oral statements (whenever made and whether or not under oath, and considering the circumstances under which the statements were made), the internal consistency of each such statement, the consistency of such statements with other evidence of record (including the reports of the Department of State on country conditions), and any inaccuracies or falsehoods in such statements, without regard to whether an inconsistency, inaccuracy, or falsehood goes to the heart of the applicant’s claim, or any other relevant factor. There is no presumption of credibility, however, if no adverse credibility determination is explicitly made, the applicant or witness shall have a rebuttable presumption of credibility on appeal.

(2)
Exceptions
(A)
In general
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to an alien if the Attorney General determines that—
(i) the alien ordered, incited, assisted, or otherwise participated in the persecution of any person on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion;
(ii) the alien, having been convicted by a final judgment of a particularly serious crime, constitutes a danger to the community of the United States;
(iii) there are serious reasons for believing that the alien has committed a serious nonpolitical crime outside the United States prior to the arrival of the alien in the United States;
(iv) there are reasonable grounds for regarding the alien as a danger to the security of the United States;
(v) the alien is described in subclause (I), (II), (III), (IV), or (VI) of section 1182(a)(3)(B)(i) of this title or section 1227(a)(4)(B) of this title (relating to terrorist activity), unless, in the case only of an alien described in subclause (IV) of section 1182(a)(3)(B)(i) of this title, the Attorney General determines, in the Attorney General’s discretion, that there are not reasonable grounds for regarding the alien as a danger to the security of the United States; or
(vi) the alien was firmly resettled in another country prior to arriving in the United States.
(B)
Special rules
(i)
Conviction of aggravated felony

For purposes of clause (ii) of subparagraph (A), an alien who has been convicted of an aggravated felony shall be considered to have been convicted of a particularly serious crime.

(ii)
Offenses

The Attorney General may designate by regulation offenses that will be considered to be a crime described in clause (ii) or (iii) of subparagraph (A).

(C)
Additional limitations

The Attorney General may by regulation establish additional limitations and conditions, consistent with this section, under which an alien shall be ineligible for asylum under paragraph (1).

(D)
No judicial review

There shall be no judicial review of a determination of the Attorney General under subparagraph (A)(v).

(3)
Treatment of spouse and children
(A)
In general

A spouse or child (as defined in section 1101(b)(1)(A), (B), (C), (D), or (E) of this title) of an alien who is granted asylum under this subsection may, if not otherwise eligible for asylum under this section, be granted the same status as the alien if accompanying, or following to join, such alien.

(B)
Continued classification of certain aliens as children

An unmarried alien who seeks to accompany, or follow to join, a parent granted asylum under this subsection, and who was under 21 years of age on the date on which such parent applied for asylum under this section, shall continue to be classified as a child for purposes of this paragraph and section 1159(b)(3) of this title, if the alien attained 21 years of age after such application was filed but while it was pending.

(C)
Initial jurisdiction

An asylum officer (as defined in section 1225(b)(1)(E) of this title) shall have initial jurisdiction over any asylum application filed by an unaccompanied alien child (as defined in section 279(g) of title 6), regardless of whether filed in accordance with this section or section 1225(b) of this title.

(c)
Asylum status
(1)
In general
In the case of an alien granted asylum under subsection (b), the Attorney General—
(A) shall not remove or return the alien to the alien’s country of nationality or, in the case of a person having no nationality, the country of the alien’s last habitual residence;
(B) shall authorize the alien to engage in employment in the United States and provide the alien with appropriate endorsement of that authorization; and
(C) may allow the alien to travel abroad with the prior consent of the Attorney General.
(2)
Termination of asylum
Asylum granted under subsection (b) does not convey a right to remain permanently in the United States, and may be terminated if the Attorney General determines that—
(A) the alien no longer meets the conditions described in subsection (b)(1) owing to a fundamental change in circumstances;
(B) the alien meets a condition described in subsection (b)(2);
(C) the alien may be removed, pursuant to a bilateral or multilateral agreement, to a country (other than the country of the alien’s nationality or, in the case of an alien having no nationality, the country of the alien’s last habitual residence) in which the alien’s life or freedom would not be threatened on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion, and where the alien is eligible to receive asylum or equivalent temporary protection;
(D) the alien has voluntarily availed himself or herself of the protection of the alien’s country of nationality or, in the case of an alien having no nationality, the alien’s country of last habitual residence, by returning to such country with permanent resident status or the reasonable possibility of obtaining such status with the same rights and obligations pertaining to other permanent residents of that country; or
(E) the alien has acquired a new nationality and enjoys the protection of the country of his or her new nationality.
(3)
Removal when asylum is terminated

An alien described in paragraph (2) is subject to any applicable grounds of inadmissibility or deportability under section 1

1 So in original. Probably should be “sections”.
1182(a) and 1227(a) of this title, and the alien’s removal or return shall be directed by the Attorney General in accordance with sections 1229a and 1231 of this title.

(d)
Asylum procedure
(1)
Applications

The Attorney General shall establish a procedure for the consideration of asylum applications filed under subsection (a). The Attorney General may require applicants to submit fingerprints and a photograph at such time and in such manner to be determined by regulation by the Attorney General.

(2)
Employment

An applicant for asylum is not entitled to employment authorization, but such authorization may be provided under regulation by the Attorney General. An applicant who is not otherwise eligible for employment authorization shall not be granted such authorization prior to 180 days after the date of filing of the application for asylum.

(3)
Fees

The Attorney General may impose fees for the consideration of an application for asylum, for employment authorization under this section, and for adjustment of status under section 1159(b) of this title. Such fees shall not exceed the Attorney General’s costs in adjudicating the applications. The Attorney General may provide for the assessment and payment of such fees over a period of time or by installments. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to require the Attorney General to charge fees for adjudication services provided to asylum applicants, or to limit the authority of the Attorney General to set adjudication and naturalization fees in accordance with section 1356(m) of this title.

(4)
Notice of privilege of counsel and consequences of frivolous application
At the time of filing an application for asylum, the Attorney General shall—
(A) advise the alien of the privilege of being represented by counsel and of the consequences, under paragraph (6), of knowingly filing a frivolous application for asylum; and
(B) provide the alien a list of persons (updated not less often than quarterly) who have indicated their availability to represent aliens in asylum proceedings on a pro bono basis.
(5)
Consideration of asylum applications
(A)
Procedures
The procedure established under paragraph (1) shall provide that—
(i) asylum cannot be granted until the identity of the applicant has been checked against all appropriate records or databases maintained by the Attorney General and by the Secretary of State, including the Automated Visa Lookout System, to determine any grounds on which the alien may be inadmissible to or deportable from the United States, or ineligible to apply for or be granted asylum;
(ii) in the absence of exceptional circumstances, the initial interview or hearing on the asylum application shall commence not later than 45 days after the date an application is filed;
(iii) in the absence of exceptional circumstances, final administrative adjudication of the asylum application, not including administrative appeal, shall be completed within 180 days after the date an application is filed;
(iv) any administrative appeal shall be filed within 30 days of a decision granting or denying asylum, or within 30 days of the completion of removal proceedings before an immigration judge under section 1229a of this title, whichever is later; and
(v) in the case of an applicant for asylum who fails without prior authorization or in the absence of exceptional circumstances to appear for an interview or hearing, including a hearing under section 1229a of this title, the application may be dismissed or the applicant may be otherwise sanctioned for such failure.
(B)
Additional regulatory conditions

(6)
Frivolous applications

If the Attorney General determines that an alien has knowingly made a frivolous application for asylum and the alien has received the notice under paragraph (4)(A), the alien shall be permanently ineligible for any benefits under this chapter, effective as of the date of a final determination on such application.

(7)
No private right of action

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to create any substantive or procedural right or benefit that is legally enforceable by any party against the United States or its agencies or officers or any other person.

(e)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

The provisions of this section and section 1159(b) of this title shall apply to persons physically present in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands or arriving in the Commonwealth (whether or not at a designated port of arrival and including persons who are brought to the Commonwealth after having been interdicted in international or United States waters) only on or after January 1, 2014.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 1, § 208, as added Pub. L. 96–212, title II, § 201(b), Mar. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 105; amended Pub. L. 101–649, title V, § 515(a)(1), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5053; Pub. L. 103–322, title XIII, § 130005(b), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2028; Pub. L. 104–132, title IV, § 421(a), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1270; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title VI, § 604(a), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–690; Pub. L. 107–56, title IV, § 411(b)(2), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 348; Pub. L. 107–208, § 4, Aug. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 928; Pub. L. 109–13, div. B, title I, § 101(a), (b), May 11, 2005, 119 Stat. 302, 303; Pub. L. 110–229, title VII, § 702(j)(4), May 8, 2008, 122 Stat. 866; Pub. L. 110–457, title II, § 235(d)(7), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5080.)
§ 1159.
Adjustment of status of refugees
(a)
Inspection and examination by Department of Homeland Security
(1)
Any alien who has been admitted to the United States under section 1157 of this title
(A) whose admission has not been terminated by the Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General pursuant to such regulations as the Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General may prescribe,
(B) who has been physically present in the United States for at least one year, and
(C) who has not acquired permanent resident status,
shall, at the end of such year period, return or be returned to the custody of the Department of Homeland Security for inspection and examination for admission to the United States as an immigrant in accordance with the provisions of sections 1225, 1229a, and 1231 of this title.
(2) Any alien who is found upon inspection and examination by an immigration officer pursuant to paragraph (1) or after a hearing before an immigration judge to be admissible (except as otherwise provided under subsection (c)) as an immigrant under this chapter at the time of the alien’s inspection and examination shall, notwithstanding any numerical limitation specified in this chapter, be regarded as lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence as of the date of such alien’s arrival into the United States.
(b)
Requirements for adjustment
The Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General, in the Secretary’s or the Attorney General’s discretion and under such regulations as the Secretary or the Attorney General may prescribe, may adjust to the status of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence the status of any alien granted asylum who—
(1) applies for such adjustment,
(2) has been physically present in the United States for at least one year after being granted asylum,
(3) continues to be a refugee within the meaning of section 1101(a)(42)(A) of this title or a spouse or child of such a refugee,
(4) is not firmly resettled in any foreign country, and
(5) is admissible (except as otherwise provided under subsection (c)) as an immigrant under this chapter at the time of examination for adjustment of such alien.
Upon approval of an application under this subsection, the Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General shall establish a record of the alien’s admission for lawful permanent residence as of the date one year before the date of the approval of the application.
(c)
Coordination with section 1182

The provisions of paragraphs (4), (5), and (7)(A) of section 1182(a) of this title shall not be applicable to any alien seeking adjustment of status under this section, and the Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General may waive any other provision of such section (other than paragraph (2)(C) or subparagraph (A), (B), (C), or (E) of paragraph (3)) with respect to such an alien for humanitarian purposes, to assure family unity, or when it is otherwise in the public interest.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 1, § 209, as added Pub. L. 96–212, title II, § 201(b), Mar. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 105; amended Pub. L. 101–649, title I, § 104(a)(1), title VI, § 603(a)(4), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4985, 5082; Pub. L. 102–232, title III, § 307(l)(1), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1756; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §§ 308(g)(3)(A), (4)(A), 371(b)(2), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–622, 3009–645; Pub. L. 109–13, div. B, title I, § 101(g)(1), May 11, 2005, 119 Stat. 305.)
§ 1160.
Special agricultural workers
(a)
Lawful residence
(1)
In general
The Attorney General shall adjust the status of an alien to that of an alien lawfully admitted for temporary residence if the Attorney General determines that the alien meets the following requirements:
(A)
Application period

The alien must apply for such adjustment during the 18-month period beginning on the first day of the seventh month that begins after November 6, 1986.

(B)
Performance of seasonal agricultural services and residence in the United States
The alien must establish that he has—
(i) resided in the United States, and
(ii) performed seasonal agricultural services in the United States for at least 90 man-days,
during the 12-month period ending on May 1, 1986. For purposes of the previous sentence, performance of seasonal agricultural services in the United States for more than one employer on any one day shall be counted as performance of services for only 1 man-day.
(C)
Admissible as immigrant

The alien must establish that he is admissible to the United States as an immigrant, except as otherwise provided under subsection (c)(2).

(2)
Adjustment to permanent residence
The Attorney General shall adjust the status of any alien provided lawful temporary resident status under paragraph (1) to that of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence on the following date:
(A)
Group 1

Subject to the numerical limitation established under subparagraph (C), in the case of an alien who has established, at the time of application for temporary residence under paragraph (1), that the alien performed seasonal agricultural services in the United States for at least 90 man-days during each of the 12-month periods ending on May 1, 1984, 1985, and 1986, the adjustment shall occur on the first day after the end of the one-year period that begins on the later of (I) the date the alien was granted such temporary resident status, or (II) the day after the last day of the application period described in paragraph (1)(A).

(B)
Group 2

In the case of aliens to which subparagraph (A) does not apply, the adjustment shall occur on the day after the last day of the two-year period that begins on the later of (I) the date the alien was granted such temporary resident status, or (II) the day after the last day of the application period described in paragraph (1)(A).

(C)
Numerical limitation

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to more than 350,000 aliens. If more than 350,000 aliens meet the requirements of such subparagraph, such subparagraph shall apply to the 350,000 aliens whose applications for adjustment were first filed under paragraph (1) and subparagraph (B) shall apply to the remaining aliens.

(3)
Termination of temporary residence
(A) During the period of temporary resident status granted an alien under paragraph (1), the Attorney General may terminate such status only upon a determination under this chapter that the alien is deportable.
(B)
Before any alien becomes eligible for adjustment of status under paragraph (2), the Attorney General may deny adjustment to permanent status and provide for termination of the temporary resident status granted such alien under paragraph (1) if—
(i) the Attorney General finds by a preponderance of the evidence that the adjustment to temporary resident status was the result of fraud or willful misrepresentation as set out in section 1182(a)(6)(C)(i) of this title, or
(ii) the alien commits an act that (I) makes the alien inadmissible to the United States as an immigrant, except as provided under subsection (c)(2), or (II) is convicted of a felony or 3 or more misdemeanors committed in the United States.
(4)
Authorized travel and employment during temporary residence

During the period an alien is in lawful temporary resident status granted under this subsection, the alien has the right to travel abroad (including commutation from a residence abroad) and shall be granted authorization to engage in employment in the United States and shall be provided an “employment authorized” endorsement or other appropriate work permit, in the same manner as for aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence.

(5)
In general

Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, an alien who acquires the status of an alien lawfully admitted for temporary residence under paragraph (1), such status not having changed, is considered to be an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence (as described in section 1101(a)(20) of this title), other than under any provision of the immigration laws.

(b)
Applications for adjustment of status
(1)
To whom may be made
(A)
Within the United States
The Attorney General shall provide that applications for adjustment of status under subsection (a) may be filed—
(i) with the Attorney General, or
(ii) with a designated entity (designated under paragraph (2)), but only if the applicant consents to the forwarding of the application to the Attorney General.
(B)
Outside the United States

The Attorney General, in cooperation with the Secretary of State, shall provide a procedure whereby an alien may apply for adjustment of status under subsection (a)(1) at an appropriate consular office outside the United States. If the alien otherwise qualifies for such adjustment, the Attorney General shall provide such documentation of authorization to enter the United States and to have the alien’s status adjusted upon entry as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.

(2)
Designation of entities to receive applications
For purposes of receiving applications under this section, the Attorney General—
(A) shall designate qualified voluntary organizations and other qualified State, local, community, farm labor organizations, and associations of agricultural employers, and
(B) may designate such other persons as the Attorney General determines are qualified and have substantial experience, demonstrated competence, and traditional long-term involvement in the preparation and submittal of applications for adjustment of status under section 1159 or 1255 of this title, Public Law 89–732 [8 U.S.C. 1255 note], or Public Law 95–145 [8 U.S.C. 1255 note].
(3)
Proof of eligibility
(A)
In general

An alien may establish that he meets the requirement of subsection (a)(1)(B)(ii) through government employment records, records supplied by employers or collective bargaining organizations, and such other reliable documentation as the alien may provide. The Attorney General shall establish special procedures to credit properly work in cases in which an alien was employed under an assumed name.

(B)
Documentation of work history
(i) An alien applying for adjustment of status under subsection (a)(1) has the burden of proving by a preponderance of the evidence that the alien has worked the requisite number of man-days (as required under subsection (a)(1)(B)(ii)).
(ii) If an employer or farm labor contractor employing such an alien has kept proper and adequate records respecting such employment, the alien’s burden of proof under clause (i) may be met by securing timely production of those records under regulations to be promulgated by the Attorney General.
(iii) An alien can meet such burden of proof if the alien establishes that the alien has in fact performed the work described in subsection (a)(1)(B)(ii) by producing sufficient evidence to show the extent of that employment as a matter of just and reasonable inference. In such a case, the burden then shifts to the Attorney General to disprove the alien’s evidence with a showing which negates the reasonableness of the inference to be drawn from the evidence.
(4)
Treatment of applications by designated entities

Each designated entity must agree to forward to the Attorney General applications filed with it in accordance with paragraph (1)(A)(ii) but not to forward to the Attorney General applications filed with it unless the applicant has consented to such forwarding. No such entity may make a determination required by this section to be made by the Attorney General.

(5)
Limitation on access to information

Files and records prepared for purposes of this section by designated entities operating under this section are confidential and the Attorney General and the Service shall not have access to such files or records relating to an alien without the consent of the alien, except as allowed by a court order issued pursuant to paragraph (6) of this subsection.

(6)
Confidentiality of information
(A)
In general
Except as provided in this paragraph, neither the Attorney General, nor any other official or employee of the Department of Justice, or bureau or agency thereof, may—
(i) use the information furnished by the applicant pursuant to an application filed under this section for any purpose other than to make a determination on the application, including a determination under subsection (a)(3)(B), or for enforcement of paragraph (7);
(ii) make any publication whereby the information furnished by any particular individual can be identified; or
(iii) permit anyone other than the sworn officers and employees of the Department or bureau or agency or, with respect to applications filed with a designated entity, that designated entity, to examine individual applications.
(B)
Required disclosures

The Attorney General shall provide information furnished under this section, and any other information derived from such furnished information, to a duly recognized law enforcement entity in connection with a criminal investigation or prosecution, when such information is requested in writing by such entity, or to an official coroner for purposes of affirmatively identifying a deceased individual (whether or not such individual is deceased as a result of a crime).

(C)
Construction
(i)
In general

Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to limit the use, or release, for immigration enforcement purposes or law enforcement purposes of information contained in files or records of the Service pertaining to an application filed under this section, other than information furnished by an applicant pursuant to the application, or any other information derived from the application, that is not available from any other source.

(ii)
Criminal convictions

Information concerning whether the applicant has at any time been convicted of a crime may be used or released for immigration enforcement or law enforcement purposes.

(D)
Crime

Whoever knowingly uses, publishes, or permits information to be examined in violation of this paragraph shall be fined not more than $10,000.

(7)
Penalties for false statements in applications
(A)
Criminal penalty
Whoever—
(i) files an application for adjustment of status under this section and knowingly and willfully falsifies, conceals, or covers up a material fact or makes any false, fictitious, or fraudulent statements or representations, or makes or uses any false writing or document knowing the same to contain any false, fictitious, or fraudulent statement or entry, or
(ii) creates or supplies a false writing or document for use in making such an application,
shall be fined in accordance with title 18 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.
(B)
Exclusion

An alien who is convicted of a crime under subparagraph (A) shall be considered to be inadmissible to the United States on the ground described in section 1182(a)(6)(C)(i) of this title.

(c)
Waiver of numerical limitations and certain grounds for exclusion
(1)
Numerical limitations do not apply

The numerical limitations of sections 1151 and 1152 of this title shall not apply to the adjustment of aliens to lawful permanent resident status under this section.

(2)
Waiver of grounds for exclusion
In the determination of an alien’s admissibility under subsection (a)(1)(C)—
(A)
Grounds of exclusion not applicable

The provisions of paragraphs (5) and (7)(A) of section 1182(a) of this title shall not apply.

(B)
Waiver of other grounds
(i)
In general

Except as provided in clause (ii), the Attorney General may waive any other provision of section 1182(a) of this title in the case of individual aliens for humanitarian purposes, to assure family unity, or when it is otherwise in the public interest.

(ii)
Grounds that may not be waived
The following provisions of section 1182(a) of this title may not be waived by the Attorney General under clause (i):
(I) Paragraphs (2)(A) and (2)(B) (relating to criminals).(II) Paragraph (4) (relating to aliens likely to become public charges).(III) Paragraph (2)(C) (relating to drug offenses), except for so much of such paragraph as relates to a single offense of simple possession of 30 grams or less of marihuana.(IV) Paragraph (3) (relating to security and related grounds), other than subparagraph (E) thereof.
(C)
Special rule for determination of public charge

An alien is not ineligible for adjustment of status under this section due to being inadmissible under section 1182(a)(4) of this title if the alien demonstrates a history of employment in the United States evidencing self-support without reliance on public cash assistance.

(d)
Temporary stay of exclusion or deportation and work authorization for certain applicants
(1)
Before application period
The Attorney General shall provide that in the case of an alien who is apprehended before the beginning of the application period described in subsection (a)(1) and who can establish a nonfrivolous case of eligibility to have his status adjusted under subsection (a) (but for the fact that he may not apply for such adjustment until the beginning of such period), until the alien has had the opportunity during the first 30 days of the application period to complete the filing of an application for adjustment, the alien—
(A) may not be excluded or deported, and
(B) shall be granted authorization to engage in employment in the United States and be provided an “employment authorized” endorsement or other appropriate work permit.
(2)
During application period
The Attorney General shall provide that in the case of an alien who presents a nonfrivolous application for adjustment of status under subsection (a) during the application period, and until a final determination on the application has been made in accordance with this section, the alien—
(A) may not be excluded or deported, and
(B) shall be granted authorization to engage in employment in the United States and be provided an “employment authorized” endorsement or other appropriate work permit.
(3)
Use of application fees to offset program costs
No application fees collected by the Service pursuant to this subsection may be used by the Service to offset the costs of the special agricultural worker legalization program until the Service implements the program consistent with the statutory mandate as follows:
(A) During the application period described in subsection (a)(1)(A) the Service may grant temporary admission to the United States, work authorization, and provide an “employment authorized” endorsement or other appropriate work permit to any alien who presents a preliminary application for adjustment of status under subsection (a) at a designated port of entry on the southern land border. An alien who does not enter through a port of entry is subject to deportation and removal as otherwise provided in this chapter.
(B) During the application period described in subsection (a)(1)(A) any alien who has filed an application for adjustment of status within the United States as provided in subsection (b)(1)(A) pursuant to the provision of 8 CFR section 210.1(j) is subject to paragraph (2) of this subsection.
(C) A preliminary application is defined as a fully completed and signed application with fee and photographs which contains specific information concerning the performance of qualifying employment in the United States and the documentary evidence which the applicant intends to submit as proof of such employment. The applicant must be otherwise admissible to the United States and must establish to the satisfaction of the examining officer during an interview that his or her claim to eligibility for special agriculture worker status is credible.
(e)
Administrative and judicial review
(1)
Administrative and judicial review

There shall be no administrative or judicial review of a determination respecting an application for adjustment of status under this section except in accordance with this subsection.

(2)
Administrative review
(A)
Single level of administrative appellate review

The Attorney General shall establish an appellate authority to provide for a single level of administrative appellate review of such a determination.

(B)
Standard for review

Such administrative appellate review shall be based solely upon the administrative record established at the time of the determination on the application and upon such additional or newly discovered evidence as may not have been available at the time of the determination.

(3)
Judicial review
(A)
Limitation to review of exclusion or deportation

There shall be judicial review of such a denial only in the judicial review of an order of exclusion or deportation under section 1105a of this title (as in effect before October 1, 1996).

(B)
Standard for judicial review

Such judicial review shall be based solely upon the administrative record established at the time of the review by the appellate authority and the findings of fact and determinations contained in such record shall be conclusive unless the applicant can establish abuse of discretion or that the findings are directly contrary to clear and convincing facts contained in the record considered as a whole.

(f)
Temporary disqualification of newly legalized aliens from receiving aid to families with dependent children

During the five-year period beginning on the date an alien was granted lawful temporary resident status under subsection (a), and notwithstanding any other provision of law, the alien is not eligible for assistance under a State program funded under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.]. Notwithstanding the previous sentence, in the case of an alien who would be eligible for assistance under a State program funded under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act but for the previous sentence, the provisions of paragraph (3) of section 1255a(h) of this title shall apply in the same manner as they apply with respect to paragraph (1) of such section and, for this purpose, any reference in section 1255a(h)(3) of this title to paragraph (1) is deemed a reference to the previous sentence.

(g)
Treatment of special agricultural workers

For all purposes (subject to subsections (a)(5) and (f)) an alien whose status is adjusted under this section to that of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, such status not having changed, shall be considered to be an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence (within the meaning of section 1101(a)(20) of this title).

(h)
“Seasonal agricultural services” defined

In this section, the term “seasonal agricultural services” means the performance of field work related to planting, cultural practices, cultivating, growing and harvesting of fruits and vegetables of every kind and other perishable commodities, as defined in regulations by the Secretary of Agriculture.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 1, § 210, as added Pub. L. 99–603, title III, § 302(a)(1), Nov. 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 3417; amended Pub. L. 100–202, § 101(a) [title II, § 211], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329, 1329–18; Pub. L. 100–525, § 2(m), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2613; Pub. L. 101–238, § 4, Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2103; Pub. L. 101–649, title VI, § 603(a)(5), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5082; Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §§ 307(j), 309(b)(6), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1756, 1758; Pub. L. 103–416, title II, § 219(d), (z)(7), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4316, 4318; Pub. L. 104–132, title IV, § 431(b), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1273; Pub. L. 104–193, title I, § 110(s)(1), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2175; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §§ 308(g)(2)(B), 384(d)(1), title VI, § 623(b), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–622, 3009–653, 3009–697.)
§ 1161.
Repealed. Pub. L. 103–416, title II, § 219(ee)(1), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4319